WorldWideScience

Sample records for pain disorder revisited

  1. Dysfunctional pain modulation in somatoform pain disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Stefanie; Stefanie, Klug; Anderer, Peter; Peter, Anderer; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Gerda, Saletu-Zyhlarz; Freidl, Marion; Marion, Freidl; Saletu, Bernd; Bernd, Saletu; Prause, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Prause; Aigner, Martin; Martin, Aigner

    2011-06-01

    To date, pain perception is thought to be a creative process of modulation carried out by an interplay of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms. Recent research demonstrates that pain experience constitutes the result of top-down processes represented in cortical descending pain modulation. Cortical, mainly medial and frontal areas, as well as subcortical structures such as the brain stem, medulla and thalamus seem to be key players in pain modulation. An imbalance of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms are assumed to cause chronic pain disorders, which are associated with spontaneous pain perception without physiologic scaffolding or exaggerated cortical activation in response to pain exposure. In contrast to recent investigations, the aim of the present study was to elucidate cortical activation of somatoform pain disorder patients during baseline condition. Scalp EEG, quantitative Fourier-spectral analyses and LORETA were employed to compare patient group (N = 15) to age- and sex-matched controls (N = 15) at rest. SI, SII, ACC, SMA, PFC, PPC, insular, amygdale and hippocampus displayed significant spectral power reductions within the beta band range (12-30 Hz). These results suggest decreased cortical baseline arousal in somatoform pain disorder patients. We finally conclude that obtained results may point to an altered baseline activity, maybe characteristic for chronic somatoform pain disorder.

  2. Women's sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.

  3. Is it all in my mind? psychogenic pain revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Benedittis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic Pain does not imply that pain is simply caused by psychological factors only, as opposed to Somatogenic Pain. It refers to pain that can better be explained in a psychological language rather than in a physical one. Psychogenic Pain or Pain Disorder is a Somatoform Disorder (DSM-IV, rather rare (2% though underestimated. Psychodinamics suggest that psychogenic pain expresses symbolically unconscious conflicts. Moreover, neuroimaging techniques and hypnosis have recently showed how thin the borderline is between real and imagined percepts. The new quantum physics and the theory of chaotic complex systems provide a new, exciting framework to explain the brain-mind interface, thus allowing to overcome the old and inadequate dicotomy between body and mind, between “somatogenic pain” and “psychogenic pain”.

  4. Hospital revisit rate after a diagnosis of conversion disorder.

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    Merkler, Alexander E; Parikh, Neal S; Chaudhry, Simriti; Chait, Alanna; Allen, Nicole C; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the hospital revisit rate of patients diagnosed with conversion disorder (CD). Using administrative data, we identified all patients discharged from California, Florida and New York emergency departments (EDs) and acute care hospitals between 2005 and 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of CD. Patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of seizure or transient global amnesia (TGA) served as control groups. Our primary outcome was the rate of repeat ED visits and hospital admissions after initial presentation. Poisson regression was used to compare rates between diagnosis groups while adjusting for demographic characteristics. We identified 7946 patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of CD. During a mean follow-up of 3.0 (±1.6) years, patients with CD had a median of three (IQR, 1-9) ED or inpatient revisits, compared with 0 (IQR, 0-2) in patients with TGA and 3 (IQR, 1-7) in those with seizures. Revisit rates were 18.25 (95% CI, 18.10 to 18.40) visits per 100 patients per month in those with CD, 3.90 (95% CI, 3.84 to 3.95) in those with TGA and 17.78 (95% CI, 17.75 to 17.81) in those with seizures. As compared to CD, the incidence rate ratio for repeat ED visits or hospitalisations was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for seizure disorder and 0.32 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.34) for TGA. CD is associated with a substantial hospital revisit rate. Our findings suggest that CD is not an acute, time-limited response to stress, but rather that CD is a manifestation of a broader pattern of chronic neuropsychiatric disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Is temporomandibular pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders part of a more widespread pain syndrome?

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    Visscher, Corine; Hofman, Nico; Mes, Carola; Lousberg, Richel; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder is a controversial issue that may be influenced by the widespread pain character and psychologic distress frequently observed in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain, widespread pain, and psychologic distress in persons with chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain, using a controlled, single blind study design. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group was compared with 2 control groups: a chronic neck pain group and a no neck pain group. From 65 persons, a standardized oral history was taken, a physical examination of the neck and the masticatory system was performed, widespread pain was investigated by tender point palpation, and psychologic distress was measured with a questionnaire (SCL-90). Because the recognition of temporomandibular disorder pain and neck pain remains a matter of debate, 3 well-defined classification systems were used: one based on the oral history, a second on a combination of oral history and pain on active movements and palpation, and a third one based on a combination of oral history and function tests. Irrespective of the classification system used, the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group more often suffered from temporomandibular disorder pain (0.001neck pain group. Moreover, patients with whiplash-associated disorder showed more psychologic distress (0.000disorder suggests that the higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in these patients is part of a more widespread chronic pain disorder.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Clarke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger’s Syndrome subtype with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  8. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on

  9. Psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic pain disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Sharif, A.; Shoaib, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with chronic pain disorder in hospital setting. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Okara from June 2011 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 400 patients (males=117; females=283) gathered from pain clinic and other outpatient departments of the hospital and were interviewed in detail and Present State Examination was carried out. Demographic variables were scored using descriptive statistics and results were analyzed using correlation methods. Results: It was revealed that psychiatric illness in overall sample prevailed among 266 participants (67%). Among which 164 participants (62%) were diagnosed with depression, 67 patients (25.2%) of chronic pain were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 28 patients (11%) with adjustment disorder and 1.5% and 1.1% diagnosed with drug dependence and somatization disorder, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity especially the incidence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were high amongst patients suffering from chronic pain disorder. (author)

  10. Management of female sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Goldfinger, Corrie; Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia has been fundamentally altered over the past two decades due to increased attention and empirically sound research in this domain. This increased knowledge base has included a shift from a dualistic view of the etiology of painful and/or difficult vaginal penetration being due to either psychological or physiological causes, to a multifactorial perspective. The present chapter reviews current classification and prevalence rates, including ongoing definitional debates. Research regarding the etiology, assessment and management of sexual pain disorders is discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Cyclical theories of the development and maintenance of sexual pain disorders, which highlight the complex interplay among physiological, psychological and social factors, are described. Medical/surgical treatment options, pelvic floor rehabilitation and psychological approaches are reviewed, as well as future directions in treatment research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Temporomandibular disorders, facial pain, and headaches.

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    Bender, Steven D

    2012-05-01

    Headaches and facial pain are common in the general population. In many cases, facial pain can be resultant from temporomandibular joint disorders. Studies have identified an association between headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms of these 2 maladies. The aim of this paper is to elucidate potential commonalities of these disorders and to provide a brief overview of an examination protocol that may benefit the headache clinician in daily practice. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  12. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vigano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the successful assessment and management of symptomatic FGID. The sensory, cognitive and affective components of pain intensity expression need to be addressed in the context of a good physician-patient rapport. A multidisciplinary team approach is ideal for the smaller subset of patients with severe and disabling symptoms. Although pharmacotherapy may target specific functional disorders, the role of behavioural techniques and psychotherapy appears much more important for pain management in FGID. Functional performance and quality of life improvement, rather than pain intensity, are the main therapeutic goals in these patients.

  13. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence......The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several...... arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice....

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder Features Are Associated with Concurrent Pain-Related Disability in a Chronic Pain Sample.

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    Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2018-04-03

    To determine whether core features of borderline personality disorder are associated with increased rates of being on disability benefits due to chronic pain conditions. A total of 147 patients currently in treatment for chronic pain at a multimodal chronic pain clinic. We tested for a concurrent relationship between borderline personality disorder features and employment status using self-report measures. Borderline personality disorder features were associated with increased likelihood of currently being on disability due to pain conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 23.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-318.73), on disability due to other conditions (OR = 33.65, 95% CI = 2.15-526.13), and unemployed (OR = 20.14, 95% CI = 1.38-294.93), even while controlling for pain severity and interference, depression, and trait anxiety. A follow-up analysis revealed that these associations were due to the negative relationships facet of borderline personality disorder features. Borderline personality disorder features, particularly negative relationships, are associated with increased rates of pain disability, general disability, and unemployment in a chronic pain sample. Future research should examine mechanisms by which the maladaptive interpersonal behaviors and cognitions of borderline personality disorder might result in worse long-term employment outcomes of chronic pain.

  15. Neurobiological and clinical relationship between psychiatric disorders and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Dordević, Veljko; Gregurek, Rudolf; Bulajić, Masa

    2010-06-01

    Pain is one of the most ubiquitous problems of today's world, its impact being far-reaching. Current conceptualizations of pain medicine adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective. In this model, pain is best described as an interactive, psycho-physiological behavioral pattern that cannot be divided into independent psycho-social and physical components. Neurophysiologic substrates of the pain experience can be broken down into the pain transmission elements emanating from peripheral, spinal, and supra-spinal processes. There are many complex mechanisms involved in pain processing within the central nervous system, being influenced by genetics, interaction of neurotransmitters and their receptors, and pain- augmenting and pain-inhibiting neural circuits. The patient's emotional experiences, beliefs and expectations may determine the outcome of treatment, and are fully emphasized in the focus of treatment interventions. There are several common psychiatric disorders accompanying and complicating the experience of pain that warrant clinical attention and that can be the focus of psychiatric treatment. These include depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, substance-related disorders and personality disorders. Complex and disabling pain conditions often require comprehensive pain treatment programs, involving interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment approaches. There are many roles that the psychiatrist can perform in the assessment and treatment of the patients with pain, individually tailored to meet the specific needs of the patient. Rational poly-pharmacy is of a high importance in the treatment of patients with chronic pain, with antidepressants and anticonvulsants contributing as the important adjuvant analgesic agents.

  16. American Society for Pain Management nursing position statement: pain management in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen; Turner, Helen N

    2012-10-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high-quality pain assessment and management. Failure to identify and treat the concurrent conditions of pain and substance use disorders will compromise the ability to treat either condition effectively. Barriers to caring for these patients include stigmatization, misconceptions, and limited access to providers skilled in these two categories of disorders. Topics addressed in this position statement include the scope of substance use and related disorders, conceptual models of addiction, ethical considerations, addiction risk stratification, and clinical recommendations.

  17. Common Functional Gastroenterologic Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  18. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and

  19. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The DSM-IV nosology of chronic pain: a comparison of pain disorder and multiple somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Heuser, J; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the classification of pain from the perspective of the DSM-IV system. Of 60 in-patients with long-standing and disabling pain syndromes, 29 with pain disorder (PD) and 31 with pain as part of a multiple somatization syndrome (MSS) were compared before and after a structured cognitive-behavioral treatment. It was hypothesized that MSS patients show more psychological distress, are more severely disabled, and respond less to the treatment. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic status, history of pain symptomatology and comorbidity with DSM-IV mental disorders. The results show that MSS patients had higher levels of affective and sensoric pain sensations as well as more pain-related disabilities. They were also less successful during treatment to reduce their pain-related depression and anxiety. Psychosocial functioning was improved only by PD patients, but remained almost unchanged in the MSS group. However, there were no group differences concerning general depression and hypochondriasis, dysfunctional attitudes towards body and health, and use of pain coping strategies. It is concluded that the DSM-IV distinction between 'pure' pain disorder and syndromes involving pain plus multiple somatoform symptoms cannot generally be confirmed, but further studies of validation are needed. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  1. Epidemiology of pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korterink, Judith J; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence.

  2. Epidemiology of pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Korterink

    Full Text Available We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain.The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1 studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2 containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3 of children aged 4-18 years (4 suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood.A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3, of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9. The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8% and Asia (16.5% compared to Europe (10.5%. And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4. Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5 and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events.Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence.

  3. Overlap between functional abdominal pain disorders and organic diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langshaw, A H; Rosen, J M; Pensabene, L; Borrelli, O; Salvatore, S; Thapar, N; Concolino, D; Saps, M

    2018-04-02

    Functional abdominal pain disorders are highly prevalent in children. These disorders can be present in isolation or combined with organic diseases, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal inflammation (infectious and non-infectious) predisposes children to the development of visceral hypersensitivity that can manifest as functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. The new onset of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a patient with an underlying organic disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is clinically challenging, given that the same symptomatology may represent a flare-up of the inflammatory bowel disease or an overlapping functional abdominal pain disorder. Similarly, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a child previously diagnosed with celiac disease may occur due to poorly controlled celiac disease or the overlap with a functional abdominal pain disorder. There is little research on the overlap of functional abdominal disorders with organic diseases in children. Studies suggest that the overlap between functional abdominal pain disorders and inflammatory bowel disease is more common in adults than in children. The causes for these differences in prevalence are unknown. Only a handful of studies have been published on the overlap between celiac disease and functional abdominal pain disorders in children. The present article provides a review of the literature on the overlap between celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and functional abdominal pain disorders in children and establish comparisons with studies conducted on adults. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Pain acceptance and opiate use disorders in addiction treatment patients with comorbid pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lewei Allison; Bohnert, Amy S B; Price, Amanda M; Jannausch, Mary; Bonar, Erin E; Ilgen, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Studies from pain treatment settings indicate that poor acceptance of pain may be an important and modifiable risk factor for higher severity of opioid use. However, the degree to which pain acceptance relates to opioid use severity in the addiction treatment population is unknown. In this study of addiction treatment patients with co-morbid pain, we examined correlates of severity of opiate (heroin and prescription opioid) use, with a particular focus on the role of pain acceptance. Patients in residential addiction treatment with comorbid pain (N=501) were stratified into low, moderate and high severity of opiate use. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared across opiate severity categories. 72% (N=360) of the participants had symptoms that were consistent with an opiate use disorder. Younger age, Caucasian race, female gender, cocaine use and lower pain acceptance were associated with higher severity of opiate use, whereas pain intensity was not. Controlling for demographic and other risk factors, such as substance use and pain intensity, higher pain acceptance was associated with lower odds of severe prescription opioid (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.68 for a one SD increase in pain acceptance) and heroin use (AOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75 for a one SD increase in pain acceptance). Problematic opiate use is common in addictions treatment patients with chronic pain. Lower pain acceptance is related to greater opiate use severity, and may be an important modifiable target for interventions to successfully treat both pain and opiate use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporomandibular disorders, headaches and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a major cause of non-dental orofacial pain with a suggested prevalence of 3% to 5% in the general population. TMDs present as unilateral or bilateral pain centered round the pre-auricular area and can be associated with clicking and limitation in jaw movements. It is important to ascertain if there are other comorbid factors such as headaches, widespread chronic pain and mood changes. A biopsychosocial approach is crucial with a careful explanation and self-care techniques encouraged.

  6. Pain and psycho-affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    psychiatry for two reasons. The first is that psychiatry seems to be so focused on the brain-its biochemistry and pharmacology--that questions of mind and soul have become rare and almost negligible. The second is to follow the course of the results of our own clinical investigations that have taken us into that very human world where questions of physical pain, psychological pain, and the experience of suffering abound. Today, however, the strategy of neuromodulation offers the advantage of being precisely tailored in neuroanatomical terms and, even more importantly, of being altogether reversible. At both our own Istituto Neurologico C. Besta and many other neurosurgical centers worldwide, many procedures have been reported in which implant neuromodulation devices successfully treat pain. For example, long-term stimulation of the spinal cord has been fairly effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, and various other forms of pain. Good results have been obtained in treating peripheral vascular diseases and sympathetic reflex dystrophy syndrome. Good results have also been achieved in trigeminal nerve stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. In the case of thalamic stimulation, there has also been an improvement of symptoms, but a long-term degree of tolerance was noticed. Hypothalamic stimulation has also been seen to be effective in controlling trigeminal autonomic cephalalgic pain, as well as the facial pain that is known to occur in multiple sclerosis. Motor cortex stimulation was found to occasionally have good results in treating neuropathic pain, whereas occipital nerve stimulation was found to achieve good results in controlling chronic cluster headache and other chronic headaches, although with only short-term follow-up so far. Recent reports of functional magnetic resonance imaging have prompted us to propose exciting new neurosurgical targets that may be effective in treating psychoaffective disorders. Our results appear to be more

  7. Hypnotherapy of a pain disorder: a clinical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artimon, Henrieta Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy's effectiveness in improving and controlling chronic pain of various etiologies has been demonstrated by studies; the mechanism by which hypnosis does this is more complex than a simple induction of muscle relaxation. This study reveals, in addition to this mechanism, a deeper dimension of hypnotherapy from the vantage of a patient with a medical-surgical background, diagnosed with a pain disorder and major severe depressive disorder in addition to incurable painful symptoms, through treatment associated with hypnoanalysis. Following psychotherapy, which included some elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy, a complete remission of the anxious-depressive mood and the painful symptoms was achieved.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Orofacial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Prica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic orofacial pain occurs frequently in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and at the same time any pathological process involving orofacial area can be reflected in emotional interpretation of pain and can trigger a series of reactions associated with the PTSD group of symptoms in patients with PTSD. Painful stimuli caused in this way may occur after the primary cause ceased, and because of convergence can cause referred pain outside of the anatomical site where the primary injury occurred. Chronic orofacial pain and PTSD are diagnosed on the basis of subjective testimony and this regularly occurs in the context of social interaction between patients, doctors, medical staff or researchers making it difficult to standardize the results and introduces many cultural phenomena.

  9. Satisfaction with Life in Orofacial Pain Disorders: Associations and Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggero, Ian A; Rojas-Ramirez, Marcia V; de Leeuw, Reny; Carlson, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    To test if patients with masticatory myofascial pain, local myalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, disc displacement, capsulitis/synovitis, or continuous neuropathic pain differed in self-reported satisfaction with life. The study also tested if satisfaction with life was similarly predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning across disorders. Satisfaction with life, fatigue, affective distress, social support, and pain data were extracted from the medical records of 343 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Patients were grouped by primary diagnosis assigned following their initial appointment. Satisfaction with life was compared between disorders, with and without pain intensity entered as a covariate. Disorder-specific linear regression models using physical, emotional, and social predictors of satisfaction with life were computed. Patients with centrally mediated myalgia reported significantly lower satisfaction with life than did patients with any of the other five disorders. Inclusion of pain intensity as a covariate weakened but did not eliminate the effect. Satisfaction with life was predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning, but these associations were not consistent across disorders. Results suggest that reduced satisfaction with life in patients with centrally mediated myalgia is not due only to pain intensity. There may be other factors that predispose people to both reduced satisfaction with life and centrally mediated myalgia. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction with life is differentially influenced by physical, emotional, and social functioning in different orofacial pain disorders.

  10. Satisfaction with Life in Orofacial Pain Disorders: Associations and Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggero, Ian A.; Rojas-Ramirez, Marcia V.; de Leeuw, Reny; Carlson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test if patients with masticatory myofascial pain, local myalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, disc displacement, capsulitis/synovitis, or continuous neuropathic pain differed in self-reported satisfaction with life. The study also tested if satisfaction with life was similarly predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning across disorders. Methods Satisfaction with life, fatigue, affective distress, social support, and pain data were extracted from the medical records of 343 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Patients were grouped by primary diagnosis assigned following their initial appointment. Satisfaction with life was compared between disorders, with and without pain intensity entered as a covariate. Disorder-specific linear regression models using physical, emotional, and social predictors of satisfaction with life were computed. Results Patients with centrally mediated myalgia reported significantly lower satisfaction with life than did patients with any of the other five disorders. Inclusion of pain intensity as a covariate weakened but did not eliminate the effect. Satisfaction with life was predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning, but these associations were not consistent across disorders. Conclusions Results suggest that reduced satisfaction with life in patients with centrally mediated myalgia is not due only to pain intensity. There may be other factors that predispose people to both reduced satisfaction with life and centrally mediated myalgia. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction with life is differentially influenced by physical, emotional, and social functioning in different orofacial pain disorders. PMID:27128473

  11. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  12. Neurophysiology of the cortical pain network: revisiting the role of S1 in subjective pain perception via standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Rony-Reuven; Lev, Rina; Moont, Ruth; Granovsky, Yelena; Sprecher, Elliot; Yarnitsky, David

    2008-11-01

    Multiple studies have supported the usefulness of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) in localizing generators of scalp-recorded potentials. The current study implemented sLORETA on pain event-related potentials, primarily aiming at validating this technique for pain research by identifying well-known pain-related regions. Subsequently, we pointed at investigating the still-debated and ambiguous topic of pain intensity coding at these regions, focusing on their relative impact on subjective pain perception. sLORETA revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (SI) and anterior cingulate cortices and of the contralateral operculoinsular and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices (P < .05 for each). Activity of these regions, excluding DLPFC, correlated with subjective numerical pain scores (P < .05 for each). However, a multivariate regression analysis (R = .80; P = .024) distinguished the contralateral SI as the only region whose activation magnitude significantly predicted the subjective perception of noxious stimuli (P = .020), further substantiated by a reduced regression model (R = .75, P = .008). Based on (1) correspondence of the pain-activated regions identified by sLORETA with the acknowledged imaging-based pain-network and (2) the contralateral SI proving to be the most contributing region in pain intensity coding, we found sLORETA to be an appropriate tool for relevant pain research and further substantiated the role of SI in pain perception. Because the literature of pain intensity coding offers inconsistent findings, the current article used a novel tool for revisiting this controversial issue. Results suggest that it is the activation magnitude of SI, which solely establishes the significant correlation with subjective pain ratings, in accordance with the classical clinical thinking, relating SI lesions to diminished perception of pain. Although this study cannot support a causal relation

  13. Female sexual pain disorders: dyspareunia and vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Chiara; Eleuteri, Stefano; Petruccelli, Filippo; Rossi, Roberta

    2014-11-01

    To analyze literature on sexual pain disorders and to review and summarize the articles published throughout 2013 which contribute to the current knowledge on this subject. By age 40, 7.8% of women reported vulvar pain. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, has combined vaginismus and dyspareunia into the same diagnostic label. The research reviewed in this article seems to differently point toward two conditions, focusing on different aspects both on the etiological and on the treatment area. Higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of partner catastrophizing were associated with less pain intensity in women with entry dyspareunia, independent of women's pain perception and self-efficacy. Alexithymia and fear were found to be important etiological factors in vaginismus. The present findings did not provide clear evidence in support of the superiority of any treatment and highlight the need for randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compare treatments in the future. A lot of work remained to be done to understand such a complex and multifaceted disturbance as genital sexual pain, but the articles examined showed that we are slowly adding more knowledge on the etiological cause and treatment models for such conditions.

  14. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Position Statement: Pain Management in Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St. Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen; Turner, Helen N.

    2012-01-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high qu...

  15. A Case of Pain, Factitious Disorder and Boundary Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cote

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although health professionals are usually familiar with factitious disorders, evaluating such cases may be complicated, particularly in the legal arena. This article describes a patient who presented with pain complaints to numerous doctors. Eventually, a malpractice suit was brought against one of the patient's physicians who had diagnosed her condition as multiple personality disorder (dissociative identity disorder. Factitious disorder and the doctor's prescription of pain medications were issues raised during the trial. In view of the issue of harm, physicians' responsibilities and limitations during ongoing medical care are addressed in this case report.

  16. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  17. Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Pain Disorders in Head, Abdomen, Muscles and Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A

    2016-12-10

    Primary pain disorders (formerly "functional pain syndromes") are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition "chronic-on-acute pain." We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy.

  18. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fastralina Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12-18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 se...

  19. Frequency of pain and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Kurpel Diogo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The pursuit of perfection can cause anxiety and lead dancers to exceed their physical limits. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of pain symptoms and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study; Curitiba, PR, Brazil. METHODS: Data on 150 professional and non-professional practitioners of ballet, jazz and street dance were collected through specific questionnaires: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-T-6 (STAI-T-6. RESULTS: Pain was observed in 58.6% of the sample, equally between professionals and amateurs (P = 0.19. Ballet dancers had more lower-limb pain than the other groups (P = 0.05. EAT-26 showed a tendency towards more eating disorders among the amateurs (P = 0.06. Higher risk of eating disorders was found among ballet dancers (P = 0.004 and jazz practitioners (P = 0.02 than among street dancers. Amateurs had more symptoms on the BITE scale (P < 0.0001, more pain (P = 0.002 and higher anxiety (P < 0.0001. Eating disorders were more common among females (P = 0.01 and singles (P = 0.02. Professionals were more satisfied with their own body image than amateurs (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Pain symptoms were found in almost half of the sample, equally among professionals and amateurs as well as between the three dance styles. Female and singles had more eating disorders. Those with eating disorders had higher levels of pain and anxiety.

  20. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain in adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fastralina; Sri Sofyani; M. Joesoef Simbolon; Iskandar Z. Lubis

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression disorders in adolescents may affect their academic performances and social functioning at school. Adolescents with these disorders sometimes develop recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Objective To assess the occurence of recurrent abdominal pain among adolescents with anxiety and depression disorders Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to September 2009 in 12–18 year-old adolescents from 3 junior high schools and 3 senior high school...

  3. Psychoneuroimmunological disorders and temporomandibular joint pain: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoneuroimmunology characterizes a disease entity that combines psychological components, central nervous system regulation, and immunology, to explain the etiological complexity of a disease. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs include a heterogeneous group of painful conditions that involve the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, muscles of mastication, and the adjacent anatomic structures. This review focuses on the psychoneuroimmunological diseases and disorders that mimic the symptoms of TMDs. The differentiation of these disorders is of great significance to the oral physician - differentiating and diagnosing the cause of TMJ pain and treating it effectively to benefit the patient.The literature for this review was taken from Medline/PubMed, other indexed journals, standard text books, and online material.

  4. Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Pain Disorders in Head, Abdomen, Muscles and Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J. Friedrichsdorf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary pain disorders (formerly “functional pain syndromes” are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition “chronic-on-acute pain.” We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1 rehabilitation; (2 integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3 psychology; and (4 normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy.

  5. Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Pain Disorders in Head, Abdomen, Muscles and Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J.; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary pain disorders (formerly “functional pain syndromes”) are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition “chronic-on-acute pain.” We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy. PMID:27973405

  6. Analysis of lower back pain disorder using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritwik Kulkarni, K.; Gaonkar, Abhijitsingh; Vijayarajan, V.; Manikandan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is caused because of assorted reasons involving body parts such as the interconnected network of spinal cord, nerves, bones, discs or tendons in the lumbar spine. LBP is pain, muscle pressure, or stiffness localized underneath the costal edge or more the substandard gluteal folds, with or without leg torment for the most part sciatica, and is characterized as endless when it holds on for 12 weeks or more then again, non-particular LBP is torment not credited to an unmistakable pathology such as infection, tumour, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, or inflammation. Over 70% of people usually suffer from such backpain disorder at some time. But recovery is not always favorable, 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Even though not having any history of lower back pain, many patients suffering from this disorder spend months or years healing from it. Hence aiming to look for preventive measure rather than curative, this study suggests a classification methodology for Chronic LBP disorder using Deep Learning techniques.

  7. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  8. The association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, Paul S; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, John David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain.......The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain....

  9. Chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder: Results from electronic health records data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Mooney, Larissa J; Saxon, Andrew J; Miotto, Karen; Bell, Douglas S; Huang, David

    2017-06-01

    To examine the prevalence of comorbid chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and to compare other comorbidities (substance use disorder (SUD), mental health disorders, health/disease conditions) among patients in four categories: no chronic pain (No Pain), OUD prior to pain (OUD First), OUD and pain at the same time (Same Time), or pain condition prior to OUD (Pain First). Using an electronic health record (EHR) database from 2006-2015, the study assessed 5307 adult patients with OUD in a large healthcare system; 35.6% were No Pain, 9.7% were OUD First, 14.9% were Same Time, and 39.8% were Pain First. Most OUD patients (64.4%) had chronic pain conditions, and among them 61.8% had chronic pain before their first OUD diagnosis. Other SUDs occurred more frequently among OUD First patients than among other groups in terms of alcohol (33.4% vs. 25.4% for No Pain, 20.7% for Same Time, and 20.3% for Pain First), cocaine (19.0%, vs. 13.8%, 9.4%, 7.1%), and alcohol or drug-induced disorders. OUD First patients also had the highest rates of HIV (4.7%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV; 28.2%) among the four groups. Pain First patients had the highest rates of mental disorder (81.7%), heart disease (72.0%), respiratory disease (68.4%), sleep disorder (41.8%), cancer (23.4%), and diabetes (19.3%). The alarming high rates of chronic pain conditions occurring before OUD and the associated severe mental health and physical health conditions require better models of assessment and coordinated care plans to address these complex medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonspecific motility disorders, irritable esophagus, and chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Anne Lund; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Hejazi, Reza A; McCallum, Richard W; Vega, Kenneth J; Frazzoni, Marzio; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Clarke, John O; Achem, Sami R

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents commentaries on whether Starling's law applies to the esophagus; whether erythromycin affects esophageal motility; the relationship between hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and vigorous achalasia; whether ethnic- and gender-based norms affect diagnosis and treatment of esophageal motor disorders; health care and epidemiology of chest pain; whether normal pH excludes esophageal pain; the role of high-resolution manometry in noncardiac chest pain; whether pH-impedance should be included in the evaluation of noncardiac chest pain; whether there are there alternative therapeutic options to PPI for treating noncardiac chest pain; and the usefulness of psychological treatment and alternative medicine in noncardiac chest pain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of temporomandibular disorder pain tests: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.; de Laat, A.; Michelotti, A.; Nilner, M.; Craane, B.; Ekberg, E.; Farella, M.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) clinical examination and of the dynamic/static tests for the recognition of TMD pain. Since the diagnosis of TMD pain is especially complicated in persistent orofacial pain

  12. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  13. Smoking and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Boggero, I A; Carlson, C R; Bertoli, E; Okeson, J P; de Leeuw, R

    2016-09-01

    To explore the impact of interactions between smoking and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning in patients with orofacial pain, a retrospective review was conducted of data obtained during evaluations of 610 new patients with a temporomandibular disorder who also reported a history of a traumatic event. Pain-related outcomes included measures of pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning. Main effects of smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes were evaluated with linear regression analyses. Further analyses tested interactions between smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes. PTSD symptom severity and smoking predicted worse pain-related outcomes. Interaction analyses between PTSD symptom severity and smoking status revealed that smoking attenuated the impact of PTSD symptom severity on affective distress, although this effect was not found at high levels of PTSD symptom severity. No other significant interactions were found, but the present results identifying smoking as an ineffective coping mechanism and the likely role of inaccurate outcome expectancies support the importance of smoking cessation efforts in patients with orofacial pain. Smoking is a maladaptive mechanism for coping with pain that carries significant health- and pain-related risks while failing to fulfill smokers' expectations of affect regulation, particularly among persons with orofacial pain who also have high levels of PTSD symptom severity. Addressing smoking cessation is a critical component of comprehensive treatment. Further research is needed to develop more effective ways to help patients with pain and/or PTSD to replace smoking with more effective coping strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  14. Brain responses to vestibular pain and its anticipation in women with Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pazmany, Els; Ly, Huynh Giao; Aerts, Leen; Kano, Michiko; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Peeters, Ronald; Tack, Jan; Dupont, Patrick; Enzlin, Paul; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In DSM-5, pain-related fear during anticipation of vaginal penetration is a diagnostic criterion of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (GPPPD). We aimed to investigate subjective and brain responses during anticipatory fear and subsequent induction of vestibular pain in women with GPPPD. Methods: Women with GPPPD (n = 18) and age-matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 15) underwent fMRI scanning during vestibular pain induction at individually titrated pain threshold after a cu...

  15. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of Female Sexual Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Liossi, Christina; Curran, Natasha; Schoth, Daniel E; Graham, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual pain disorders affect women's sexual and reproductive health and are poorly understood. Although many treatments have been evaluated, there is no one "gold standard" treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate what treatments for female sexual pain have been evaluated in clinical studies and their effectiveness. The search strategy resulted in 65 papers included in this review. The articles were divided into the following categories: medical treatments; surgical treatments; physical therapies; psychological therapies; comparative treatment studies; and miscellaneous and combined treatments. Topical and systemic medical treatments have generally been found to lead to improvements in, but not complete relief of, pain, and side effects are quite common. Surgical procedures have demonstrated very high success rates, although there has been variability in complete relief of pain after surgery, which suggests less invasive treatments should be considered first. Physical therapies and psychological therapies have been shown to be promising treatments, supporting a biopsychosocial approach to sexual pain disorders. Although most of the interventions described have been reported as effective, many women still experience pain. A multidisciplinary team with active patient involvement may be needed to optimize treatment outcome.

  17. The impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Ching-Yen; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2014-11-10

    No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue. This open-label study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD, who were then treated with venlafaxine 75 mg per day for four weeks. Eighty-five participants with good compliance completed the treatment. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of eight PPS. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on PPS. Compared with patients without migraine, patients with migraine had a greater severity of PPS at baseline and post-treatment. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive severity, migraine independently predicted the intensities of eight PPS at baseline and four PPS post-treatment. Moreover, migraine independently predicted poorer treatment responses of chest pain and full remission of pains in the head, chest, neck and/or shoulder. Anxiety disorders predicted less full remission of pains in the abdomen and limbs. Migraine and anxiety disorders have negative impacts on PPS among patients with MDD. Integrating the treatment of migraine and anxiety disorders into the management of depression might help to improve PPS and the prognosis of MDD.

  18. DSM-IV-TR "pain disorder associated with psychological factors" as a nonhysterical form of somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; De Nitto, Serena; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Elevated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores on the hysteria (Hy) scale are reported in several forms of pain. Previous results were possibly biased by diagnostic heterogeneity (psychogenic, somatic and mixed pain syndromes included in the same index sample) or Hy heterogeneity (failure to differentiate Hy scores into clinically meaningful subscales, such as admission of symptoms [Ad] and denial of symptoms [Dn]). To overcome this drawback, 48 patients diagnosed as having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of "pain disorder associated with psychological factors" were compared with 48 patients experiencing somatic pain excluding psychological factors, and 42 somatic controls without pain. MMPI Hy and hypochondriasis (Hs) scores were significantly higher in the pain disorder group than in control groups, who scored similarly. MMPI correction (K) scores and Dn scores were similar in the three groups, whereas Ad was significantly higher in the pain disorder group and lower and similar in the two control groups, respectively. In the pain disorder group, Ad and Dn were negatively correlated, whereas in control groups they were unrelated. These findings suggest that whereas a pattern of high Hs and Hy scores together with a normal K score might characterize patients with a pain disorder associated with psychological factors, elevated Hy scores per se do not indicate hysterical traits. In the pain disorder group, elevated Hy scores reflected the Ad subscale alone, indicating a strikingly high frequency of distressing somatic symptoms. They tend not to repress or deny the emotional malaise linked to symptoms, as the hysterical construct expects. The pain disorder designation should be considered a nonhysterical form of somatization.

  19. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota. It is possible that the environmental risk factors intricately interact with genes through epigenetic mechanisms to contribute to the pathophysiology. The diagnosis mainly depends on clinical evaluation. Commonly used pharmacological interventions do not play a major role in relieving symptoms. Centrally directed, nonpharmacological interventions such as hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy have shown both short and long term efficacy in relieving pain in children with FAPDs. However, these interventions are time consuming and need specially trained staff and therefore, not currently available at grass root level. Clinicians and researchers should join hands in searching for more pragmatic and effective therapeutic modalities to improve overall care of children with FAPDs.

  20. The Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder Paradigm and Beyond : Theoretical and empirical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)the female sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia have been merged into the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). The major reason behind this merging is that in clinical practice it always

  1. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed ...

  2. Self-reported pain complaints among Afghanistan/Iraq era men and women veterans with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnals, Jennifer Jane; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Robbins, Allison T; Brancu, Mira; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2013-10-01

    Research has shown significant rates of comorbidity among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and pain in prior era veterans but less is known about these disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans. This study seeks to extend previous work by evaluating the association among PTSD, MDD, and pain (back, muscle, and headache pain) in this cohort. A sample of 1,614 veterans, recruited from 2005 to 2010, completed a structured clinical interview and questionnaires assessing trauma experiences, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain endorsement. Veterans with PTSD endorsed pain-related complaints at greater rates than veterans without PTSD. The highest rate of pain complaints was observed in veterans with comorbid PTSD/MDD. Women were more likely to endorse back pain and headaches but no gender by diagnosis interactions were significant. Findings highlight the complex comorbid relationship between PTSD, MDD, and pain among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. This observed association suggests that integrated, multidisciplinary treatments may be beneficial, particularly when multiple psychological and physical health comorbidities are present with pain. Further support may be indicated for ongoing education of mental health and primary care providers about these co-occurring disorders. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human Mendelian pain disorders: a key to discovery and validation of novel analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Y P; Pimstone, S N; Namdari, R; Price, N; Cohen, C; Sherrington, R P; Hayden, M R

    2012-10-01

    We have utilized a novel application of human genetics, illuminating the important role that rare genetic disorders can play in the development of novel drugs that may be of relevance for the treatment of both rare and common diseases. By studying a very rare Mendelian disorder of absent pain perception, congenital indifference to pain, we have defined Nav1.7 (endocded by SCN9A) as a critical and novel target for analgesic development. Strong human validation has emerged with SCN9A gain-of-function mutations causing inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, both Mendelian disorder of spontaneous or easily evoked pain. Furthermore, variations in the Nav1.7 channel also modulate pain perception in healthy subjects as well as in painful conditions such as osteoarthritis and Parkinson disease. On the basis of this, we have developed a novel compound (XEN402) that exhibits potent, voltage-dependent block of Nav1.7. In a small pilot study, we showed that XEN402 blocks Nav1.7 mediated pain associated with IEM thereby demonstrating the use of rare genetic disorders with mutant target channels as a novel approach to rapid proof-of-concept. Our approach underscores the critical role that human genetics can play by illuminating novel and critical pathways pertinent for drug discovery. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Challenges in using opioids to treat pain in persons with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Seddon R; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Passik, Steven D

    2008-06-01

    Pain and substance abuse co-occur frequently, and each can make the other more difficult to treat. A knowledge of pain and its interrelationships with addiction enhances the addiction specialist's efficacy with many patients, both in the substance abuse setting and in collaboration with pain specialists. This article discusses the neurobiology and clinical presentation of pain and its synergies with substance use disorders, presents methodical approaches to the evaluation and treatment of pain that co-occurs with substance use disorders, and provides practical guidelines for the use of opioids to treat pain in individuals with histories of addiction. The authors consider that every pain complaint deserves careful investigation and every patient in pain has a right to effective treatment.

  5. Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders and masticatory myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Matsukawa, Yumiko; Dezawa, Ko; Nakaya, Yuka; Chen, Jui-Yen; Noma, Noboru; Oka, Shunichi; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temporal association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms and headache during TMD treatment for patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TMD (HATMD) specified in the Diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and International classification of headache disorders (ICHD)-3 beta. The study enrolled 34 patients with HATMD induced by masticatory myofascial pain but not by temporomandibular arthralgia. Facial pain intensity, the pressure pain threshold of pericranial muscles, and maximum unassisted opening of the jaw were assessed at an initial examination and before and after physical therapy. The intensity and frequency of headache episodes and tooth contact ratio were also recorded before and after the intervention. Headache intensity and frequency significantly decreased, and these reductions were temporally related to improvements in facial pain intensity, maximum unassisted opening, and pressure pain threshold during TMD treatment. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between facial pain intensity and headache intensity and between tooth contact ratio and pressure pain threshold. Among patients who fulfilled the DC/TMD and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for HATMD, headache improved during TMD treatment, and the improvement was temporally related to amelioration of TMD symptoms. These findings suggest that sensitization in the central and peripheral nervous systems is responsible for HATMD. (J Oral Sci 58, 195-204, 2016).

  6. Sexual Pain Disorders in Spanish Women Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Francisco Javier; Cabello-Santamaría, Francisco; Cabello-García, Marina A; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo

    2017-01-28

    The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. The results indicate that women consumers obtained a higher mean scores in sexual pain disorder (4.88 > 2.89, that is 65.12%), plus higher mean scores on state anxiety (23.82 > 14.56) and trait anxiety (30.93 > 16.95), and lower average figure in erotophilia (84.93 < 95.81). It was also verified that the period of abstinence does not improve sexual response. Substance consumption affects sexual response in women negatively. Sexual response does not improve with abstinence period.

  7. Course and Prognostic Factors for Neck Pain in Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Lena W.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Peloso, Paul M.; Guzman, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To perform a best evidence synthesis on the course and prognostic factors for neck pain and its associated disorders in Grades I–III whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Summary of Background Data Knowledge of the course of recovery of WAD guides expectations for recovery. Identifying prognostic factors assists in planning management and intervention strategies and effective compensation policies to decrease the burden of WAD. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) conducted a critical review of the literature published between 1980 and 2006 to assemble the best evidence on neck pain and its associated disorders. Studies meeting criteria for scientific validity were included in a best evidence synthesis. Results We found 226 articles related to course and prognostic factors in neck pain and its associated disorders. After a critical review, 70 (31%) were accepted on scientific merit; 47 of these studies related to course and prognostic factors in WAD. The evidence suggests that approximately 50% of those with WAD will report neck pain symptoms 1 year after their injuries. Greater initial pain, more symptoms, and greater initial disability predicted slower recovery. Few factors related to the collision itself (for example, direction of the collision, headrest type) were prognostic; however, postinjury psychological factors such as passive coping style, depressed mood, and fear of movement were prognostic for slower or less complete recovery. There is also preliminary evidence that the prevailing compensation system is prognostic for recovery in WAD. Conclusion The Neck Pain Task Force undertook a best evidence synthesis to establish a baseline of the current best evidence on the course and prognosis for WAD. Recovery of WAD seems to be multifactorial.

  8. The Pain System in Oesophageal Disorders: Mechanisms, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lottrup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is common in gastroenterology. This review aims at giving an overview of pain mechanisms, clinical features, and treatment options in oesophageal disorders. The oesophagus has sensory receptors specific for different stimuli. Painful stimuli are encoded by nociceptors and communicated via afferent nerves to the central nervous system. The pain stimulus is further processed and modulated in specific pain centres in the brain, which may undergo plastic alterations. Hence, tissue inflammation and long-term exposure to pain can cause sensitisation and hypersensitivity. Oesophageal sensitivity can be evaluated ,for example, with the oesophageal multimodal probe. Treatment should target the cause of the patient's symptoms. In gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, proton pump inhibitors are the primary treatment option, surgery being reserved for patients with severe disease resistant to drug therapy. Functional oesophageal disorders are treated with analgesics, antidepressants, and psychological therapy. Lifestyle changes are another option with less documentation.

  9. Chronic Pain and Mental Health Disorders: Shared Neural Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain and mental health disorders are common in the general population, and epidemiological studies suggest that a bidirectional relationship exists between these 2 conditions. The observations from functional imaging studies suggest that this bidirectional relationship is due in part to shared neural mechanisms. In addition to depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders, individuals with chronic pain are at risk of other mental health problems including suicide and cigarette smoking and many have sustained sexual violence. Within the broader biopsychosocial model of pain, the fear-avoidance model explains how behavioral factors affect the temporal course of chronic pain and provides the framework for an array of efficacious behavioral interventions including cognitive-behavioral therapy, acceptance-based therapies, and multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation. Concomitant pain and mental health disorders often complicate pharmacological management, but several drug classes, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and anticonvulsants, have efficacy for both conditions and should be considered first-line treatment agents. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotova, Anna; Bulant, Josef; Bocek, Vaclav; Papezova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa) and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images). Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size) correlated with pain threshold latencies (r=0.55, p=0.001), while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size) and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual) processing of one’s own body image. The more the patients desired to be thin, the more pain-sensitive they were. Our findings based on some shared mechanisms of body dissatisfaction and pain perception support the significance of negative emotions specific for eating disorders and contribute to better understanding of the psychosomatic

  11. Pain Relief in Depressive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; König, Udo

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with depressive disorders, which, if present, worsens the prognosis. However, there is little empirical knowledge of the therapeutic effects of antidepressants on painful physical symptoms of patients with depressive disorders. Furthermore, tricyclic/tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have not yet been included in existing meta-analyses. A broad, systematic search of PubMed literature on antidepressant drug treatment of patients with depressive disorders with comorbid pain symptoms was carried out. A random-effects meta-analysis has been performed among 3 different groups of drugs for the 2 end points: pain and depression. Fourteen placebo-controlled studies with selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) could be included, with 3 of them also investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Three further placebo-controlled SSRI studies were identified, but only 2 placebo-controlled TCA studies.Both SSNRIs and SSRIs, but not TCAs, were significantly superior to placebo as regards their analgesic effects. However, all effects were small. For SSNRIs, there was a strong positive correlation between their effectiveness for pain relief and their positive effect on the mood of the patients. The analgesic effects of SSNRIs and SSRIs in patients with primary depressive disorders can be interpreted as largely equivalent. Because of a lack of placebo-controlled TCA studies, the results for TCAs would be comparable only to those of SSRIs and SSNRIs, if non-placebo-controlled TCA studies were included. The positive correlation found indicates a close relationship of pain relief and antidepressant treatment effects. These results refer merely to patients with primary depressive disorders, not to patients with primary pain disorders. Further studies comparing the effects of different types of antidepressant drugs on pain in depressive patients are warranted.

  12. Reported concepts for the treatment modalities and pain management of temporomandibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Boening, Klaus; Wiland, Piotr; Shiau, Yuh-Yuan; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a common problem in modern societies. The aim of the article is to present the concepts of TMD pain clinical management. Methods A survey was performed using the PubMed, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases for documents published between 1994 and 2014. The following search keywords were selected using MeSH terms of the National Library of Medicine in combination: TMD pain, TMD, TMJ, TMJ disorders, occlusal splint, TMD physiotherapy, TMJ ...

  13. Deep Dyspareunia in Endometriosis: A Proposed Framework Based on Pain Mechanisms and Genito-Pelvic Pain Penetration Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis is a common chronic disease affecting 1 in 10 women of reproductive age, with half of women with endometriosis experiencing deep dyspareunia. A review of research studies on endometriosis indicates a need for a validated question or questionnaire for deep dyspareunia. Moreover, placebo-controlled randomized trials have yet to demonstrate a clear benefit for traditional treatments of endometriosis for the outcome of deep dyspareunia. The reason some patients might not respond to traditional treatments is the multifactorial nature of deep dyspareunia in endometriosis, which can include comorbid conditions (eg, interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome) and central sensitization underlying genito-pelvic pain penetration disorder. In general, there is a lack of a framework that integrates these multifactorial causes to provide a standardized approach to deep dyspareunia in endometriosis. To propose a clinical framework for deep dyspareunia based on a synthesis of pain mechanisms with genito-pelvic pain penetration disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Narrative review after literature search with the terms (endometriosis AND dyspareunia) OR (dyspareunia AND deep) and after analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. Deep dyspareunia presence or absence or deep dyspareunia severity on a numeric rating scale or visual analog scale. Four types of deep dyspareunia are proposed in women with endometriosis: type I that is directly due to endometriosis; type II that is related to a comorbid condition; type III in which genito-pelvic pain penetration disorder is primary; and type IV that is secondary to a combination of types I to III. Four types of deep dyspareunia in endometriosis are proposed, which can be used as a framework in research studies and in clinical practice. Research trials could phenotype or stratify patients by each type. The framework also could give rise to more personalized

  14. Psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Moaiedy, Farah; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Askani, Hamid; Haghighat, Mahmood; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. There is a heightened risk when conducting potentially dangerous and unnecessary medical investigations and procedures in children with FAPS. The aim of this study was to survey the rate of the psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with FAPS. The subjects were a consecutive new sample of 45 children and adolescents with FAPS, 45 with an organic abdominal pain, and 45 pain-free comparison subjects aged 5-18 years that were interviewed using the Farsi version of K-SADS. Family functioning and the severity of pain were also studied. About 51.1% of patients with FAPS suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder. Psychiatric disorders in the FAPS patients studied included general anxiety disorder (8.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (11.1%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (15.6%), separation anxiety disorder (24.4%), and major depressive disorder (15.6%). Except for generalized anxiety disorder and tic disorder, the other disorders were significantly more common in the FAPS group than in the two other control groups. Family functioning scores were not significantly different between groups. There is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with FAPS in Iran, but our study found fewer incidences of disorders than previous reports have indicated. Family dysfunction difficulties in FAPS children are not more common than those in the control groups.

  15. Epidemiology of pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo

  16. DSM-IV-TR “pain disorder associated with psychological factors” as a nonhysterical form of somatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; De Nitto, Serena; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores on the hysteria (Hy) scale are reported in several forms of pain. Previous results were possibly biased by diagnostic heterogeneity (psychogenic, somatic and mixed pain syndromes included in the same index sample) or Hy heterogeneity (failure to differentiate Hy scores into clinically meaningful sub-scales, such as admission of symptoms [Ad] and denial of symptoms [Dn]). METHODS: To overcome this drawback, 48 patients diagnosed as having a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of “pain disorder associated with psychological factors” were compared with 48 patients experiencing somatic pain excluding psychological factors, and 42 somatic controls without pain. RESULTS: MMPI Hy and hypochondriasis (Hs) scores were significantly higher in the pain disorder group than in control groups, who scored similarly. MMPI correction (K) scores and Dn scores were similar in the three groups, whereas Ad was significantly higher in the pain disorder group and lower and similar in the two control groups, respectively. In the pain disorder group, Ad and Dn were negatively correlated, whereas in control groups they were unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that whereas a pattern of high Hs and Hy scores together with a normal K score might characterize patients with a pain disorder associated with psychological factors, elevated Hy scores per se do not indicate hysterical traits. In the pain disorder group, elevated Hy scores reflected the Ad subscale alone, indicating a strikingly high frequency of distressing somatic symptoms. They tend not to repress or deny the emotional malaise linked to symptoms, as the hysterical construct expects. The pain disorder designation should be considered a nonhysterical form of somatization. PMID:18301811

  17. Effects of insomnia disorder and knee osteoarthritis on resting and pain-evoked inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Finan, Patrick H; Page, Gayle G; Smith, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent arthritic condition. Systemic inflammatory cytokines appear to have an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disease. Sleep disturbances are prevalent in osteoarthritis and associated with alterations in systemic inflammatory cytokines, suggesting a common pathophysiology across these conditions. A comparative investigation of the effects of insomnia disorder and osteoarthritis on pain-evoked cytokine responses has yet to be undertaken. We examined the influence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and insomnia disorder on resting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 levels, and pain-evoked IL-6 and IL-10 responses. Participants were N=117 older adults (mean age=59.7years; 61.8% women) rigorously evaluated for knee osteoarthritis and insomnia disorder using established diagnostic guidelines. Results revealed no association of osteoarthritis or insomnia disorder with CRP. Resting IL-6 was greater in osteoarthritis participants versus those without osteoarthritis, although this association was largely attributable to BMI. IL-10 was highest among participants with osteoarthritis or insomnia disorder. Growth curve modeling revealed that participants with insomnia disorder had greater pain-evoked IL-6 responses than participants without insomnia disorder or osteoarthritis. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, our findings provide evidence for amplified pain-evoked pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity among older adults with clinically diagnosed insomnia disorder, even after controlling for individual differences in BMI and age. Additional research will be required determine whether an amplified pain-related cytokine response contributes to OA, and possibly other age-related disease, associated with insomnia disorder. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Circulating Omentin-1 and Chronic Painful Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer B; Sanders, Anne E; Wilder, Rebecca S; Essick, Greg K; Slade, Gary D; Hartung, Jane E; Nackley, Andrea G

    To investigate the relationship between omentin-1 levels and painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In a case-control design, chronic painful TMD cases (n = 90) and TMD-free controls (n = 54) were selected from participants in the multisite OPPERA study (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment). Painful TMD case status was determined by examination using established Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Levels of omentin-1 in stored blood plasma samples were measured by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs) for the association between omentin-1 and painful TMD. Models were adjusted for study site, age, sex, and body mass index. The unadjusted association between omentin-1 and chronic painful TMD was statistically nonsignificant (P = .072). Following adjustment for covariates, odds of TMD pain decreased 36% per standard deviation increase in circulating omentin-1 (adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CL: 0.43, 0.96; P = .031). Circulating levels of omentin-1 were significantly lower in painful TMD cases than controls, suggesting that TMD pain is mediated by inflammatory pathways.

  19. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A; Dziechciarz, P; Szajewska, H

    2011-06-01

    A lack of reliable treatments for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders prompts interest in new therapies. To evaluate systematically the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for treating abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, trial registries and proceedings of major meetings were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating LGG supplementation in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on the Rome II or Rome III criteria. Risk of bias was assessed for generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding and follow-up. Compared with placebo, LGG supplementation was associated with a significantly higher rate of treatment responders (defined as no pain or a decrease in pain intensity) in the overall population with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (three RCTs, n = 290; risk ratio, RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59, number needed to treat, NNT 7, 95% CI 4-22) and in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subgroup (three RCTs, n = 167; RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.27-2.27, NNT 4, 95% CI 3-8). However, no difference was found in the rate of treatment responders between children with functional abdominal pain or functional dyspepsia who received placebo or LGG. The intensity of pain was significantly reduced in the overall study population and in the IBS subgroup. The frequency of pain was significantly reduced in the IBS subgroup only. The use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG moderately increases treatment success in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly among children with IBS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Validation of the Pain Resilience Scale in Chinese-speaking patients with temporomandibular disorders pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S L; Wang, J H; Ji, P

    2018-03-01

    To validate the Pain Resilience Scale (PRS) for use in Chinese patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) pain. According to international guidelines, the original PRS was first translated and cross-culturally adapted to formulate the Chinese version of PRS (PRS-C). A total of 152 patients with TMD pain were recruited to complete series of questionnaires. Reliability of the PRS-C was investigated using internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Validity of the PRS-C was calculated using cross-cultural validity and convergent validity. Cross-cultural validity was evaluated by examining the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). And convergent validity was examined through correlating the PRS-C scores with scores of 2 commonly used pain-related measures (the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for Temporomandibular Disorders [TSK-TMD]). The PRS-C had a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92) and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.81). The CFA supported a 2-factor model for the PRS-C with acceptable fit to the data. The fit indices were chi-square/DF = 2.21, GFI = 0.91, TLI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98 and RMSEA = 0.08. As regards convergent validity, the PRS-C evidenced moderate-to-good relationships with the CD-RISC and the TSK-TMD. The PRS-C shows good psychometric properties and could be considered as a reliable and valid measure to evaluate pain-related resilience in patients with TMD pain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chronic pain patients with possible co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder admitted to multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Andersen, Lou-Ann Christensen; Andersen, Per Grünwald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-morbidity in chronic pain, little is known about the association between PTSD and pain in the context of chronic pain rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the association......: A consecutively referred cohort of 194 patients completed a baseline questionnaire at admission covering post-traumatic stress, pain symptoms, physical and mental functioning, as well as self-reported sleep quality and cognitive difficulties. Medication use was calculated from their medical records. A total of 95...

  2. Groin pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction and lumbar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of groin pain in patients with sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction, lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS), and lumbar disc herniation (LDH) who did not have hip disorders, and evaluated the clinical features that distinguished SIJ dysfunction from LSS and LDH. We evaluated 127 patients (57 men, 70 women, average age 55 years) with SIJ dysfunction, 146 (98 men, 48 women, average age 71 years) with LSS, and 124 (83 men, 41 women, average age 50 years) with LDH. The following data were retrospectively collected from the patients' medical charts: (1) the prevalence of groin pain for each pathology; (2) corresponding spinal level of LSS and LDH in the patients with groin pain; (3) the pain areas in the buttocks and back; pain increase while in positions such as sitting, lying supine, and side-lying; an SIJ shear test; and four tender points composed of the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL), sacrotuberous ligament (STL), and iliac muscle. Fifty-nine (46.5%) patients with SIJ dysfunction, 10 (6.8%) with LSS, and 10 (8.1%) with LDH reported groin pain. Of the 10 patients with LSS, five presented with cauda equina symptoms, two had stenosis of L2-L3, and three had stenosis below L3-L4. The other five presented with radiculopathy: the corresponding nerve root was L2, L3, and L4 in one patient each, and L5 in two. Of the 10 patients with LDH, eight presented with radiculopathy: the corresponding nerve root was L2 and L4 in three patients each, and L5 in two. Two patients presented with L4-L5 discogenic pain without radiculopathy. In patients with groin pain, pain provoked by the SIJ shear test and the tenderness of the PSIS and LPSL were significant physical signs that differentiated SIJ dysfunction from LSS and LDH. (Fisher's exact test, P<0.05) CONCLUSION: The prevalence of groin pain in patients with SIJ dysfunction was higher than in those with LSS or LDH. When patients who do not have hip disorders

  3. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis. PMID:28638895

  4. Chronic Orofacial Pain: Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Neuropathic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis.

  5. Association between painful temporomandibular disorders, sleep bruxism and tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the association between sleep bruxism (SB, tinnitus and temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The sample consisted of 261 women (mean age of 37.0 years. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to classify TMD and self-reported tinnitus. SB was diagnosed by clinical criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The results showed an association between painful TMD and tinnitus (OR = 7.3; 95%CI = 3.50-15.39; p < 0.001. With regard to SB, the association was of lower magnitude (OR = 1.9; 95%CI = 1.16-3.26; p < 0.0163. When the sample was stratified by the presence of SB and painful TMD, only SB showed no association with tinnitus. The presence of painful TMD without SB was significantly associated with tinnitus (OR = 6.7; 95%CI = 2.64-17.22; p < 0.0001. The concomitant presence of painful TMD and SB was associated with a higher degree of tinnitus severity (OR = 7.0; 95%CI = 3.00-15.89; p < 0.0001. It may be concluded that there is an association between SB, painful TMD and self-reported tinnitus; however, no relationship of a causal nature could be established.

  6. Influence of culture on pain comorbidity in women with and without temporomandibular disorder-pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthy, M; Michelotti, A; List, T; Ohrbach, R

    2017-06-01

    Evidence on cultural differences in prevalence and impact of common chronic pain conditions, comparing individuals with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) versus individuals without TMD, is limited. The aim was to assess cross-cultural comorbid pain conditions in women with chronic TMD pain. Consecutive women patients (n = 122) with the index condition of chronic TMD pain diagnosed per the research diagnostic criteria for TMD and TMD-free controls (n = 121) matched for age were recruited in Saudi Arabia, Italy and Sweden. Self-report questionnaires assessed back, chest, stomach and head pain for prevalence, pain intensity and interference with daily activities. Logistic regression was used for binary variables, and ancova was used for parametric data analysis, adjusting for age and education. Back pain was the only comorbid condition with a different prevalence across cultures; Swedes reported a lower prevalence compared to Saudis (P 50% due to back pain compared to Italians or Swedes (P cultures. The total number of comorbid conditions did not differ cross-culturally but were reported more by TMD-pain cases than TMD-free controls (P Culture influences the associated comorbidity of common pain conditions. The cultural influence on pain expression is reflected in different patterns of physical representation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence and clinical profile of chronic pain and its association with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Garcia Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of 12-month self-reported pain and chronic pain in a general population and to describe their clinical profile to assess if chronic pain is associated with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS The data used comes from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a population-based study assessing adult (≥ 18 years residents of the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil. We have assessed the respondents (n = 5,037 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0, with a global response rate of 81.3%. Descriptive analyses have been performed, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR have been calculated with logistic and multinomial regression and presented with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS The prevalence of pain and chronic pain in the past 12 months were 52.6% (95%CI 50.3–54.8 and 31.0% (95%CI 29.2–32.7, respectively. Joints (16.5%, 95%CI 15.4–17.5 and back or neck (15.5%, 95%CI 14.2–16.9 were the most frequently reported anatomical sites of chronic pain. On a 10-point analogue scale, the mean intensity of the worst pain was 7.7 (95%CI 7.4–7.8, and the mean average pain was 5.5 (95%CI 5.2–5.6; the mean treatment response was 6.3 (95%CI 6.0–6.6. Mean pain duration was 16.1 (95%CI 15.6–17.0 days a month and 132 (95%CI 126–144 minutes a day. Chronic pain was associated with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (OR = 2.7, 95%CI 2.3–3.3, anxiety disorders (OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.9–3.0, and mood disorders (OR = 3.3, 95%CI 2.4–4.1. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of chronic pain in multiple sites is observed among the general adult population, and associations between chronic pain and mental disorders are frequent.

  8. [Sexual pain disorders in females and males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, M; Mimoun, S; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of pain during sex is one of the most common complaints in gynecological and sexological practice but nonetheless one of the most difficult problems to deal with and treat effectively. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012 dealing with sexual pain in women and men. The different descriptions of painful intercourse (dyspareunia, vestibulo-vulvodynies, vaginismus) are not separate entities but the result of the interaction of many factors including genital pain, emotional and behavioral responses to penetration, caresses, desire and excitement, in a context of possible organic pathology (infection, endometriosis, inflammatory or dermatological disease, morphological or pelvic abnormality, hormonal deficiency) sometimes associated with chronic pain phenomena self-sustained by neurogenic inflammation. The clinical expression of sexual pain is as variable as its causes are many. The etiological investigation is essential but should not omit the sexological context and the need for appropriate management. The neurogenic inflammation and hypersensitivity impose an algological approach associated to etiological and sexological treatment. Chronic sexual pains, whether they are superficial or deep, can be the sign of organic or psycho-sexual (primary or secondary) disorders. The development of a "therapeutic program" helps patients, allows them to restore self-confidence and leads to the disappearance of the symptom in more than half cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Socioeconomic Factors and Work Disability: Clues to Managing Chronic Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a multifactorial phenomena in chronic pain disorders, as it is for other painful and nonpainful medical conditions. Socioeconomic factors are important determinants of disability, although this aspect of disability in chronic pain disorders is often ignored. Lower socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of disability, and the rate of progression to disability in patients with chronic pain. Work disability in lower socioeconomic groups is associated with issues of physical work demands and work flexibility (ie, the ability to control the pace of work, take unscheduled breaks or engage in modified work. Workplace interventions, particularly in the subacute phase, that are geared to workers' limitations offer the best opportunity to reduce the current burden of disability. Where such work modifications are not available, disability will be problematic.

  10. The reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerst, Danielle; Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Mior, Silvano; Stern, Paula

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the interexaminer reliability of scoring pain distribution using paper and electronic body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder and to assess the intermethod reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using paper and electronic diagrams. We conducted an interexaminer reliability study on 80 participants recruited from a randomized controlled trial on the conservative management of acute grade I/II whiplash-associated disorder. Participants were assessed for inclusion/exclusion criteria by an experienced clinician. As part of the baseline assessment, participants independently completed paper and electronic pain diagrams. Diagrams were scored independently by 2 examiners using the body region method. Interexaminer and intermethod reliability was computed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for pain distribution and κ coefficient for pain location. We used Bland-Altman plots to compute limits of agreement. The interexaminer reliability was ICC = 0.925 for paper and ICC = 0.997 for the electronic body pain diagram. The intermethod reliability for measuring pain distribution ranged from ICC = 0.63 to ICC = 0.93. For pain location, the intermethod reliability varied from κ = 0.23 (posterior neck) to κ = 0.90 (right side of the face). We found good to excellent interexaminer reliability for scoring 2 versions of the body pain diagram. Pain distribution and pain location were reliably and consistently measured on body pain diagrams using paper and electronic methods; therefore, clinicians and researchers may choose either medium when using body pain diagrams. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorder and Chronic Pain: Multiple Manifestations of a Common Clinical and Pathophysiological Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Dávila, Cesar A; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernán G

    A high proportion of depressive disorders are accompanied by anxious manifestations, just as depression and anxiety often present with many painful manifestations, or conversely, painful manifestations cause or worsen depressive and anxious expressions. There is increasingly more evidence of the pathophysiological, and neurophysiological and technical imaging similarity of pain and depression. Narrative review of the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of depression and chronic pain comorbidity. Research articles are included that emphasise the most relevant elements related to understanding the pathophysiology of both manifestations. The pathological origin, physiology and clinical approach to these disorders have been more clearly established with the latest advances in biochemical and cellular techniques, as well as the advent of imaging technologies. This information is systematised with comprehensive images and clinical pictures. The recognition that the polymorphism of inflammation-related genes generates susceptibility to depressive manifestations and may modify the response to antidepressant treatments establishes that the inflammatory response is not only an aetiopathogenic component of pain, but also of stress and depression. Likewise, the similarity in approach with images corroborates not only the structural, but the functional and pathophysiological analogy between depression and chronic pain. Knowledge of depression-anxiety-chronic pain comorbidity is essential in the search for effective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. The Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder Paradigm and Beyond: Theoretical and empirical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Spoelstra, Symen Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)the female sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia have been merged into the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). The major reason behind this merging is that in clinical practice it always has been difficult to make a categorical distinction between dyspareunia and vaginismus. In this thesis the role of pelvic floor muscles in GPPPD is explored. Does the vaginal canal, in analogy to ...

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain are associated with opioid use disorder: Results from a 2012-2013 American nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilevicius, Elena; Sommer, Jordana L; Asmundson, Gordon J G; El-Gabalawy, Renée

    2018-07-01

    Chronic pain conditions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur and are associated with opioid use disorder (OUD). The aims of this paper were to identify prevalence estimates of OUD among individuals with and without PTSD and assess independent and combined contributions of PTSD and chronic pain conditions on OUD in a nationally representative sample. Data were extracted from 36,309 individuals from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year PTSD and OUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 edition. Respondents reported physician-confirmed, past-year chronic pain conditions, categorized into musculoskeletal pain (e.g., arthritis), digestive pain (e.g., pancreatitis), and nerve pain (e.g., reflex sympathetic dystrophy). We examined the weighted prevalence of OUD among those with and without PTSD. Multiple logistic regressions examined the association between PTSD and chronic pain conditions on OUD. The prevalence of OUD was higher among those with PTSD than those without. Comorbid PTSD/musculoskeletal pain and PTSD/nerve pain conditions were associated with increased odds of OUD, compared to those with neither PTSD nor chronic pain conditions. Digestive pain conditions were not associated with OUD. Comorbid PTSD/musculoskeletal pain conditions demonstrated an additive relationship on OUD compared to musculoskeletal pain conditions and PTSD alone. Results reveal that musculoskeletal pain and nerve pain conditions are associated with increased odds of OUD, but only musculoskeletal pain conditions display an additive relationship on OUD when combined with PTSD. These findings have implications for opioid management and screening among those with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life in major depressive disorder: the role of pain and pain catastrophizing cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Tso, Kwok-Chu; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Li, Wei-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Pain symptoms are frequent complaints in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although it is known that pain intensity and pain-related cognition predict quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic pain, limited studies have examined their roles in MDD. The study aimed to determine whether pain and pain catastrophizing were independent predictors of QOL in MDD after accounting for the impact of anxiety and depression. This is a prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Ninety-one Chinese patients were enrolled during an acute episode of MDD, 82 of them were reassessed 3 months later using the same assessment on pain, anxiety, depression, and QOL. Pain intensity was evaluated using a verbal rating scale and a visual analog scale. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Pain-related cognition was assessed at baseline with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. There was significant improvement in pain, anxiety, depression, and QOL from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that pain intensity was significantly associated with QOL at baseline and 3 months. Pain complaint was more important than anxiety and depressive symptoms in predicting changes in both physical and psychosocial domains of QOL. After controlling for the severity of pain, anxiety, and depression, Pain Catastrophizing Scale score was independently associated with QOL in MDD. The study supports the specific role of pain and pain-related cognition in predicting QOL in depressed patients. Further studies targeting pain-related cognition for improving the outcome of MDD are necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional abdominal pain in childhood and long-term vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Grace D; Shirkey, Kezia C; Sherman, Amanda L; Beck, Joy E; Haman, Kirsten; Shears, Angela R; Horst, Sara N; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies link functional abdominal pain (FAP) to anxiety and depression in childhood, but no prospective study has evaluated psychiatric status in adulthood or its relation to pain persistence. Pediatric patients with FAP (n = 332) and control subjects (n = 147) were tracked prospectively and evaluated for psychiatric disorders and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) at follow-up in adolescence and young adulthood (mean age = 20.01 years). Participants were classified according to presence (FGID-POS) or absence (FGID-NEG) of FGIDs at follow-up. Lifetime and current risk of anxiety disorders was higher in FAP than controls (lifetime: 51% vs 20%; current: 30% vs 12%). Controlling for gender and age, the odds ratio was 4.9 (confidence interval = 2.83-7.43) for lifetime anxiety disorder and 3.57 (confidence interval = 2.00-6.36) for current anxiety disorder at follow-up for FAP versus controls. Lifetime risk of depressive disorder was significantly higher in FAP versus controls (40% vs. 16%); current risk did not differ. In most cases, initial onset of anxiety disorders was before pediatric FAP evaluation; onset of depressive disorders was subsequent to FAP evaluation. Within the FAP group, risk of current anxiety disorders at follow-up was significantly higher for FGID-POS versus FGID-NEG (40% vs 24%), and both were higher than controls (12%); current depressive disorders did not differ across FGID-POS, FGID-NEG, and controls. Patients with FAP carry long-term vulnerability to anxiety that begins in childhood and persists into late adolescence and early adulthood, even if abdominal pain resolves.

  16. Clinical assessment of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ilanit; Greenberg, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of chronic pain disorders of the mouth, jaws, and face is frequently complex. It is common for patients with chronic orofacial pain to consult multiple clinicians and receive ineffective treatment before a correct diagnosis is reached. This problem is a significant public health concern. Clinicians can minimize error by starting the diagnostic procedure with a careful, accurate history and thorough head and neck examination followed by a thoughtfully constructed differential diagnosis. The possibility that the patient has symptoms of a life-threatening underlying disease rather than a more common dental, sinus, or temporomandibular disorder must always be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children: therapeutic strategies focusing on hypnotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain disorders are common pediatric disorders, which can significantly impact the child and his/her family. Treatment of these children is hampered, because of the incomplete understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This thesis focusses on the clinical and

  18. Ecological aspects of pain in sensory modulation disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Deutsch, L; Honigman, L; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2015-01-01

    Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD) interferes with the daily life participation of otherwise healthy individuals and is characterized by over-, under- or seeking responsiveness to naturally occurring sensory stimuli. Previous laboratory findings indicate pain hyper-sensitivity in SMD individuals suggesting CNS alteration in pain processing and modulation. However, laboratory studies lack ecological validity, and warrant clinical completion in order to elicit a sound understanding of the phenomenon studied. Thus, this study explored the association between sensory modulation and pain in a daily life context in a general population sample. Daily life context of pain and sensations were measured in 250 adults (aged 23-40 years; 49.6% males) using 4 self-report questionnaires: Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) to evaluate the sensory and cognitive aspects of pain; the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire (SRQ) to appraise SMD; and the Short Form - 36 Health Survey, version 2 (SF36) to assess health related Quality of Life (QoL). Thirty two individuals (12.8%) were found with over-responsiveness type of SMD, forming the SOR-SMD group. While no group differences (SOR-SMD vs. Non-SMD) were found, low-to-moderate total sample correlations were demonstrated between the SRQ-Aversive sub-scale and i) PSQ total (r=0.31, pcognitive aspect. This indicates that SMD co-occurs with daily pain sensitivity, thus reducing QoL, but less with the cognitive-catastrophizing manifestation of pain perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Headache Exacerbates Pain Characteristics in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Alves da Costa, Dayse Regina; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Porporatti, André Luís; Svensson, Peter; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of headache in adults with masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) on the outcome variables clinical pain (ie, self-reported pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity), sleep quality, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 97 patients with MMP were diagnosed with co-existing headache (MMPH group, n = 50) or without headache (MMP group, n = 47) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The outcome parameters were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Catastrophizing Thoughts subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale (PRSS-C); pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles; and self-reported facial pain intensity measured on a 0- to 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Student t test for independent samples (α = 1.2%) and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 5%) were used to analyze the data. The MMPH group showed significantly impaired sleep quality (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score 9.1 ± 3.5) compared with the MMP group (7.2 ± 3.4; P = .008). Subscale scores on the PRSS-C were significantly higher in the MMPH (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the MMP group (1.6 ± 1.4, uncorrected P = .048). Also, the PPTs (kgf/cm²) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the MMPH group (1.52 ± 0.53; 1.29 ± 0.43, respectively) than in the MMP group (2.09 ± 0.73; 1.70 ± 0.68, respectively; P headache patients had lower PPTs in the anterior temporalis muscle (P = .041) in comparison with non-headache patients. Co-existence of headache further exacerbates clinical characteristics in patients with painful TMD, which implies involvement of common mechanisms and pathways of vulnerability in these patients.

  20. Electrical stimulation (ES) in the management of sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Ferdeghini, Francesea; Abbiati, Ileana; Vercesi, Claudia; Farina, Claudio; Polatti, Franco

    2003-01-01

    We performed an open study to investigate the use of electrical stimulation (ES) on the vestibular area and vaginal introitus in women with sexual pain disorders. We recruited 29 women (age range 20-45 years) from among the patients at our Reproductive Psychobiology Unit to participate in the present study. They each experienced vestibular pain, inducing dyspareunia and vaginism. We performed ES with an ECL43400 apparatus (Elite, EssediEsse srl, Milan, Italy) once a week for 10 weeks. To evaluate the muscular activity of the perineal floor and sexual function, we employed the same apparatus with a vaginal probe for recording myoelectrical activity (muV), we employed a VAS scale for evaluating pain, and we administered the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) before and after the study protocol. We analyzed data by parametric and nonparametric comparisons and correlations, as appropriate. Our major findings were as follows: (a) the contractile ability of pelvic floor muscles (p vaginism went back to coital activity; (d) FSFI pain score and the current intensity tolerated, both before (R = .59; p < 0.006) and at the end (R = .53; p < 0.02) of the stimulation protocol, positively correlated. ES may be effective in the management of sexual pain disorders. Further controlled studies are necessary to standardize stimulation protocols according to the severity of pain and to better clarify the long-term clinical effects of ES.

  1. Reported concepts for the treatment modalities and pain management of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Boening, Klaus; Wiland, Piotr; Shiau, Yuh-Yuan; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a common problem in modern societies. The aim of the article is to present the concepts of TMD pain clinical management. A survey was performed using the PubMed, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases for documents published between 1994 and 2014. The following search keywords were selected using MeSH terms of the National Library of Medicine in combination: TMD pain, TMD, TMJ, TMJ disorders, occlusal splint, TMD physiotherapy, TMJ rheumatoid disorders and TMJ surgery. Original articles and review papers which presented the clinical relevance and practical validity regarding the possibility of application in TMD management have been included. Authors have excluded articles without outstanding practical aspect and evidence-based background. A first selection was carried out by reviewing titles and abstracts of all articles found according to the criteria. After that the full texts of potentially suitable articles were assessed. In line with these criteria, among 11467 results the writers have included 66 papers. The most commonly reported conservative treatments are massage therapy and individually fabricated occlusal splints. In addition to massage, other popular methods include manual therapy and taping, warming/cooling of aching joints, and light and laser therapy. Drugs are also commonly used. In the most severe cases of the temporomandibular joint degeneration, surgical restoration of the joint is sometimes applied. The authors concluded that conservative treatment including counselling, exercises, occlusal splint therapy, massage, manual therapy and others should be considered as a first choice therapy for TMD pain because of their low risk of side effects. In the case of severe acute pain or chronic pain resulting from serious disorders, inflammation and/or degeneration pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive and invasive procedures should be considered.

  2. Ten-year prevalence of mental disorders in patients presenting with chronic pain in secondary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, S; Vaegter, H B; Erlangsen, A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of mental disorders in patients with chronic pain vary and may be overestimated when assessed by screening instruments only. Objectives were to estimate the 10-year prevalence of different mental disorders diagnosed by psychiatrists in patients with chronic pain compa...

  3. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders: disability, pain intensity and fear of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to compare and correlate disability, pain intensity, the impact of headache on daily life and the fear of movement between subgroups of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients diagnosed with chronic painful TMD. Patients were divided into: 1) joint pain (JP); 2) muscle pain (MP); and 3) mixed pain. The following measures were included: Craniomandibular pain and disability (Craniofacial pain and disability inventory), neck disability (Neck Dsiability Index), pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), impact of headache (Headache Impact Test 6) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11). A total of 154 patients were recruited. The mixed pain group showed significant differences compared with the JP group or MP group in neck disability (p craniomandibular pain and disability (p Neck disability was a significant covariate (37 % of variance) of craniomandibular pain and disability for the MP group (β = 0.62; p neck disability (β = 0.40; p craniomandibular pain and disability. Mixed chronic pain patients show greater craniomandibular and neck disability than patients diagnosed with chronic JP or MP. Neck disability predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for patients with MP. Neck disability and kinesiophobia predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for those with chronic mixed pain.

  5. Pain as a Predictor of Sleep Problems in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile C.; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that pain interferes with sleep in youth with developmental disabilities. This study examined the relationship between pain and sleep problems in a sample of youth with parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (N = 62). Mothers reported on standardized measures of pain and sleep problems. Youth demonstrated atypically high levels…

  6. Evaluation of Pain Syndromes, Headache, and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswell, Bruce B; Sheikh, Jason

    2018-02-01

    After a thorough review of the history and presentation of a child's facial pain, a targeted head and neck examination is critical to the appropriate diagnosis of facial pain and temporomandibular joint disorders. It is critical to distinguish between the structural (trauma, degenerative disease, and tumor) and nonstructural (neurogenic, myogenic, and psychological) causes of pain, which will allow for incorporation of appropriate strategies of medical, psychological, dental, and surgical therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DEGRO guidelines for the radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part II: Painful degenerative skeletal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Niewald, Marcus; Weitmann, Hajo-Dirk; Jacob, Ingrid; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Schaefer, Ulrich; Keilholz, Ludwig; Heyd, Reinhard; Muecke, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the updated DEGRO consensus S2e guideline recommendations for the treatment of benign painful degenerative skeletal disorders with low-dose radiotherapy. This overview reports on the role of low-dose radiotherapy in the treatment of enthesiopathies (shoulder syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, plantar fasciitis, and elbow syndrome) and painful arthrosis (knee, hip, hand, and finger joints). The most relevant aspects of the DEGRO S2e Consensus Guideline Radiation Therapy of Benign Diseases 2014 regarding diagnostics, treatment decision, dose prescription as well as performance of radiotherapy and results are summarized. For all indications mentioned above, retrospective and some prospective analyses have shown remarkable effects in terms of pain relief. Nevertheless, the Level of Evidence (LoE) and the Grade of Recommendation (GR) vary: LoE 1b-4 and GR A-C. Low-dose radiotherapy for painful degenerative skeletal disorders is effective in the majority of the patients and therefore it may be a reasonable therapeutic alternative when simple and non-invasive methods have been used without persistent success. For all discussed entities, single fraction doses of 0.5-1.0 Gy and total doses of 3.0-6.0 Gy/series applied with 2-3 fractions per week are recommended. (orig.) [de

  8. Predictors of task-persistent and fear-avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Marieke; Lakeman, Mariëlle; van Lunsen, Rik; Laan, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Dyspareunia and vaginismus are the most common sexual pain disorders (SPDs). Literature suggests that many women with dyspareunia continue with intercourse despite pain (task persistence), whereas many women with vaginismus avoid penetrative activities that may cause pain (fear avoidance). Both

  9. Different association between specific manifestations of bruxism and temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marcin; Szalewski, Leszek; Szkutnik, Jacek; Ginszt, Michał; Ginszt, Apolinary

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bruxism exists in two separate manifestations. However, little is known about the association between specific manifestations of bruxism and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between TMD pain and specific diagnoses of bruxism (sleep, awake, and mixed diagnosis of sleep and awake bruxism). 508 adult patients (296 women and 212 men), aged between 18 and 64 years (mean age 34±12 years), attending to a clinic for general dental treatment. Patients were asked to fill an anonymous questionnaire, consisting of three questions, verifying the presence of TMD pain and two forms of bruxism. All questions were based on the Polish version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders patient history questionnaire. Cross tabulation was done, and χ 2 was used as a test of significance to find the association between the variables. Awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain only in men (χ 2 =7.746, pbruxism was associated with TMD pain in both women (χ 2 =10.486, pbruxism and TMD pain. Gender-related differences in the presence of all bruxism diagnoses were also statistically insignificant. Interaction between sleep and awake bruxism may increase the risk for TMD pain. We suggest considering concomitance as a confounder, when studying sleep or awake bruxism. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting the Corticomotor Plasticity in Low Back Pain: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Massé-Alarie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is a recurrent debilitating condition that costs billions to society. Refractoriness to conventional treatment, lack of improvement, and associated movement disorders could be related to the extensive brain plasticity present in this condition, especially in the sensorimotor cortices. This narrative review on corticomotor plasticity in CLBP will try to delineate how interventions such as training and neuromodulation can improve the condition. The review recommends subgrouping classification in CLBP owing to brain plasticity markers with a view of better understanding and treating this complex condition.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome related movement disorders : studies on pathophysiology and therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munts, Alexander Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterised by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Knowledge on CRPS and its movement disorders is scarce. Dysfunction in small nerve fiber processing was found in CRPS

  12. Brain responses to vestibular pain and its anticipation in women with Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Ly, Huynh Giao; Aerts, Leen; Kano, Michiko; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Peeters, Ronald; Tack, Jan; Dupont, Patrick; Enzlin, Paul; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    In DSM-5, pain-related fear during anticipation of vaginal penetration is a diagnostic criterion of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (GPPPD). We aimed to investigate subjective and brain responses during anticipatory fear and subsequent induction of vestibular pain in women with GPPPD. Women with GPPPD (n = 18) and age-matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 15) underwent fMRI scanning during vestibular pain induction at individually titrated pain threshold after a cued anticipation period. (Pain-related) fear and anxiety traits were measured with questionnaires prior to scanning, and anticipatory fear and pain intensity were rated during scanning using visual analog scales. Women with GPPPD reported significantly higher levels of anticipatory fear and pain intensity. During anticipation and pain induction they had stronger and more extensive brain responses in regions involved in cognitive and affective aspects of pain perception, but the group difference did not reach significance for the anticipation condition. Pain-related fear and anxiety traits as well as anticipatory fear ratings were positively associated with pain ratings in GPPPD, but not in HC. Further, in HC, a negative association was found between anticipatory fear ratings and brain responses in regions involved in cognitive and affective aspects of pain perception, but not in women with GPPPD. Women with GPPPD are characterized by increased subjective and brain responses to vestibular pain and, to a lesser extent, its anticipation, with fear and anxiety associated with responses to pain, supporting the introduction of anticipatory fear as a criterion of GPPPD in DSM-5.

  13. Nurses' Experiences of Patients with Substance-Use Disorder in Pain: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Georgina; Briggs, Emma; Chumbley, Gillian

    2015-10-01

    Patients with substance-use disorder and pain are at risk of having their pain underestimated and undertreated. Unrelieved pain can exacerbate characteristics that are believed to be 'drug-seeking' and in turn, perceived drug-seeking behavior can contribute to a patient being stigmatized and labeled 'difficult'. Previous literature has indicated that negative attitudes towards patients with substance-use disorder may affect their pain management but little is known about the specific barriers. This study explored nurses' experiences of working with patients with substance-use disorder in pain, providing an in-depth insight into their perspective. Descriptive phenomenology was employed as a framework for conducting semi-structured interviews to reveal the experiences of registered nurses. A convenience sample of registered nurses from a variety of clinical backgrounds were recruited and interviewed. This rich data was analyzed according to Giorgi's five-stage approach. Participants described feelings of powerlessness and frustration due to patient non-compliance, discrepancies in patient management amongst team members and external pressures effecting pain management. Participants described characteristics believed to be common, including psychosocial factors such as complex social backgrounds or mental health issues. Nurses' education and support needs were identified. Stereotyping and stigmatism were found to potentially still exist, yet there was also a general awareness of some specific clinical issues such as opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Further emphasis is required on interprofessional education and communication to improve patient management, alongside an appreciation of patient's rights facilitated by a concordance model of care. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabi...

  15. Assessment of Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Weiner, Shira Schecter; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Peloso, Paul M.; Guzman, Jaime; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To critically appraise and synthesize the literature on assessment of neck pain. Summary of Background Data The published literature on assessment of neck pain is large and of variable quality. There have been no prior systematic reviews of this literature. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders conducted a critical review of the literature (published 1980– 2006) on assessment tools and screening protocols for traumatic and nontraumatic neck pain. Results We found 359 articles on assessment of neck pain. After critical review, 95 (35%) were judged scientifically admissible. Screening protocols have high predictive values to detect cervical spine fracture in alert, low-risk patients seeking emergency care after blunt neck trauma. Computerized tomography (CT) scans had better validity (in adults and elderly) than radiographs in assessing high-risk and/or multi-injured blunt trauma neck patients. In the absence of serious pathology, clinical physical examinations are more predictive at excluding than confirming structural lesions causing neurologic compression. One exception is the manual provocation test for cervical radiculopathy, which has high positive predictive value. There was no evidence that specific MRI findings are associated with neck pain, cervicogenic headache, or whiplash exposure. No evidence supports using cervical provocative discography, anesthetic facet, or medial branch blocks in evaluating neck pain. Reliable and valid self-report questionnaires are useful in assessing pain, function, disability, and psychosocial status in individuals with neck pain. Conclusion The scientific evidence supports screening protocols in emergency care for low-risk patients; and CT-scans for high-risk patients with blunt trauma to the neck. In nonemergency neck pain without radiculopathy, the validity of most commonly used objective tests is lacking. There is

  16. Statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...

  17. Fibromyalgia syndrome and temporomandibular disorders with muscular pain. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Ana Maria; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Bueso-Madrid, Débora; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; de Miguel, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to a group of clinical picture affecting the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint that are characterized by muscular or joint pain, dysfunction (limited or altered functions) and joint noises, as well as other associated symptoms, such as tension headaches, otalgia, dizziness, tinnitus, and others. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown etiology involving generalized chronic pain accompanied, in a high percentage of cases, by other symptoms such as asthenia, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and other less frequent symptoms, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Data were compiled by two experienced examiners following a specific form. An electronic search was carried out in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED, and SCOPUS electronic databases (up to April 2016, unrestricted by date or language). Comparative clinical studies with patients with both clinical pictures involving the study of pathogenic processes. Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders with muscle pain both have profiles that affect the muscular system and therefore share many epidemiological, clinical, and physiopathological symptoms. Because of this, we are led to think that there is, if not a common etiology, at least a common pathogenesis. This article revises the physiopathological processes of both clinical pictures in an attempt to determine their similarities and likenesses. This would undoubtedly help in providing a better therapeutic approach.

  18. Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain and comorbid pains in a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, Octavia; Adams, Sally H; Gansky, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    To compare prevalences of self-reported comorbid headache, neck, back, and joint pains in respondents with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type pain in the 2000-2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to analyze these self-reported pains by gender and age for Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites (Caucasians), Hispanics, and NH Blacks (African Americans). Data from the 2000-2005 NHIS included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, education, different common types of pain (specifically TMJMD-type, severe headache/migraine, neck, and low back pains), changes in health status, and health care utilization. Estimates and test statistics (ie, Pearson correlations, regressions, and logistic models) were conducted using SAS survey analysis and SUDAAN software that take into account the complex sample design. A total of 189,977 people (52% female and 48% males, 73% NH Whites, 12% Hispanic, 11% NH Blacks, and 4% "Other") were included. A total of 4.6% reported TMJMD-type pain, and only 0.77% overall reported it without any comorbid headache/migraine, neck, or low back pains; also 59% of the TMJMD-type pain (n = 8,964) reported ⋝ two comorbid pains. Females reported more comorbid pain than males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, P neck pain, 64% low back pain, and 62% joint pain. Differences in gender and race by age patterns were detected. For females, headache/migraine pain with TMJMD-type pain peaked around age 40 and decreased thereafter regardless of race/ethnicity. Neck pain continued to increase up to about age 60, with a higher prevalence for Hispanic women at younger ages, and more pronounced in males, being the highest in the non-Whites. Low back pain was higher in Black and Hispanic females across the age span, and higher among non-White males after age 60. Joint pain demonstrated similar patterns by race/ethnicity, with higher rates for Black females, and increased with age regardless of gender. TMJMD-type pain was most often associated with

  19. Clinical Presentation of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Mintjens, Stijn; Pusatcioglu, Cenk K; Cohen, Daniel M; Sternberg, Petra

    2017-08-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity and abnormal coping are common in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). Thus, it would be expected that children with visceral hypersensitivity would report more pain if their gut is acutely inflamed. The aim of the study was to compare clinical symptoms and somatization of children with and without FAPDs at time of an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Seventy children with acute gastroenteritis and their parents completed the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pediatric Functional GI Disorders and the Children's Somatization Inventory. Twenty-one percent of children were diagnosed with an FAPD. Children with FAPDs showed significantly more nongastrointestinal somatic symptoms than children without FAPDs. There were no significant differences in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or school absenteeism between both groups at time of consultation.

  20. Pain detection by clinical questionnaire in patients referred for temporomandibular disorders in a Chilean hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Maturana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine pain frequency by means of a clinical screening questionnaire in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD referred to the general Hospital of Valdivia (HBV between September and December 2014. Material and method: A descriptive study, which included patients referred to the TMD Unit of the dental service at HBV between September and December 2014, was carried out. A clinical screening questionnaire was applied by an examiner in order to detect painful Temporomandibular Joint Disorders. The variables age, sex, wait time, and presence of related TMD pain were measured. Results: 101 patients were surveyed; 88.17% (84 patients were women. Average age was 33.5 (11-70 years; 66% of patients had mandibular pain or stiffness upon awakening; 80% informed pain related to painful TMD. Conclusion: Most surveyed patients were women. Pain was highly frequent in the surveyed population; its main location was in temporal areas.

  1. High prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain sensitization in two Scandinavian samples of patients referred for pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Correctly identifying chronic pain patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important because the comorbidity of a chronic pain condition and PTSD is found to compromise treatment success. In addition, the existence of PTSD is associated with pain sensitisation, elevated...... no gender differences in PTSD. The three most reported traumatic events: traffic accidents, serious illness personally or in the family, and the actual loss of someone, were reported as the primary traumatic events by almost 50% of those with PTSD. No particular pain diagnosis was significantly related...

  2. Pain perception in self-injurious patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M J; Roth, S D; Lerman, A; Kakuma, T; Harrison, K; Shindledecker, R D; Hull, J; Mattis, S

    1992-09-15

    Pain ratings during the cold pressor test were significantly lower in female inpatients with borderline personality disorder who report that they do not experience pain during self-injury (BPD-NP group, n = 11), compared with similar patients who report that they do experience pain during self-injury (BPD-P group, n = 11), and normal female subjects (n = 6). Pain ratings were not significantly different in the BPD-P and normal control groups. Self-report ratings of depression, anger, anxiety, and confusion were significantly lower, and ratings of vigor significantly higher following the cold pressor test in the BPD-NP group, but not in the BPD-P group. Only anxiety was significantly lower in the normal control group following the cold pressor test. The implications and limitations of these preliminary findings are discussed.

  3. Pain acceptance, psychological functioning, and self-regulatory fatigue in temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Burris, Jessica L; Evans, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic pain patients suffer from chronic self-regulatory fatigue: difficulty controlling thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Pain acceptance, which involves responding to pain and related experiences without attempts to control or avoid them (pain willingness), and pursuit of valued life activities regardless of pain (activity engagement) has been associated with various favorable outcomes in chronic pain patients, including better psychological functioning. The study presented here tested the hypotheses that pain acceptance is associated with less psychological distress, higher psychological well-being, and reduced self-regulatory fatigue in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, particularly for those with longer pain duration. Cross-sectional data were provided by 135 TMD patients during an initial evaluation at a university-based tertiary orofacial pain clinic. Results of hierarchical linear regression models indicated that, controlling for pain severity, pain willingness is associated with less psychological distress and lower self-regulatory fatigue, and activity engagement is associated with greater psychological well-being. Furthermore, the effect of pain willingness on psychological distress was moderated by pain duration such that pain willingness was more strongly associated with less psychological distress in patients with longer pain duration; this moderating effect was fully mediated by self-regulatory fatigue. These findings suggest pain willingness may buffer against self-regulatory fatigue in those with longer pain duration, and such conservation of self-regulatory resources may protect against psychological symptoms.

  4. Comorbid Disorders and Sociodemographic Variables in Temporomandibular Pain in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M.; Ligthart, Lannie; Schuller, Annemarie A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline M. H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  5. Comorbid disorders and sociodemographic variables in temporomandibular pain in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Ligthart, L.; Schuller, A.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  6. Relationship between Sleep Disorders, Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Purabdollah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis as one of the most common autoimmune diseases is known to be one of the leading causes of disability. Sleep disorders have direct influence on patient’s life. According to studies, sleep problems are known to have negative impact on well-being and functioning, but the exact nature of relationship between sleep disorders and Rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis patients. Methods: In a descriptive -correlative study, 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis referred to Tabriz medical university clinics selected by convenience sampling and were assessed by Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13 by descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean (SD and inferential statistics including Spearman correlation analysis, linear regression, x2, t- test and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.41(12.92 years in which most of them (74% were female. The mean (SD quality of life was 40.51(22.94, sleepiness 13.14 (5.6 and pain 6.09 (2.14. There was significant negative relationship between some sleep disorders such as (naps, apnea, asphyxia, ... and pain with quality of life but pain severity had more effect on QOL compared to sleep problems. Furthermore, participants had low quality of life with more restriction in physical (mean=34.71 and general health (mean=34.42.Conclusion: Sleep problems and pain were associated with poor quality of life in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

  7. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  8. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  9. Hippocampal activation of microglia may underlie the shared neurobiology of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Zhang, Zuoxia; Lei, Yishan; Liu, Yue; Lu, Cui'e; Rong, Hui; Sun, Yu'e; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity. We showed that rats exposed to single prolonged stress, an established posttraumatic stress disorder model, exhibited persistent mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior, which were accompanied by increased activation of microglia and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal activation of microglia was significantly correlated with mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Our data also showed that both intraperitoneal and intra-hippocampal injection of minocycline suppressed single prolonged stress-induced microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines accumulation in the hippocampus, and attenuated both single prolonged stress-induced mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Taken together, the present study suggests that stress-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus may serve as a critical mechanistic link in the comorbid relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. The novel concept introduces the possibility of cotreating chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Juliette M. T. M.; Korterink, Judith J.; Venmans, Leonie M. A. J.; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various nonpharmacologic treatments are available for pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Data on efficacy and safety are scarce. The goal of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding nonpharmacologic interventions for

  11. Mutual influence of intensity of pain syndrome and borderline mental disorders in patients with coxarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Spirina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the mutual influence of pain syndrome and borderline psychiatric disorders depending on its intensity and tolerability in patients with coxarthrosis who need endoprosthetics. 76 patients with coxarthrosis aged from 25 to 68 who were hospitalized in the Department of Endoprosthetics at Mechnikov Regional Clinical Hospital in Dnipro City in the period from November 2015 to September 2016 were observed. For diagnosis of psychopathological disorders, and for evaluation of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, the following methods were used in our research: clinical and psychopathological (technique SCL-90-R, Tаylor anxiety scale, study of the type of attitude to the disease (LOBI, Dembo-Rubinstein self-esteem scale, Leonhard-Schmieschek questionnaire for assessment of accentuation of personality traits, the Luscher 8-colour test and the Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS. Severity of pain syndrome was assessed using a visual analogue scale of pain (VAS. Forms of borderline mental disorders were diagnosed in 51 patients with coxarthrosis, such as depressive disorder (F 32 – 19 (24.8%, neurasthenia (F 48 – 12 (16.2, anxiety and phobic disorders (F 40–41 – 14 (18.1%, and personality disorders (F 60.5, F 60.6, F 60.7 – 6 (7.6%. In 25 (33.3% patients clinically-defined forms of mental disorders were identified. Leading syndromes in these disorders were depression – 19 (24.8% patients, anxiety and phobic – 15 (20.0%, asthenic – 10 (12.4%, hypochondriacal – 7 (9.5% patients. According to the results of the correlation analysis, a close correlation between the severity of pain syndrome and borderline mental disorders (r = 0.779 was established for patients in the preoperative stage. The average level of pain syndrome on the VAS scale in patients with borderline mental disorders was twice as high as in patients without these disorders (63.4 vs. 32.4 points, but it does not depend on the

  12. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Eyad M; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t -test. P abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  13. Pisotriquetral joint disorders: an under-recognized cause of ulnar side wrist pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraux, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France); Lefebvre, G.; Pansini, V.; Aucourt, J.; Vandenbussche, L.; Cotten, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Demondion, X. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Pole Recherche Faculte de Medecine de Lille, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Lille (France)

    2014-06-15

    Pisotriquetral joint disorders are often under-recognized in routine clinical practice. They nevertheless represent a significant cause of ulnar side wrist pain. The aim of this article is to present the main disorders of this joint and discuss the different imaging modalities that can be useful for its assessment. (orig.)

  14. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pa...

  15. Is the experience of pain in patients with temporomandibular disorder associated with the presence of comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine M; van Wesemael-Suijkerbuijk, Erin A; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the presence of comorbidities and the pain experience in individual patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). This clinical trial comprised 112 patients with TMD pain. For all participants the presence of the following comorbid factors was assessed: pain in the neck; somatization; impaired sleep; and depression. Pain experience was evaluated using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). For each subject the TMD-pain experience was assessed for three dimensions - sensory, affective, and evaluative - as specified in the MPQ. The association between comorbid factors and these three dimensions of TMD-pain experience was then evaluated using linear regression models. Univariable regression analyses showed that all comorbid factors, except for one factor, were positively associated with the level of pain, as rated by the sensory description of pain, the affective component of pain, and the evaluative experience of pain. The multivariable regression analyses showed that for all MPQ dimensions, depression showed the strongest associations with pain experience. It was found that in the presence of comorbid disorders, patients with TMD experience elevated levels of TMD pain. This information should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic process, as well as in the choice of treatment. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Spinal cord stimulation ameliorates neuropathic pain-related sleep disorders: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Maiko; Sumitani, Masahiko; Shin, Masahiro; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kogure, Takamichi; Miyauchi, Satoru; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2015-04-01

    Although sleep disorder is one of the most serious comorbidities of refractory chronic pain, it is usually assessed only from the patients' subjective point of view. Therefore, we aimed to objectively evaluate the sleep efficiency of patients with chronic pain. Using an actigraph, a highly sensitive accelerometer, we assessed the sleep efficiency of six patients with chronic pain before and after the introduction of spinal cord stimulation (SCS). While pain improved in only five out of six patients after SCS, sleep efficiency improved in all cases. Interestingly, in one case, sleep efficiency improved even though pain intensity remained unchanged. With the use of an actigraph, improvements in sleep of patients with chronic pain undergoing SCS were demonstrated. One case showing improvement in sleep despite pain palliation may suggest that SCS might have independently affected the sleep system, although further studies are necessary. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Association of restless legs syndrome, pain, and mood disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.

  18. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders and neck pain in musicians: a sytematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennatan Ferreira dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The instrumental practice for a long time, the high performance level, the strict technique and the specific shape of each musical instrument can take musicians to overcome their physiological limits, giving a high prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries. Objective: Investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder and neck pain in musicians. Methods: Between August and September 2015 were reviewed five databases: LILACS, SciELO, Medline / PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were read and evaluated by the criteria of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE, items, that obtained a percentage above of 50 percent, were considered in the analysis of this work. Results: 15 articles attended the inclusion criteria. Among all musicians the prevalence of TMJ pain ranged from 10 - 81% and the prevalence of neck pain ranged from 29 - 80%. Conclusion: In this study was observed that the musicians showed both, temporomandibular joint disorders and neck pain, watching a high prevalence especially in violinists and the horn players. In the risk factors identified in the literature for the emergence of painful symptoms in musicians, stand out the biomechanical factors involved in maintaining anti-physiologic postures.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in youth with vs without chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Wilson, Anna C; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Durkin, Lindsay; Patton, Michaela; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found to co-occur in adults; however, research has not examined this co-occurrence in adolescence, when pediatric chronic pain often first emerges. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms and stressful life events in cohorts of youth with (n = 95) and without (n = 100) chronic pain and their parents and to determine the association between PTSD symptoms, health-related quality of life, and pain symptoms within the chronic pain sample. All participants completed questionnaire measures through an online survey. Findings revealed that youth with chronic pain and their parents had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms as compared with pain-free peers. More youth with chronic pain (32%) and their parents (20%) reported clinically significant elevations in PTSD symptoms than youth without chronic pain (8%) and their parents (1%). Youth with chronic pain also reported a greater number of stressful life events than those without chronic pain, and this was associated with higher PTSD symptoms. Among the chronic pain cohort, higher levels of PTSD symptoms were predictive of worse health-related quality of life and were associated with higher pain intensity, unpleasantness, and interference. Results suggest that elevated PTSD symptoms are common and linked to reduced functioning among youth with chronic pain. Future research is needed to examine PTSD at the diagnostic level and the underlying mechanisms that may explain why this co-occurrence exists.

  20. The Treatment of Neck Pain-Associated Disorders and Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Stewart, Gregory; Al-Zoubi, Fadi; Decina, Philip; Descarreaux, Martin; Hayden, Jill; Hendrickson, Brenda; Hincapié, Cesar; Pagé, Isabelle; Passmore, Steven; Srbely, John; Stupar, Maja; Weisberg, Joel; Ornelas, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline on the management of neck pain-associated disorders (NADs) and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). This guideline replaces 2 prior chiropractic guidelines on NADs and WADs. Pertinent systematic reviews on 6 topic areas (education, multimodal care, exercise, work disability, manual therapy, passive modalities) were assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and data extracted from admissible randomized controlled trials. We incorporated risk of bias scores in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Evidence profiles were used to summarize judgments of the evidence quality, detail relative and absolute effects, and link recommendations to the supporting evidence. The guideline panel considered the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences. Consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi. The guideline was peer reviewed by a 10-member multidisciplinary (medical and chiropractic) external committee. For recent-onset (0-3 months) neck pain, we suggest offering multimodal care; manipulation or mobilization; range-of-motion home exercise, or multimodal manual therapy (for grades I-II NAD); supervised graded strengthening exercise (grade III NAD); and multimodal care (grade III WAD). For persistent (>3 months) neck pain, we suggest offering multimodal care or stress self-management; manipulation with soft tissue therapy; high-dose massage; supervised group exercise; supervised yoga; supervised strengthening exercises or home exercises (grades I-II NAD); multimodal care or practitioner's advice (grades I-III NAD); and supervised exercise with advice or advice alone (grades I-II WAD). For workers with persistent neck and shoulder pain, evidence supports mixed supervised and unsupervised high-intensity strength training or advice alone (grades I-III NAD). A multimodal approach including manual therapy, self-management advice, and exercise is an

  1. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  2. Management of pain in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Martínez A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Gil-Martínez,1–3 Alba Paris-Alemany,1–4 Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,1–3 Roy La Touche1–4 1Department of Physiotherapy, 2Motion in Brains Research Group, Instituto de Neurociencias y Ciencias del Movimiento, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 3Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, 4Institute of Neuroscience and Craniofacial Pain (INDCRAN, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Thanks to advances in neuroscience, biopsychosocial models for diagnostics and treatment (including physical, psychological, and pharmacological therapies currently have more clinical support and scientific growth. At present, a conservative treatment approach prevails over surgery, given it is less aggressive and usually results in satisfactory clinical outcomes in mild–moderate temporomandibular disorder (TMD. The aim of this review is to evaluate the recent evidence, identify challenges, and propose solutions from a clinical point of view for patients with craniofacial pain and TMD. The treatment we propose is structured in a multimodal approach based on a biobehavioral approach that includes medical, physiotherapeutic, psychological, and dental treatments. We also propose a new biobehavioral model regarding pain perception and motor behavior for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with painful TMD. Keywords: biobehavioral, review, temporomandibular disorders, biobehavioral orofacial pain, multimodal approach, motor behavior, disability

  3. Pharmacologic treatment in pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korterink, Judith J.; Rutten, Juliette M. T. M.; Venmans, Leonie; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review literature assessing efficacy and safety of pharmacologic treatments in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). MEDLINE and Cochrane Database were searched for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating

  4. Trauma and dissociation in conversion disorder and chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Roelofs, K.; Moene, F.C.; Kuyk, J.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Dyck, R. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to: a) assess the link between sexual and/or physical abuse and dissociation in conversion disorder and chronic pelvic pain patients; and b) assess whether this effect is independent of level of general psychopathology. Method: This report examines data from

  5. TMJ disorders and pain: Assessment by contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Davide; Bodin, Christiane; Gandolfi, Silvia; De Gasperi, Werner; Borghesi, Andrea; Maroldi, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Though magnetic resonance (MRI) is a widely accepted standard for the assessment of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, efforts to correlate symptoms to MRI findings have often given controversial results. Aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between TMJ pain and findings of contrast-enhanced MRI. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with TMJ dysfunction syndrome (study group) were examined with MRI. Protocol included T2 turbo spin-echo sequence, T1 spin-echo sequence, and T2 gradient-echo (acquired with closed jaw, at intermediate and maximal opening). Post-contrast phase was obtained through a fat sat 3D T1 gradient-echo sequence (VIBE). Post-contrast findings in the study group were matched with those obtained in a control group of 33 patients submitted to MRI of the paranasal sinuses. Statistically significant difference was found between condylar medullary bone enhancement in painful TMJ, in painless TMJ and control group. In addition the average thickness of joint soft tissue enhancement in painful TMJ was superior to painless TMJ (p < 0.0001) and to control group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio that a painful TMJ showed disk displacement, osteoarthrosis, effusion and JST enhancement were 3.05, 3.18, 1.2 and 11.36, respectively. Though not histologically proven, TMJ enhancement could reflect the presence of inflammation in painful joints. Furthermore, the administration of contrast could be of help for the assessment of patients with orofacial pain, particularly when clinical exploration is insufficient to ascribe the pain to TMJ.

  6. TMJ disorders and pain: Assessment by contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Davide [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Bodin, Christiane [Division of Gnathology (School of Dentistry), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Gandolfi, Silvia [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); De Gasperi, Werner [Division of Gnathology (School of Dentistry), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Borghesi, Andrea; Maroldi, Roberto [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Though magnetic resonance (MRI) is a widely accepted standard for the assessment of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, efforts to correlate symptoms to MRI findings have often given controversial results. Aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between TMJ pain and findings of contrast-enhanced MRI. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with TMJ dysfunction syndrome (study group) were examined with MRI. Protocol included T2 turbo spin-echo sequence, T1 spin-echo sequence, and T2 gradient-echo (acquired with closed jaw, at intermediate and maximal opening). Post-contrast phase was obtained through a fat sat 3D T1 gradient-echo sequence (VIBE). Post-contrast findings in the study group were matched with those obtained in a control group of 33 patients submitted to MRI of the paranasal sinuses. Statistically significant difference was found between condylar medullary bone enhancement in painful TMJ, in painless TMJ and control group. In addition the average thickness of joint soft tissue enhancement in painful TMJ was superior to painless TMJ (p < 0.0001) and to control group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio that a painful TMJ showed disk displacement, osteoarthrosis, effusion and JST enhancement were 3.05, 3.18, 1.2 and 11.36, respectively. Though not histologically proven, TMJ enhancement could reflect the presence of inflammation in painful joints. Furthermore, the administration of contrast could be of help for the assessment of patients with orofacial pain, particularly when clinical exploration is insufficient to ascribe the pain to TMJ.

  7. Self-reported musculoskeletal disorder pain: The role of job hazards and work-life interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Victoria P; Wells, Yvonne; Oakman, Jodi

    2018-02-01

    Previous research identified an association between work-family conflict and musculoskeletal pain. This study explores how the work-life interface might affect pain experienced by residential aged care staff. A cross-sectional survey of 426 employees in residential aged care was analyzed to assess the impacts of workplace hazards, work-family conflict, and work-life balance on self-reported musculoskeletal pain. Work-family conflict acts as a mediator of the relationships between workplace hazards and the total number of body regions at which musculoskeletal pain was experienced. Work-life balance only acts as a mediator for particular hazards and only if work-family conflict is not taken into account. Addressing work-life interaction, and in particular work-family conflict, warrants further investigation as a legitimate means through which musculoskeletal disorder risk can be reduced. Policies and practices to improve work-life interaction and reduce work-family conflict should be considered as integral components of musculoskeletal disorder risk management strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nursing attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders in pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Betty D

    2014-03-01

    The problem of inadequate pain management in hospitals is well documented. Patients who have substance use disorders (SUD) have many medical problems and are often in pain as a result of these problems. Nurses often lack knowledge of appropriate treatment of both pain and SUD, and have been identified as having negative attitudes toward patients with SUD. The negative attitudes may affect the quality of care delivered to patients with problems of pain and SUD. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore nurses' attitudes toward hospitalized patients with SUD who are in pain, to expand the knowledge about nurses' attitudes and interactions with patients with SUD in pain, and to generate theory that will contribute to a greater understanding of the problem. Grounded theory methodology was used to interview hospital-based nurses who work with patients with SUD who are in pain. Individual interviews, using a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with 14 nurses who worked with this population. Additionally, an expert addictions nurse was interviewed at the end of the study to validate the findings. Interviews were analyzed and coded with the use of grounded theory concepts. A model illustrating the categories and their relationships was developed based on the theory generated as a result of the study. The implications for nursing practice, education, research, and policy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress-evoked opioid release inhibits pain in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ashley K; Drummond, Peter D

    2008-10-15

    To determine whether stress-evoked release of endogenous opioids might account for hypoalgesia in major depressive disorder (MDD), the mu-opioid antagonist naltrexone (50mg) or placebo was administered double-blind to 24 participants with MDD and to 31 non-depressed controls. Eighty minutes later participants completed a painful foot cold pressor test and, after a 5-min interval, began a 25-min arithmetic task interspersed with painful electric shocks. Ten minutes later participants completed a second cold pressor test. Negative affect was greater in participants with MDD than in non-depressed controls throughout the experiment, and increased significantly in both groups during mental arithmetic. Before the math task, naltrexone unmasked direct linear relationships between severity of depression, negative affect while resting quietly, and cold-induced pain in participants with MDD. In contrast, facilitatory effects of naltrexone on cold- and shock-induced pain were greatest in controls with the lowest depression scores. Naltrexone strengthened the relationship between negative affect and shock-induced pain during the math task, particularly in the depressed group, and heightened anxiety in both groups toward the end of the task. Thus, mu-opioid activity apparently masked a positive association between negative affect and pain in the most distressed participants. These findings suggest that psychological distress inhibits pain via stress-evoked release of opioid peptides in severe cases of MDD. In addition, tonic endogenous opioid neurotransmission could inhibit depressive symptoms and pain in people with low depression scores.

  10. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  11. Sex differences in pain anchors revisited: further investigation of "most intense" and common pain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z; Dannecker, Erin A; Jump, Rebecca L; Hirsh, Adam T; Gagnon, Christine M; Brown, Jennifer L

    2004-08-01

    Recent research suggests that the interpretation of maximal endpoints of pain scales vary between sexes. The purposes of this study were to investigate sex differences in (a) maximal endpoints of pain scales and (b) bias, discrimination, and the "better than average effect" for ratings of common pain events. Study participants described and rated the intensity of events that were the "most intense pain imaginable" for the typical woman, typical man, and one's self. Study participants also described and rated the intensity of the "most painful" events they had experienced. Study participants completed the situational pain questionnaire (SPQ), which measured the amount of pain that the typical woman, typical man, or one's self would be expected to experience during thirty common painful events. One hundred and fifteen undergraduate psychology students completed this study. Men and women differed in the categories of events selected for most intense pain imaginable for one's self. There were no significant sex differences for the intensity of most intense self-imagined pain or most painful event experienced. However, women were more likely to report the intensity of their worst self-imagined pain event as 100/100. In addition, only women demonstrated a significant correlation between the intensity of most painful self-experienced event and intensity of most intense self-imagined event. Analyses of the SPQ discrimination scores revealed no sex or version differences. Analyses of the SPQ bias scores showed that both sexes indicated that the typical woman would rate the intensity of common pain events higher than would the typical man. Women rated the intensity of common pain events for themselves lower than for the typical woman, but higher than the typical man, and men rated also rated themselves as lower than the typical women, but the same as the typical man. Thus, there was inconsistent support for the "better than average effect". Future research is needed to

  12. [Psychogenic purpura with hematuria and sexual pain disorder: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyildirim, Ilker; Yücel, Başak; Aktan, Melih

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic purpura (Gardner-Diamond syndrome) is the occurrence and spontaneous recurrence of painful ecchymosis following emotional stress and minor trauma. Although the exact mechanism of this syndrome remains unknown, apart from skin lesions, different types of hemorrhaging have been reported, such as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bleeding from the ear canals and eyes. We report a psychogenic purpura case that presented with hematuria in addition to skin lesions. Based on the psychiatric evaluation she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, sexual pain disorder accompanied these disorders. With the help of antidepressant and supportive psychotherapy, the patient's ecchymosis and bleeding disappeared. During 8 months of follow-up the symptoms did not return. Vaginismus has not been reported in patients with psychogenic purpura. The presence of vaginismus, which is seen more frequently in eastern cultures and is thought to be related to sociocultural determinants, suggests that some cultural factors may be common to both psychogenic purpura and vaginismus. The aim of this case report was to call attention to a syndrome that is rarely seen and diagnosed, and to discuss its relationship to psychosocial factors. This syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of not only ecchymotic lesions, but also various types of bleeding, including hematuria. Despite the fact that its etiology and treatment are not clearly understood, it should be noted that psychological factors play a role in this disease and therefore, psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches can be effective.

  13. Immediate effects of microsystem acupuncture in patients with oromyofacial pain and craniomandibular disorders (CMD): a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simma, I; Gleditsch, J M; Simma, L; Piehslinger, E

    2009-12-19

    Patients presenting with oromyofacial disorders and pain in the head and neck area are often resistant to conventional therapy. Acupuncture has been shown to be effective in pain reduction. Twenty-three patients with craniomandibular disorders, headache and, in particular, local pain in the orofacial, cervical and temporomandibular joint areas were randomised into acupuncture or placebo laser therapy groups. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by palpation of 14 muscles and groups of muscles immediately before and after treatment, the assessor being blinded to the patients' allocation. Applicable acupuncture points were searched and pricked using the 'very-point' technique. Pain reduction measured by VAS was significantly more pronounced after acupuncture than after placebo treatment (p=0.031). Sum of pain scores across 14 muscles was considerably more reduced after acupuncture as compared to sham laser treatment. Acupuncture may bring about immediate pain relief in patients with oromyofacial disorders, increasing the chance to initiate other therapeutic measures.

  14. Development Of A Multivariate Prognostic Model For Pain And Activity Limitation In People With Low Back Disorders Receiving Physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jon J; Richards BPhysio, Matt C; Surkitt BPhysio, Luke D; Chan BPhysio, Alexander Yp; Slater, Sarah L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Hahne, Andrew J

    2018-05-28

    To identify predictors for back pain, leg pain and activity limitation in patients with early persistent low back disorders. Prospective inception cohort study; Setting: primary care private physiotherapy clinics in Melbourne, Australia. 300 adults aged 18-65 years with low back and/or referred leg pain of ≥6-weeks and ≤6-months duration. Not applicable. Numerical rating scales for back pain and leg pain as well as the Oswestry Disability Scale. Prognostic factors included sociodemographics, treatment related factors, subjective/physical examination, subgrouping factors and standardized questionnaires. Univariate analysis followed by generalized estimating equations were used to develop a multivariate prognostic model for back pain, leg pain and activity limitation. Fifty-eight prognostic factors progressed to the multivariate stage where 15 showed significant (pduration, high multifidus tone, clinically determined inflammation, higher back and leg pain severity, lower lifting capacity, lower work capacity and higher pain drawing percentage coverage). The preliminary model identifying predictors of low back disorders explained up to 37% of the variance in outcome. This study evaluated a comprehensive range of prognostic factors reflective of both the biomedical and psychosocial domains of low back disorders. The preliminary multivariate model requires further validation before being considered for clinical use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Leserman, Jane; Zolnoun, Denniz; Steege, John; Green, Emily; Teich, Alice

    2007-04-01

    To examine the effect of abuse history, other major trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on medical symptoms and health-related daily functioning in women with chronic pelvic pain. We administered a questionnaire to 713 consecutive women seen in a referral-based pelvic pain clinic. We found that 46.8% reported having either a sexual or physical abuse history. A total of 31.3% had a positive screen for PTSD. Using regression and path analysis, controlling for demographic variables, we found that a trauma history was associated with worse daily physical functioning due to poor health (Pscreen for PTSD was highly related to most measures of poor health status (Pscreening for trauma and PTSD in women with chronic pelvic pain. II.

  16. Longitudinal Associations Among Pain, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Stress Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Eisenman, David P; Meredith, Lisa S

    2016-04-01

    Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain is well documented, but the mechanisms underlying their comorbidity are not well understood. Cross-lagged regression models were estimated with 3 waves of longitudinal data to examine the reciprocal associations between PTSD symptom severity, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and pain, as measured by a brief self-report measure of pain called the PEG (pain intensity [P], interference with enjoyment of life [E], and interference with general activity [G]). We evaluated stress appraisals as a mediator of these associations in a sample of low-income, underserved patients with PTSD (N = 355) at federally qualified health centers in a northeastern metropolitan area. Increases in PTSD symptom severity between baseline and 6-month and 6- and 12-month assessments were independently predicted by higher levels of pain (β = .14 for both lags) and appraisals of life stress as uncontrollable (β = .15 for both lags). Stress appraisals, however, did not mediate these associations, and PTSD symptom severity did not predict change in pain. Thus, the results did not support the role of stress appraisals as a mechanism underlying the associations between pain and PTSD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. The association of temporomandibular disorder pain with history of head and neck injury in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dena J; Mueller, Beth A; Critchlow, Cathy W; LeResche, Linda

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain among adolescents in relation to previous head and/or neck injury. 3,101 enrollees (11 to 17 years of age) of a nonprofit integrated health-care system were interviewed by telephone. Two hundred four cases with self-reported TMD pain and 194 controls without self-reported TMD pain frequency-matched to the cases by age and gender completed standardized in-person interviews and physical examinations in which reports of previous head/neck injuries were recorded. Odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the relative risks of TMD pain associated with prior head and/or neck injuries were calculated using logistic regression. A greater proportion of subjects reporting TMD pain (36%) than controls (25%) had a history of head and/or neck injuries (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-2.8). In a separate analysis, the presence of TMD based upon the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was assessed in relation to prior head and/or neck injury. Cases reporting TMD pain and meeting the RDC/TMD criteria for myofascial pain and/or arthralgia or arthritis were 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.8) times more likely to have had a prior head injury than were controls with neither self-reported nor RDC/TMD pain diagnoses. The results suggest a modest association of prior head injuries with both self-reported and clinically diagnosed TMD pain in adolescents.

  18. Thresholds and perception of cold pain, heat pain, and the thermal grill illusion in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Grossmann, David; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The thermal grill illusion (TGI) in which interlacing cold and warm bars create the illusion of a painful sensation has been suggested as an experimental model for central pain states and pain processing. The aim of this study was to use this technique to gain further insights into the altered pain perception in major depressive disorder (MDD). In 18 unmedicated patients with MDD, cold and heat pain thresholds (CPT/HPT) as well as the perception of the TGI were examined and compared with 18 matched controls. CPT and HPT were significantly increased in patients (7.9°C and 47.5°C) compared with controls (15.9°C and 45.2°C, respectively; p painful by controls, the patients did not indicate painful sensations, thereby indicating a shift of the stimulus-response curve of TGI pain perception toward higher stimulus intensities, that is, greater temperature differentials between cold and warm bars (11.5°C for controls, 16.7°C for patients). The patients rated the pain intensity perceived at the respective pain thresholds (CPT and HPT) in tendency higher than did the controls, whereas they perceived the TGI less painful despite increased stimulus intensities. Unpleasantness ratings were similar between groups. CPT, HPT and temperature differentials for the perception of the TGI, were increased in patients with MDD as compared with controls. Pain intensity, however, was rated differently for CPT and HPT, where patients indicated higher ratings in tendency, and for the TGI stimulation, where pain was perceived less intense.

  19. Does a dose-response relation exist between spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Erling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to test whether a reciprocal dose-response relation exists between frequency/severity of spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Methods A total of 616 subjects with varying severity of spinal pain or no spinal pain completed a questionnaire focusing on symptoms in the jaw, head and spinal region. A subset of the population (n = 266 were sampled regardless of presence or absence of spinal pain. We used two different designs, one with frequency/severity of spinal pain, and the other, with frequency/severity of TMD symptoms as independent variable. All 616 participants were allocated to four groups, one control group without spinal pain and three spinal pain groups. The subjects in the subset were allocated to one control group without TMD symptoms and three TMD groups. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated for presence of frequent TMD symptoms in the separate spinal pain groups as well as for frequent spinal pain in the separate TMD groups. Results The analysis showed increasing ORs for TMD with increasing frequency/severity of spinal pain. We also found increasing ORs for spinal pain with increasing frequency/severity of TMD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows a reciprocal dose-response-like relationship between spinal pain and TMD. The results indicate that these two conditions may share common risk factors or that they may influence each other. Studies on the temporal sequence between spinal pain and TMD are warranted.

  20. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  1. Use of botulinum toxin-A for musculoskeletal pain in patients with whiplash associated disorders [ISRCTN68653575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco J

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash associated disorder is commonly linked to motor vehicle accidents and sports injuries. Cervical injury is attributed to rapid extension followed by neck flexion. The exact pathophysiology of whiplash is uncertain but probably involves some degree of aberrant muscle spasms and may produce a wide range of symptoms. The most commonly prescribed pharmacological agents for initial treatment of whiplash-associated pain are oral muscle relaxants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, potential systemic adverse effects limit these agents. Physical interventions such as mobilization, manipulation, and exercises have proved beneficial for pain and dysfunction but only on a time-limited basis. Little evidence suggests that physical therapy specifically aimed at the musculature (e.g., transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasonography, heat, ice, and acupuncture improves prognosis in acute whiplash associated disorder. A new approach to treatment is the use of botulinum toxin, which acts to reduce muscle spasms. Methods/design This is a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial and botulinum toxin-A (Botox® injections will be compared with placebo injections. The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of Botox® in the management of musculoskeletal pain in whiplash associated disorders. Discussion Botulinum toxin type-A toxin has been studied in small trials on whiplash associated disorder patients and has generally been found to relieve pain and improve range of motion. Specifically, we seek to assess the efficacy of Botox® in reducing pain and to improve the cervical spine range of movement, during the 6-month trial period.

  2. The role of psychosocial stress in the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Valentina; Chang, Wei-Ju; Liston, Matthew B; McAuley, James H; Schabrun, Siobhan

    2017-11-03

    Psychosocial factors play an important role in chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. Although psychosocial stress is likely to contribute to the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain, investigations are limited to work-related stress or examination of specific conditions such as upper limb pain. The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence for an aetiological role of psychological stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted. Electronic databases will be searched using predefined search terms to identify relevant studies. Data will be extracted by two independent reviewers, and disagreement will be resolved by a third reviewer. Only prospective longitudinal studies that assess psychosocial stress at baseline will be included. The population of interest will be inception cohorts or cohorts of people who have not yet developed chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. The primary outcome measure will be the onset of chronic musculoskeletal pain. To our knowledge, this review will be the first to systematically explore the available evidence on the aetiological role of psychosocial stress for the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. This review has the capacity to inform clinical practice on the importance of an early identification and, consequently, treatment of individuals who present with acute musculoskeletal disorders accompanied by a high level of stress. PROSPERO CRD42017059949.

  3. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the chi2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p 0.05). Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain.

  4. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  5. Comparison Between Chronic Migraine and Temporomandibular Disorders in Pain-Related Disability and Fear-Avoidance Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Navarro-Fernández, Gonzalo; Mangas-Guijarro, María Ángeles; Lara-Lara, Manuel; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2017-11-01

    To compare patients with chronic migraine (CM) and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) on disability, pain, and fear avoidance factors and to associate these variables within groups. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A neurology department and a temporomandibular disorders consult in a tertiary care center. A total of 50 patients with CM and 51 patients with chronic TMD, classified by international criteria classifications. The variables evaluated included pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), neck disability (NDI), craniofacial pain and disability (CF-PDI), headache impact (HIT-6), pain catastrophizing (PCS), and kinesiophobia (TSK-11). Statistically significant differences were found between the CM group and the chronic TMD group in CF-PDI (P  0.05). For the chronic TMD group, the combination of NDI and TSK-11 was a significant covariate model of CF-PDI (adjusted R2 = 0.34). In the CM group, the regression model showed that NDI was a significant predictive factor for HIT-6 (adjusted R2 = 0.19). Differences between the CM group and the chronic TMD group were found in craniofacial pain and disability, pain catastrophizing, and headache impact, but they were similar for pain intensity, neck disability, and kinesiophobia. Neck disability and kinesiophobia were covariates of craniofacial pain and disability (34% of variance) for chronic TMD. In the CM group, neck disability was a predictive factor for headache impact (19.3% of variance). © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Cognitive behavioural therapy in pain and psychological disorders: Towards a hybrid future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y

    2017-03-08

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a form of evidence-based talking therapy that emphasises the importance of behaviour and conscious thoughts in shaping our emotional experiences. As pain becomes increasingly accepted as not only a sensory but also an emotional experience, success in using CBT to treat emotional disorders has resulted in the incorporation of cognitive-behavioural principles into the management of chronic pain. Outcomes of CBT-informed interdisciplinary pain management programmes are modest at best, despite rapid methodological improvements in trial design and implementation. Whilst the field searches for new treatment directions, a hybrid CBT approach that seeks to simultaneously tackle pain and its comorbidities shows promise in optimising treatment effectiveness and flexibility. This article provides a brief description of the core characteristics of CBT and the transformation this therapeutic model has brought to our understanding and management of chronic pain. Current evidence on efficacy of CBT for chronic pain is then reviewed, followed by a critical consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the new hybrid treatment approach that conceptualises and treats chronic pain in connection with its comorbidities. Recent progress made in the area of pain and insomnia is highlighted as an example to project therapeutic innovations in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Yoga Therapy for Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korterink, Judith J.; Ockeloen, Lize E.; Hilbink, Mirrian; Benninga, Marc A.; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare effects of 10 weeks of yoga therapy (YT) and standard medical care (SMC) on abdominal pain and quality of life (QoL) in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Sixty-nine patients, ages 8 to 18 years, with

  8. Acute Pain Experience in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder, a number of clinically important comorbid complaints, including sensory abnormalities, are also discussed. One difference often noted in these accounts is hyposensitivity to pain; however, evidence for this is limited. The purpose of the current review therefore was to examine…

  9. Parafunctional habits are associated cumulatively to painful temporomandibular disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the effect of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits, both separately and cumulatively, on the likelihood of adolescents to present painful TMD. The study was conducted on a sample of 1,094 adolescents (aged 12-14. The presence of painful TMD was assessed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, Axis I. Data on sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits (nail/pen/pencil/lip/cheek biting, resting one’s head on one’s hand, and gum chewing were researched by self-report. After adjusting for potential demographic confounders using logistic regression, each of the predictor variables (sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits was significantly associated with painful TMD. In addition, the odds for painful TMD were higher in the concomitant presence of two (OR=4.6, [95%CI=2.06, 10.37] or three predictor (OR=13.7, [95%CI=5.72, 32.96] variables. These findings indicate that the presence of concomitant muscle activities during sleep and awake bruxism and parafunctional habits increases the likelihood almost linearly of adolescents to present painful TMD.

  10. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Vlieger, Arine M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized placebo-controlled trials concerning children 4-18 years of age with an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. The primary outcome was the pooled proportion of subjects assigned to placebo with improvement as defined by the authors. The effect of trial characteristics on the magnitude of the placebo response was investigated using univariate meta-regression analysis. Twenty-one trials were identified. The pooled proportion of subjects with improvement was 41% (95% CI, 34%-49%; 17 studies) and with no pain was 17% (95% CI, 8%-32%; 7 studies). The pooled standardized mean difference on the Faces Pain Scales compared with baseline was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.42; 8 studies). There was significant heterogeneity across studies with respect to both outcomes. Lower dosing frequency (P = .04), positive study (P = .03), longer duration of treatment (P pain. Response on Faces Pain Scales was greater in studies conducted in the Middle East (P = .002), in studies that did not report the randomization schedule (P = .02), and in studies with a higher percentage of females (P = .04). Approximately 41% of children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders improve on placebo. Several trial characteristics are correlated significantly with the proportion of patients with no pain on placebo and with the magnitude of the placebo response on Faces Pain Scales. These data could be valuable for the design of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [From disability to the adunatos: some thoughts on disability and somatoform pain disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Noci, C; Barras, V; Stiefel, F

    2013-02-13

    Disability, especially if related to a psychiatric disorder, such as somatoform pain disorder, is characterized by medical, psychological, relational, social and societal, as well as financial and political aspects. This manuscript, part of a PhD thesis which reflects on a possible dialogue between an ancient text and the modern conceptualization of disability, tries to address the phenomenological, historical and political dimensions of disability.

  12. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  13. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  14. Abdominal pain localization is associated with non-diarrheic Rome III functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Fysekidis, M; Devroede, G; Raynaud, J-J; Bejou, B; Benamouzig, R

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal pain is common in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs). The aim of this study was to characterize the predominant sites of abdominal pain associated with FBD subtypes, as defined by the Rome III criteria. A total of 584 consecutive patients attending FBD consultations in a tertiary center participated in the study. Stool form, abdominal pain location (nine abdominal segments), and pain intensity (10-point Likert scale) during the previous week were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the association of abdominal pain sites with specific FBD subtypes. FBDs were associated with predominant pain sites. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation was associated with pain in the left flank and patients were less likely to report pain in the right hypochondrium. Patients with functional constipation reported pain in the right hypochondrium and were less likely to report pain in the left flank and left iliac site. IBS with alternating constipation and diarrhea was associated with pain in the right flank, and unsubtyped IBS with pain in the hypogastrium Patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome reported the lower right flank as predominant pain site. Patients with unspecified FBDs were least likely to report pain in the hypogastrium. Patients with functional diarrhea, IBS with diarrhea, or functional bloating did not report specific pain sites. The results from this study provide the basis for developing new criteria allowing for the identification of homogeneous groups of patients with non-diarrheic FBDs based on characteristic sites of pain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. Materials and Methods The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the χ2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (peffusion in TMD patients (p>0.05). Conclusion Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain. PMID:25473637

  16. Advanced Genetic Testing Comes to the Pain Clinic to Make a Diagnosis of Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Cannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the use of an advanced genetic testing technique, whole exome sequencing, to diagnose a patient and their family with a SCN9A channelopathy. Setting. Academic tertiary care center. Design. Case report. Case Report. A 61-year-old female with a history of acute facial pain, chronic pain, fibromyalgia, and constipation was found to have a gain of function SCN9A mutation by whole exome sequencing. This mutation resulted in an SCN9A channelopathy that is most consistent with a diagnosis of paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. In addition to the patient being diagnosed, four siblings have a clinical diagnosis of SCN9A channelopathy as they have consistent symptoms and a sister with a known mutation. For treatment, gabapentin was ineffective and carbamazepine was not tolerated. Nontraditional therapies improved symptoms and constipation resolved with pelvic floor retraining with biofeedback. Conclusion. Patients with a personal and family history of chronic pain may benefit from a referral to Medical Genetics. Pelvic floor retraining with biofeedback should be considered for patients with a SCN9A channelopathy and constipation.

  17. Overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid use disorder and chronic pain: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi E Ghitza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics which have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently-available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions which may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions.

  18. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

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    Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the chi2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p<0.05). However, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ (G1) was not related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p>0.05). Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain.

  19. Application of an oral health-related quality of life questionnaire in primary care patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; González-López, Laura; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether patients who report orofacial pain (OP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a poorer perception of their oral health-related quality of life and, if so, to what extent, and to analyze the association between oral health perception, sociodemographic variables and reported pain duration. Study Design: 407 patients treated at the OP and TMD units in the Healthcare District of Cordoba, Spain, diagnosed following the standard criteria accepted by the scientific community – the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) – were administered the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between the patients’ OHIP-14 score and pain duration, pain intensity, and various sociodemographic variables. Results: The observed distribution was 89.4% women and 10.6% men. The mean OHIP-14 score was 20.57 ± 10.73 (mean ± standard deviation). A significant association (ppain grade, self-perceived oral health status and pain duration. Conclusions: The analysis of self-perceived oral health status in patients with OP and TMD, as measured by the OHIP-14, showed that oral health is perceived more negatively by women. Moreover, a one-point increase in the Chronic Pain Grade indicator increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 4.6 points, while chronic pain, defined as pain suffered by patients for one year or more, increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 3.2 points. Key words:Orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, Oral Health Impact Profile, sociodemographic variables, primary care, Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). PMID:24121906

  20. Are Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders the Product of an Interaction Between Psychological Factors and Self-Reported Bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selms, Maurits Ka; Muzalev, Konstantin; Visscher, Corine M; Koutris, Michail; Bulut, Melike; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the product of an interaction between psychological factors and self-reported bruxism activities. Patients referred to a specialized clinic for complaints of orofacial pain and dysfunction completed a digital questionnaire prior to the first clinical visit. The patient sample was then split into a case group consisting of 268 patients diagnosed with TMD pain according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (85.8% women; mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 40.1 ± 14.5 years) and a control group consisting of 254 patients without any pain in the orofacial area (50.8% women; 46.9 ± 13.6 years). The possible moderating roles of six psychological factors (depression, somatic symptoms, anxiety, stress, optimism, and prior psychological treatment) on the relationship between self-reported bruxism and the clinical presence of TMD pain were examined. Patients with TMD pain reported significantly more bruxism than patients without any report of orofacial pain. Furthermore, bruxism intensity was associated with a variety of psychological factors; however, there were no significant interactions between any of the psychological factors and bruxism with respect to the clinical presence of TMD pain. These findings do not support the view that the effect of bruxism on TMD pain is stronger in patients who experience higher levels of psychological distress compared to those with lower levels of distress.

  1. Achieved Competencies and Satisfaction in Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sara; Dawson, Andreas; Ekberg, Ewa Carin

    2016-01-01

    To assess dental students' achieved competencies and perceived satisfaction with their temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and orofacial pain education and to compare these with the results of their final examination in TMD and orofacial pain. Dental students from two consecutive classes (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) at the Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function at the dental school in Malmö, Sweden completed two self-evaluations, one at the beginning of semester seven and one at the end of semester eight. The questionnaire that they were given concerned achieved competencies and satisfaction with education in TMD and orofacial pain. Items focused on anatomy, physiology, and clinical training. Students estimated their competence and satisfaction on a numeric rating scale and described their idea of treating TMD and orofacial pain patients on a verbal rating scale. Outcome variables were tested with paired samples t test for differences over time and independent samples t test for between-class comparisons; both were adjusted for multiple testing with Bonferroni correction. Significant improvement in all items was observed for achieved competencies and satisfaction in both classes between semester seven and semester eight (P .05). This study has shown that expansion in undergraduate TMD and orofacial pain education at the dental school in Malmö has allowed all students to develop the same level of competence, independent of prior experience. The study also pointed out that continuous evaluation and enhancement of TMD and orofacial pain education in undergraduate dental education is beneficial.

  2. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Potential neurobiological benefits of exercise in chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli-Salter, Erica; Forman, Daniel E; Otis, John D; Tun, Carlos; Allsup, Kelly; Marx, Christine E; Hauger, Richard L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Higgins, Diana; Tyzik, Anna; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the effects of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY), allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (ALLO), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and their association with pain sensitivity. Medication-free trauma-exposed participants were either healthy (n = 7) or experiencing comorbid chronic pain/posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 5). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise testing was used to characterize cardiorespiratory fitness. Peak VO2 correlated with baseline and peak NPY levels (r = 0.66, p exercise-induced changes in ALLO (r = 0.89, p exercise correlated with pain threshold 30 min after exercise (r = 0.65, p exercise-induced increases in ALLO correlated with pain tolerance 30 min after exercise (r = 0.64, p exercise-induced changes in cortisol and DHEA levels were inversely correlated with pain tolerance after exercise (r = -0.69, p exercise, which in turn relate to pain sensitivity. Future work will examine whether progressive exercise training increases cardiorespiratory fitness in association with increases in NPY and ALLO and reductions in pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients with PTSD.

  4. Musculoskeletal Pain and Occupational Variables in Teachers With Voice Disorders and in Those With Healthy Voices-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vitor, Jhonatan; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare musculoskeletal pain perception in teachers with voice disorders and in those with healthy voices, and to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and occupational variables (ie, work journey per week and working period). Forty-three classroom teachers were divided into two groups: dysphonic group (DG), 32 classroom teachers with voice complaints and voice disorders; and non-DG, 11 classroom teachers without voice complaints and who are vocally healthy. The musculoskeletal pain investigation survey was used to investigate the frequency and intensity of the pain. Occupational variables, such as work journey per week and working period, were investigated by the Voice Production Condition-Teacher questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the Spearman correlation (P ≤ 0.05) and the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference between the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain regarding dysphonia. Work journey per week was positively related to the frequency and the intensity of laryngeal pain in the DG. The working period had a negative relationship to the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain in the submandibular region in the DG. Classroom teachers with voice disorders and those with healthy voices do not have differences regarding the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain. Besides dysphonia the pain is an important symptom to be considered in classroom teachers. The occupational variables contributed to the presence of musculoskeletal pain in the region near the larynx, which appears to be directly proportional to work journey per week and inversely proportional to the working period. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernuşcă-Miţaru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporomandibular disorders and painful comorbidities: clinical association and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; de Faria, Flavio Augusto Cardoso; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-03-01

    The association between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headaches, cervical spine dysfunction, and fibromyalgia is not artefactual. The aim of this review is to describe the comorbid relationship between TMD and these three major painful conditions and to discuss the clinical implications and the underlying pain mechanisms involved in these relationships. Common neuronal pathways and central sensitization processes are acknowledged as the main factors for the association between TMD and primary headaches, although the establishment of cause-effect mechanisms requires further clarification and characterization. The biomechanical aspects are not the main factors involved in the comorbid relationship between TMD and cervical spine dysfunction, which can be better explained by the neuronal convergence of the trigeminal and cervical spine sensory pathways as well as by central sensitization processes. The association between TMD and fibromyalgia also has supporting evidence in the literature, and the proposed main mechanism underlying this relationship is the impairment of the descending pain inhibitory system. In this particular scenario, a cause-effect relationship is more likely to occur in one direction, that is, fibromyalgia as a risk factor for TMD. Therefore, clinical awareness of the association between TMD and painful comorbidities and the support of multidisciplinary approaches are required to recognize these related conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Uyanik, James M

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most prevalent and debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). Orofacial pain (OFP) can arise from different regions and etiologies. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most prevalent orofacial pain conditions for which patients seek treatment. Temporomandibular disorders include a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. Trigeminal neuropathic pain conditions can arise from injury secondary to dental procedures, infection, neoplasias, or disease or dysfunction of the peripheral and/or central nervous system. Neurovascular disorders, such as primary headaches, can present as chronic orofacial pain, such as in the case of facial migraine, where the pain is localized in the second and third division of the trigeminal nerve. Together, these disorders of the trigeminal system impact the quality of life of the sufferer dramatically. A multidisciplinary pain management approach should be considered for the optimal treatment of orofacial pain disorders including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.

  8. The pain drawing as an instrument for identifying cervical spine nerve involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoff, Gabriella; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peterson, Gunnel; Bertilson, Bo Christer; Elf, Madeleine; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a standardized assessment of pain drawing with regard to clinical signs of cervical spine nerve root involvement. This cross-sectional study included data collected in a randomized controlled study. Two hundred and sixteen patients with chronic (≥6 months) whiplash-associated disorders, grade 2 or 3, were included in this study. The validity, sensitivity, and specificity of a standardized pain drawing assessment for determining nerve root involvement were analyzed, compared to the clinical assessment. In addition, we analyzed the interrater reliability with 50 pain drawings. Agreement was poor between the standardized pain drawing assessment and the clinical assessment (kappa =0.11, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.20). Sensitivity was high (93%), but specificity was low (19%). Interrater reliability was good (kappa =0.64, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.76). The standardized pain drawing assessment of nerve root involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders was not in agreement with the clinical assessment. Further research is warranted to optimize the utilization of a pain/discomfort drawing as a supportive instrument for identifying nerve involvement in cervical spinal injuries.

  9. The structural model of pain, cognitive strategies, and negative emotions in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mazaheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs may use specific coping strategies. We intend to provide a mediating role of the relationship between pain (intensity and acceptance, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and negative emotions in patients with FGIDs. Materials and Methods: Participants were 176 inpatients, all experiencing significant FGIDs symptomatology as confirmed by gastroenterologists. Patients completed data on cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, short form of depression, anxiety, stress scale, chronic pain acceptance questionnaire-revised, and pain intensity scale. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. Results: The pain intensity had significantly direct effect on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and indirect effect on negative emotions. Besides, the mediating role of negative emotions in the relationship between the strategies and pain acceptance were supported, whereas indirect relationships between pain intensity and acceptance through cognitive strategies were not confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the role of pain intensity in the development of negative emotions through cognitive strategies and the role of the strategies in pain acceptance through negative emotions. In fact, cognitive strategies to be related to pain and emotions.

  10. A survey on pain assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness in Dutch hospitals and nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Peter; Verweij, Lotte; van Erp, Willemijn Sabien; Lucas, Cees; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-01-01

    The extent of variation in the use of behavioural pain observation tools, documentation and pain protocols in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is unknown. A national survey was undertaken in Dutch hospitals with neurology and neurosurgery nursing

  11. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Alpers, David H

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder). One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness. Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions. Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in

  12. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol S North; Barry A Hong; David H Alpers

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. Bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder).One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness.Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions.Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in IBS

  13. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Reyes M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Romero-Reyes, James M Uyanik Orofacial and Head Pain Service, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Some of the most prevalent and debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures. Orofacial pain (OFP can arise from different regions and etiologies. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are the most prevalent orofacial pain conditions for which patients seek treatment. Temporomandibular disorders include a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ or both. Trigeminal neuropathic pain conditions can arise from injury secondary to dental procedures, infection, neoplasias, or disease or dysfunction of the peripheral and/or central nervous system. Neurovascular disorders, such as primary headaches, can present as chronic orofacial pain, such as in the case of facial migraine, where the pain is localized in the second and third division of the trigeminal nerve. Together, these disorders of the trigeminal system impact the quality of life of the sufferer dramatically. A multidisciplinary pain management approach should be considered for the optimal treatment of orofacial pain disorders including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Keywords: pain, orofacial, neuropathic, TMD, trigeminal, headache

  14. The musculoskeletal diagnosis cohort: examining pain and pain care among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Joseph L; Kerns, Robert D; Bair, Matthew; Becker, William C; Brennan, Penny; Burgess, Diana J; Carroll, Constance M; Dobscha, Steven; Driscoll, Mary A; Fenton, Brenda T; Fraenkel, Liana; Haskell, Sally G; Heapy, Alicia A; Higgins, Diana M; Hoff, Rani A; Hwang, Ula; Justice, Amy C; Piette, John D; Sinnott, Patsi; Wandner, Laura; Womack, Julie A; Brandt, Cynthia A

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are highly prevalent, painful, and costly disorders. The MSD Cohort was created to characterize variation in pain, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes among patients with MSD receiving Veterans Health Administration care across demographic groups, geographic regions, and facilities. We searched electronic health records to identify patients treated in Veterans Health Administration who had ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses including, but not limited to, joint, back, and neck disorders, and osteoarthritis. Cohort inclusion criteria were 2 or more outpatient visits occurring within 18 months of one another or one inpatient visit with an MSD diagnosis between 2000 and 2011. The first diagnosis is the index date. Pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) scores, comorbid medical and mental health diagnoses, pain-related treatments, and other characteristics were collected retrospectively and prospectively. The cohort included 5,237,763 patients; their mean age was 59, 6% were women, 15% identified as black, and 18% reported severe pain (NRS ≥ 7) on the index date. Nontraumatic joint disorder (27%), back disorder (25%), and osteoarthritis (21%) were the most common MSD diagnoses. Patients entering the cohort in recent years had more concurrent MSD diagnoses and higher NRS scores. The MSD Cohort is a rich resource for collaborative pain-relevant health service research.

  15. [Differential diagnostic considerations using ICD-10 in chronic back pain with special regard to persistent somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to pass an expert opinion in cases of chronic back pain. This article analyses the differential diagnostic considerations related to coding various causes in line with ICD-10. It emphasises the I importance of making a careful distinction between orthopoedic and psychiatric conditions and disorders. Simultaneous coding of orthopoedic and psychiatric illnesses and disorders based on a distinct cluster of symptoms necessitates an interdisciplinary approach that consistently applies the ICD-10 definitions of mental an behavioural disorders in order to clearly identify the main reason for a functional impairment in the insurance and sociomedical context. Persistant somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41) should be regarded as related to the underlying disease and be used primarily as an additional and descriptive diagnosis.

  16. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Pain in People Seeking Treatment for Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Psychological Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Sophia; Perrin, Sean; Rivano Fischer, Marcelo; McCracken, Lance M

    2018-06-01

    The symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain are thought to interact to increase the severity and impact of both conditions, but the mechanisms by which they interact remain unclear. This study examines the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain and whether indices of Psychological Flexibility mediate the relationship between these 2 conditions. Standardized self-report measures of PTSD, pain severity, pain interference, depression, and psychological flexibility (pain-related acceptance, committed action, cognitive fusion, and values-based action) were obtained from 315 people seeking treatment for chronic pain who also reported at least 1 traumatic experience. People seeking treatment for chronic pain and reporting symptoms consistent with a current diagnosis of PTSD had significantly higher levels of pain severity, pain interference, depression, and cognitive fusion and lower levels of pain-related acceptance and committed action than those reporting symptoms below the diagnostic threshold for PTSD. Pain-related acceptance, committed action, cognitive fusion, and depression mediated the relationship between PTSD and pain severity/interference, with pain-related acceptance being the strongest mediator from the Psychological Flexibility model. Processes from the Psychological Flexibility model were identified as mediators of the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain in people seeking treatment for chronic pain. The Psychological Flexibility model may be useful as an overarching model to help understand the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain. It is possible that targeting pain-related acceptance, committed action, and cognitive fusion (among other processes) in the treatment of chronic pain may produce corresponding improvements in comorbid symptoms of PTSD when these are present and may reduce impacts of PTSD on outcomes of chronic pain. Conversely, targeting of these processes in the treatment of PTSD may produce similar

  17. A comprehensive review of randomized placebo-controlled pharmacological clinical trials in children with functional abdominal pain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saps, Miguel; Biring, Harman S.; Pusatcioglu, Cenk K.; Mintjens, Stijn; Rzeznikiewiz, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are the most common cause of consultation to pediatric gastroenterology; however, no medications have been approved to treat this group of disorders in children. The Food and Drug Administration have published

  18. Headache attributed to masticatory myofascial pain: impact on facial pain and pressure pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Y M; Porporatti, A L; Stuginski-Barbosa, J; Bonjardim, L R; Speciali, J G; Conti, P C R

    2016-03-01

    There is no clear evidence on how a headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) can hinder the improvement of facial pain and masticatory muscle pain. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of a TMD-attributed headache on masticatory myofascial (MMF) pain management. The sample was comprised of adults with MMF pain measured according to the revised research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) and additionally diagnosed with (Group 1, n = 17) or without (Group 2, n = 20) a TMD-attributed headache. Both groups received instructions on how to implement behavioural changes and use a stabilisation appliance for 5 months. The reported facial pain intensity (visual analogue scale--VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT--kgf cm(-2)) of the anterior temporalis, masseter and right forearm were measured at three assessment time points. Two-way anova was applied to the data, considering a 5% significance level. All groups had a reduction in their reported facial pain intensity (P 0·100). A TMD-attributed headache in patients with MMF pain does not negatively impact pain management, but does change the pattern for muscle pain improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Temporomandibular disorder-type pain and migraine headache in women: a preliminary twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, Octavia; Noonan, Carolyn; Buchwald, Dedra S; Goldberg, Jack; Afari, Niloo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether shared genetic influences are responsible for the association between pain from temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and migraine headache. Data were obtained from 1,236 monozygotic and 570 dizygotic female twin pairs from the University of Washington Twin Registry. TMD pain was assessed with a question about persistent or recurrent pain in the jaw, temple, in front of the ear, or in the ear. The presence of migraine headache was determined by self-report of doctor-diagnosed migraine. Univariate and bivariate structural equation models estimated the components of variance attributable to genetic and environmental influences. The best fitting univariate models indicated that additive genetic effects contributed 27% of the variance in TMD pain (95% confidence interval = 15% to 38%) and 49% of the variance in migraine headache (95% confidence interval = 40% to 57%). The best-fitting bivariate model revealed that 12% of the genetic component of TMD pain is shared with migraine headache. These preliminary findings suggest that the association between TMD pain and migraine headache in women may be partially due to a modest shared genetic risk for both conditions. Future studies can focus on replicating these findings with symptom- and diagnosis-based instruments.

  20. Comparative effect of collaborative care, pain medication, and duloxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder and comorbid (Sub)chronic pain: Results of an exploratory randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (CC:PAINDIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, Eric W.; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; van Marwijk, Harm W.J.; Holwerda, Tjalling J.; Bet, Pierre M.; Roth, Joost; Timmerman, Lotte; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Evidence exists for the efficacy of collaborative care (CC) for major depressive disorder (MDD), for the efficacy of the consequent use of pain medication against pain, and for the efficacy of duloxetine against both MDD and neuropathic pain. Their relative effectiveness in comorbid MDD

  1. Pain, not chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that poor physical health might be associated with increased depression and anxiety recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine whether specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics are associated with depression and anxiety recurrence and to examine whether such associations are mediated by subthreshold depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods 1122 individuals with remitted depressive or anxiety disorder (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety) were followed up for a period of four years. The impact of specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics on recurrence was assessed using Cox regression and mediation analyses. Results Chronic diseases were not associated with recurrence. Neck (HR 1.45, p depression recurrence but not anxiety. Subthreshold depressive symptoms mediated the associations between pain and depression recurrence. Conclusions Pain, not chronic disease, increases the likelihood of depression recurrence, largely through its association with aggravated subthreshold depressive symptoms. These findings support the idea of the existence of a mutually reinforcing mechanism between pain and depression and are indicative of the importance of shedding light on neurobiological links in order to optimize pain and depression management. PMID:24965597

  2. Relationship between stress and pain in work-related upper extremity disorders: the hidden role of chronic multisymptom illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2002-05-01

    Pain and fatigue are commonly associated with work-related upper extremity disorders. Occasionally these symptoms persist beyond a reasonable healing period. One potential explanation for prolonged symptom expression is the concurrent development of a stress-mediated illness or CMI (Chronic Multi-Symptom Illness). In such a scenario, the chronic regional pain and other symptoms that the individual is experiencing would be attributable to the CMI rather than to tissue damage or a biomechanical dysfunction of the upper-extremity. This article critically reviews the case definitions of the new class of CMI disorders and evaluates the existing evidence supporting centrally mediated physiological changes (e.g., sensory hypervigilance, dysautonomia) that manifest as symptoms of pain and fatigue in some individuals experiencing chronic stressors. While explanations for prolonged pain and fatigue have historically focused on mechanisms involving peripheral pathology or psychiatric explanations, ample evidences support the role of altered Central Nervous System function in accounting for symptom manifestation in CMI. A model is presented that unites seemingly disparate findings across numerous investigations and provides a framework for understanding how genetics, triggering events, stressors, and early life events can affect CNS activity. Resultant symptom expression (e.g., pain and fatigue) from central dysregulation would be expected to occur in a subset of individuals in the population, including a subset of individuals with work-related upper extremity disorders. Thus when symptoms such as pain and fatigue persist beyond a reasonable period, consideration of CMI and associated assessment and interventions focused on central mechanisms may be worthwhile.

  3. Whiplash-associated disorder: musculoskeletal pain and related clinical findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the physical and psychological processes associated with whiplash-associated disorders. There is now much scientific data available to indicate the presence of disturbed nociceptive processing, stress system responses, muscle and motor changes as well as psychological factors in both acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Some of these factors seem to be associated with the transition from acute to chronic pain and have demonstrated prognostic capacity. Further investigation is required to determine if these processes can be modified and if modification will lead to improved outcomes for this condition. The burden of whiplash injuries, the high rate of transition to chronicity, and evidence of limited effects of current management on transition rates demand new directions in evaluation and management. The understanding of processes underlying this condition is improving and this lays the foundation for the development of more effective management approaches. PMID:23115472

  4. Correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder%神经病理性疼痛与抑郁和焦虑精神症状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪雪珺; 杜冬萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of neuropathic pain with depression disorder and anxiety disorder. Methods Thirty-six patients who were initially diagnosed as neuropathic pain were included ( case group), and were treated with amitriptyline, opioids and nerve block in necessities. Assessment with visual analogue scale (VAS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) was performed before treatment and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Besides, 15 healthy volunteers were served as controls, and assessment with SAS and SDS was conducted. Results The duration of neuropathic pain of all patients in case group was more than 3 months. The degree of pain was positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group (P < 0. 01), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder in case group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 01). Two weeks and 4 weeks after treatment in case group, the pain was effectively relieved ( P < 0. 05) , the degree of pain was also positively related to the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder (P <0.05), and the prevalences of depression disorder and anxiety disorder were also significantly higher than those in control group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion Patients with neuropathic pain are usually found to experience anxiety disorder and depression disorder. With the relief of pain, anxiety disorder and depression disorder may be relieved, but can not be completely eliminated.%目的 探讨神经病理性疼痛与焦虑和抑郁精神症状之间的相关性.方法 选择神经病理性疼痛初诊患者36例(病例组),根据病情需要分别采用阿米替林、阿片类药物和神经阻滞药物进行镇痛治疗,治疗前进行视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)、Zung焦虑评分(SAS)和Zung抑郁评分(SDS),治疗后2和4周再进行SAS和SDS评分.同时选15

  5. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome and other functional abdominal pain disorders: an update of non-pharmacological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shivani; Schaffer, Gilda; Saps, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, are common in children and treatment can often be difficult. Pharmacological therapies and complementary treatments are widely used, despite the limited data in pediatrics. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the available data for the use of diet, probiotics, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and psychosocial interventions, including hypnotherapy, yoga, cognitive and behavioral therapy, and mind-body interventions for the treatment of functional abdominal pain disorders in children. The literature review included a PubMed search by each therapy, children, abdominal pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. Relevant articles to this review are discussed. Expert commentary: The decision on the use of pharmacological and complementary therapies should be based on clinical findings, evidence, availability, and in-depth discussion with the patient and family. The physician should provide education on the different interventions and their role on the treatment in an empathetic and warm manner providing ample time for the family to ask questions.

  6. Pain Disorder, Hysteria or Somatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain used to be a simple issue. It was caused by physical injury or disease and the sufferer had to rest and take opium. That was about two hundred years ago. A few scattered commentators from Jeremiah (Lamentations I:12-13 to Montaigne (1 had the idea that emotion could cause pain or influence it. The development of anatomical knowledge, closely followed by physiology and then pathology, produced a dilemma. There were many pains that could not be explained by the most modern physical methods of the nineteenth century. Hodgkiss (2 has tersely labelled the problem as "pain without lesion". The nineteenth century solution lay in a diagnosis of hysteria.

  7. Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on Rome III criteria in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talachian, Elham; Bidari, Ali; Zahmatkesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) entail several distinct conditions that collectively account for a sizeable proportion of patients complaining of abdominal pain. Physicians' awareness is fundamental to avoid unnecessary evaluations and to alleviate stress-related problems. This study aimed to assess the relative frequencies of FGIDs and related categories in a selected Iranian population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in a gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Iran. Children and adolescents between the age of 4 and 18 years referred to the clinic from October 2011 to February 2013 were enrolled if they were diagnosed with FGID according to the Rome III criteria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, pain location, duration and frequency, associated symptoms, and pertinent family history. We used descriptive analyses to show mean (±SD) and relative frequencies of categories of FGIDs. We diagnosed 183 (114 female) with FGIDs out of 1307 children and adolescents who were visited in the clinic. There was history of psychiatric disorders in 42 (22.9%) participants, and migraine headaches and gastrointestinal disorders were at least in one of the parents in 21 (11.5%) and 64 (34.9%) participants, respectively. We defined 84 (46%) patients under Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) category, 38 (21%) under Abdominal Migraine, 26 (14%) under Functional Abdominal Pain, 21 (11%) under Functional Dyspepsia, and 7 (4%) under Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Seven children (4%) had no defining feature for FGID categories and therefore labeled as unclassified. FGID was a prevalent diagnosis among children and adolescents with abdominal pain. IBS was the largest category. Only a minority were unclassifiable under the Rome III criteria, indicating improved differentiation characteristics of Rome III criteria compared to the Rome II version.

  8. [Rome III classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children with chronic abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocek, Anna; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Toporowska-Kowalska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The updated Rome III Classification of paediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) associated with abdominal pain comprises: functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain (FAP), functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS). To assess the value of the Rome criteria in identifying FGIDs in children with chronic abdominal pain. The study group consisted of 439 consecutive paediatric patients (192 boys and 247 girls) aged 4-18 years (mean age was 11.95 +/- 3.89 years) referred to the Paediatric Gastroenterology Department at Medical University of Lodz from January 2008 to June 2009 for evaluation of abdominal pain of at least 2 months' duration. After exclusion of organic disease children suspected of functional chronic abdominal pain were categorized with the use of Rome III criteria of FGIDs associated with abdominal pain (H2a-H2d1) and the Questionnaire on Paediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms (with the permission of doctor L. S. Walker). The patients with known nonabdominal organic disease, chronic illness or handicap were excluded. In 161 patients (36.58%) organic etiology was confirmed. Of the 278 children (63.42%) with functional chronic abdominal pain, 228 (82.02%) met the Rome III criteria for FGIDs associated with abdominal pain (FD, 15.5%; IBS, 21.6%; abdominal migraine, 5%; FAP 24.5%; FAPS, 15.9%). Fifty cases (17.98%) did not fulfill the criteria for subtypes of abdominal pain-related FGIDs--mainly due to different as defined by Rome III criteria (at least once per week) frequency of symptom presentation. (1) In the authors'investigations FGIDs was the most frequent cause of chronic abdominal pain in children. (2) The significant number of children with nonclassified FGIDs implies the need to modify the diagnostic criteria of Rome III classification concerning the prevalence of symptoms.

  9. Predictors of task-persistent and fear-avoiding behaviors in women with sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Marieke; Lakeman, Mariëlle; van Lunsen, Rik; Laan, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Dyspareunia and vaginismus are the most common sexual pain disorders (SPDs). Literature suggests that many women with dyspareunia continue with intercourse despite pain (task persistence), whereas many women with vaginismus avoid penetrative activities that may cause pain (fear avoidance). Both forms of sexual pain behavior may maintain or aggravate complaints. This study examined (i) whether women with SPD differ from pain-free controls in motives for sexual intercourse, sexual autonomy, maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration, and partner responses to pain; and (ii) which of these factors best predict whether women with SPD stop or continue painful intercourse (attempts). Women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50), women with lifelong vaginismus (n = 20), and pain-free controls (n = 45) completed questionnaires. For Aim 1, the main outcome measures were (i) motives for intercourse; (ii) sexual autonomy; (iii) maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration; and (iv) partner responses to pain. For Aim 2, sexual pain behavior (to continue or discontinue with painful intercourse) was the outcome measure. (i) Women with dyspareunia exhibited more mate guarding and duty/pressure motives for intercourse and were less sexually autonomous than controls. (ii) Symptomatic women had more maladaptive penetration-related beliefs than controls, with women with vaginismus reporting the strongest maladaptive beliefs. (iii) Partners of women with dyspareunia self-reported more negative responses to pain than those of women with vaginismus. (iv) The factors that best predicted sexual pain behavior were the partner responses to pain and the woman's maladaptive beliefs regarding vaginal penetration. Our findings reveal support for task persistence in women with dyspareunia and fear avoidance in women with lifelong vaginismus. As such, it is important to consider these distinct types of responding to sexual pain when treating SPD. © 2014 International

  10. The pain experience of inpatients in a teaching hospital: revisiting a strategic priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabusch, Kimberly M; Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Mandzuk, Lynda L; Schnell-Hoehn, Karen N; Wheeler, Barbara J

    2015-02-01

    For hospital executives and clinicians to improve pain management, organizations must examine the current pain experience of in-patients beyond simply measuring patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of pain among adult in-patients and the degree of interference pain had on daily activities. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in a 530 bed tertiary care, teaching hospital in central Canada. A convenience sample (N = 88) of adult medical-surgical patients completed the Short Form-Brief Pain Inventory survey. Pain prevalence was 70.4%. The mean pain severity score was 3.76 (standard deviation, SD = 2.88) and mean pain interference score on daily activities was 4.56 (SD = 3.93). The most frequently identified site of pain was the lower extremities (n = 15, 28%). Women had higher mean scores on pain "right now" compared to men (p < 0.05). The sample majority (n = 81) indicated hospital staff asked about the presence of pain. Seventy-nine percent (n = 57) reported hospital staff "always" did everything they could to help manage pain. Eighty-four percent (n = 61) selected "always" or "usually" to describe their ability to be involved in deciding pain treatments. The mean pain relief score from treatments was 61% (SD = 34.79). Significant positive correlations were found between pain intensity ratings and pain interference on all daily activities (p < 0.001). Pain prevalence remains high with a significant relationship between pain and activities of daily living. The study provides baseline data to direct future initiatives at improving pain management. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonpharmacologic treatment of functional abdominal pain disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Juliette M T M; Korterink, Judith J; Venmans, Leonie M A J; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-03-01

    Various nonpharmacologic treatments are available for pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Data on efficacy and safety are scarce. The goal of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding nonpharmacologic interventions for pediatric AP-FGIDs: lifestyle interventions, dietary interventions, behavioral interventions, prebiotics and probiotics, and alternative medicine. Searches were conducted of the Medline and Cochrane Library databases. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning nonpharmacologic therapies in children (aged 3-18 years) with AP-FGIDs were included, and data were extracted on participants, interventions, and outcomes. The quality of evidence was assessed by using the GRADE approach. Twenty-four RCTs were found that included 1390 children. Significant improvement of abdominal pain was reported after hypnotherapy compared with standard care/wait-list approaches and after cognitive behavioral therapy compared with a variety of control treatments/wait-list approaches. Written self-disclosure improved pain frequency at the 6-month follow-up only. Compared with placebo, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and VSL#3 were associated with significantly more treatment responders (LGG relative risk: 1.31 [95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.59]; VSL#3: P pediatric AP-FGIDs. Data on fiber supplements are inconclusive. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Clinical study of duloxetine hydrochloride combined with doxazosin for the treatment of pain disorder in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingxin; Li, Hanzhong; Ji, Zhigang; Dong, Dexin; Yan, Su

    2017-03-01

    To explore the safety and efficacy of the selective 5-serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine hydrochloride and alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker (alpha-blocker) doxazosin mesylate-controlled tablets in the treatment of pain disorder in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).In all, 150 patients were enrolled and 126 patients completed the study (41 patients in the doxazosin group, 41 patients in the sertraline group, and 44 patients in the duloxetine group). This was an open randomized 6-month study. CP/CPPS patients who met the diagnostic criteria were randomized into 3 groups. The patients in the duloxetine group received doxazosin 4 mg + duloxetine 30 mg once a day, and the dosage of duloxetine was increased to 60 mg after a week. The patients in the doxazosin group received doxazosin 4 mg once a day. The patients in the sertraline group received doxazosin 4 mg + sertraline 50 mg once a day. National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, the short-form McGill Pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD) were applied for evaluations during follow-up of 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment.There were slight positive significant correlations between NIH-CPSI scores and HAD scores, moderate positive significant correlations between the quality of life (QOL) and SF-MPQ, and slight positive significant correlations between HAD and QOL. The effective rate in the doxazosin group was 4.88%, 19.51%, and 56.10% after 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively (P pain and mental factors in CP/CPPS with the main symptom of pain. Doxazosin combined with duloxetine exhibited good safety and efficacy in the treatment of pain disorder in CP/CPPS.

  13. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Beliz; Özdemir, Y Özay; Beştepe, E Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD. Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18-60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20) were administered to all participants. Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group ( p =0.003, p =0.006, p =0.001). While a significant difference between the two groups' SDQ scores was obtained ( p =0.000), no significant difference was detected between the two groups' DES scores ( p =0.392). The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma.

  14. DEGRO guidelines for the radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part II: Painful degenerative skeletal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Niewald, Marcus [Saarland University Medical School, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Weitmann, Hajo-Dirk [Fulda Hospital, Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Fulda (Germany); Jacob, Ingrid [Municipal Hospital Traunstein, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Traunstein (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Marien Hospital Herne/Ruhr University Bochum, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Herne (Germany); Schaefer, Ulrich [Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Keilholz, Ludwig [Bayreuth Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Bayreuth (Germany); Heyd, Reinhard [Center for Radiosurgery, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Muecke, Ralph [Marien Hospital Herne/Ruhr University Bochum, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Herne (Germany); Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Collaboration: German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the updated DEGRO consensus S2e guideline recommendations for the treatment of benign painful degenerative skeletal disorders with low-dose radiotherapy. This overview reports on the role of low-dose radiotherapy in the treatment of enthesiopathies (shoulder syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, plantar fasciitis, and elbow syndrome) and painful arthrosis (knee, hip, hand, and finger joints). The most relevant aspects of the DEGRO S2e Consensus Guideline Radiation Therapy of Benign Diseases 2014 regarding diagnostics, treatment decision, dose prescription as well as performance of radiotherapy and results are summarized. For all indications mentioned above, retrospective and some prospective analyses have shown remarkable effects in terms of pain relief. Nevertheless, the Level of Evidence (LoE) and the Grade of Recommendation (GR) vary: LoE 1b-4 and GR A-C. Low-dose radiotherapy for painful degenerative skeletal disorders is effective in the majority of the patients and therefore it may be a reasonable therapeutic alternative when simple and non-invasive methods have been used without persistent success. For all discussed entities, single fraction doses of 0.5-1.0 Gy and total doses of 3.0-6.0 Gy/series applied with 2-3 fractions per week are recommended. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung der Empfehlungen der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie von gutartigen schmerzhaften degenerativen Skeletterkrankungen. Die vorliegende Zusammenfassung berichtet ueber die Bedeutung der Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie in der Behandlung von Enthesiopathien (Schultersyndrom, Ellenbogensyndrom, Bursitis trochanterica, Fasciitis plantaris) und schmerzhaften Arthrosen (Knie-, Hueft, Hand- und Fingergelenksarthrosen). Die wichtigsten Aspekte der aktuellen DEGRO-S2e-Konsensus-Leitlinie Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen bezueglich Diagnostik, Therapieentscheidungen, Dosisempfehlungen und Durchfuehrung einer Radiotherapie werden

  15. Trauma-Related Pain, Reexperiencing Symptoms, and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Gregory; Hannan, Susan M; Kamm, Janina; Pamp, Barbara; Maieritsch, Kelly P

    2017-06-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and physical pain. However, few studies have explored the impact of pain problems on the symptoms and treatment of PTSD, and results remain inconsistent. This longitudinal study examined whether trauma-related and trauma-unrelated pain differentially and uniquely predicted reexperiencing symptoms. We also examined whether levels of reexperiencing symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and posttreatment symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal (ANH). Analyses were conducted using archival data from 99 treatment-seeking veterans who reported the etiology and intensity of their pain and severity of PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Among veterans with trauma-related pain, pain intensity (a) uniquely corresponded to greater posttreatment reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.09), and (b) was indirectly predictive of ANH symptoms via the reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.93). However, veterans with trauma-unrelated pain evidenced no associations between pain intensity and reexperiencing (b = 0.04) or ANH symptoms (b = 0.06). We thus found that trauma-related pain was indirectly related to poor PTSD treatment outcomes via reexperiencing symptoms. These findings offer additional insight into factors that may influence PTSD treatment outcomes for pain-suffering trauma survivors. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Impact of Chronic Pain on Treatment Prognosis for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany B. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background While a number of pharmacological interventions exist for the treatment of opioid use disorder, evidence evaluating the effect of pain on substance use behavior, attrition rate, and physical or mental health among these therapies has not been well established. We aim to evaluate these effects using evidence gathered from a systematic review of studies evaluating chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP in patients with opioid use disorder. Methods We searched the Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry databases to identify articles evaluating the impact of pain on addiction treatment outcomes for patients maintained on opioid agonist therapy. Results Upon screening 3,540 articles, 14 studies with a combined sample of 3,128 patients fulfilled the review inclusion criteria. Results from the meta-analysis suggest that pain has no effect on illicit opioid consumption [pooled odds ratio (pOR: 0.70, 95%CI 0.41–1.17; I 2 = 0.0] but a protective effect for reducing illicit non-opioid substance use (pOR: 0.57, 95%CI 0.41–0.79; I 2 = 0.0. Studies evaluating illicit opioid consumption using other measures demonstrate pain to increase the risk for opioid abuse. Pain is significantly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders (pOR: 2.18; 95%CI 1.6, 2.9; I 2 = 0.0%. Conclusion CNCP may increase risk for continued opioid abuse and poor psychiatric functioning. Qualitative synthesis of the findings suggests that major methodological differences in the design and measurement of pain and treatment response outcomes are likely impacting the effect estimates.

  17. Longitudinal interactions of pain and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. Military service members following blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Clark, Shaunna L; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-10-01

    Military personnel returning from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan often endorse pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, either separately or concurrently. Associations between pain and PTSD symptoms may be further complicated by blast exposure from explosive munitions. Although many studies have reported on the prevalence and disability associated with polytraumatic injuries following combat, less is known about symptom maintenance over time. Accordingly, this study examined longitudinal interactive models of co-occurring pain and PTSD symptoms in a sample of 209 military personnel (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 7.6) who experienced combat-related blast exposure. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis examined longitudinal associations between self-reported pain and PTSD symptoms over a 1-year period. The best-fitting covariate model indicated that pain and PTSD were significantly associated with one another across all assessment periods, χ² (3) = 3.66, P = .30, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean squared error of approximation = .03. PTSD symptoms had a particularly strong influence on subsequent pain symptoms. The relationship between pain and PTSD symptoms is related to older age, race, and traumatic brain injury characteristics. Results further the understanding of complex injuries among military personnel and highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and rehabilitation efforts addressing the interdependence of pain and co-occurring mental health conditions. This longitudinal study demonstrates that pain and PTSD symptoms strongly influence one another and interact across time. These findings have the potential to inform the integrative assessment and treatment of military personnel with polytrauma injuries and who are at risk for persistent deployment-related disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Why seek treatment for temporomandibular disorder pain complaints? A study based on semi-structured interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Gorter, R.C.; Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. METHODS: A Aims: To assess possible differences between care seekers and non-care seekers with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints, by using semi-structured

  19. Chronic pain and difficulty in relaxing postural muscles in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elert, J; Kendall, S A; Larsson, B; Månsson, B; Gerdle, B

    2001-06-01

    To investigate if muscle tension according to the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the shoulder flexors is increased in consecutive patients with fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). A total of 59 consecutive patients with FM (n = 36) or chronic WAD (n = 23) performed 100 maximal isokinetic contractions combined with surface electromyography of the trapezius and infraspinatus. A randomized group of pain-free female (n = 27) subjects served as control group. Peak torque initially (Pti) and absolute and relative peak torque at endurance level (PTe, PTer) were registered as output variables, together with the EMG level of unnecessary muscle tension, i.e., the signal amplitude ratio (SAR). The patient groups had a higher level of unnecessary tension initially and at the endurance level. The patients had lower absolute output (PTi and PTe), but the relative levels (PTer) did not differ comparing all 3 groups. Subjects with FM had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than the other groups. BMI did not influence the SAR but correlated positively with PTi. The results confirmed earlier findings that groups of patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension and decreased output during dynamic activity compared to pain-free controls. However, the results indicated there is heterogeneity within groups of patients with the same chronic pain disorder and that not all patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension.

  20. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  1. Relationships among pain, anxiety, and depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means-Christensen, Adrienne J; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-01

    Pain, anxiety, and depression are commonly seen in primary care patients and there is considerable evidence that these experiences are related. This study examined associations between symptoms of pain and symptoms and diagnoses of anxiety and depression in primary care patients. Results indicate that primary care patients who endorse symptoms of muscle pain, headache, or stomach pain are approximately 2.5-10 times more likely to screen positively for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or major depressive disorder. Endorsement of pain symptoms was also significantly associated with confirmed diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders and/or major depression, with odds ratios ranging from approximately 3 to 9 for the diagnoses. Patients with an anxiety or depressive disorder also reported greater interference from pain. Similarly, patients endorsing pain symptoms reported lower mental health functioning and higher scores on severity measures of depression, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Mediation analyses indicated that depression mediated some, but not all of the relationships between anxiety and pain. Overall, these results reveal an association between reports of pain symptoms and not only depression, but also anxiety. An awareness of these relationships may be particularly important in primary care settings where a patient who presents with reports of pain may have an undiagnosed anxiety or depressive disorder.

  2. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-10-01

    It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission.

  3. Pattern and Pain Assessment of Musculoskeletal Disorders Attending to Physiotherapy Services in Selected Physiotherapy Centres of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ruhul Amin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability, affecting hundreds of millions of people around the world. Among different modalities of treatment and management for musculoskeletal pain, physiotherapy might be cost-effective. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern and pain assessment of musculoskeletal disorders attending to physiotherapy services in selected physiotherapy centers of Dhaka city. Materials and method: It was a cross sectional study. Sample size was 400 and a pre-tested, modified, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Majority of the respondents (69.2% belonged to 46-65 year age group with least in extreme age groups. Mean±SD of age was 33.58±12.33 years. Most of the respondents were male (69.2%. Study revealed that neck pain (75.2% was the major complaint followed by back pain (48.00%. Regarding pattern of pain, intermittent (73.2% type was predominant. Muscle spasm (29.2% was the main cause for musculoskeletal pain followed by degenerative diseases (27.5%. Of the respondents 55.00% received traction, 91.25% exercise, 21.25% manipulation, 97.95% short wave diathermy, 85.00% ultrasound therapy, 33.75% infra red ray, and 12.75% electrical stimulation as physiotherapy treatment. There were statistically significant difference between sex and severity of pain (p=0.019, educational status and pain persisting time in years (p=0.000. There was also statistically highly significant difference between severity of pain responses before and after physiotherapy treatment (p=0.000. Conclusion: Study concluded that common areas of musculoskeletal pain were neck followed by back and shoulder and pain characteristics were intermittent, radiating, numbness, burning in nature. Respondents had taken medication and different type of physiotherapy services, including traction

  4. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ozen,Beliz; Özdemir,Yusuf Ozay; Bestepe,Engin Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focu...

  5. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    Background The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. Material and Methods A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Results Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (ppain (ppain (ppain (p=0.009 - OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.12-2.33) and bilateral masseter palpation-induced pain (p=0.01 - OR=1.74, 95%CI 1.13-2.69). Conclusions Palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles may play a role in the differential diagnosis among painful TMD, primary headaches and bruxism. Key words:Diagnosis, temporomandibular joint disorders, migraine, tension-type headache, bruxism. PMID:26615507

  6. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Beliz; Özdemir, Y Özay; Beştepe, E Emrem

    2018-01-01

    Objective Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD. Patients and methods Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18–60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20) were administered to all participants. Results Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group (p=0.003, p=0.006, p=0.001). While a significant difference between the two groups’ SDQ scores was obtained (p=0.000), no significant difference was detected between the two groups’ DES scores (p=0.392). Discussion The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma. PMID:29503548

  7. Cognitive processing in putative functional gastrointestinal disorder: rumination yields orientation to social threat not pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E

    2010-02-01

    Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of putative FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-group differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.

  8. Association of temporomandibular disorder pain with awake and sleep bruxism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierwald, Ira; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Hirsch, Christian; Sagheri, Darius; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    Parafunctional habits such as clenching or grinding (bruxism) during daytime and at night are considered to have a great impact on the etiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the size of the effect and how daytime activities interact with nocturnal activities is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to assess the association of TMD pain with both awake and sleep bruxism in adults. In this case-control study, data of a consecutive sample of 733 TMD patients (cases; mean age ± SD: 41.4 ± 16.3 years; 82% women) with at least one pain-related TMD diagnosis according to the German version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and of a community-based probability sample of 890 subjects (controls; mean age ± SD: 40.4 ± 11.8 years; 57% female) without TMD were evaluated. Clenching or grinding while awake and/or asleep was assessed with self-reports. Association of TMD pain with awake and sleep bruxism was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses and controlled for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. While 11.2% of the controls reported clenching or grinding while awake, this proportion was significantly higher in TMD patients (33.9%; p bruxism (OR 1.8; CI 1.4-2.4). However, risk for TMD pain substantially increased in cases of simultaneous presence of awake and sleep bruxism (OR 7.7; CI 5.4-11.1). When occurring separately, awake and sleep bruxism are significant risk factors for TMD pain. In case of simultaneous presence, the risk for TMD pain is even higher.

  9. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-09-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure.

  10. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Özen B; Özdemir YO; Beştepe EE

    2018-01-01

    Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on res...

  11. Heightened brain response to pain anticipation in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Zhou, Thomas J; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Soorya, Latha; Kolevzon, Alexander; Hof, Patrick R; Fan, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by both socio-communicative difficulties and abnormalities in sensory processing. Much of the work on sensory deficits in ASD has focused on tactile sensations and the perceptual aspects of somatosensation, such as encoding of stimulus intensity and location. Although aberrant pain processing has often been noted in clinical observations of patients with ASD, it remains largely uninvestigated. Importantly, the neural mechanism underlying higher order cognitive aspects of pain processing such as pain anticipation also remains unknown. Here we examined both pain perception and anticipation in high-functioning adults with ASD and matched healthy controls (HC) using an anticipatory pain paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and concurrent skin conductance response (SCR) recording. Participants were asked to choose a level of electrical stimulation that would feel moderately painful to them. Compared to HC group, ASD group chose a lower level of stimulation prior to fMRI. However, ASD participants showed greater activation in both rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the anticipation of stimulation, but not during stimulation delivery. There was no significant group difference in insular activation during either pain anticipation or perception. However, activity in the left anterior insula correlated with SCR during pain anticipation. Taken together, these results suggest that ASD is marked with aberrantly higher level of sensitivity to upcoming aversive stimuli, which may reflect abnormal attentional orientation to nociceptive signals and a failure in interoceptive inference. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  13. Pain perception in schizophrenia: influence of neuropeptides, cognitive disorders, and negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Justyna Pigońska,2 Janusz Śmigielski3 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 2Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 3Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland Objectives: The causes and nature of insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia remain unknown. The role of endorphins and the association of cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms are postulated.Methods: In this study, 43 patients with schizophrenia, five first-degree relatives, and 34 healthy controls were examined. Participants’ plasma concentrations of substance P, β-endorphin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were assessed. In patients, the Trail-Making Test, the Color Reading Interference Test (Stroop test, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Negative Syndrome subscale (PANSS N test were performed. We also evaluated pain threshold using nociceptive reflex (RTIII testing.Results: The mean β-endorphin concentration was about 20% higher in patients than in healthy controls (P<0.05. CGRP concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (5.34 ng/mL versus 4.16 ng/mL; P<0.01. Subjects treated with antipsychotic polytherapy had higher concentrations of CGRP than did patients treated with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy (5.92 ng/mL versus 5.02 ng/mL; P<0.05. There were no correlations between any biochemical parameters and Trail-Making Test, Stroop test, and PANSS N scores. There were no differences in RTIII among study groups. Strong negative correlation (P<0.001 was found between PANSS N scores and subjective pain threshold on the right lower limb.Conclusion: The insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon that is probably not related to changes in nociceptive pathways. Increase in β-endorphin level

  14. The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; Pdepressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; Pdepressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; Pdepressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; Pdepressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

  15. Connecting the Mind–Body Split: Understanding the Relationship between Symptoms and Emotional Well-Being in Chronic Pain and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Caes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric chronic conditions, e.g., chronic pain and functional gastrointestinal disorders, are commonly diagnosed, with fatigue, pain and abdominal discomfort the most frequently reported symptoms across conditions. Regardless of whether symptoms are connected to an underlying medical diagnosis or not, they are often associated with an increased experience of psychological distress by both the ill child and their parents. While pain and embarrassing symptoms can induce increased distress, evidence is also accumulating in support of a reciprocal relationship between pain and distress. This reciprocal relationship is nicely illustrated in the fear avoidance model of pain, which has recently been found to be applicable to childhood pain experiences. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how mind (i.e., emotions and body (i.e., physical symptoms interact using chronic pain and gastrointestinal disorders as key examples. Despite the evidence for the connection between mind and body, the mind–body split is still a dominant position for families and health care systems, as evidenced by the artificial split between physical and mental health care. In a mission to overcome this gap, this article will conclude by providing tools on how the highlighted evidence can help to close this gap between mind and body.

  16. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  17. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  18. Shared Genetics of Temporomandibular Disorder Pain and Neck Pain: Results of a Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine M; Schouten, Maarten J; Ligthart, Lannie; van Houtem, Caroline Mhh; de Jongh, Ad; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-03-06

    (1) To examine the heritability of TMD pain and of neck pain; and (2) to estimate the potential overlap in genetic and environmental factors influencing TMD pain and neck pain. Data from 2,238 adult female twins who completed a survey on TMD pain and neck pain were analyzed. The total variance of TMD pain and neck pain was decomposed into variance attributable to additive genetic effects and nonshared environmental effects. Bivariate structural equation modeling was applied to estimate trait-specific and genetic effects shared between traits. The prevalence of TMD pain and neck pain was 8.6% and 46.8%, respectively, while 6.7% of the twins reported both TMD pain and neck pain. The phenotypic correlation between TMD pain and neck pain, based on a liability threshold model, was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34 to 0.51). The heritability for TMD was 0.35 (0.17 to 0.51), and for neck pain was 0.33 (0.23 to 0.43). The genetic correlation between TMD pain and neck pain was 0.64 (0.35 to 1.00), and the environmental correlation was 0.32 (0.14 to 0.48). This study shows that variation in TMD pain and neck pain can in part be attributed to genes. The comorbidity between them is partly explained by genes that influence both traits and partly by the same environmental factors.

  19. CPDX (Chest Pain Diagnostic Program) - A Decision Support System for the Management of Acute Chest Pain (User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-25

    pain: appendicitis; renal colic; perforated duodenal ulcer ; acute cholecystitis; small bowel obstruction; and non-specific abdominal pain, This...psychoneurotic disorder; g) epigastric lesions (cholelithiasis, peptic ulcer , etc.). Musculoskeletal pain and costochrondritis denote muscle, rib, or cartilage...hyperventilation syndrome; f) psychoneurotic disorder; g) epigastric lesions (cholelithiasis, peptic ulcer , etc.). Musculoskeletal pain and the

  20. Systematic reviews of physical and rehabilitation medicine Cochrane contents. Part 1. Disabilities due to spinal disorders and pain syndromes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Imperio, G; Villafañe, J H; Negrini, F; Zaina, F

    2013-08-01

    This article is the first in a series presenting the strongest published evidence for physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) to date coming from the Cochrane Collaboration. The intent of the series is to stimulate ideas for reviews and research in neglected areas of PRM. To systematically review the rehabilitation contents of the Cochrane Collaboration on disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched at the end of June 2013 for articles relevant for PRM about disabilities resulting from spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Retrieved papers were classified according to the PRM approach: active therapies, which require active participation by patients to achieve treatment goals, and passive treatments, which rely on the application of external forces. The quality of the reviews was checked against the AMSTAR checklist. Reviews on spinal disorders or pain syndromes were found in the Cochrane Back Group (CBG) and in the Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group (CPPSCG). Thirty-eight (42.8%) of 89 Cochrane reviews in the CBG and 7 (2.4%) of 293 Cochrane reviews in the CPPSCG were included. All were of high quality (range, 8-11 points out of 11 on the AMSTAR checklist). The contents of the reviews are given in detail. This review presents an overview of the current evidence for PRM in the treatment of disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Within PRM there is ample space for research in the Cochrane Collaboration and for producing original studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). To apply evidence-based clinical practice, clinicians must be familiar with the current best evidence.

  1. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  3. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W de Heer

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001, anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001, or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001 was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001 as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001 and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001 were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.

  4. Chronic Pain Among Homeless Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Marc; Frank, Anastasia; Choi, Fiona; Strehlau, Verena; Nikoo, Nooshin; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian; Krausz, Michael R; Schütz, Christian G

    2017-12-01

    Chronic pain is an important public health issue. However, characteristics and needs of marginalized populations have received limited attention. Studies on prevalence and correlates of chronic pain among homeless persons are lacking. We assessed chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness in the At Home/Chez Soi study. Cross-sectional data from a randomized controlled trial on homelessness and mental health. Data collected between 2009 and 2013 in three Canadian cities. One thousand two hundred eighty-seven homeless persons with mental illness. Data on chronic pain and utilization of prescribed and nonprescribed interventions was assessed using a chronic pain screening instrument. Mental illness was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Forty-three percent reported moderate to severe chronic pain, interfering with general daily activities (80%), sleep (78%), and social interactions (61%). Multivariate analysis indicated that increasing age and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mood disorder with psychotic features, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were independent predictors of chronic pain. Chronic pain was further associated with increased suicidality. Among participants reporting chronic pain, 64% had sought medical treatment and 56% treated pain with prescribed drugs, while 38% used illicit drugs for pain relief. Chronic pain is very common among homeless persons with mental illness and affects activities of daily living. Clinicians treating this population should be aware of the common connections between chronic pain, depression, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. While the data indicate the contribution of chronic pain to complex treatment needs, they also indicate a clear treatment gap. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Depression and pain impair daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Depression and pain frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression and pain on the impairment of daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) of depressed patients. We enrolled 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder. Depression, pain, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed using three primary domains of the SF-36: social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson׳s correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In all, 129 patients completed all the measures. Model 5, both depression and pain impaired daily functioning and QOL, was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=9.2, df=8, p=0.33, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, TLI=0.99, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.03). The correlation between pain and depression was weak (r=-0.27, z=-2.95, p=0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. Depression and pain exert a direct influence on the impairment of daily functioning and QOL of depressed patients; this impairment could be expected regardless of increased pain, depression, or both pain and depression. Pain had a somewhat separate entity from depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The clinical effect of clomipramine in chronic idiopathic pain disorder revisited using the Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) as outcome scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    -malignant pain were included (87 patients received placebo and 84 clomipramine). On the SSASS, clomipramine's (mean dose 125 mg daily) advantage over placebo in the planned 6-weeks' treatment period for all patients (intention-to-treat analysis) showed an effect size of 0.37. For completers only, the effect size......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale......BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including...

  7. Do patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain due to a temporomandibular disorder show increased attending to somatosensory input at the painful side of the jaw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Den Berghe, Linda; Poppe, Louise; Crombez, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Patients with chronic orofacial pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) display alterations in somatosensory processing at the jaw, such as amplified perception of tactile stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated one possible explanation, namely hypervigilance, and tested if TMD patients with unilateral pain showed increased attending to somatosensory input at the painful side of the jaw. TMD patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain ( n  = 20) and matched healthy volunteers ( n  = 20) performed a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task indicated which one of two tactile stimuli, presented on each side of the jaw, they had perceived first. TOJ methodology allows examining spatial bias in somatosensory processing speed. Furthermore, after each block of trials, the participants rated the perceived intensity of tactile stimuli separately for both sides of the jaw. Finally, questionnaires assessing pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, and pain vigilance, were completed. TMD patients tended to perceive tactile stimuli at the painful jaw side as occurring earlier in time than stimuli at the non-painful side but this effect did not reach conventional levels of significance ( p  = .07). In the control group, tactile stimuli were perceived as occurring simultaneously. Secondary analyses indicated that the magnitude of spatial bias in the TMD group is positively associated with the extent of fear-avoidance beliefs. Overall, intensity ratings of tactile stimuli were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the painful and non-painful jaw side in the TMD patients. The hypothesis that TMD patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain preferentially attend to somatosensory information at the painful side of the jaw was not statistically supported, although lack of power could not be ruled out as a reason for this. The findings are discussed within

  8. Shared Genetics of Temporomandibular Disorder Pain and Neck Pain : Results of a Twin Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M; Schouten, Maarten J; Ligthart, Lannie; van Houtem, Caroline Mhh; de Jongh, Ad; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: (1) To examine the heritability of TMD pain and of neck pain; and (2) to estimate the potential overlap in genetic and environmental factors influencing TMD pain and neck pain. METHODS: Data from 2,238 adult female twins who completed a survey on TMD pain and neck pain were analyzed. The total

  9. Functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  10. Does comorbid chronic pain affect posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment? Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder screening in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Hoen, Helena Maria; Yu, Zhangsheng; Franks, Tenesha Marie; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and underrecognized, routine primary care-based screening for PTSD has been implemented across the Veterans Health Administration. PTSD is frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid chronic pain, and patients with both conditions have increased symptom severity and poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of pain affects diagnosis and treatment of PTSD among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who have a positive PTSD screening test. This retrospective cohort study used clinical and administrative data from six Midwestern VA medical centers. We identified 4,244 VA primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen and compared outcomes for those with and without a coexisting pain diagnosis. Outcomes were three clinically appropriate responses to positive PTSD screening: (1) mental health visit, (2) PTSD diagnosis, and (3) new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescription. We found that patients with coexisting pain had a lower rate of mental health visits than those without pain (hazard ratio: 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.821-0.962). There were no significant differences in the rate of PTSD diagnosis or new SSRI prescription between patients with and without coexisting pain.

  11. Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? An update of the Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders by the OPTIMa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica J; Shearer, Heather M; Mior, Silvano; Jacobs, Craig; Côté, Pierre; Randhawa, Kristi; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Sutton, Deborah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J; Ameis, Arthur; Ammendolia, Carlo; Brison, Robert; Nordin, Margareta; Stupar, Maja; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2016-12-01

    In 2008, the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) found limited evidence on the effectiveness of manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture for the management of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) or neck pain and associated disorders (NAD). This review aimed to update the findings of the Neck Pain Task Force, which examined the effectiveness of manual therapies, passive physical modalities, and acupuncture for the management of WAD or NAD. This is a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. The sample includes randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies comparing manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture with other interventions, placebo or sham, or no intervention. The outcome measures were self-rated or functional recovery, pain intensity, health-related quality of life, psychological outcomes, or adverse events. We systematically searched five databases from 2000 to 2014. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a low risk of bias were stratified by the intervention's stage of development (exploratory vs. evaluation) and synthesized following best evidence synthesis principles. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Finance. We screened 8,551 citations, and 38 studies were relevant and 22 had a low risk of bias. Evidence from seven exploratory studies suggests that (1) for recent but not persistent NAD grades I-II, thoracic manipulation offers short-term benefits; (2) for persistent NAD grades I-II, technical parameters of cervical mobilization (eg, direction or site of manual contact) do not impact outcomes, whereas one session of cervical manipulation is similar to Kinesio Taping; and (3) for NAD grades I-II, strain-counterstrain treatment is no better than placebo. Evidence from 15 evaluation studies

  12. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  13. Linkage between pain sensitivity and empathic response in adolescents with autism spectrum conditions and conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenyi; Hung, An-Yi; Fan, Yang-Teng; Tan, Shuai; Hong, Hua; Cheng, Yawei

    2017-02-01

    Lack of empathy is one of the behavioral hallmarks in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as well as youth with conduct disorder symptoms (CDS). Previous research has reliably documented considerable overlap between the perception of others' pain and first-hand experience of pain. However, the linkage between empathy for pain and sensitivity to physical pain needs to be empirically determined, particularly in individuals with empathy deficits. This study measured the pressure pain threshold, which indexes sensitization of peripheral nociceptors, and assessed subjective ratings of unpleasantness and pain intensity in response to empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting physical bodily injuries in three age- and sex-matched participant groups: ASC, CDS, and typically developing controls (TDC). The results indicated that the pain threshold was lowest in the ASC group and highest in the CDS group. The ASC group displayed lower ratings of unpleasantness and pain intensity than did the TDC and CDS groups. Within the ASC and CDS, pain intensity ratings were significantly correlated with unpleasantness ratings to others' pain. Moreover, the ASC significantly differed from the TDC in the correlation between pain threshold values and unpleasantness ratings. These findings may cast some light on the linkage between atypical low-level sensory functioning, for instance altered pain sensitivity, and high-level empathic processing. Autism Res 2017, 10: 267-275. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  15. Why MDMA therapy for alcohol use disorder? And why now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-11-07

    Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes. A current revisiting of psychedelic clinical research is now targeting substance use disorders - and particularly alcohol use disorder - again. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has never been formally explored as a treatment for any form of substance use disorder. But in recent years MDMA has risen in prominence as an agent to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With its unique receptor profile and a relatively well-tolerated subjective experience of drug effects when used clinically, MDMA Therapy is ideally suited to allow a patient to explore and address painful memories without being overwhelmed by negative affect. Given that alcohol use disorder is so often associated with early traumatic experiences, the author is proposing in a current on-going UK-based study that patients with alcohol use disorder who have undergone a medical detoxification from alcohol might benefit from a course of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Oomens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the primary care sector, diagnosis and initial management of orofacial pain are often performed by familydoctors and dentists. Knowledge of the different types of orofacial pain and headache disorders is therefor of great importance. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 provides an overview of the different types of orofacial pain and will be discussed in this lecture. The main focus will be on trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache and the current research in this field. Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN is defined as a disorder characterized by recurrent, unilateral, brief, electricshock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termination, limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of thetrigeminal nerve and triggered by innocuous stimuli. Unfortunately, most TN is idiopathic, and the aetiology isnot clear. The guidelines on pharmaceutical TN management published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS recommend carbamazepine (CBZ; 200–1200 mg/day or oxcarbazepine (OXC; 600–1800 mg/day as first-line therapy. Both are antiepileptics with well known interactions with other drugs and safety problems. An overview of the currently available literature on the pharmaceutical management of TN patients is discussed. Cluster headache (CH is one of the most painful primary headache disorders. It is characterized by daily or almost daily attacks of unilateral excruciating periorbital pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, typically lasting between 15 and 180 minutes if untreated. Cluster headache is caused by the relaesement of neurotransmitters and vasodilators from the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPH. The SPG is a large extracranial parasympathetic ganglion located in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF. The current treatments for CH attacks are injectable sumatriptan and oxygen inhalation. Both treatments have well known side effects and

  17. Accelerated Resolution Therapy for treatment of pain secondary to symptoms of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Kip

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As many as 70% of veterans with chronic pain treated within the US Veterans Administration (VA system may have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and conversely, up to 80% of those with PTSD may have pain. We describe pain experienced by US service members and veterans with symptoms of PTSD, and report on the effect of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART, a new, brief exposure-based therapy, on acute pain reduction secondary to treatment of symptoms of PTSD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of ART versus an attention control (AC regimen was conducted among 45 US service members/veterans with symptoms of combat-related PTSD. Participants received a mean of 3.7 sessions of ART. Results: Mean age was 41.0 + 12.4 years and 20% were female. Most veterans (93% reported pain. The majority (78% used descriptive terms indicative of neuropathic pain, with 29% reporting symptoms of a concussion or feeling dazed. Mean pre-/post-change on the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire (POQ was −16.9±16.6 in the ART group versus −0.7±14.2 in the AC group (p=0.0006. Among POQ subscales, treatment effects with ART were reported for pain intensity (effect size = 1.81, p=0.006, pain-related impairment in mobility (effect size = 0.69, p=0.01, and negative affect (effect size = 1.01, p=0.001. Conclusions: Veterans with symptoms of combat-related PTSD have a high prevalence of significant pain, including neuropathic pain. Brief treatment of symptoms of combat-related PTSD among veterans by use of ART appears to acutely reduce concomitant pain.

  18. Moods as ups and downs of the motivation pendulum: Revisiting Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eGonen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a key neurobehavioral concept underlying adaptive responses to environmental incentives and threats. As such, dysregulation of motivational processes may be critical in the formation of abnormal behavioral patterns/tendencies. According to the long standing model of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST, motivation behaviors are driven by three neurobehavioral systems mediating the sensitivity to punishment, reward or goal-conflict. Corresponding to current neurobehavioral theories in psychiatry, this theory links abnormal motivational drives to abnormal behavior; viewing depression and mania as two abnormal extremes of reward driven processes leading to either under or over approach tendencies, respectively. We revisit the RST framework in the context of bipolar disorder (BD and challenge this concept by suggesting that dysregulated interactions of both punishment and reward related processes better account for the psychological and neural abnormalities observed in BD. We further present an integrative model positing that the three parallel motivation systems currently proposed by the RST model, can be viewed as subsystems in a large-scale neurobehavioral network of motivational decision making.

  19. Atypical central pain processing in sensory modulation disorder: absence of temporal summation and higher after-sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Vatine, J-J; Yarnitsky, D; Parush, S; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2014-02-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR), a subtype of the proposed sensory modulation disorder (SMD), is characterized by over-responsiveness to stimuli in several sensory modalities. SMD individuals demonstrate abnormal responses to naturally occurring stimuli in a manner that interferes with daily life participation. Previous psychophysical testing of the somatosensory system revealed that SOR individuals rated pain sensations higher than controls, demonstrating hyperalgesia that can be centrally mediated. Temporal summation (TS) of second pain and after-sensation are manifestations of central sensitization; therefore, this study explored these measures for better characterization of central pain processing in SOR. Twelve SOR adults and 12 healthy controls participated. TS was produced by a train of fifteen repetitive heat pulses, 0.7 s duration each, and 2 s of inter-stimulus interval, applied to the thenar-eminence, while four pain ratings were obtained. An after-sensation was then measured for 5 min, obtaining six pain ratings. No TS of pain was indicated in the SOR group (SOR: p = 0.36; control: p sensation, individuals with SOR continued to report pain for the duration of the 5 min measured (p = 0.002). These results demonstrate an atypical response pattern, suggesting alteration in pain processing and/or modulation at a central level in individuals with SOR. These possible neural changes may manifest themselves as interference with daily functioning as well as shed light on some of the between-subject variability seen in psychophysical testing in non-painful subjects.

  20. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS IN DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  1. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, Daniël R.; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Vlieger, Arine M.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized

  2. Masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint pain in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhac, Ivone; Tariba, Petra; Kovac, Zoran; Simonić-Kocijan, Suncana; Lajnert, Vlatka; Mesić, Vesna Fugosić; Kuis, Davor; Braut, Vedrana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and intensity of masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The examined group consisted of 100 Croatian war veterans, in whom PTSD had previously been diagnosed. Patients were compared with 92 subjects who had not taken part in the war and in whom PTSD was excluded by psychiatric examination. The clinical examination consisted of palpation of the masticatory muscles, the prominent neck musculature, and TMJ. The examination technique used and the definition of items were previously tested for reliability and validity. 93% of the subjects with PTSD had masticatory muscle tenderness compared to 45.65% of the subjects in the control group (chi2 = 51.46, p < 0.0001). The most frequent painful location in the subjects with PTSD was the left lateral pterygoid site in 88%, and in subjects of the control group the right lateral pterygoid site in 28.26% of cases. The most painful location in the PTSD group was the left lateral pterygoid site in 72%, and in the control group the left posterior digastric in 4.35% of cases. 58% of the subjects with PTSD had TMJ tenderness compared to 3.26% of subjects in the control group (chi2 = 66.23, p < 0.0001). The most frequent painful location of TMJ in both groups was the left posterior capsule; in the PTSD group 38% and in subjects in the control group 2.17% of cases. The most painful location was the left posterior capsule in 28% of subjects with PTSD, while not one subject in the control group reported severe painful sensitivity. The very high frequency and intensity of pain in subjects with PTSD confirms the effect of stress on muscle and joint sensitivity, i.e. perception of pain.

  3. Childhood trauma and dissociation among women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen B

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe Erenköy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD. There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD.Patients and methods: Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18–60 years, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20 were administered to all participants.Results: Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect scores, which comprise the subgroups of CTQ, were found high among women with GPP/PD compared with the control group (p=0.003, p=0.006, p=0.001. While a significant difference between the two groups’ SDQ scores was obtained (p=0.000, no significant difference was detected between the two groups’ DES scores (p=0.392.Discussion: The results evoke the question are genitopelvic pain conditions, vaginismus and dyspareunia, that cannot be explained with a medical cause and that cause penetration disorder, a kind of dissociative symptom prone to develop in some women with childhood psychogenic trauma. Keywords: dyspareunia, sexual phobia, abuse, sexual dysfunction, intercourse, avoidance 

  4. Pain sensitivity and neural processing during dissociative states in patients with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Petra; Valerius, Gabriele; Stiglmayr, Christian; Mauchnik, Jana; Lanius, Ruth A; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Stress-induced dissociative states involving analgesia are a common feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our aim was to investigate the psychologic, somatosensory (pain sensitivity) and neural correlates of dissociative states in patients with these disorders. We included 15 women with BPD who were not taking medication; 10 of these women had comorbid PTSD. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, participants were exposed to a script describing a personalized dissociation-inducing situation and a personalized script describing a neutral situation. We assessed dissociative psychopathology and pain sensitivity. Dissociative psychopathology scores were significantly higher and pain sensitivity was lower after the dissociation-inducing script was read compared with the neutral script. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was significantly increased in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9) during the presentation of the dissociation-inducing script. Regression analyses revealed positive correlations between BOLD signal and dissociative psychopathology in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6) and negative correlations in the right middle (BA 21) and inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20). In the subgroup of participants with comorbid PTSD, we also found increased activity in the left cingulate gyrus (BA 32) during script-driven imagery-induced dissociation, a positive correlation between dissociation scores and activity in the right and left insula (BA 13) and a negative correlation in the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35). The main limitation of this pilot study is the absence of a control group. Therefore, the results may also reflect the neural correlates of non-BPD/PTSD specific dissociative states or the neural correlates of emotionally stressful or "loaded" memories. Another limitation is the uncorrected statistical level of the functional magnetic resonance

  5. [Comparable disorder of the body schema in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and phantom pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, A; Haarmeyer, G S; Blankenburg, M; Frettlöh, J; Krumova, E K; Ocklenburg, S; Maier, C

    2011-09-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a disruption of the body schema has been shown in an altered cortical representation of the hand and in delayed reaction times (RT) in the hand laterality recognition task. However, the role of attentional processes or the effect of isolated limb laterality training has not yet been clarified. The performance of healthy subjects (n = 38), CRPS patients (n = 12) and phantom limb pain (PLP) patients (n = 12) in a test battery of attentional performance (TAP) and in a limb laterality recognition task was compared and the effect of limb laterality training in CRPS patients and healthy subjects evaluated. The RTs of both CRPS and PLP patients were significantly slower than those of healthy subjects despite normal TAP values. The CRPS and PLP patients showed bilaterally delayed RTs. Through training RTs improved significantly but the RTs of CRPS patients remained slower than those of healthy subjects. In this study an equal disruption of the body schema was found in both CRPS and PLP patients which cannot be accounted for by attentional processes. For CRPS patients this disorder cannot be fully reversed by isolated limb laterality recognition training.

  6. CO-OCCURRENCE OF CHRONIC HEAD, FACE AND NECK PAIN, AND DEPRESSION IN WAR VETERANS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Vukšić, Željka; Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Braut, Vedrana; Braut, Alen; Uhač, Ivone

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between chronic head, face and neck pain, and the level of depression in Croatian war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The presence of self-reported pain, pain on digital palpation, and pain severity in masticatory and neck muscles, temporomandibular joints and sinuses, as well as the level of depression were assessed in a group of war veterans with PTSD (n=52). Control groups consisted of war veterans without PTSD (n=50) and healthy men that were not engaged in war actions and were free from PTSD (n=50). The number of self-reported pain and number of painful sites were correlated with the level of depression. More self-reported pain and painful sites were recorded in the group of war veterans with PTSD as compared with either war veterans without PTSD or healthy men. Furthermore, PTSD patients mostly suffered from severe depression. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between all investigated pain parameters and level of depression. As the most important finding, the present study demonstrated chronic head, face and neck pain to be related to depression in PTSD patients.

  7. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  8. Comparison of duloxetine and SSRI as a treatment option of painful physical symptoms associated with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Miqdad Haider,1 Muhammad Nabeel Shafqat2 1Department of Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences “Serafin Ruiz de Zarate” Villa Clara (UCMVC, Villa Clara, CubaWe would like to write about the recently published article “An observational study of duloxetine versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs monotherapy for the treatment of painful physical symptoms in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: primary analysis” by Kuga et al, which we read with great interest.1 The study is a good step toward finding the best treatment option for painful physical symptoms (PPSs in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD.View the original paper by Kuga and colleagues. 

  9. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn...

  10. Prevalence of different pain categories based on pain spreading on the bodies of older adults in Sweden: a descriptive-level and multilevel association with demographics, comorbidities, medications, and certain lifestyle factors (PainS65+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragioti E

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available E Dragioti,1 B Larsson,1 L Bernfort,2 LÅ Levin,2 B Gerdle1 1Pain and Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Division of Health Care Analysis, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Background and objective: There is limited knowledge about the prevalence of pain and its relation to comorbidities, medication, and certain lifestyle factors in older adults. To address this limitation, this cross-sectional study examined the spreading of pain on the body in a sample of 6611 subjects ≥65 years old (mean age = 75.0 years; standard deviation [SD] = 7.7 living in southeastern Sweden.Methods: Sex, age, comorbidities, medication, nicotine, alcohol intake, and physical activity were analyzed in relation to the following pain categories: local pain (LP (24.1%, regional pain medium (RP-Medium (20.3%, regional pain heavy (RP-Heavy (5.2%, and widespread pain (WSP (1.7%.Results: RP-Medium, RP-Heavy, and WSP were associated more strongly with women than with men (all p<0.01. RP-Heavy was less likely in the 80–84 and >85 age groups compared to the 65–69 age group (both p<0.01. Traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis, and analgesics were associated with all pain categories (all p<0.001. An association with gastrointestinal disorders was found in LP, RP-Medium, and RP-Heavy (all p<0.01. Depressive disorders were associated with all pain categories, except for LP (all p<0.05. Disorders of the central nervous system were associated with both RP-Heavy and WSP (all p<0.05. Medication for peripheral vascular disorders was associated with RP-Medium (p<0.05, and hypnotics were associated with RP-Heavy (p<0.01.Conclusion: More than 50% of older adults suffered from different pain spread categories. Women were more likely to experience greater spreading of pain than men. A noteworthy number of common comorbidities and medications were associated with increased likelihood of pain

  11. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The semiotics of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes in motor disorders of the digestive organs in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriieva, S M

    1999-06-01

    Overall 304 children and adolescents with gastro-duodenal pathology were studied for some aspects of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes as related to the character of disordered gastroduodenal motility by making use of techniques of phase polygastroduodenometry. Pathogenetic interrelationship was disclosed of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes according to the variant of gastroduodenal dysmotility (dysphasic hyper- or hypomotile dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum).

  13. Do patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain due to a temporomandibular disorder show increased attending to somatosensory input at the painful side of the jaw?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Van Damme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with chronic orofacial pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMD display alterations in somatosensory processing at the jaw, such as amplified perception of tactile stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated one possible explanation, namely hypervigilance, and tested if TMD patients with unilateral pain showed increased attending to somatosensory input at the painful side of the jaw. Methods TMD patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain (n = 20 and matched healthy volunteers (n = 20 performed a temporal order judgment (TOJ task indicated which one of two tactile stimuli, presented on each side of the jaw, they had perceived first. TOJ methodology allows examining spatial bias in somatosensory processing speed. Furthermore, after each block of trials, the participants rated the perceived intensity of tactile stimuli separately for both sides of the jaw. Finally, questionnaires assessing pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, and pain vigilance, were completed. Results TMD patients tended to perceive tactile stimuli at the painful jaw side as occurring earlier in time than stimuli at the non-painful side but this effect did not reach conventional levels of significance (p = .07. In the control group, tactile stimuli were perceived as occurring simultaneously. Secondary analyses indicated that the magnitude of spatial bias in the TMD group is positively associated with the extent of fear-avoidance beliefs. Overall, intensity ratings of tactile stimuli were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the painful and non-painful jaw side in the TMD patients. Discussion The hypothesis that TMD patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain preferentially attend to somatosensory information at the painful side of the jaw was not statistically supported, although lack of power could not be ruled out as a

  14. Glucomannan for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Andrea; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania

    2013-05-28

    To assess the efficacy of glucomannan (GNN) as the sole treatment for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were recruited among children referred to the Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw. Included in the study were children aged 7-17 years with abdominal pain-related FGIDs classified according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The children were randomly assigned to receive GNN, a polysaccharide of 1,4-D-glucose and D-mannose, a soluble fiber from the Japanese Konjac plant, at a dosage of 2.52 g/d (1 sachet of 1.26 g 2 times a day), or a comparable placebo (maltodextrin) at the same dosage. The content of each sachet was dissolved in approximately 125 mL of fluid and was consumed twice daily for 4 wk. Of the 89 eligible children, 84 (94%) completed the study. "No pain" and "treatment success" (defined as no pain or a decrease ≥ 2/6 points on the FACES Pain Scale Revised) were similar in the GNN (n = 41) and placebo (n = 43) groups [no pain (12/41 vs 6/43, respectively; RR = 2.1, 95%CI: 0.87-5.07) as well as treatment success (23/41 vs 20/43; RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 0.79-1.83)]. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the secondary outcomes, such as abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating/gassiness, episodes of nausea or vomiting, or a changed in stool consistency. GNN demonstrated no significant influence on the number of children requiring rescue therapy, school absenteeism, or daily activities. In our setting, GNN, as dosed in this study, was no more effective than the placebo in achieving therapeutic success in the management of FGIDs in children.

  15. TMJ Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aching pain in and around your ear Difficulty chewing or pain while chewing Aching facial pain Locking of the joint, making ... disorder. When to see a doctor Seek medical attention if you have persistent pain or tenderness in ...

  16. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  17. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: A study from NESDA

    OpenAIRE

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of dep...

  18. The burden and determinants of neck pain in workers: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pierre; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda J; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Holm, Lena W; Carragee, Eugene J; Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric L; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    Systematic review and best evidence synthesis. To describe the prevalence and incidence of neck pain and disability in workers; to identify risk factors for neck pain in workers; to propose an etiological diagram; and to make recommendations for future research. Previous reviews of the etiology of neck pain in workers relied on cross-sectional evidence. Recently published cohorts and randomized trials warrant a re-analysis of this body of research. We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980-2006. Retrieved articles were reviewed for relevance. Relevant articles were critically appraised. Articles judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. One hundred and nine papers on the burden and determinants of neck pain in workers were scientifically admissible. The annual prevalence of neck pain varied from 27.1% in Norway to 47.8% in Québec, Canada. Each year, between 11% and 14.1% of workers were limited in their activities because of neck pain. Risk factors associated with neck pain in workers include age, previous musculoskeletal pain, high quantitative job demands, low social support at work, job insecurity, low physical capacity, poor computer workstation design and work posture, sedentary work position, repetitive work and precision work. We found preliminary evidence that gender, occupation, headaches, emotional problems, smoking, poor job satisfaction, awkward work postures, poor physical work environment, and workers' ethnicity may be associated with neck pain. There is evidence that interventions aimed at modifying workstations and worker posture are not effective in reducing the incidence of neck pain in workers. Neck disorders are a significant source of pain and activity limitations in workers. Most neck pain results from complex relationships between individual and workplace risk factors. No prevention strategies have been shown to reduce the incidence of neck pain in workers.

  19. Catastrophizing, depression, and pain: correlation with and influence on quality of life and health - a study of chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börsbo, Björn; Peolsson, Michael; Gerdle, Björn

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to classify subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing, and investigate distribution in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders; and (ii) to investigate how these subgroups were distributed and inter-related multivariately with respect to consequences such as health and quality of life outcome measures. Descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 275 consecutive chronic pain patients with whiplash-associated disorders who were referred to a university hospital. The following data were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires: pain intensity in neck and shoulders, background history, Beck Depression Inventory, the catastrophizing scale of Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Checklist, the SF-36 Health Survey, and the EuroQol. Principal component analysis was used to recognize subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing. These subgroups have specific characteristics according to perceived health and quality of life, and the degree of depression appears to be the most important influencing factor. From a clinical point of view, these findings indicate that it is important to assess patients for intensity of pain, depression, and catastrophizing when planning a rehabilitation programme. Such an evaluation will help individualize therapy and intervention techniques so as to optimize the efficiency of the programme.

  20. Chronic disruptive pain in emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions and the moderating role of psychiatric disorders: Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Rana A; Shanahan, Lilly; Ferro, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    There has been a growth in the proportion of emerging adults vulnerable to pain-related sequelae of chronic health conditions (CHCs). Given the paucity of research during this important developmental period, this study investigated the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain among emerging adults and the extent to which psychiatric disorders moderate this association. Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH). This cross-sectional survey included 5987 participants that were 15-30 years of age and self-reported their CHCs (n=2460, 41%) and the extent to which pain impacted daily functioning using items from the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI 3). Group comparisons between respondents with CHCs and healthy controls were made using chi-square tests. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed from ordinal logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Product-term interactions between CHCs and psychiatric disorders were included in the models to explore moderating effects. All analyses were weighted to maintain representativeness of the study sample to the Canadian population. The mean age of participants was 23.5 (SE 0.1) years and 48% were female. Compared to healthy controls, a greater proportion of participants with CHCs reported having chronic pain (20.3% vs. 4.5%, pmoderate the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain. Specifically, the probability of chronic disruptive pain was higher for emerging adults without CHCs and with alcohol or drug disorders; however, among participants with CHCs, probability was higher for those without these disorders. There is a robust association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain. The moderating effects suggest that alcohol or drug disorders are especially harmful for emerging adults without CHCs and contribute to higher levels of chronic disruptive pain; however, among those with CHCs, alcohol and illicit drugs

  1. Pain-mediated affect regulation is reduced after dialectical behavior therapy in borderline personality disorder: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-05-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, but self-injurious behavior appears to have an emotion-regulating effect. We investigated whether pain-mediated affect regulation can be altered at the neural level by residential Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), providing adaptive emotion regulation techniques. Likewise, we investigated whether pain thresholds or the appraisal of pain change after psychotherapy. We investigated 28 patients with BPD undergoing DBT (self-referral), 15 patients with treatment as usual and 23 healthy control subjects at two time points 12 weeks apart. We conducted an fMRI experiment eliciting negative emotions with picture stimuli and induced heat pain to investigate the role of pain in emotion regulation. Additionally, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds.At first measurement, patients with BPD showed amygdala deactivation in response to painful stimulation, as well as altered connectivity between left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These effects were reduced after DBT, as compared with patients with treatment as usual. Pain thresholds did not differ between the patient groups. We replicated the role of pain as a means of affect regulation in BPD, indicated by increased amygdala coupling. For the first time, we could demonstrate that pain-mediated affect regulation can be changed by DBT. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Widespread pain - do pain intensity and care-seeking influence sickness absence? - A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Søren; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Jensen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both musculoskeletal pain-intensity in relation to a specific location (e.g. lower back or shoulder) and pain in multiple body regions have been shown to be associated with impaired function and sickness absence, but the impact of pain intensity on the association between widespread...... between number of musculoskeletal pain sites and sickness absence, and to analyze the impact on absenteeism from care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders.METHODS: 3745 Danish adults registered with eight General Practitioners (GPs) in one primary medical center reported location...... pain and sickness absence has not been studied. Additionally it is unknown whether care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders has a positive or negative impact on future absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain intensity on the association...

  3. The "at-home LLLT" in temporo-mandibular disorders pain control: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, C; Pelosi, A; Queirolo, V; Vescovi, P; Merigo, E

    2015-03-31

    The Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD) are a set of dysfunctional patterns concerning the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) and the masticatory muscles; its main symptom is pain, probably caused by inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane, alterations in the bone marrow of the mandibular condyle and impingement and compression. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effectiveness in the TMD pain reduction of a new laser device recently proposed by the commerce that, due to its reduced dimensions and to be a class I laser according the ANSI classification, may be used at home by the patient himself. Twenty-four patients with TMD were randomly selected: the inclusion criteria for the sample was the diagnosis of mono- or bi-lateral TMD, with acute pain restricted to the joint area, associated with the absence of any muscle tenderness during palpation. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (12 patients): patients receiving real LLLT (experimental group). Group 2 (12 patients): patients receiving inactive laser (placebo group). The treatment was performed once a day for two weeks with an 808 nm diode laser by the patient himself with irradiation of the cutaneous zone corresponding to the TMJ for 15 minutes each side. Each patient was instructed to express its pain in a visual analogue scale (VAS) making a perpendicular line between the two extremes representing the felt pain level. Statistical analysis was realized with GraphPad Instat Software, where Ptemporo-mandibular diseases by an at home self administered laser device. RESULTS are encouraging but they will have to be confirmed by greater studies.

  4. Managing pregnancy and delivery in women with sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Padoa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Vaginismus and dyspareunia most commonly affect women in their childbearing years, yet sexual function, and not childbirth, has been the focus of most research. The aim of this study is to discuss pregnancy and birth outcomes in women with sexual pain disorders (SPDs) and address practical concerns of patients and practitioners regarding management during pregnancy, pelvic examination, labor, and delivery. Review of the relevant literature and recommendations based on clinical expertise of the authors. A review of SPD, conception, and birth outcomes is provided as well as clinical recommendations for prenatal, labor, and delivery management of women with SPD. Practitioners involved in obstetrical care should be knowledgeable about SPD and provide appropriate modifications and interventions. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Eisenberg, Elon; Demeter, Naor; Pud, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by dysregulation of sensory processing and neurobiology of dopamine. Although cumulative evidence suggests that dopamine is involved in pain processing, pain perception in ADHD subjects and the effect of dopamine agonists such as methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) on it have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to (1) psychophysically assess sensitivity to pain in ADHD subjects as compared to controls and (2) examine the effects of MP on pain response in ADHD subjects. Thirty subjects with ADHD and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in a preliminary trial. Pain threshold, intensity, and tolerance in response to cold pain stimulation were measured for both groups (ADHD with no treatment). In addition, the ADHD group was reassessed following a single dose of MP treatment. The ADHD subjects "without MP" in comparison with controls displayed significantly shorter cold pain threshold (2.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.8 ± 2.5 seconds, respectively, P ADHD subjects increased significantly compared to those with no treatment (3.6 ± 2.5 seconds, P = 0.011, and 46.4 ± 53.3 seconds, P ADHD are more sensitive to pain compared with controls and that MP may exert antinociceptive properties in these subjects. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to verify these findings. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Can Fear, Pain, and Muscle Tension Discriminate Vaginismus from Dyspareunia/Provoked Vestibulodynia? Implications for the New DSM-5 Diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Marie-Andrée; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir; Boyer, Stephanie; Faaborg-Andersen, Marie; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2015-08-01

    Fear has been suggested as the crucial diagnostic variable that may distinguish vaginismus from dyspareunia. Unfortunately, this has not been systematically investigated. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether fear as evaluated by subjective, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures could differentiate women with vaginismus from those with dyspareunia/provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and controls. A second aim was to re-examine whether genital pain and pelvic floor muscle tension differed between vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD sufferers. Fifty women with vaginismus, 50 women with dyspareunia/PVD, and 43 controls participated in an experimental session comprising a structured interview, pain sensitivity testing, a filmed gynecological examination, and several self-report measures. Results demonstrated that fear and vaginal muscle tension were significantly greater in the vaginismus group as compared to the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Moreover, behavioral measures of fear and vaginal muscle tension were found to discriminate the vaginismus group from the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Genital pain did not differ significantly between the vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD groups; however, genital pain was found to discriminate both clinical groups from controls. Despite significant statistical differences on fear and vaginal muscle tension variables between women suffering from vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD, a large overlap was observed between these conditions. These findings may explain the great difficulty health professionals experience in attempting to reliably differentiate vaginismus from dyspareunia/PVD. The implications of these data for the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder are discussed.

  7. eWOM, Revisit Intention, Destination Trust and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, Abubakar Mohammed; Ilkan, Mustafa; Al-Tal, Raad Meshall; Eluwole, Kayode

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit and destination trust, and the moderating role of gender in medical tourism industry. Result from structural equation modeling (n=240) suggests the following: (1) that eWOM influences intention to revisit and destination trust; (2) that destination trust influences intention to revisit; (3) that the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit is about 1.3 times higher in men; (4) that the impact of eWOM on destination trust is ab...

  8. Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions

  9. Clinical management of chronic TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D B

    1998-01-01

    Chronic Pain extracts a "penalty" on society now estimated to be well in excess of $100 million per year. The "penalty" that Chronic Pain extracts from its victims is incalculable. Chronic Pain is a major component of Temporomandibular Disorders. The current neurological theory of the mechanism of chronic TMD pain is explored along with the current modes of treatment. Pharmacological management of Chronic Pain in a clinical setting is outlined. Dentists are involved in pain management on a daily basis. Dentists treat pain both prophylacticly and in response to specific patient symptoms. Most dental treatment involves some type of pain management. We, dentists, have become very adept at managing acute pain. We have much greater difficulty managing chronic pain. The word "pain" derives from the Greek word for penalty, and appeared to them to be a "penalty" inflicted by the gods. In 1984, Bonica estimated that one-third of all Americans suffered from some kind of chronic pain at a "penalty" to society of $65 Billion annually in medical expenses and lost wages and productivity. This figure is certainly much greater now. Chronic pain can be a very complex problem that can require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Chronic pain in the dental setting is most frequetly caused by prolonged Temporomandibular Disorders.

  10. Effect of hypnotic pain modulation on brain activity in patients with temporomandibular disorder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Randi; Dietz, Martin; Lodahl, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    hyperalgesia. Direct contrasts between control and hypnotic hypoalgesia conditions demonstrated significant decreases in right posterior insula and BA21, as well as left BA40 during hypoalgesia. These findings are the first to describe hypnotic modulation of brain activity associated with nociceptive......Hypnosis modulates pain perception but the associated brain mechanisms in chronic pain conditions are poorly understood. Brain activity evoked by painful repetitive pin-prick stimulation of the left mental nerve region was investigated with use of fMRI in 19 patients with painful temporomandibular...... condition and significantly higher in the hypnotic hyperalgesia condition. In the control condition, painful stimulation caused significant activation of right posterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex (SI), BA21, and BA6, and left BA40 and BA4. Painful stimulation during hypnotic hyperalgesia...

  11. What Happened to Paul? Manifestation of Abnormal Pain Response for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Janice

    2017-07-01

    During the progression of a pilot nutrition intervention designed to teach cooking skills to young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one participant-Paul-fell in the parking lot. Prior to the accident, Paul had been making significant gains in the program and had communicated in a number of ways his enthusiasm. After his accident, which resulted in broken and dislocated bones in his ankle, his demeanor was dramatically altered, program gains were lost, and staff noted the appearance of many new challenging behaviors. This article analyzes Paul's behavior in reference to the pain response in autism. For some time, it was believed that many individuals with ASD did not experience pain based on anecdotal reports of how individuals responded to injury with seeming indifference. This view has given way of late to a more nuanced understanding of how atypical sensory processing and stimulus over-selectivity spill over into pain pathways and pain amplification mechanisms. The consequence is not a reduction in pain sensation, but a different expression of pain, determined by that individual's particular communicative, cognitive, or physiological challenges. From this perspective, many of the disruptive and harmful behaviors that emerged after Paul's accident can be seen as a delayed response to the incident. This article concludes by arguing that professionals across all domains of health care need to begin to see behavior as communicative for those with ASD. This is particularly true of changes in behavior, which can be significant indicators of health care problems rather than something to be dismissed as another manifestation of the condition.

  12. Prevalence of Painful Temporomandibular Disorders and Correlation to Lifestyle Factors among Adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Østensjø

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD-P among adolescents and to investigate correlations with health, environment, and lifestyle factors. Methods. For this cross-sectional case-control study, 562 patients were consecutively recruited at their yearly revision control from four dental clinics in Rogaland County, Norway. Patients completed a questionnaire on general health, socioeconomics, demographics, and lifestyle factors. Responses to two screening questions identified patients with TMD-P, who then underwent clinical examination to verify the TMD diagnosis. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. Patients without TMD-P constituted the control group and were not clinically examined. Results. 7% experienced TMD-P. The female-to-male ratio is 3:1; median age is 17 years. Patients at urban clinics had higher prevalence compared with those at rural clinics. TMD-P patients had headache and severe menstrual pain compared to controls. They were more likely to live with divorced/single parents and less likely to have regular physical activity. Myalgia was present in 21 patients with TMD-P, arthralgia in nine, and myalgia and arthralgia in nine. Females had higher pain intensity than males. Conclusions. A low prevalence of TMD-P was shown but was comparable to other studies. Sex, health, lifestyle, and environment factors were associated with TMD-P.

  13. Pain during ice water test distinguishes clinical bladder hypersensitivity from overactivity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bountra Chas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bladder cooling reflex (BCR i.e. uninhibited detrusor contractions evoked by intravesical instillation of cold saline, is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in the bladder wall, with the afferent signals transmitted by C fibres. The BCR is a neonatal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals from higher centres at approximately the time when the child gains full voluntary control of voiding. It re-emerges in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity as a consequence of loss of central descending inhibition, resulting from conditions such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. We have recently shown an increase of nerve fibres expressing the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in both overactive (IDO and painful bladder syndrome (PBS, but its functional significance is unknown. We have therefore studied the bladder cooling reflex and associated sensory symptoms in patients with PBS and overactivity disorders. Methods The BCR, elicited by ice water test (IWT was performed in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 17, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 22, neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, n = 4 and stress urinary incontinence (as controls, n = 21. The IWT was performed by intravesical instillation of cold saline (0 – 4°C. A positive IWT was defined as presence of uninhibited detrusor contraction evoked by cold saline, associated with urgency or with fluid expulsion. Patients were asked to report and rate any pain and cold sensation during the test. Results A positive IWT was observed in IDO (6/22, 27.3% and NDO (4/4, 100% patients, but was negative in all control and PBS patients. Thirteen (76.5% PBS patients reported pain during the IWT, with significantly higher pain scores during ice water instillation compared to the baseline (P = 0.0002, or equivalent amount of bladder filling (100 mls with saline at room temperature (P = 0.015. None

  14. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri-Martins; Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (pbruxism.

  15. Pain Examination and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a clinical challenge to health care providers who care for hand disorders. Pathologic pain that prevents recovery leads to dissatisfaction for both patients and providers. Despite pain being common, the root cause is often difficult to diagnose. This article reviews the examination and diagnostic tools that are helpful in identifying pathologic and neuropathic pain. This article provides tools to speed recognition of these processes to allow earlier intervention and better patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Prevalence and impact of childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder in women with fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, E; Van Wambeke, P; Morlion, B; Weltens, N; Giao Ly, H; Tack, J; Luyten, P; Van Oudenhove, L

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of different types of childhood adversities (CA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female patients with Fibromyalgia or Chronic Widespread Pain (FM/CWP) compared to patients with Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and achalasia. In FM/CWP, we also investigated the association between CA and PTSD on the one hand and pain severity on the other. Patient samples consisted of 154 female FM/CWP, 83 female FD and 53 female achalasia patients consecutively recruited from a tertiary care hospital. Well-validated self-report questionnaires were used to investigate CA and PTSD. Forty-nine per cent of FM/CWP patients reported at least 1 type of CA, compared to 39.7% of FD patients and 23.4% of achalasia patients (p PTSD than both FD (p PTSD comorbidity, but not CA, was associated with self-reported pain severity and PTSD severity mediated the relationship between CA and pain severity. In summary, the prevalence of CA is higher in FM/CWP compared to achalasia, but similar to FD. However, PTSD is more prevalent in FM/CWP compared to FD and associated with higher pain intensity in FM/CWP. As expected and has been shown in other functional disorders, we found elevated levels of childhood adversity in FM/CWP patients. Results of this study however suggest that the impact of childhood adversity (i.e. whether such events have led to the development of PTSD symptoms), rather than the mere presence of such adversity, is of crucial importance in FM/CWP patients. Screening for PTSD symptoms should be an essential part of the assessment process in patients suffering from FM/CWP, and both prevention and intervention efforts should take into account PTSD symptoms and their impact on pain severity and general functioning. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. Anorectal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S. C.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the following common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals, and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into 3 subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in levator ani syndrome there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by ≥2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with ≥2 features of impaired evacuation, that is, abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test, or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes 2 subtypes: dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating levator ani syndrome and defecatory disorders. PMID:27144630

  18. Prevalence of esophageal disorders in patients with recurrent chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, C; Barroso, M S; Losada, H; Muñoz, S; Vial, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of esophageal disorders (ED) associated with recurrent chest pain (RCP) and the utility of esophageal functional tests (EFT) in the study of these patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Hospital Clínico de La Frontera, Chile. One hundred and twenty-three patients with RCP were studied using esophageal manometry, edrophonium stimulation and 24-h pH monitoring. The performance of EFT was considered acceptable when they were capable of finding ED. To state the probability that RCP had an esophageal origin, patients were classified according to whether their pain had a probable, possible or unlikely esophageal origin. The prevalence of ED was determined according to diagnoses obtained after applying EFT and a multivariate analysis was performed to examine the association between the esophageal origin of RCP and ED. Rates of correct diagnosis of 65.9%, 56.9% and 31.7% was verified for 24-h pH monitoring, esophageal manometry and edrophonium stimulation, respectively. In 38.2% of patients with RCP, the pain was probably of esophageal origin, in 42.3% there was a possible esophageal origin and in 19.5% an unlikely esophageal origin. A 44.7% prevalence of GERD, 26.8% of GERD with secondary esophageal motor dysfunction and 8.9% of pure esophageal motor dysfunction were verified. The multivariate analysis allowed us to verify the association between the probability of esophageal origin of RCP, the variables RCP duration, esophagitis and dysphagia coexistence (P= 0.037, P= 0.030 and P= 0.024, respectively), and a statistically significant association between ED and dysphagia coexistence (P= 0.028). A high prevalence of ED was identified in patients with RCP.

  19. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  20. Behavioral Interventions Targeting Chronic Pain, Depression, and Substance Use Disorder in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kathleen; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic pain, depression, and substance use disorder (SUD) are often treated in primary care settings. An estimated 52% of patients have a diagnosis of chronic pain, 5% to 13% have depression, and 19% have SUD. These estimates are likely low when considering the fact that 50% of primary care patients with depression and 65% with SUD are undiagnosed or do not seek help. These three conditions have overlapping neurophysiological processes, which complicate the treatment outcomes of a primary physical illness. Behavioral interventions have been widely utilized as adjunctive treatments, yet little is known about what types of behavioral interventions were effective to treat these comorbidities. This systematic review aimed to identify behavioral interventions targeting chronic pain, depression, and SUD in primary care settings. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, using a behavioral intervention, involving adults with at least two of the three conditions. This search yielded 1,862 relevant records, and six articles met final selection criteria. A total of 696 participants were studied. Behavioral interventions varied in content, format, and duration. Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Interpersonal Psychotherapy adapted for pain (IPT-P), and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) showed promising improvements across all studies, albeit with small to moderate effects. MORE, ACT, and CBT combined with mindfulness and Motivational Interviewing had the most promising results for treating chronic pain, depression, and SUD in various combinations in primary care settings. The evidence is mounting that behavioral interventions such as mindfulness-based or cognitive-behavioral interventions are effective strategies for managing patients with comorbidities of chronic pain, depression

  1. Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linari-Melfi Marcela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10, in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists.

  2. Postural reconfiguration and cycle-to-cycle variability in patients with work-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to healthy controls and in relation to pain emerging during a repetitive movement task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alessia; Meulenbroek, Ruud; Haid, Thomas; Federolf, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Movement variability in sustained repetitive tasks is an important factor in the context of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. While a popular hypothesis suggests that movement variability can prevent overuse injuries, pain evolving during task execution may also cause variability. The aim of the current study was to investigate, first, differences in movement behavior between volunteers with and without work-related pain and, second, the influence of emerging pain on movement variability. Upper-body 3D kinematics were collected as 22 subjects with musculoskeletal disorders and 19 healthy volunteers performed a bimanual repetitive tapping task with a self-chosen and a given rhythm. Three subgroups were formed within the patient group according to the level of pain the participants experienced during the task. Principal component analysis was applied to 30 joint angle coordinates to characterize in a combined analysis the movement variability associated with reconfigurations of the volunteers' postures and the cycle-to-cycle variability that occurred during the execution of the task. Patients with no task-related pain showed lower cycle-to-cycle variability compared to healthy controls. Findings also indicated an increase in movement variability as pain emerged, manifesting both as frequent postural changes and large cycle-to-cycle variability. The findings suggested a relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders and movement variability but further investigation is needed on this issue. Additionally, the findings provided clear evidence that pain increased motor variability. Postural reconfigurations and cycle-to-cycle variability should be considered jointly when investigating movement variability and musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Extensive interactions between eating and weight disorder, major depression, pain, and sarcoidosis - case 5/2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäflein, Eva; Wettach, Irmtraud; Smolka, Robert; Kuprion, Jürgen; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2012-06-01

    We report on a 41-year-old female patient suffering from obesity, binge eating more than twice a week with loss of control, eating rapidly and feeling guilty after eating, dyspnoea and chronic pain in the whole body, especially in her arms, legs and in both ankles. Furthermore, subdued mood, loss of interest and pleasure, fatigue and impaired concentration could be recognized. In the past, weight increase had been observed when corticosteroids were given against exacerbations of sarcoidosis. In the case of our patient, the beginning of sarcoidosis and increase of weight and pain correlated with augmentation of depression and psychosocial stress. Dysfunctional behavioral features and multiple interactions between diseases could be observed. We diagnosed obesity, binge eating disorder, major depression, chronic pain disease with somatic and psychical components and sarcoidosis. The patient was treated in a multimodal therapy program including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy, nutritionist advice and therapeutic exercise. A weight loss of 7.9 kg (5.9 %), well-balanced diet, reduction of binge eating and of pain intensity, mood stabilization as well as perception and expression of emotions and coping strategies in chronic diseases were achieved. Interdisciplinary treatment of patients suffering from psychosomatic, somatic and mental diseases is crucial for a good outcome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  5. Reduced acute nociception and chronic pain in Shank2 ?/? mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Oh, Seog-Bae; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a debilitating mental illness and social issue. Autism spectrum disorder patients suffer from social isolation, cognitive deficits, compulsive behavior, and sensory deficits, including hyposensitivity to pain. However, recent studies argued that autism spectrum disorder patients show physiological pain response and, in some cases, even extremely intense pain response to harmless stimulation. Recently, Shank gene family was reported as one of the genetic risk factor...

  6. Gender bias revisited: new insights on the differential management of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatolios Konstantinos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chest pain is a common complaint and reason for consultation in primary care. Few data exist from a primary care setting whether male patients are treated differently than female patients. We examined whether there are gender differences in general physicians' (GPs initial assessment and subsequent management of patients with chest pain, and how these differences can be explained Methods We conducted a prospective study with 1212 consecutive chest pain patients. The study was conducted in 74 primary care offices in Germany from October 2005 to July 2006. After a follow up period of 6 months, an independent interdisciplinary reference panel reviewed clinical data of every patient and decided about the etiology of chest pain at the time of patient recruitment (delayed type-reference standard. We adjusted gender differences of six process indicators for different models. Results GPs tended to assume that CHD is the cause of chest pain more often in male patients and referred more men for an exercise test (women 4.1%, men 7.3%, p = 0.02 and to the hospital (women 2.9%, men 6.6%, p Conclusions While observed gender differences can not be explained by differences in age, CHD prevalence, and underlying risk factors, the less typical symptom presentation in women might be an underlying factor. However this does not seem to result in suboptimal management in women but rather in overuse of services for men. We consider our conclusions rather hypothesis generating and larger studies will be necessary to prove our proposed model.

  7. Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years) with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years) without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10), in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P neck pain (mean: 188. 6 ± 13.1). PPT over the tibialis anterior muscles was negatively correlated with the intensity of neck pain. Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists. PMID:22111912

  8. A randomized controlled trial of brief Somatic Experiencing for chronic low back pain and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Ellegaard, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in chronic pain is associated with a more severe symptom profile with respect to pain, disability and psychological distress. However, very few intervention studies exist targeting both PTSD and pain. The current...... study is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of the body-oriented trauma approach of Somatic Experiencing (SE) for comorbid PTSD and low back pain. Although the method is well recognized by clinicians and widely used, SE still needs to be tested in a randomized clinical trial...... in comparison with an active control group. Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of an SE intervention in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU) for patients with chronic low back pain and comorbid PTSD compared to TAU alone. Method: The study was a two-group randomized controlled...

  9. Trigeminal pain and quantitative sensory testing in painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arap, Astrid; Siqueira, Silvia R D T; Silva, Claudomiro B; Teixeira, Manoel J; Siqueira, José T T

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and painful peripheral neuropathy in order to investigate oral complaints and facial somatosensory findings. Case-control study; 29 patients (12 women, mean age 57.86 yo) with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and 31 age-gender-matched controls were evaluated with a standardized protocol for general characteristics, orofacial pain, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, visual analogue scale and McGill Pain questionnaire, and a systematic protocol of quantitative sensory testing for bilateral facial sensitivity at the areas innervated by the trigeminal branches, which included the thermal detection by ThermoSensi 2, tactile evaluation with vonFrey filaments, and superficial pain thresholds with a superficial algometer (Micromar). Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon, chi-square, confidence intervals and Spearman (ppain was reported by 55.2% of patients, and the most common descriptor was fatigue (50%); 17.2% had burning mouth. Myofascial temporomandibular disorders were diagnosed in 9 (31%) patients. The study group showed higher sensory thresholds of pain at the right maxillary branch (p=0.017) but sensorial differences were not associated with pain (p=0.608). Glycemia and HbA(1c) were positively correlated with the quantitative sensory testing results of pain (ppain thresholds were correlated with higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (p=0.027 and p=0.026). There was a high prevalence of orofacial pain and burning mouth was the most common complaint. The association of loss of pain sensation and higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin can be of clinical use for the follow-up of DM complications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year period...... incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical advances...

  11. Post-traumatic stress symptom clusters in acute whiplash associated disorder and their prediction of chronic pain-related disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maujean, Annick; Gullo, Matthew J; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard; Sterling, Michele

    2017-11-01

    The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been found to be associated with an increased risk of persisting neck pain and disability in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors with whiplash injuries. The findings are mixed as to which PTSD symptom(s) best predicts recovery in this population. The aims were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of acute whiplash-injured individuals following a MVC and (2) to identify the PTSD-symptom clusters that best predict long-term neck pain-related disability in this population as measured by the Neck Pain Disability Index (NDI). A sample (N = 146) of whiplash-injured individuals completed the NDI and the PDS at baseline (whiplash-injured individuals following a MVC.

  12. A comparison of the postoperative pain experience in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Sondra; Nause-Osthoff, Rebecca; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Tait, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may experience pain differently compared to other children, yet the evidence is equivocal regarding whether pain is heightened or dampened. This prospective observational study, therefore, was designed to compare the postoperative pain experiences in children with and without ADHD. Children aged 7-17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 119) who were scheduled for a surgical procedure requiring postoperative pain management and a matched cohort of children without ADHD were recruited (n = 122). Postoperative pain scores and analgesic use were recorded for 1 week, as was parents' estimate of their child's return to normal activity. There were no differences in highest pain scores between children with ADHD (3.3 ± 2.5, 0-10 numerical rating scale) and those without (2.8 ± 1.9). Postoperative opioid use was also similar on day 1 following surgery (0.12 ± 0.3 mg·kg(-1) vs 0.08 mg·kg(-1 ) ± 0.1 morphine equivalents, respectively). Children with ADHD, however, had a significantly longer return to normal activity (4.9 ± 3.8 vs 3.8 ± 3.0 days; P children with and without ADHD. However, the observation that children with ADHD took longer to return to baseline activity will be important in educating parents regarding their child's postoperative experience. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The “at-home LLLT” in temporo-mandibular disorders pain control: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, A; Queirolo, V; Vescovi, P; Merigo, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD) are a set of dysfunctional patterns concerning the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) and the masticatory muscles; its main symptom is pain, probably caused by inflammatory changes in the synovial membrane, alterations in the bone marrow of the mandibular condyle and impingement and compression. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effectiveness in the TMD pain reduction of a new laser device recently proposed by the commerce that, due to its reduced dimensions and to be a class I laser according the ANSI classification, may be used at home by the patient himself. Material and methods: Twenty-four patients with TMD were randomly selected: the inclusion criteria for the sample was the diagnosis of mono- or bi-lateral TMD, with acute pain restricted to the joint area, associated with the absence of any muscle tenderness during palpation. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (12 patients): patients receiving real LLLT (experimental group). Group 2 (12 patients): patients receiving inactive laser (placebo group). The treatment was performed once a day for two weeks with an 808 nm diode laser by the patient himself with irradiation of the cutaneous zone corresponding to the TMJ for 15 minutes each side. Each patient was instructed to express its pain in a visual analogue scale (VAS) making a perpendicular line between the two extremes representing the felt pain level. Statistical analysis was realized with GraphPad Instat Software, where Ptemporo-mandibular diseases by an at home self administered laser device. Results are encouraging but they will have to be confirmed by greater studies. PMID:25941425

  14. Musculoskeletal pain in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annette; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Zier, Sandra; Reiners, Karlheinz; Sommer, Claudia

    2004-12-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2/proximal myotonic myopathy (DM2/PROMM) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. Musculoskeletal pain is one of its frequent symptoms but also occurs in other chronic noninflammatory muscle disorders (OMD). To characterize the phenotype of DM2/PROMM-associated musculoskeletal pain and to test whether it shows features distinct from OMD. Outpatient clinic for patients with neuromuscular disorders, university hospital. Twenty-four patients with DM2/PROMM (12 women and 12 men; median age, 57 years) and 24 age- and sex-matched patients with OMD consecutively recruited during a 3-year period were examined for musculoskeletal pain. Standardized pain assessment; McGill Pain Questionnaire; depression score; and quantification of pain thresholds to blunt pressure on limb muscles with analgometer. Unlike patients with OMD who have musculoskeletal pain, patients with DM2/PROMM distinguished a wide spectrum of coexisting pain types. The major pain type in patients with DM2/PROMM was exercise-related, temperature-modulated, and palpation-induced, whereas, cramps were rare. In 8 of the patients with DM2/PROMM and in 3 of the patients with OMD, musculoskeletal pain was the most disabling symptom. Besides many similarities, DM2/PROMM-associated musculoskeletal pain shows features distinct from OMD.

  15. Masticatory muscle pain: Causes, consequences, and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutris, M.

    2013-01-01

    Masticatory muscle pain is known as myogenous temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. It has a prevalence of approximately 10% in the general population and affects women more than men. It is usually characterized by a dull, aching pain, which aggravates on function. The etiology of TMD pain is still

  16. [The pain-emotion: Advocating pain as an emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Das Neves, J; Sule, N; Serra, E

    2017-12-01

    organization, between pain behavior and environment and emotion response effectiveness and consequences. A heuristic analogy can be formed enriching therapeutic possibilities. First, emotion and pain could be considered as a unique phenomenon that can be expressed in different ways. We can let aside the opposition between psychological and physiological: these are two different levels of a same phenomenon. This point of view can be helpful to treat pain disorders because the skills to manage emotion disorders are well known. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, joint hypermobility-related disorders and pain: expanding body-mind connections to the developmental age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Castori, Marco

    2018-02-14

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and generalized joint hypermobility (JH) are two separated conditions, assessed, and managed by different specialists without overlapping interests. Recently, some researchers highlighted an unexpected association between these two clinical entities. This happens in a scenario of increasing awareness on the protean detrimental effects that congenital anomalies of the connective tissue may have on human health and development. To review pertinent literature to identify possible connections between ADHD and GJH, special emphasis was put on musculoskeletal pain and syndromic presentations of GJH, particularly the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A comprehensive search of scientific databases and references lists was conducted, encompassing publications based on qualitative and quantitative research. Impaired coordination and proprioception, fatigue, chronic pain, and dysautonomia are identified as potential bridges between ADHD and JH. Based on these findings, a map of the pathophysiological and psychopathological pathways connecting both conditions is proposed. Although ADHD and JH are traditionally separated human attributes, their association may testify for the dyadic nature of mind-body connections during critical periods of post-natal development. Such a mixed picture has potentially important consequences in terms of disability and deserves more clinical and research attention.

  18. Do functional tests predict low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, E P; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2000-08-15

    A cohort of 307 nonsymptomatic workers and another cohort of 123 workers with previous episodes of low back pain were followed up for 2 years. The outcomes were measured by symptoms, medical consultations, and sick leaves due to low back disorders. To study the predictive value of a set of tests measuring the physical performance of the back in a working population. The hypothesis was that subjects with poor functional capacity are liable to back disorders. Reduced functional performance has been associated with back pain. There are few data to show whether reduced functional capacity is a cause or a consequence of pain. Mobility of the trunk in forward and side bending, maximal isokinetic trunk extension, flexion and lifting strength, and static endurance of back extension were measured. Standing balance and foot reaction time were recorded with a force plate. Clinical tests for the provocation of back or leg pain were performed. Gender, workload, age, and anthropometrics were managed as potential confounders in the analysis. Marked overlapping was seen in the measures of the subjects with different outcomes. Among the nonsymptomatic subjects, low performance in tests of mobility and standing balance was associated with future back disorders. Among workers with previous episodes of back pain, low isokinetic extension strength, poor standing balance, and positive clinical signs predicted future pain. Some associations were found between the functional tests and future low back pain. The wide variation in the results questions the value of the tests in health examinations (e.g., in screening or surveillance of low back disorders).

  19. The interactions between pain, pain-related fear of movement and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, L; Lund, H L; Holtermann, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Employees with physically heavy work have an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders leading to reduced work ability. AIMS: To investigate if a high level of musculoskeletal pain or pain-related fear of movement was associated with low productivity among employees with physically....... CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that musculoskeletal pain increases the risk of reduced work ability significantly, musculoskeletal pain and pain-related fear of movement were associated with low productivity only among employees with good work ability....... heavy work and differing work ability levels. METHODS: The study was conducted at a Danish production site and employees with physically heavy work in the production line were included in the study. Work ability was assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI), pain-related fear of movement with the Tampa...

  20. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacological, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should be avoided, and surgical treatment has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporomandibular disorders and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Pathologies currently defined as temporomandibular disorders may be different in nature. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and craniofacial and cervical myogenous pain (MP) are distinct pathologies but may be superimposed and share some etiologic factors. Tension-type headache (TTH) may often be associated with craniofacial and cervical pain, and the same pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment may be efficacious for both. Psychiatric comorbidity (depression and/or anxiety disorder) is less frequent in sheer TMJ disorders, compared with MP and TTH. A screening for the presence of an underlying psychiatric disorder should be part of the clinical evaluation in patients suffering from headache and facial pain.

  2. The Influence of Early Life Experience on Visceral Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS, vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another.

  3. Pregabalin for Pain Treatment in Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Schou; Bowense, S; Wilder-Smith, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Intractable pain usually dominates the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythmicity has been associated with abnormal cortical pain processing in other chronic pain disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral distribution...

  4. Chronic neck pain and masticatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Jean-François; Debuse, Thierry; Duquesnoy, Bernard

    2005-12-01

    Chronic nonspecific neck pain is a common problem in rheumatology and may resist conventional treatment. Pathophysiological links exist between the cervical spine and masticatory system. Occlusal disorders may cause neck pain and may respond to dental treatment. The estimated prevalence of occlusal disorders is about 45%, with half the cases being due to functional factors. Minor repeated masticatory dysfunction (MD) with craniocervical asymmetry is the most common clinical picture. The pain is usually located in the suboccipital region and refractory to conventional treatment. The time pattern may be suggestive, with nocturnal arousals or triggering by temporomandibular movements. MD should be strongly suspected in patients with at least two of the following: history of treated or untreated MD, unilateral temporomandibular joint pain and clicking, lateral deviation during mouth opening, and limitation of mouth opening (less than three fingerbreadths). Rheumatologists should consider MD among causes of neck pain, most notably in patients with abnormal craniocervical posture, signs linking the neck pain to mastication, and clinical manifestations of MD. Evidence suggesting that MD may cause neck pain has been published. However, studies are needed to determine whether treatment of MD can relieve neck pain.

  5. Cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a serious health care problem and there is growing evidence to support the use of hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral interventions for pain management. This article reviews clinical techniques and methods of cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management. Current research with emphasis given to randomized, controlled trials is presented and the efficacy of hypnotherapy for pain management is discussed. Evidence for cognitive hypnotherapy in the treatment in chronic pain, cancer, osteoarthritis, sickle cell disease, temporomandibular disorder, fibromyalgia, non-cardiac chest pain, and disability related chronic pains are identified. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in light of the accumulating evidence in support of the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management.

  6. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  7. Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-03-05

    Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability

  8. Predicting opioid use disorder in patients with chronic pain who present to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert Andrew; Brewer, Kori L; Langston, Dennis B

    2018-04-06

    Emergency department (ED) patients with chronic pain challenge providers to make quick and accurate assessments without an in-depth pain management consultation. Emergency physicians need reliable means to determine which patients may receive opioid therapy without exacerbating opioid use disorder (OUD). Eighty-nine ED patients with a chief complaint of chronic pain were enrolled. Researchers administered questionnaires and reviewed medical and state prescription monitoring database information. Participants were classified as either OUD or non-OUD. Statistical analysis included a bivariate analysis comparing differences between groups and multivariate logistic regression evaluating ORs. The 45 participants categorised as OUD had a higher proportion of documented or reported psychiatric diagnoses (p=0.049), preference of opioid treatment (p = 0.005), current oxycodone prescription (p = 0.043), borrowed pain medicine (p=0.004) and non-authorised dose increase (pOUD group to have an increased number of opioid prescriptions (p=0.005) and pills (p=0.010). Participants who borrowed pain medicine and engaged in non-authorised dose increase were 5.2 (p=0.025, 95% CI 1.24 to 21.9) and 6.1 times (p=0.001, 95% CI 1.55 to 24.1) more likely to have OUD, respectively. Major limitations of our study include a small sample size, self-reported measures and convenience sample which may introduce selection bias. Patients with chronic pain with OUD have distinguishable characteristics. Emergency physicians should consider such evidence-based variables prior to opioid therapy to ameliorate the opioid crisis and limit implicit bias. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Functional Anorectal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish Sc; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-03-25

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into three subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome (LAS) and unspecified anorectal pain the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in LAS there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by >2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with >2 features of impaired evacuation i.e., abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes two subtypes; dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating LAS and defecatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceedings of the AMCP Partnership Forum: Breaking the Link Between Pain Management and Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Prescription drug misuse and abuse, especially with opioid analgesics, is the fastest growing drug problem in the United States. Addressing this public health crisis demands the coordinated efforts and actions of all stakeholders to establish a process of improving patient care and decreasing misuse and abuse. On September 9, 2014, the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) convened a meeting of multiple stakeholders to recommend activities and programs that AMCP can promote to improve pain management, prevent opioid use disorder (OUD), and improve medication-assisted treatment outcomes. The speakers and panelists recommended that efforts to improve pain management outcomes and reduce the potential for OUD should rely on demonstrated evidence and best practices. It was recommended that AMCP promote a more holistic and evidence-based approach to pain management and OUD treatment that actively engages the patient in the decision-making process and includes care coordination with medical, pharmacy, behavioral, and mental health aspects of organizations, all of which is seamlessly supported by a technology infrastructure. To accomplish this, it was recommended that AMCP work to collaborate with organizations representing these stakeholders. Additionally, it was recommended that AMCP conduct continuing pharmacy education programs, develop a best practices toolkit on pain management, and actively promote quality standards for OUD prevention and treatment.

  11. Abdominal Pain-predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adolescent Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Ekong; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Meremikwu, Martin; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence, pattern, and predisposing factors of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) in adolescent Nigerians. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 states in the southern part of Nigeria in June 2014. Adolescents of age 10 to 18 years were recruited from 11 secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome III criteria for diagnosing AP-FGIDs and its determinants were filled by the participants in a classroom setting. A total of 874 participants filled the questionnaire. Of this, 818 (93.4%) filled it properly and were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the participants was 14.6 ± 2.0 years with 409 (50.0%) being boys. AP-FGIDs were present in 81 (9.9%) participants. Forty six (5.6%) of the study participants had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 21 (2.6%) functional abdominal pain, 15 (1.8%) abdominal migraine while 3 (0.4%) had functional dyspepsia. The difference in AP-FGIDs between adolescents residing in rural and urban areas was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurred more frequently in those with AP-FGIDs. Nausea was the only symptom independently associated with AP-FGIDs (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed no significant association between stressful life events and AP-FGIDs. AP-FGIDs are a significant health problem in Nigerian adolescents. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, most of the affected children and others also had extraintestinal symptoms. None of the stressful life events evaluated was significantly associated with FGIDs.

  12. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Persons with Chronic Pain: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Siqveland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo summarize evidence for the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among persons with chronic pain (CP.MethodsWe searched databases for studies published between January 1995 and December 2016, reporting the prevalence of PTSD in persons with CP. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated the pooled prevalence using a random-effects model and performed subgroup analyses according to pain location, the population and assessment method.ResultsTwenty-one studies were included and the PTSD prevalence varied from 0–57%, with a pooled mean prevalence of 9.7%, 95% CI (5.2–17.1. In subgroup analysis, the PTSD prevalence was 20.5%, 95% CI (9.5–39.0 among persons with chronic widespread pain, 11.2%, 95% CI (5.7–22.8 among persons with headache, and 0.3%, 95% CI (0.0–2.4 among persons with back pain. The prevalence in clinical populations was 11.7%, 95% CI (6.0–21.5 and in non-clinical populations 5.1%, 95% CI (0.01–17.2. In studies of self-reported PTSD symptoms, PTSD prevalence was 20.4%, 95% CI (10.6–35.5, and in studies where structured clinical interviews had been used to assess PTSD its prevalence was 4.5%, 95% (CI 2.1–9.3. The risk of bias was medium for most studies and the heterogeneity was high (I2 = 98.6.ConclusionPTSD is overall more prevalent in clinical cohorts of persons with CP and particularly in those with widespread pain, but may not always be more prevalent in non-clinical samples of persons with CP, compared to the general population. There is a large heterogeneity in prevalence across studies. Future research should identify sources of heterogeneity and the mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of the two conditions.

  13. The painful, non-indurated chancre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    After reviewing 20 consecutive male patients with primary syphilis and 23 textbooks on venereology, it can be emphasized that the syphilitic chancre may be painful, and not indurated, and that the textbooks in some cases give a misleading description of the disorder.......After reviewing 20 consecutive male patients with primary syphilis and 23 textbooks on venereology, it can be emphasized that the syphilitic chancre may be painful, and not indurated, and that the textbooks in some cases give a misleading description of the disorder....

  14. The use of surface electromyography as a tool in differentiating temporomandibular disorders from neck disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Luraghi, Francesca E; Sforza, Chiarella

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the electromyographic characteristics of the masticatory muscles (masseter and temporalis) of patients with either "temporomandibular joint disorder" or "neck pain". Surface electromyography of the right and left masseter and temporalis muscles was performed during maximum teeth clenching in 38 patients aged 21-67 years who had either (a) temporomandibular joint disorder (24 patients); (b) "neck pain" (13 patients). Ninety-five control, healthy subjects were also examined. During clenching, standardized total muscle activities (electromyographic potentials over time) were significantly different in the three groups: 75 microV/microVs% in the temporomandibular joint disorder patients, 124 microV/microVs% in the neck pain patients, and 95 microV/microVs% in the control subjects (analysis of variance, Ptemporomandibular joint disorder patients also had significantly (Pneck pain patients (87%) or control subjects (92%). A linear discriminant function analysis allowed a significant separation between the two patient groups, with a single patient error of 18.2%. Surface electromyographic analysis during clenching allowed to differentiate between patients with a temporomandibular joint disorder and patients with a neck pain problem.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine in chronic neurological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Kant Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing trend towards opting for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the therapeutic management of various medical disorders. We try to evaluate the current recommendations for CAM therapies in key neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: Sources like PubMed, Embase, UCLA libraries, USC libraries, and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM books were searched to gather data for this review. Results: We discuss the current recommendations for CAM therapies in headaches, neck pains, lower back pains, neuropathic pains, and cancer-related pains. The CAM therapies discussed include natural therapies, mind and body therapies, and several other modalities. Conclusion: We conclude that in spite of vast literature available on the CAM therapies for neurological disorders; there is little evidence for the most beneficial CAM remedies that target common neurological disorders. Although new CAM modalities are brought to light in addition to those that have existed for centuries, further scientific data from evidence-based studies is needed to accurately compare the CAM therapies amongst each other and allopathic treatments.

  16. Pain evaluation in self and others in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaler, Hanna; Skewes, Joshua; Gebauer, Line

    The picture of pain sensation in autism and its relationship with perception of pain in others is currently far from clear. A common observation in case studies is that autistic individuals are more pain insensitive. However, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by experimental evidence...... indicating that physiological sensitivity in autism may even be enhanced. Evaluation of own pain might also relate to one’s ability to evaluate pain in others. There is some experimental evidence indicating that people generally tend to underestimate how much pain another person feels. Our study investigated...... whether this underestimation bias is stronger in individuals with autism and how this evaluation may be associated with one’s individual pain sensitivity. Using electric pain stimulation, we tested whether autistic and non-autistic male adults (n = 16 in each group) rated the intensity and unpleasantness...

  17. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different from People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with non......-specific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain presenting to a secondary care spine centre answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified...

  18. Increased auditory startle reflex in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mirte J; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominal pain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23 control subjects (14 girls; mean age, 12.3 years) using a case-control design. The activity of 6 left-sided muscles and the sympathetic skin response were obtained by an electromyogram. We presented sudden loud noises to the subjects through headphones. Both the combined response of 6 muscles and the blink response proved to be significantly increased in patients with abdominal pain compared with control subjects. A significant increase of the sympathetic skin response was not found. Comorbid anxiety disorders (8 patients with abdominal pain) or Rome III subclassification did not significantly affect these results. This study demonstrates an objective hyperresponsivity to nongastrointestinal stimuli. Children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders may have a generalized hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Musculoskeletal pain in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Suely Nóbrega; Dória-Filho, Ulysses; Damiani, Durval; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of pain, musculoskeletal syndromes, orthopedic disorders and using computers and playing videogames among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 100 consecutive obese adolescents and 100 healthy-weight controls using a confidential, self-report questionnaire covering demographic data, sports participation, painful musculoskeletal system symptoms and using computers and playing videogames. The questionnaire's test-retest reliability was tested. Physical examination covered six musculoskeletal syndromes and seven orthopedic disorders. The kappa index for test-retest was 0.724. Pain and musculoskeletal syndromes were equally prevalent in both groups (44 vs. 56%, p = 0.09; 12 vs. 16%, p = 0.541; respectively). Notwithstanding, orthopedic disorders (98 vs. 76%, p = 0.0001), tight quadriceps (89 vs. 44%, p = 0.0001) and genu valgum (87 vs. 24%, p = 0.0001) were significantly more prevalent in obese adolescents than in controls. Median time spent using a computer the day before, on Saturdays and on Sundays were all lower among the obese subjects (30 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.0001; 1 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.001; and 0 vs. 30 minutes, p = 0.02; respectively). Obese adolescents were less likely to play handheld videogames (2 vs. 11%, p = 0.003) and there was no difference in the two groups' use of full-sized videogames (p > 0.05). Comparing obese adolescents with pain to those free from pain revealed that pain was more frequent among females (59 vs. 39%, p = 0.048) and was associated with greater median time spent playing on Sundays [0 (0-720) vs. 0 (0-240) minutes, p = 0.028]. Obesity can cause osteoarticular system damage at the start of adolescence, particularly to the lower limbs. Programs developed specifically for obese female adolescents with musculoskeletal pain are needed.

  20. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  1. Orofacial pain: a guide for the headache physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Martina K; Macgregor, E Anne; Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial pain represents a significant burden in terms of morbidity and health service utilization. It includes very common disorders such as toothache and temporomandibular disorders, as well as rare orofacial pain syndromes. Many orofacial pain conditions have overlapping presentations, and diagnostic uncertainty is frequently encountered in clinical practice. This review provides a clinically orientated overview of common and uncommon orofacial pain presentations and diagnoses, with an emphasis on conditions that may be unfamiliar to the headache physician. A holistic approach to orofacial pain management is important, and the social, cultural, psychological and cognitive context of each patient needs to be considered in the process of diagnostic formulation, as well as in the development of a pain management plan according to the biopsychosocial model. Recognition of psychological comorbidities will assist in diagnosis and management planning. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  2. Occlusal stabilization splint therapy in orofacial pain and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwinska-Nastalska, E; Rolski, D; Szczyrek, P

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest an association between orofacial pain, accompanying temporomandibular disorders of myogenous origin, and headache, especially its tension-type. The occlusal appliance therapy is one of the options for the treatment of orofacial pain due to masticatory muscles tenderness. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of occlusal stabilization splint therapy in myofascial pain and tension-type headache in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Forty three such patients were enrolled into the study group. The patients were treated with stabilization occlusal splint of vertical thickness at vertical jaw separation, established individually for each patient using a cephalometric analysis. The intensity of orofacial pain (numeric rating scale) and headache (analog rating scale), frequency of headache (%), and jaw qualitative function were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 6 months. Medians of headache and orofacial pain intensity were reduced after 6 months of treatment compared with baseline: 6.0 vs. 2.0 (p Pain decreased below 3 score points in 61.8 % of the patients with headache (p = 0.23) and in 85.3 % of patients with orofacial pain (p orofacial pain was observed 81.4 % of patients after using occlusal stabilization splint for 6 months. We conclude that occlusal stabilization splint was effective in reducing painful symptoms of temporomandibular disorders of myogenous origin, a frequent feature of sleep disordered breathing.

  3. Association between psychosocial disorders and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.

  4. Fermi problem in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.; de Mello, H. R.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2017-10-01

    We revisit the Fermi two-atom problem in the framework of disordered systems. In our model, we consider a two-qubit system linearly coupled with a quantum massless scalar field. We analyze the energy transfer between the qubits under different experimental perspectives. In addition, we assume that the coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are random functions of the spatial coordinates. The disordered medium is modeled by a centered, stationary, and Gaussian process. We demonstrate that the classical notion of causality emerges only in the wave zone in the presence of random fluctuations of the light cone. Possible repercussions are discussed.

  5. Personality disparity in chronic regional and widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chung; Chen, Po-Fei; Lung, For-Wey

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, therefore, better understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mental illness is needed. This study aimed to investigate the pathway relationships among parental attachment, personality characteristics, alexithymic trait and mental health in patients with chronic widespread pain, those with chronic regional pain, and controls. Two hundred and thirty participants were recruited. The parental Bonding Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Short-Form 36 were filled out. The pathway relationships revealed that patients of mothers who were more protective were more neurotic, had more difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), worse mental health, and a higher association with chronic widespread pain. No differences were found between patients with chronic regional pain and the controls. The predisposing factors for chronic widespread pain, when compared with chronic regional pain, may be more closely related to psychiatric disorders. The pathways to chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain differ, with neuroticism and the alexithymic DIF trait being the main factors defining chronic widespread pain. Therefore, besides therapies targeting pain symptoms, psychiatric consultation, medication and psychotherapy are also recommended for those with chronic widespread pain to alleviate their mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relief of depression and pain improves daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2013-12-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression relief and pain relief on the improvement in daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) for depressed patients receiving a 6-week treatment of fluoxetine. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled to receive 20mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Depression severity, pain severity, daily functioning, and health-related QOL were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Depression severity, pain severity, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed by three primary domains of the SF-36, including social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In model 1, depression relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 2, pain relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 3, depression relief, mediated by pain relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 4, pain relief, mediated by depression relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 5, both depression relief and pain relief improved daily functioning and QOL. One hundred and six patients completed all the measures at baseline and at week 6. Model 5 was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2) = 8.62, df = 8, p = 0.376, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.935, TLI = 0.992, CFI = 0.996, RMSEA = 0.027). Interventions which relieve depression and pain improve daily functioning and QOL among patients with MDD. The proposed model can provide quantitative estimates of improvement in treating patients with MDD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain in fibromyalgia and related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cassisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the hallmark symptom of fibromyalgia (FM and other related syndromes, but quite different from that of other rheumatic diseases, which depends on the degree of damage or inflammation in peripheral tissues. Sufferers are often defined as patients with chronic pain without an underlying mechanistic cause, and these syndromes and their symptoms are most appropriately described as “central pain”, “neuropathic pain”, “nonnociceptive pain” or “central sensitivity syndromes”. The pain is particular, regional or widespread, and mainly relates to the musculoskeletal system; hyperalgesia or allodynia are typical. Its origin is currently considered to be distorted pain or sensory processing, rather than a local or regional abnormality. FM is probably the most important and extensively described central pain syndrome, but the characteristics and features of FM-related pain are similar in other disorders of particular interest for rheumatologists, such as myofascial pain syndromes and temporo-mandibular joint disorders, and there is also an intriguing overlap between FM and benign joint hypermobility syndrome. This suggests that the distinctive aspects of pain in these idiopathic or functional conditions is caused by central nervous system hypersensitivity and abnormalities. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been suggested for the treatment of these conditions, but a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to reduce the abnormal cycle of pain amplification and the related maladaptive and self-limiting behaviours.

  8. NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND CHRONIC PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Barš, Marijana; Đorđević, Veljko; Gregurek, Rudolf; Bulajić, Maša

    2010-01-01

    Pain is one of the most ubiquitious problems of today's world, its impact being far-reaching. Current conceptualizations of pain medicine adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective. In this model, pain is best described as an interactive, psycho-physiological behaviour pattern that cannot be divided into independet psycho-social and physical components. Neurophysiologic substrates of the pain experience can be broken down into the pain transmission elements emanating from peripheral, spinal, and s...

  9. The impact of experiential avoidance on the relations between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Karekla, Maria; Flouri, Magdalini; Vasiliou, Vasilis S; Kasinopoulos, Orestis; Papacostas, Savvas S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experiential avoidance (EA) on the indirect relationship of chronic pain patients' illness representations to pain interference, through pain catastrophising Design and main outcome measure: The sample consisted of 162 patients diagnosed with an arthritis-related or a musculoskeletal disorder. The effects of EA on the pathway between illness representations, pain catastrophising and pain interference were examined with PROCESS, a computational tool for SPSS Results: After controlling for patient and illness-related variables and pain severity, the 'illness representations-pain catastrophising-pain interference' pathway was interrupted at the higher levels of EA. The reason was that, at the high levels of EA, either the relation of illness representations to pain catastrophising or the relation of pain catastrophising to pain interference was not statistically significant. The findings indicate that EA is not a generalised negative response to highly aversive conditions, at least as far as the factors examined in this study are concerned. EA may rather reflect a coping reaction, the impact of which depends on its specific interactions with the other aspects of the self-regulation mechanism. At least in chronic pain, EA should become the focus of potential intervention only when its interaction with the illness-related self-regulation mechanism results in negative outcomes.

  10. Abdominal Pain in Children: From the Eternal City to the Examination Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiter, Donna K

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal pain is a common presenting symptom in children. The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is extensive; however, a vast majority of patients ultimately are diagnosed with functional abdominal pain disorders. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are defined using the recently released Rome IV criteria. These are not diagnoses of exclusion. If there are no alarm signs, the diagnosis may be made with a focused evaluation. Treatment of these disorders requires a biopsychosocial approach to the disorder and an individualized and multipronged treatment plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic Temporomandibular Pain Treatment Using Sodium Diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Kurita Varoli, Fernando; Sato, Sandra; Sucena Pita, Murillo; do Nascimento, Cássio; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluate spontaneous pain after and before administration of sodium diclofenac, isolated or associated to carisoprodol, acetaminophen and caffeine, in chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Were selected eighteen volunteers, both men and women, between 35-70 years of age (mean age 50 years). The inclusion criteria was masticatory muscle pain, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was used on the diagnose. The selection of treatm...

  12. Botulinum toxin in pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhado, Orlando Carlos Gomes; Boeing, Marcelo; Ortega, Luciano Bornia

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known and its effectiveness in the treatment of some pain syndromes is well known. However, the efficacy of some of its indications is still in the process of being confirmed. The objective of this study was to review the history, pharmacological properties, and clinical applications of BTX in the treatment of pain of different origins. Botulinum toxin is produced by fermentation of Clostridium botulinum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium. Commercially, BTX comes in two presentations, types A and B. Botulinum toxin, a neurotoxin with high affinity for cholinergic synapses, blocks the release of acetylcholine by nerve endings without interfering with neuronal conduction of electrical signals or synthesis and storage of acetylcholine. It has been proven that BTX can selectively weaken painful muscles, interrupting the spasm-pain cycle. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of BTX-A in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, chronic lumbar pain, and myofascial pain. Botulinum toxin type A is well tolerated in the treatment of chronic pain disorders in which pharmacotherapy regimens can cause side effects. The reduction in the consumption of analgesics and length of action of 3 to 4 months per dose represent other advantages of its use. However, further studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of BTX-A in chronic pain disorders and its exact mechanism of action, as well as its potential in multifactorial treatments.

  13. Non-pharmacological management of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Basude, Dharamveer

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) comprises of 4 main conditions: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal migraine and functional abdominal pain. AP-FGIDs are diagnosed clinically based on the Rome IV criteria for FGIDs of childhood. There is limited evidence for pharmacological therapies. This review article discusses nonpharmacological management of AP-FGID based on the current literature including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort and case control studies. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence for the pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists involved in managing children with AP-FGID. Managing AP-FGIDs can be challenging. This should follow a stepwise approach with focused history, identification of "red flag" signs and symptoms, physical examination and investigations done following initial consultation. Family needs explaining that there is nothing seriously wrong with the child's abdomen. This explanation and reassurance can achieve symptom control in large number of cases. Non-pharmacological interventions are delivered through lifestyle and dietary changes and bio-psychosocial therapies. Dietary interventions vary depending on the type of AP-FGID. Bio-psychosocial therapies such as hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and yoga aim at stress reduction. There is increasing evidence for use of non-pharmacological interventions in children with APFGID.

  14. Lakatos Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  15. Effects of phototherapy on muscle activity and pain in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Amaral, Ana Paula; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Glória, Igor Phillip dos Santos; Garcia, Marília Barbosa Santos; Barbosa, Bruno Roberto Borges; El Hage, Yasmin; Arruda, Éric Edmur Camargo; Gomes, Cid Ándre Fidelis de Paula; Rodrigues, Monique Sampaio; de Sousa, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Politti, Fabiano; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-12-16

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), the term temporomandibular disorder (TMD) regards a subgroup of orofacial pain, the symptoms of which include pain or discomfort in the temporomandibular joint, ears, masticatory muscles and neck on one or both sides, as well as joint sounds, limited mandibular movements or mandibular deviation and difficulties chewing. Phototherapy, such as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode (LED) therapy, is one of the resources used to treatment muscle pain. Thus, there is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (LLLT and LED) in the same apparatus. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effects of four different doses of phototherapy on pain, activity of the masticatory muscles (masseter and bilateral anterior temporal) and joint mobility in individuals with temporomandibular disorder. A further aim is to determine the cumulative effect 24 and 48 hours after a single session. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial will be carried out involving 72 women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous TMD. The participants will then be randomly allocated to four groups totaling 18 individuals per group. Three groups will be submitted to a single session of phototherapy with different light sources, and one group will receive placebo therapy: Group A (2.62 Joules); Group B (5.24 Joules); Group C (7.86 Joules); and Group D (0 Joules). The following assessment tools will be administered on four separate occasions (baseline and immediately after, 24 h after and 48 h after phototherapy). Pain intensity will be assessed using the visual analog scale for pain, while pain thresholds will be determined using algometer, and electromyographic (EMG) analysis on the masseter and anterior temporal muscles. The study will contribute to the practice of the evidence-based use of

  16. Arm and neck pain in ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Orofacial myofunctional disorder in subjects with temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia Lúcia Pimenta; Da Silva, Marco Antônio M Rodrigues; de Felício, Cláudia Maria

    2009-10-01

    To determine the frequency and degree of orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD) in a sample of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD), the dental records of 240 patients with a diagnosis of TMD were reviewed. Mean patient age and mean TMD duration, gender frequency, complaints, and signs and symptoms were calculated. The results showed that the sample studied was quite characteristic of a TMD group. The presence of the following signs/symptoms was significant: muscular pain, TMJ pain, joint noise, at least one otologic symptom, headache, and neck and shoulder pain. Most subjects presented some degree of OMD, with grade high prevailing over grade low. The importance of evaluating the stomatognathic structures and functions during the clinical examination of patients with TMD is emphasized.

  18. Pain in the management of opioid use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirohi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sirohi,1 Amit K Tiwari21Laboratory of Endocrine and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USAOpioids remain the drug of choice for the clinical management of moderate to severe pain. However, in addition to their most effective analgesic actions, opioids also produce a sense of well-being and euphoria, which may trigger significant concerns associated with their use.1 In fact, there has been an alarming increase in prescription opioid use, abuse and illicit use; and according to the National Center for Health Statistics, the total number of deaths related to opioid overdose has more than tripled from 2011 to 2014.2–5 Although representing 5.0 % of the global population, studies report that Americans consume 80% of the global opioid supply,3 and the United States is experiencing an opioid abuse epidemic.6 Considering this unprecedented rise in opioid consumption, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has listed prescription opioid overdose among one of the 10 most important public health problems in all the 50 states.7

  19. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  20. Pain and major depressive disorder: Associations with cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Carmona, Nicole E; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Lee, Yena; Park, Hyun Jung; Rodrigues, Nelson B; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Pan, Zihang; Lee, Jae Hon; Lee, JungGoo; Almatham, Fahad; Alageel, Asem; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Zhou, Aileen J; Rong, Carola; Harrison, John; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-04-01

    To examine the role of pain on cognitive function in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adults (18-65) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined diagnosis of MDD experiencing a current major depressive episode (MDE) were enrolled (n MDD =100). All subjects with MDD were matched in age, sex, and years of education to healthy controls (HC) (n HC =100) for comparison. Cognitive function was assessed using the recently validated THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it), which comprises variants of the choice reaction time (i.e., THINC-it: Spotter), One-Back (i.e., THINC-it: Symbol Check), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (i.e., THINC-it: Codebreaker), Trail Making Test - Part B (i.e., THINC-it: Trails), as well as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire for Depression - 5-item (i.e., THINC-it: PDQ-5-D). A global index of objective cognitive function was computed using objective measures from the THINC-it, while self-rated cognitive deficits were measured using the PDQ-5-D. Pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Regression analyses evaluated the role of pain in predicting objective and subjective cognitive function. A significant between-group differences on the VAS was observed (p<0.001), with individuals with MDD reporting higher pain severity as evidenced by higher scores on the VAS than HC. Significant interaction effects were observed between self -rated cognitive deficits and pain ratings (p<0.001) on objective cognitive performance (after adjusting for MADRS total score), suggesting that pain moderates the association between self-rated and objective cognitive function. Results indicated that pain is associated with increased self-rated and objective cognitive deficits in adults with MDD. The study herein provides preliminary evidence demonstrating that adults with MDD reporting pain symptomatology and poorer subjective cognitive function is predictive of poorer objective cognitive performance. THINC-it is capable of

  1. [Cannabinoids in pain medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, M

    2018-06-07

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) controls a large number of vital functions. Suboptimal tone of the ECS in certain regions of the nervous system may be associated with disorders that are also associated with pain. Pain and inflammation processes can be modulated by the exogenous supply of cannabinoids. Low-to-moderate pain-relieving effects and in individual cases large pain-relieving effects were observed in randomized, controlled studies of various types of chronic pain. People with chronic neuropathic pain and stress symptoms seem to particularly benefit. The therapeutic range of cannabinoids is small; often small doses are sufficient for clinically significant effects. The "Cannabis-als-Medizin-Gesetz" (cannabis as medicine law) allows the prescription of cannabis preparations under certain conditions. Available data indicate good long-term efficacy and tolerability. However, there is little systematic long-term experience from clinical studies.

  2. Mental Pain and Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ideation than depression. Conclusion: Mental pain is a core clinical factor for understanding suicide, both in the context of mood disorders and independently from depression. Health care professionals need to be aware of the higher suicidal risk in patients reporting mental pain. In this regard......Background: Mental pain, defined as a subjective experience characterized by perception of strong negative feelings and changes in the self and its function, is no less real than other types of grief. Mental pain has been considered to be a distinct entity from depression. We have performed...... a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...

  3. Process evaluation of a parcipatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  4. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  5. A-MUPS score to differentiate patients with somatic symptom disorder from those with medical disease for complaints of non-acute pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shingo Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: To develop a clinical score to discriminate patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD from those with medical disease (MD for complaints of non-acute pain.Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical records of consecutive patients with pain for a duration of ≥1 month in our department from April 2003 to March 2015. We divided the subjects according to the diagnoses of definite SSD (as diagnosed and tracked by psychiatrists in our hospital, probable SSD (without evaluation by psychiatrists in our hospital, matched MD (randomly matched two patients by age, sex, and pain location for each definite SSD patient, unmatched MD, other mental disease, or functional somatic syndrome (FSS. We investigated eight clinical factors for definite SSD and matched MD, and developed a diagnostic score to ­identify SSD. We subsequently validated the model with cases of probable SSD and unmatched MD.Results: The number of patients with definite SSD, probable SSD, matched MD, unmatched MD, other mental disease, and FSS was 104 (3.5%, 214 (7.3%, 197 (6.7%, 742 (25%, 708 (24%, and 978 (33%, respectively. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, the following five factors were included as independent predictors of SSD: Analgesics ineffective, Mental disorder history, Unclear provocative/palliative factors, Persistence without cessation, and Stress feelings/episodes (A-MUPS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of the model was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864–0.937, p<0.001, and the McFadden’s pseudo-R-squared was 0.709. For internal validation, the AUC between probable SSD and unmatched MD was 0.930 (95% CI: 0.910–0.950, p<0.001. The prevalence and the likelihood ratio of SSD increased as the score increased.Conclusion: The A-MUPS score was useful for discriminating patients with SSD from

  6. Evidence of altered pressure pain thresholds in persons with disorders of consciousness as measured by the Nociception Coma Scale-Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Schnakers, Caroline; Pagani, Marco; Arenare, Francesca; Devalle, Guya; Giunco, Fabrizio; Guizzetti, GianBattista; Lanfranchi, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Covelli, Venusia; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Minati, Ludovico; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Parati, Eugenio; Bruzzone, MariaGrazia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-02-28

    Pain assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is a controversial issue for clinicians, who require tools and standardised procedures for testing nociception in non-communicative patients. The aims of the present study were, first, to analyse the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale and, second, to evaluate pressure pain thresholds in a group of patients with DoC. The authors conducted a multi-centre study on 40 healthy participants and 60 DoC patients enrolled from six hospitals in Italy. For each group an electronic algometer was used to apply all nociceptive pressure stimuli. Our results show that the Italian version of the NCS retains the good psychometric properties of the original version and is therefore suitable for standardised pain assessment in clinical practice. In our study, pressure pain thresholds measured in a group of patients in vegetative and minimally conscious state were relatively lower than pain threshold values found in a group of healthy participants. Such findings motivate additional investigation on possible pain sensitisation in patients with severe brain injury and multiple co-morbidities, and on application of tailored therapeutic approaches useful for pain management in patients unable verbally to communicate their feelings.

  7. Experience of adjunctive cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Campbell, Gabrielle; Bruno, Raimondo; Cohen, Milton; Farrell, Michael; Hall, Wayne D

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing debate about cannabis use for medical purposes, including for symptomatic treatment of chronic pain. We investigated patterns and correlates of cannabis use in a large community sample of people who had been prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. The POINT study included 1514 people in Australia who had been prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Data on cannabis use, ICD-10 cannabis use disorder and cannabis use for pain were collected. We explored associations between demographic, pain and other patient characteristics and cannabis use for pain. One in six (16%) had used cannabis for pain relief, 6% in the previous month. A quarter reported that they would use it for pain relief if they had access. Those using cannabis for pain on average were younger, reported greater pain severity, greater interference from and poorer coping with pain, and more days out of role in the past year. They had been prescribed opioids for longer, were on higher opioid doses, and were more likely to be non-adherent with their opioid use. Those using cannabis for pain had higher pain interference after controlling for reported pain severity. Almost half (43%) of the sample had ever used cannabis for recreational purposes, and 12% of the entire cohort met criteria for an ICD-10 cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use for pain relief purposes appears common among people living with chronic non-cancer pain, and users report greater pain relief in combination with opioids than when opioids are used alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain in the hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Aleksandrovich Olyunin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological changes that develop in the hip joints (HJ have different origins and mechanisms of development, but their main manifestation is pain. The nature of this pain cannot be well established on frequent occasions. The English-language medical literature currently classifies such disorders as greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS. Its major signs are chronic pain and local palpatory tenderness in the outer part of HJ. The development of GTPS may be associated with inflammation of the synovial bursae situated in the greater tronchanter, as well as with tendinitis, myorrhexis, iliotibial band syndrome, and other local changes in the adjacent tissues or with systemic diseases. So GTPS may be characterized as regional pain syndrome that frequently mimics pain induced by different diseases, including myofascial pain syndrome, osteoarthrosis, spinal diseases, etc.

  9. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  10. Review: Psychogenic Aspect of Pain & Coceptualization of Psychogenic Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the sensory and emotional experience of discomfort whiehis usually associated with actual or threatened physical damsge or irritation . Virtvally all people experience pain at all ages. Children also experience pain from the moment of birth through childhood years. Underestaning pain in children is very important , because of treatment implication and its influence in child physical and psychological development . Experienced researchers have found that pain is a concequence of emotional disorder which is observed in some patients . in many cases we have seen that a patient says to his / her clinician that she has no pain because there is no evidence of somatic disease. Dicomfont involved in psychogenic pain seems to resort primerly from psychological process. Many of physicion are familiar with unpleasant and avoidant concequences of these distortions . In these cases , it s better for us to agree with patients , experience of pain and not to prob somatic risk factors and their mechanism all the time. The researches hove recognized that psychological factors cam cause pain which is named psychogenic pain. It means that the cause of pain has psychological roots , versus organic pain which is related to discomfort is caused by tissue damage . In this study , theorical , psychological , psychoanalytical and psycho social approaches and personality characteristics description related to pain and the relations among these approaches in this area have been studied . Also, the perception of pain among children with different gender have been probed

  11. Trigeminal Electrophysiology: a 2 × 2 matrix model for differential diagnosis between temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) often has the same clinical symptoms and signs as other types of orofacial pain (OP). The possible presence of serious neurological and/or systemic organic pathologies makes differential diagnosis difficult, especially in early disease stages. In the present study, we performed a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological evaluation of the neuromuscular responses of the trigeminal nervous system. Using the jaw jerk reflex (JJ) and the motor evoked potentials of the trigeminal roots (bR-MEPs) tests, we investigated the functional and organic responses of healthy subjects (control group) and patients with TMD symptoms (TMD group). Method Thirty-three patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and 36 control subjects underwent two electromyographic (EMG) tests: the jaw jerk reflex test and the motor evoked potentials of the trigeminal roots test using bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation. The mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum values were computed for the EMG absolute values. The ratio between the EMG values obtained on each side was always computed with the reference side as the numerator. For the TMD group, this side was identified as the painful side (pain side), while for the control group this was taken as the non-preferred masticatory side (non-preferred side). The 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were also calculated. Results Analysis of the ratios (expressed as percentages) between the values obtained on both sides revealed a high degree of symmetry in the bR-MEPs % in the control (0.93 ± 0.12%) and TMD (0.91 ± 0.22%) groups. This symmetry indicated organic integrity of the trigeminal root motor fibers and correct electrode arrangement. A degree of asymmetry of the jaw jerk's amplitude between sides (ipJJ%), when the mandible was kept in the intercuspal position, was found in the TMD group (0.24% ± 0.14%) with a statistically

  12. Trigeminal Electrophysiology: a 2 × 2 matrix model for differential diagnosis between temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chessa Giacomo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs often has the same clinical symptoms and signs as other types of orofacial pain (OP. The possible presence of serious neurological and/or systemic organic pathologies makes differential diagnosis difficult, especially in early disease stages. In the present study, we performed a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological evaluation of the neuromuscular responses of the trigeminal nervous system. Using the jaw jerk reflex (JJ and the motor evoked potentials of the trigeminal roots (bR-MEPs tests, we investigated the functional and organic responses of healthy subjects (control group and patients with TMD symptoms (TMD group. Method Thirty-three patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms and 36 control subjects underwent two electromyographic (EMG tests: the jaw jerk reflex test and the motor evoked potentials of the trigeminal roots test using bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation. The mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum values were computed for the EMG absolute values. The ratio between the EMG values obtained on each side was always computed with the reference side as the numerator. For the TMD group, this side was identified as the painful side (pain side, while for the control group this was taken as the non-preferred masticatory side (non-preferred side. The 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were also calculated. Results Analysis of the ratios (expressed as percentages between the values obtained on both sides revealed a high degree of symmetry in the bR-MEPs % in the control (0.93 ± 0.12% and TMD (0.91 ± 0.22% groups. This symmetry indicated organic integrity of the trigeminal root motor fibers and correct electrode arrangement. A degree of asymmetry of the jaw jerk's amplitude between sides (ipJJ%, when the mandible was kept in the intercuspal position, was found in the TMD group (0.24% ± 0.14% with a

  13. Burning Eye Syndrome: Do Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Underlie Chronic Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalangara, Jerry P; Galor, Anat; Levitt, Roy C; Felix, Elizabeth R; Alegret, Ramon; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a multi-factorial disorder that manifests with painful ocular symptoms and visual disturbances, which can only be partly attributed to tear dysfunction. This disorder may also involve neuroplasticity in response to neuronal injury. This review will emphasize the key characteristics of dry eye pain and its pathologic mechanisms, making the argument that a subset of dry eye represents a neuropathic pain disorder of the eye, more appropriately called "burning eye syndrome." A literature review was conducted using a PubMed search focusing on dry eye, corneal nociception, and neuropathic pain. Articles were reviewed and those discussing clinical course, pathophysiology, and neuronal regulation of chronic ocular pain as related to dry eye were summarized. We found that there is a discordance between ocular pain and dryness on the ocular surface. Although tear dysfunction may be one of the initial insults, its persistence may be associated with repeated ocular sensory nerve injury leading to an acute-to-chronic pain transition associated with neuropathologic changes (peripheral and central sensitization), neuronal dysfunction, and spontaneous ocular pain. Dry eye is becoming a major health concern due to its increasing incidence, significant morbidity, and economic burden. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of dry eye may be better represented as a chronic neuropathic pain disorder due to its features of dysesthesia, spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Future therapies targeted at the underlying neuroplasticity may yield improved efficacy for patients with this subset of dry eye, which we term "burning eye syndrome." © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Grading the intensity of nondental orofacial pain: identification of cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brailo V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vlaho Brailo,1 Joanna M Zakrzewska2 1Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Facial Pain Unit, Division of Diagnostic, Surgical and Medical Sciences, Eastman Dental Hospital, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust/University College London, London, UK Background: When assessing pain in clinical practice, clinicians often label pain as mild, moderate, and severe. However, these categories are not distinctly defined, and are often used arbitrarily. Instruments for pain assessment use more sophisticated scales, such as a 0–10 numerical rating scale, and apart from pain intensity assess pain-related interference and disability. The aim of the study was to identify cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe nondental orofacial pain using a numerical rating scale, a pain-related interference scale, and a disability measurement. Materials and methods: A total of 245 patients referred to the Facial Pain Unit in London were included in the study. Intensity and pain-related interference were assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain-related disability was assessed by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Average pain intensity (0–10 was classified into nine schemes with varying cutoff points of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The scheme with the most significant intergroup difference, expressed by multivariate analysis of variance, provided the cutoffs between mild, moderate, and severe pain. Results: The combination that showed the greatest intergroup differences for all patients was scheme 47 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–7, severe 8–10. The same combination provided the greatest intergroup differences in subgroups of patients with temporomandibular disorder and chronic idiopathic facial pain, respectively. Among the trigeminal neuralgia patients alone, the combination with the highest intergroup differences was scheme 48 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–10. Conclusion: The cutoff points established in

  15. [Pain and emotional dysregulation: Cellular memory due to pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Minoru; Watanabe, Moe; Hamada, Yusuke; Tamura, Hideki; Ikegami, Daigo; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Igarashi, Katsuhide

    2015-08-01

    Genetic factors are involved in determinants for the risk of psychiatric disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic pain stimuli and intense pain have effects at a cellular and/or gene expression level, and will eventually induce "cellular memory due to pain", which means that tissue damage, even if only transient, can elicit epigenetically abnormal transcription/translation and post-translational modification in related cells depending on the degree or kind of injury or associated conditions. Such cell memory/transformation due to pain can cause an abnormality in a fundamental intracellular response, such as a change in the three-dimensional structure of DNA, transcription, or translation. On the other hand, pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective components. Recent human brain imaging studies have examined differences in activity in the nucleus accumbens between controls and patients with chronic pain, and have revealed that the nucleus accumbens plays a role in predicting the value of a noxious stimulus and its offset, and in the consequent changes in the motivational state. In this review, we provide a very brief overview of a comprehensive understanding of chronic pain associated with emotional dysregulation due to transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modification and miRNA regulation.

  16. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmáry, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.

  17. Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.

  18. Effects of neural mobilization on pain, straight leg raise test and disability in patients with radicular low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Čolaković; Dijana Avdić

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radicular low back pain is a disorder involving the dysfunction of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Clinical rehabilitation approaches for low back pain include kinesiotherapy, and physical therapyprocedures: ice , rest , heat, ultrasound, TENS, but evidences regarding their effectiveness are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine if nerve mobilization brings better improvements in pain, SLR testand functional disability in patients with radicular low back pain compared...

  19. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-06-18

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months' duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment.

  20. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with chronic cervical dysfunction and no TM disorder.Design: Descriptive cross-sectional correlational study with singleblinding.Participants: University students and staff with or without chroniccervical pain and no TM involvement. Methods: Descriptive and paindata captured from Research Diagnostic Criteria for TM disorders, NeckDisability Index, Computer Usage, Brief Pain Inventory, and EuroQoL-5Dquestionnaires. Female participants allocated to a chronic cervical (n = 20 and a control group (n = 22. Investigator blindedto the study groups recorded sEMG of bilateral masseter and CE muscles (C4/5 level at rest and during light teeth clenching.Results: No differences in socio-demographic profile; or in masseter or CE sEMG activity at rest or during light clench betweengroups. The pain group had higher scores for pain, reported a daytime teeth clenching habit, and had worse scores for the healthrelatedquality of life (HRQoL sub-sections for pain, anxiety/depression, and lower scores for perceived health status. Conclusion:No relationship established between cervico-mandibular sEMG activity and reported disability in females with chronic cervicaldysfunction and no TM disorder. Association between biopsychosocial factors of teeth clenching and anxiety/depression highlightscomplex pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic recurrent cervical pain.

  1. Effectiveness of custom-made orthopaedic shoes in the reduction of foot pain and pressure in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel; van Dijk, Henk; IJzerman, Maarten; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karen; Groothoff, Johan; Lankhorst, Gustaaf

    2006-01-01

    Background: Degenerative disorders of the foot often are painful during standing and walking. It is assumed that, because of bone deformity, callus, and deformity of the plantar pads, the plantar pressure distribution changes. Prescription of orthopaedic shoes for patients with degenerative

  2. Influence of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on Pain Intensity Levels in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Milan P; Fonda, Jennifer; Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Higgins, Diana M; Rudolph, James L; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2016-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among US veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). We postulated that these injuries may modulate pain processing in these individuals and affect their subjective pain levels. Cross-sectional. 310 deployed service members of OEF/OIF/OND without a lifetime history of moderate or severe TBI were included in this study. All participants completed a comprehensive evaluation for Blast Exposure, mTBI, PTSD, and Pain Levels. The Boston Assessment of TBI-Lifetime Version (BAT-L) was used to assess blast exposure and potential brain injury during military service. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) characterized presence and severity of PTSD. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain intensity over the previous month before the interview, with higher scores indicative of worse pain. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and results were adjusted for co-morbidities, clinical characteristics and demographic data. In comparison to control participants (veterans without mTBI or current PTSD), veterans with both current PTSD and mTBI reported the highest pain intensity levels, followed by veterans with PTSD only (P Pain levels in veterans with mTBI only were comparable to control participants. Comorbid PTSD and mTBI is associated with increased self-reported pain intensity. mTBI alone was not associated with increased pain. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Dysfunctional Pain Modulation in Torture Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, Ruth; Lahav, Yael; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    Trauma survivors, and particularly torture survivors, suffer from high rates of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for years afterward, along with alterations in the function of the pain system. On the basis of longitudinal data on PTSD symptomatology, we tested whether exposure...... resultant distress are measurable, their evaluation seems particularly important in the management of pain among trauma survivors. The results may be generalized to other instances in which chronic pain persists after traumatic events. Perspective This article presents the mediation effect of PTSD...

  4. Validation of the German fear of pain questionnaire in a sample of children with mixed chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, F; Gerlach, A L; Simons, L E; Zernikow, B; Hechler, T

    2017-08-01

    To date, no German instrument exists to measure pain-related fear in paediatric pain populations. The objective of the current study was to determine the construct validity of the translated German fear of pain questionnaire for children (GFOPQ-C) in a sample of children with mixed chronic pain disorders by testing the underlying factor structure, and its psychometric properties. N = 241 children with mixed chronic pain disorders (aged 8-19 years) presenting to a specialized pain clinic completed the GFOPQ-C and several other pain, fear and disability measures. The two-factor structure of the FOPQ-C (fear, avoidance) was replicated. Internal consistency for the shortened German version was good for both subscales (Fear subscale: α = 0.89; avoidance subscale: α = 0.76). As expected, the fear subscale correlated highly with anxiety sensitivity (r = 0.63), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62) and general anxiety (r = 0.54), while the avoidance subscale was more closely related to disability (r = 0.24) and school functioning (r = 0.28). Pain-related fear differed in children with chronic pain depending on their pain location with higher fear ratings in children with abdominal pain and musculoskeletal pain. The GFOPQ-C is a valid instrument that assesses two distinct dimensions of pain-related fear in children: fear and avoidance. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of increased pain-related fear on outcomes over time as well as to examine pain-related fear among healthy children. This will enhance our knowledge of who might be particularly vulnerable to potentially dysfunctional trajectories, such as ongoing pain or anxiety symptoms. The current study validates the first tool to assess pain-related fear in German-speaking children with chronic pain. Findings support two distinct domains: fear and activity avoidance. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  6. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain and Hyponatremia in a 16-Year-Old Girl With Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Grace; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Andrews, Jennifer; Stevenson, Terrell

    2018-01-01

    A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with 1 week of severe, diffuse abdominal pain and constipation, as well as several episodes of nonbloody, nonbilious emesis. Her symptoms began several days after she decreased her caloric intake in an attempt to lose weight. She had been drinking 48 to 60 oz of water per day for several days before admission in an attempt to ameliorate her constipation. She also admits to drinking alcohol the night before her pain began. She had visited several other emergency departments before her presentation to our hospital, and she had been sent home on a bowel regimen without amelioration of her symptoms. On arrival to our emergency department, she described severe diffuse abdominal pain. Her abdomen was tender to palpation throughout but soft with no rebound tenderness or peritoneal signs. The remainder of her physical examination yielded normal results. She was found to have hyponatremia with a sodium level of 122 and no neurologic sequelae. Abdominal radiograph showed moderate constipation but her abdominal pain continued even after bowel cleanout. The home, education, activities, drugs, sex, suicide, and safety assessment revealed several stressors, including a recent suicide in the family and a history of disordered eating and anxiety. Here, we present her case, diagnostic evaluation, ultimate diagnosis, and complications. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Attentional Avoidance is Associated with Increased Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Pain and Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvold, Mathea; MacLeod, Colin; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    posttraumatic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated AB for linguistic pain- and trauma-related stimuli, and clinical and thermal sensitivity in patients with chronic posttraumatic pain with and without PTSD. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic posttraumatic cervical pain performed the visual......OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in chronic posttraumatic pain. Theoretical models suggest that attentional biases (AB) contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain and PTSD, however, the influence of AB on clinical and heat pain sensitivity in chronic...... attentional probe task assessing patterns of selective attentional responding to trauma cues and to pain cues. The task used short (500 ms) and long (1250 ms) stimulus exposure durations to ensure sensitivity to both the orienting and maintenance of attention. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was assessed at the non-painful...

  8. Childhood trauma affects processing of social interactions in borderline personality disorder: An event-related potential study investigating empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Enzi, Björn; Brüne, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties in empathising with others and show disturbances in social interactions. Using a 'Social Interaction Empathy Task', we found that BPD patients judged neutral and psychologically painful conditions as more painful than healthy subjects. Here, we present the neural correlates underlying these differences in empathy for pain. Female BPD patients and healthy controls completed the 'Social Interaction Empathy Task' during EEG recording. Event-related potentials (ERP) were analysed for an early anterior component and a late latency positivity. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and early aversive experiences were measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). ERPs in the patient group matched the behaviour results and correlated with the level of personal distress and CTQ. In addition, ERPs of patients were predicted by childhood maltreatment and stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that the observed behavioural differences between patients with BPD and controls might be due to modulatory effects of empathic abilities on the evaluation of pain-related social stimuli, which are supposed to be based on childhood maltreatment.

  9. When is irritable bowel syndrome not irritable bowel syndrome? Diagnosis and treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Madhusudan

    2012-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a distinct chronic gastrointestinal (GI) pain disorder characterized by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods. The pain experience in FAPS is predominantly centrally driven as compared to other chronic painful GI conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis where peripherally acting factors play a major role in driving the pain. Psychosocial factors are often integrally associated with the disorder and can pose significant challenges to evaluation and treatment. Patients suffer from considerable loss of function, which can drive health care utilization. Treatment options are limited at best with most therapeutic regimens extrapolated from pain management of other functional GI disorders and chronic pain conditions. A comprehensive approach to management using a biopsychosocial construct and collaboration with pain specialists and psychiatry is most beneficial to the management of this disorder.

  10. Noncardiac chest pain: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takahisa; Fass, Ronnie

    2017-07-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) has been defined as recurrent chest pain that is indistinguishable from ischemic heart pain after excluding a cardiac cause. NCCP is a common and highly challenging clinical problem in Gastrointestinal practice that requires targeted diagnostic assessment to identify the underlying cause of the symptoms. Treatment is tailored according to the cause of NCCP: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal dysmotility or functional chest pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current diagnosis and treatment of NCCP. Utilization of new diagnostic techniques such as pH-impedance and high-resolution esophageal manometry, and the introduction of a new definition for functional chest pain have helped to better diagnose the underlying mechanisms of NCCP. A better therapeutic approach toward GERD-related NCCP, the introduction of new interventions for symptoms due to esophageal spastic motor disorders and the expansion of the neuromodulator armamentarium for functional chest pain have changed the treatment landscape of NCCP. GERD is the most common esophageal cause of NCCP, followed by functional chest pain and esophageal dysmotility. The proton pump inhibitor test, upper endoscopy, wireless pH capsule and pH-impedance are used to identify GERD-induced NCCP. High-resolution esophageal manometry is the main tool to identify esophageal motor disorder in non-GERD-related NCCP. Negative diagnostic assessment suggests functional chest pain. Potent antireflux treatment is offered to patients with GERD-related NCCP; medical, endoscopic or surgical interventions are considered in esophageal dysmotility; and neuromodulators are prescribed for functional chest pain. Assessment and treatment of psychological comorbidity should be considered in all NCCP patients.

  11. Chronic Pain in Children: A Look at the Referral Process to a Pediatric Pain Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cucchiaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the referral pattern of children with chronic pain to a specialized pediatric pain clinic. Data were obtained from referring physicians and medical records and during an interview with patients and their parents by physicians and a psychologist. We analyzed the following: referral diagnosis, demographics, duration of symptoms, number of physicians previously consulted, school attendance, sports activities, presence of psychological disorders, final team diagnosis, and outcomes. Children had been experiencing pain for 34±55 months. Patients had consulted on average 3 physicians in addition to their pediatrician. 32% of the patients had missed at least 10 days of school in a calendar year, and 47% had stopped playing sports. 15% had an operation because of pain that had been unsuccessful. The most common missed diagnosis was anxiety (25% and depression (13%. 69% of the patients were back to school and/or playing sports within 4 months from our initial consultation. 32% of the patients did not make any progress during the follow-up period. The most common reasons for failure to improve were no compliance with the recommended treatments and poorly controlled major mood disorder. The time to refer children with chronic pain for specialized care could be extremely long causing significant social and psychological consequence.

  12. Management of pain through autogenic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N

    2000-08-01

    Physical and emotional pain are an inevitable part of human existence and are without natural antidotes. In view of this, and in the light of increasing professional reluctance to depend on analgesics, this paper proposes the widespread application of autogenic training, a relaxation technique which has been seen to confront pain very effectively, and also to reduce substantially drugs dependency. It analyses autogenic training in respect of some of the more common pain-allied disorders such as childbirth, headaches and migraines, back pain, cancer and palliative care, and cardiology.

  13. Efficacy of antidepressants on orofacial pain: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, W.J.J.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint with multiple diagnoses. There is controversy about the effectiveness of antidepressants for the management of orofacial pain disorders. In order to be able to make a best evidence choice between available antidepressants for the treatment of orofacial pain, a

  14. Psychogenic Low-Back Pain and Hysterical Paralysis in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2017-10-01

    A retrospective review. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in adolescents diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis and to evaluate the efficacy of differential diagnosis methods. The incidence of low-back pain in adolescence is similar to that in adults, but the causes of low-back pain are difficult to determine in most cases. For these patients, a definitive diagnosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis as well as adequate treatment are clinically important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Eleven patients (3 males and 8 females; mean age, 16.5 years; range, 13-19 y) diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis were followed up for 2-10.25 years (mean, 4.67 y). Nonorganic signs were observed in almost all patients. For the purpose of excluding organic disorders, the thiopentone pain study was used in patients who complained mainly of pain, and motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation were measured in patients experiencing primarily muscle weakness. The psychiatric diagnosis was neurosis in 9 patients, whereas it was psychosomatic disorder in 2 patients. Conservative treatment, such as physiotherapy, was performed, and at the final follow-up evaluation, outcomes were regarded as excellent in 7 patients and good in 4 patients. The prognosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis in adolescence is relatively good. However, it is important to understand the characteristics of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis in childhood and young adulthood and to perform accurate diagnosis by screening for nonorganic signs and excluding organic disorders by using the thiopentone pain study and motor evoked potentials obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  15. The teaching of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain at undergraduate level in Brazilian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner SIMM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the way the topics for the study of pain mechanisms in general, and Orofacial Pain (OFP and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs more specifically, are addressed in undergraduate courses curricula, and also to verify the existence of specialist OFP/TMD teachers in Brazilian dental schools. Methods: Between July 2010 and January 2011, course Coordinators/Directors of all dental schools duly registered at the Ministry of Education were invited to answer a questionnaire on topics related to OFP/TMD teaching in their institutions. Results: Fifty-three dental schools representatives answered the questionnaire. The study of pain mechanisms was found to cover an average of less than 10% of the courses' total time. Pharmacology, Endodontics and Physiology were identified as the departments usually responsible for addressing pain mechanisms in dental courses. Psychosocial aspects were found to occupy a very small proportion in the syllabi, while most of the content referred to biological or somatic aspects. OFP/TMD is addressed by a specific department in only 28.4% of the participating dental schools, while in most cases (46.3%, OFP/TMD is under the responsibility of the Prosthodontics department. Only 38.5% of respondents indicated that they had a specialist OFP/TMD teacher in their Schools. Conclusion: Among the Brazilian dental schools participating in the study, the teaching of OFP/TMD was found to be insufficient, segmented or with an extremely restricted focus. This initial assessment indicates that Curricular Guidelines for the study of OFP/TMD at undergraduate dental schools should be developed and implemented to facilitate their appropriate inclusion into the curricula and in specific pedagogical projects.

  16. Therapeutic potential of stellate ganglion block in orofacial pain: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-09-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.

  17. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Occlusal Therapy in the Management of Chronic Orofacial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Francis M.

    1984-01-01

    Review of the literature indicates that most routine orofacial dysfunctions are characterized by deep pain. Various disorders of the masticatory systems, particularly musculoskeletal conditions, are thought to be triggered by occlusal disharmonies. The pain component develops following a pattern of bruxism, muscle hyperactivity, fatigue and spasm. Treatment for most disorders has been to modify the occlusion, although the rational for doing so appears questionable.

  19. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  20. Differential pain modulation in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Lise; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-12-29

    significant (P idea that peripheral neuropathic pain is primarily driven from damaged nerve endings in the periphery, while chronic fibromyalgia pain may be a central disorder with increased activity in pain-facilitating systems.

  1. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models of Pain Level from Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Sewing Machine Operators in the Garments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio P. Luga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine garments industry has been experiencing a roller-coaster ride during the past decades, with much competition from its Asian neighbors, especially in the wake of the ASEAN 2015 Integration. One of the areas in the industry which can be looked into and possibly improved is the concern on Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Literatures have shown that pain from WMSDs among sewing machine operators in this industry is very prevalent and its effects on the same operators have been very costly. After identifying the risk factors which may cause pain from WMSDs, this study generated three models which would predict the said pain level. These models were analyzed, compared and the best model was identified to make the most accurate prediction of pain level. This predictive model would be helpful for management of garment firms since first, the risk factors have been identified and hence can be used as bases for proposed improvements. Second, the prediction of each operator’s pain level would allow management to assess better its employees in terms of their sewing capacity vis-à-vis the company’s production plans.

  3. Influence of temple headache frequency on physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond L; Anderson, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form-12 [SF-12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist-90R/SCL-90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches.

  4. The stigma of mental illness: anticipation and attitudes among patients with epileptic, dissociative or somatoform pain disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, M; Spitzl, S Piralic; Prause, W; Zimprich, F; Lehner-Baumgartner, Eva; Baumgartner, C; Aigner, M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the attitudes of 101 consecutive in- and out-patients with epileptic, dissociative or somatoform pain disorders (mean age: 43 [+/-11] years; 58% female) from either the Department of Psychiatry or Neurology toward anticipated mental illness stigma. The patients were administered a modified 12-item version of Links Stigma Questionnaire. Nearly 60% of all 101 patients believe that "most people" would not allow a mental patient "to take care of their children", "most young women" would be "reluctant to date a man" who has been treated for a mental illness and "most employers would pass over" the application of a psychiatric patient in favour of another applicant. Fifty five percent of the respondents assume that "most people think less of a person who has been in a mental hospital" and over a half of all patients interviewed assert that the general population thinks that psychiatric patients are "less intelligent, less trustworthy and that their opinion is taken less seriously by others". Gender, age and education had no influence on the overall results. There is a high stigmatisation concerning psychiatry even in patients with epilepsy and somatoform/dissociative symptoms with psychiatric comorbidity. Fear of being stigmatized is more pronounced among somatoform pain patients as compared to patients suffering from epileptic or dissocative disorders, with particular reference to close personal relationships.

  5. Interplay among pain intensity, sleep disturbance and emotion in patients with non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilabant Sen Sribastav

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low back pain (LBP is the most common problem worldwide. There are several negative consequences of LBP, such as sleep disorders, work leave, disability, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life. In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with non-specific LBP(NSLBP, and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP. Aim In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with NSLBP, and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP. Methods A cross-sectional self-assessment questionnaire survey was carried out in an outpatient clinic. Anonymous assessments were used to characterize the presence of NSLBP, PSQI, VAS, SF-36 form, ODI, BAI and BDI. Cross-correlation among the severity of NSLBP and sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression and life quality were evaluated. Results Patients with NSLBP have a higher incidence of sleep disorder, anxiety and depression, and higher ODI scores than healthy people without LPB (P < 0.01. NSLBP patients with sleep disorders have more severe anxiety, depression, an increased VAS score and poor daily living (P < 0.05. NSLBP patients with anxiety have declined sleep quality, poor daily living, decreased work and social skills, and increased LBP severity (P < 0.05. NSLBP patients with depression have declined sleep quality, poor daily living, decreased work and social skills (P < 0.05. Significant associations were found between the severity of NSLBP and sleep disorders, anxiety and ODI scores. Conclusion Psychological and social factors play an important role in the development of NSLBP. NSLBP leads to sleep disorders, which decrease the sleep quality and increase the unpleasant emotions and memories in return; these can exacerbate the severity of LBP, with the cycle repeating to form a vicious circle.

  6. Pain perception studies in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezov, David; Ashina, Sait; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2011-02-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is a disorder with high prevalence and significant impact on society. Understanding of pathophysiology of TTH is paramount for development of effective treatments and prevention of chronification of TTH. Our aim was to review the findings from pain perception studies of pathophysiology of TTH as well as to review the research of pathophysiology of TTH. Pain perception studies such as measurement of muscle tenderness, pain detection thresholds, pain tolerance thresholds, pain response to suprathreshold stimulation, temporal summation and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) have played a central role in elucidating the pathophysiology of TTH. It has been demonstrated that continuous nociceptive input from peripheral myofascial structures may induce central sensitization and thereby chronification of the headache. Measurements of pain tolerance thresholds and suprathreshold stimulation have shown presence of generalized hyperalgesia in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients, while DNIC function has been shown to be reduced in CTTH. One imaging study showed loss of gray matter structures involved in pain processing in CTTH patients. Future studies should aim to integrate pain perception and imaging to confirm this finding. Pharmacological studies have shown that drugs like tricyclic anti-depressant amitriptyline and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can reverse central sensitization and the chronicity of headache. Finally, low frequency electrical stimulation has been shown to rapidly reverse central sensitization and may be a new modality in treatment of CTTH and other chronic pain disorders. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  7. The CUPCIG (CAM-Use in Primary Care in Germany) Study:Part I-Pain. Study Protocol of a Pilot-trial to Assess Feasibility, Acceptability and Perceived Effectiveness of CAM in Pain Disorders in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schencking, Martin; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Bassüner, Susanne; Redaelli, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    There is limited valid data available on CAM procedures for chronic joint and neuropathic pain in primary care in Germany. Indiviual CAM qualifications of the general practitioners (GPs) and the potential of cost reduction through CAM treatment are almost unknown. The aim of this pilot trial preceding the main study is to examine the survey mode, to estimate the response rate by GPs with or without an additional qualification for CAM, and to identify the status quo in therapeutic approaches for chronic pain disorders in primary care. This is a cross-sectional study with an ex post facto design among German GPs consisting of 2 parts: In a first step, a pilot trial precedes the main study targeting 200 GPs with and 200 GPs without additional qualification in CAM in a selected region. The results of the CUPCIG study comprise the distribution of pain types treated in primary care practices, the GPs' attitude toward complementary pain therapy, pharmacological or CAM treatment, the estimate of cost reduction through CAM treatment of pain, the application of diverse CAM procedures, and biographical data. The CUPCIG study serves to compile pain therapy approaches in primary care in Germany with respect to the individual CAM expertise of the GPs. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Naarding, Paul; Collard, Rose M; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, Presearch could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Formerly Abused Women with Mild versus Moderate to Severe Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Janice; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Although associations between intimate partner violence, chronic pain, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime trauma exposure are well known, previous studies are limited by their recruitment of women from shelters. These relationships were explored with a community-based sample of formerly abused women ( N = 84).…

  10. Differences in suprathreshold heat pain responses and self-reported sleep quality between patients with temporomandibular joint disorder and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Dasilva, M.C.; Goodin, B.R.; Fillingim, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heat pain threshold (HPTh) and heat pain tolerance (HPTo) between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) patients and healthy controls. Using suprathreshold heat pain, this study also examined between-group (i.e. TMJD vs. healthy controls) differences in hyperalgesia and temporal summation (TS) of heat pain. Lastly, whether between-group differences in these heat pain outcomes were mediated by self-reported sleep quality was also tested. A total of 119 participants (41% TMJD) completed the current study. HPTh and HPTo responses were assessed at the ventral forearm with an ascending method of limits, while hyperalgesia and TS responses were assessed at the dorsal forearm at temperatures of 46, 48 and 50 °C. Prior to completion of heat pain procedures, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Significant between-group differences in HPTh and HPTo were not observed. TMJD patients demonstrated significantly greater hyperalgesia than healthy controls at 46 °C only, but there were no differences for TS. Furthermore, TMJD patients reported significantly poorer sleep quality compared with healthy controls. Data analysis revealed a significant simple mediation effect whereby the presence of TMJD was strongly associated with poorer self-reported sleep quality, which, in turn, was related to enhanced hyperalgesia at 46 °C. These findings support the hypothesis that the thermal hyperalgesia demonstrated by TMJD patients may be related to poor quality of their self-reported sleep. The ability of interventions that improve sleep quality to also affect pain sensitivity is currently the topic of ongoing investigation. PMID:22344627

  11. The Burden and Determinants of Neck Pain in Whiplash-Associated Disorders After Traffic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J.; Cassidy, J. David; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Côté, Pierre; Guzman, Jamie; Peloso, Paul; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carragee, Eugene; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To undertake a best evidence synthesis on the burden and determinants of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) after traffic collisions. Study Design Summary of Background Data. Previous best evidence synthesis on WAD has noted a lack of evidence regarding incidence of and risk factors for WAD. Therefore there was a warrant of a reanalyze of this body of research. Methods A systematic search of Medline was conducted. The reviewers looked for studies on neck pain and its associated disorders published 1980 –2006. Each relevant study was independently and critically reviewed by rotating pairs of reviewers. Data from studies judged to have acceptable internal validity (scientifically admissible) were abstracted into evidence tables, and provide the body of the best evidence synthesis. Results The authors found 32 scientifically admissible studies related to the burden and determinants of WAD. In the Western world, visits to emergency rooms due to WAD have increased over the past 30 years. The annual cumulative incidence of WAD differed substantially between countries. They found that occupant seat position and collision impact direction were associated with WAD in one study. Eliminating insurance payments for pain and suffering were associated with a lower incidence of WAD injury claims in one study. Younger ages and being a female were both associated with filing claims or seeking care for WAD, although the evidence is not consistent. Preliminary evidence suggested that headrests/car seats, aimed to limiting head extension during rear-end collisions had a preventive effect on reporting WAD, especially in females. Conclusion WAD after traffic collisions affects many people. Despite many years of research, the evidence regarding risk factors for WAD is sparse but seems to include personal, societal, and environmental factors. More research including, well-defined studies with accurate denominators for calculating risk

  12. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (Ppain assessed via 3 different pain scales (Ppain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  13. Concomitant Persistent Pain in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia – Evidence for Different Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Gozalov, Aydin; Olesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    and clinical importance of concomitant persistent pain in TN. This has led to subgrouping of TN into forms with and without concomitant persistent pain in the recent 3rd International Classification of Headache Disorders beta classification. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on the clinical...... to sodium channel blockers (P = .001). There were no significant differences in other clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant persistent pain is very prevalent in TN and is not a consequence of paroxysmal pain. Findings support that the 3rd International Classification of Headache Disorders beta...

  14. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIXDORF, D. R.; DRANGSHOLT, M. T.; ETTLIN, D. A.; GAUL, C.; DE LEEUW, R.; SVENSSON, P.; ZAKRZEWSKA, J. M.; DE LAAT, A.; CEUSTERS, W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. PMID:21848527

  15. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, D R; Drangsholt, M T; Ettlin, D A; Gaul, C; De Leeuw, R; Svensson, P; Zakrzewska, J M; De Laat, A; Ceusters, W

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond; Look, John; Anderson, Gary; Goulet, Jean-Paul; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Gonzalez, Yoly; Lobbezoo, Frank; Michelotti, Ambra; Brooks, Sharon L; Ceusters, Werner; Drangsholt, Mark; Ettlin, Dominik; Gaul, Charly; Goldberg, Louis J; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Hollender, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; John, Mike T; De Laat, Antoon; de Leeuw, Reny; Maixner, William; van der Meulen, Marylee; Murray, Greg M; Nixdorf, Donald R; Palla, Sandro; Petersson, Arne; Pionchon, Paul; Smith, Barry; Visscher, Corine M; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Dworkin, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0.95. Consequently, these empirical results supported the development of revised RDC/TMD Axis I diagnostic algorithms that were subsequently demonstrated to be valid for the most common pain-related TMD and for one temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorder. The original RDC/TMD Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Through a series of workshops and symposia, a panel of clinical and basic science pain experts modified the revised RDC/TMD Axis I algorithms by using comprehensive searches of published TMD diagnostic literature followed by review and consensus via a formal structured process. The panel's recommendations for further revision of the Axis I diagnostic algorithms were assessed for validity by using the Validation Project's data set, and for reliability by using newly collected data from the ongoing TMJ Impact Project-the follow-up study to the Validation Project. New Axis II instruments were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting any pain-related TMD as well as valid diagnostic criteria for differentiating the most common pain-related TMD (sensitivity ≥ 0.86, specificity ≥ 0.98) and for one intra

  17. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  18. The effect of neck-specific exercise with, or without a behavioral approach, on pain, disability, and self-efficacy in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Maria L; Peterson, Gunnel; O'Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (Pexercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (PSelf-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive.

  19. Alexithymia and anxiety in female chronic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatcioglu Omer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Alexithymia is highly prevalent among chronic pain patients. Pain is a remarkable cause for high levels of chronic anxiety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alexithymia and to determine anxiety levels among DSM-IV somatoform pain disorder (chronic pain female patients and to examine the relationship between alexithymia and the self-reporting of pain. Methods Thirty adult females (mean age: 34,63 ± 10,62 years, who applied to the outpatient psychiatry clinic at a public hospital with the diagnosis of chronic pain disorder (DSM-IV, were included in the study. Thirty seven healthy females (mean age: 34,46 ± 7,43 years, who matched for sociodemographic features with the patient group, consisted the control group. A sociodemographic data form, 26-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were administered to each subject and information was obtained on several aspects of the patients' pain, including intensity (measured by VAS, and duration. Results Chronic pain patients were found significantly more alexithymic than controls. There was a positive correlation between TAS-26 scores and the duration of pain. The alexithymic and nonalexithymic group did not differ in their perception of pain. Neither positive correlation nor significant difference was found between alexithymia and trait anxiety in pain patients. Discussion Alexithymia may be important in addressing the diversity of subjective factors involved in pain. The conceptualization of alexithymia as a personality trait as well as a secondary state reaction is underlined by our data.

  20. Comparative Effect of Collaborative Care, Pain Medication, and Duloxetine in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbid (SubChronic Pain: Results of an Exploratory Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial (CC:PAINDIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. de Heer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveEvidence exists for the efficacy of collaborative care (CC for major depressive disorder (MDD, for the efficacy of the consequent use of pain medication against pain, and for the efficacy of duloxetine against both MDD and neuropathic pain. Their relative effectiveness in comorbid MDD and pain has never been established so far. This study explores the effectiveness of CC with pain medication and duloxetine, and CC with pain medication and placebo, compared with duloxetine alone, on depressive and pain symptoms. This study was prematurely terminated because of massive reorganizations and reimbursement changes in mental health care in the Netherlands during the study period and is therefore of exploratory nature.MethodsThree-armed, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial at three specialized mental health outpatient clinics with patients who screened positive for MDD. Interventions lasted 12 weeks. Pain medication was administered according to an algorithm that avoids opiate prescription as much as possible, where paracetamol, COX inhibitors, and pregabalin are offered as steps before opiates are considered. Patients who did not show up for three or more sessions were registered as non-compliant. Explorative, intention-to-treat and per protocol, multilevel regression analyses were performed. The trial is listed in the trial registration (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1089; NTR number: NTR1089.ResultsSixty patients completed the study. Patients in all treatment groups reported significantly less depressive and pain symptoms after 12 weeks. CC with placebo condition showed the fastest decrease in depressive symptoms compared with the duloxetine alone group (b = −0.78; p = 0.01. Non-compliant patients (n = 31 did not improve over the 12-week period, in contrast to compliant patients (n = 29. Pain outcomes did not differ between the three groups.ConclusionIn MDD and pain, patient

  1. Prevalence of spinal disorders and their relationships with age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the period prevalence of spinal disorders referred to physical therapy in a university hospital over a 3-year period, and to determine the relationships of common spinal disorders with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Computer data of all new electronic referrals from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The computer data included demographic information, referring facility, and diagnosis/disorder. Results: One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine (28.1%) of all referred patients (5929) had spinal disorders. The most common disorders affected the lumbar spine (53.1%) and cervical spine (27.1%), and pain was the most common disorder. Neck pain (60.5%) was more common in patients spondylosis was common (~30%) in the >30 age groups. Spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women (7.8% and 76.2%) than in men (73.9% and 3.3%). Conclusion: Spinal disorders were common compared with other disorders. Low back pain and neck pain were the most common spinal disorders. Age and gender were weakly related to some of the disorders that affected the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:25987116

  2. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  3. Comorbid anxiety and depression disorders in patients with chronic pain Transtornos ansiosos e depressivos em pacientes com dor crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of anxiety and depression disorders in patients with chronic pain. METHOD: Patients receiving care at the pain clinic of the Federal University of Bahia between February 2003 and November 2006. The MINI PLUS - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to evaluate the patients and establish psychiatric diagnoses. RESULTS: 400 patients were evaluated mean age was 45.6±11.37 years; 82.8% were female, 17.3% male; 48.5% were married; 55.1% were Catholics; and 40.5% had only high school education. Of these 29.9% reported intense pain and 70.8% reported suffering pain daily. The most frequent medical diagnosis was herniated disc (24.5%, and 48.5% of patients had been undergoing treatment at the pain clinic for less than 3 months. Comorbidities found were depressive episodes (42%, dysthymia (54%, social phobia (36.5%, agoraphobia (8.5% and panic disorder (7.3%. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in patients suffering chronic pain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de transtornos ansiosos e depressivos em pacientes com dor crônica. MÉTODO: Os pacientes foram avaliados na clínica da dor da Universidade Federal da Bahia entre fevereiro 2003 e novembro 2006. O Mini-plus - entrevista neuropsiquiátrica internacional foi usado para estabelecer diagnósticos psiquiátricos nos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 400 pacientes com idade média de 45,6±11,37 anos; 82,8% eram mulheres, homens 17,3%; 48,5% eram casados; 55,1% católicos; e 40,5% concluíram o segundo grau, 29,9% relataram dor intensa e 70,8% relataram sentir dor diariamente. O diagnóstico médico o mais freqüente foi hérnia de disco (24,5%, e 48,5% dos pacientes submeteu-se ao tratamento na clínica da dor por menos de 3 meses. Comorbidades encontradas foram episódios depressivos (42%, distimia (54%, fobia social (36,5%, agorafobia (8,5% e transtorno de pânico (7,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Comorbidades psiquiátricas s

  4. Personality assessment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, D A; Herring, C L; Schwartzman, R J; Marchese, M

    1998-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the importance of psychological/psychiatric factors in the development of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Our objective was to determine whether CRPS type I patients were psychiatrically different from other chronic pain patients, with particular attention to personality pathology. A standardized clinical assessment of all major psychiatric categories, including personality disorders, was performed on 25 CRPS type I patients and a control group of 25 patients with chronic low back pain from disc-related radiculopathy. Both sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev.) and the visual analog scale. Both groups were similar in terms of pain intensity and duration. Statistical analysis showed both groups to have a significant amount of major psychiatric comorbidity, in particular major depressive disorder, and a high incidence of personality disorders. Therefore, intense chronic pain was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity in both groups and in similar proportions. The high incidence of personality pathology in both groups may represent an exaggeration of maladaptive personality traits and coping styles as a result of a chronic, intense, state of pain.

  5. New proposals for the international classification of diseases-11 revision of pain diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rief, Winfried; Kaasa, Stein; Jensen, Rigmor

    2012-01-01

    The representation of pain diagnoses in current classification systems like International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV does not adequately reflect the state of the art of pain research, and does not sufficiently support...... the clinical management and research programs for pain conditions. Moreover, there is an urgent need to harmonize classification of pain syndromes of special expert groups (eg, International Classification of Headache Disorders) and general classification systems (eg, ICD-11, DSM-V). Therefore, this paper...

  6. Post-traumatic stress symptom clusters in acute whiplash associated disorder and their prediction of chronic pain-related disability

    OpenAIRE

    Annick Maujean; Matthew J. Gullo; Tonny Elmose Andersen; Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn; Michele Sterling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Introduction:. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been found to be associated with an increased risk of persisting neck pain and disability in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors with whiplash injuries. The findings are mixed as to which PTSD symptom(s) best predicts recovery in this population. Objectives:. The aims were (1) to explore the factor structure of the Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of acute whiplash-injured in...

  7. Comorbidity of Alcohol Use Disorder and Chronic Pain: Genetic Influences on Brain Reward and Stress Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ellen W; Craggs, Jason G; Gizer, Ian R

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly comorbid with chronic pain (CP). Evidence has suggested that neuroadaptive processes characterized by reward deficit and stress surfeit are involved in the development of AUD and pain chronification. Neurological data suggest that shared genetic architecture associated with the reward and stress systems may contribute to the comorbidity of AUD and CP. This monograph first delineates the prevailing theories of the development of AUD and pain chronification focusing on the reward and stress systems. It then provides a brief summary of relevant neurological findings followed by an evaluation of evidence documented by molecular genetic studies. Candidate gene association studies have provided some initial support for the genetic overlap between AUD and CP; however, these results must be interpreted with caution until studies with sufficient statistical power are conducted and replications obtained. Genomewide association studies have suggested a number of genes (e.g., TBX19, HTR7, and ADRA1A) that are either directly or indirectly related to the reward and stress systems in the AUD and CP literature. Evidence reviewed in this monograph suggests that shared genetic liability underlying the comorbidity between AUD and CP, if present, is likely to be complex. As the advancement in molecular genetic methods continues, future studies may show broader central nervous system involvement in AUD-CP comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Affective spectrum disorders and role of serotonergic system of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijević Ivana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective spectrum disorders include mood and anxiety disorders, whereas the term functional somatic syndromes describes disorders in which the main symptom is chronic pain, with no pathognomonic tissue damage, such as fibromyalgia, irritable colon, tension headache. Pain as a symptom is often present in patients with depression and anxiety, and similarly, depressed mood, anxiety and other psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with functional somatic syndromes. This explains attitudes that affective disorders and functional somatic syndromes should be found along the same spectrum, due to a similar neurobiochemicalmehanism and dysfunction of these CNS structures and neurotransmitter systems, which lead to similar symptoms in both groups. The symptoms of affective disorders, including somatic are associated with serotonin and serotonergic transmission in the CNS. The existence of depressive and anxiety disorders, such as fatigue, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders, depressed mood, anxiety, and functional somatic syndromes code indicate a similar mechanism of origin. Hypothesis of central neuropathic pain explains the possibility of the descending inhibitory pain mechanisms, including serotonergic and noradrenergic projections and their receptors. Central suprasegmental senzitization in nociceptive pathways, also at the level of the thalamus and the sensory cortex, trigered by an emotional stressors can cause painful symptoms in both groups of disorders. Serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways and voltage sensitive channels of their receptors are included in the mechanism. Modern psychopharmacology can no longer ignore the existence of painful symptoms in affective disorder or depressive and anxiety symptoms in functional somatic syndromes and their treatment can improve. Therapeutic effects of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants and alpha 2 delta ligands for all kinds of painful symptoms in affective disorders - serotonergic spectrum is

  9. Central sensitization: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Clifford J

    2011-03-01

    Nociceptor inputs can trigger a prolonged but reversible increase in the excitability and synaptic efficacy of neurons in central nociceptive pathways, the phenomenon of central sensitization. Central sensitization manifests as pain hypersensitivity, particularly dynamic tactile allodynia, secondary punctate or pressure hyperalgesia, aftersensations, and enhanced temporal summation. It can be readily and rapidly elicited in human volunteers by diverse experimental noxious conditioning stimuli to skin, muscles or viscera, and in addition to producing pain hypersensitivity, results in secondary changes in brain activity that can be detected by electrophysiological or imaging techniques. Studies in clinical cohorts reveal changes in pain sensitivity that have been interpreted as revealing an important contribution of central sensitization to the pain phenotype in patients with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal disorders with generalized pain hypersensitivity, headache, temporomandibular joint disorders, dental pain, neuropathic pain, visceral pain hypersensitivity disorders and post-surgical pain. The comorbidity of those pain hypersensitivity syndromes that present in the absence of inflammation or a neural lesion, their similar pattern of clinical presentation and response to centrally acting analgesics, may reflect a commonality of central sensitization to their pathophysiology. An important question that still needs to be determined is whether there are individuals with a higher inherited propensity for developing central sensitization than others, and if so, whether this conveys an increased risk in both developing conditions with pain hypersensitivity, and their chronification. Diagnostic criteria to establish the presence of central sensitization in patients will greatly assist the phenotyping of patients for choosing treatments that produce analgesia by normalizing hyperexcitable central neural activity. We have certainly come a long way since the

  10. Addicted to Pain: A Preliminary Model of Sexual Masochism as Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Holly; Ronel, Natti

    2017-11-01

    An exploratory, qualitative, phenomenological study focused on the experience of pain while participating in sexual masochistic acts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine individuals (four female, five male) who regularly participate in sexually masochistic acts and point to pain as central to their experience. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed several key characteristics of the participant's experience: the first time, intoxication, craving and withdrawal, tolerance, pain as control, and the pain inducing partner. The findings indicate that the way pain is experienced while mitigated through masochistic behavior creates an addictive process that coincides with a chronic behavioral spin contextualization. This article presents a preliminary model of addiction to physical pain in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) definition of substance-related and addictive disorders and the behavioral spin theory.

  11. Sympathetically maintained pain presenting first as temporomandibular disorder, then as parotid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Subha; Nixdorf, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by intense pain, swelling, redness, hypersensitivity and additional sudomotor effects. In all 13 cases of CRPS in the head and neck region reported in the literature, nerve injury was identified as the etiology for pain initiation. In this article, we present the case of a 30-year-old female patient with sympathetically maintained pain without apparent nerve injury. Her main symptoms--left-side preauricular pain and inability to open her mouth wide--mimicked temporomandibular joint arthralgia and myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles. Later, symptoms of intermittent preauricular pain and swelling developed, along with hyposalivation, which mimicked parotitis. After an extensive diagnostic process, no definitive underlying pathology could be identified and a diagnosis of neuropathic pain with a prominent sympathetic component was made. Two years after the onset of symptoms and initiation of care, treatment with repeated stellate ganglion blocks and enteral clonidine pharmacotherapy provided adequate pain relief.

  12. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may...

  13. Persistent pain and comorbidity among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Traumatization and chronic pain: a further model of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egloff N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Niklaus Egloff,1 Anna Hirschi,2 Roland von Känel1 1Department of General Internal Medicine, Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland; 2Outpatient Clinic for Victims of Torture and War, Swiss Red Cross, Bern-Wabern, Switzerland Abstract: Up to 80% of patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder are suffering from “unexplained” chronic pain. Theories about the links between traumatization and chronic pain have become the subject of increased interest over the last several years. We will give a short summary about the existing interaction models that emphasize particularly psychological and behavioral aspects of this interaction. After a synopsis of the most important psychoneurobiological mechanisms of pain in the context of traumatization, we introduce the hypermnesia–hyperarousal model, which focuses on two psychoneurobiological aspects of the physiology of learning. This hypothesis provides an answer to the hitherto open question about the origin of pain persistence and pain sensitization following a traumatic event and also provides a straightforward explanatory model for educational purposes. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, hypermnesia, hypersensitivity, traumatization

  15. Predictors and Outcomes of Revisits in Older Adults Discharged from the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Jelle; Lucke, Jacinta A; de Groot, Bas; Fogteloo, Anne J; Anten, Sander; Heringhaus, Christian; Dekkers, Olaf M; Blauw, Gerard J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2018-04-01

    To study predictors of emergency department (ED) revisits and the association between ED revisits and 90-day functional decline or mortality. Multicenter cohort study. One academic and two regional Dutch hospitals. Older adults discharged from the ED (N=1,093). At baseline, data on demographic characteristics, illness severity, and geriatric parameters (cognition, functional capacity) were collected. All participants were prospectively followed for an unplanned revisit within 30 days and for functional decline and mortality 90 days after the initial visit. The median age was 79 (interquartile range 74-84), and 114 participants (10.4%) had an ED revisit within 30 days of discharge. Age (hazard ratio (HR)=0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.92-0.99), male sex (HR=1.61, 95% CI=1.05-2.45), polypharmacy (HR=2.06, 95% CI=1.34-3.16), and cognitive impairment (HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.02-2.88) were independent predictors of a 30-day ED revisit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict an ED revisit was 0.65 (95% CI=0.60-0.70). In a propensity score-matched analysis, individuals with an ED revisit were at higher risk (odds ratio=1.99 95% CI=1.06-3.71) of functional decline or mortality. Age, male sex, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment were independent predictors of a 30-day ED revisit, but no useful clinical prediction model could be developed. However, an early ED revisit is a strong new predictor of adverse outcomes in older adults. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Sensemaking Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Cornelissen, Joep

    2014-01-01

    We critique and extend theory on organizational sensemaking around three themes. First, we investigate sense arising non-productively and so beyond any instrumental relationship with things; second, we consider how sense is experienced through mood as well as our cognitive skills of manipulation ...... research by revisiting Weick’s seminal reading of Norman Maclean’s book surrounding the tragic events of a 1949 forest fire at Mann Gulch, USA....

  17. Genetics Home Reference: paroxysmal extreme pain disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include changes in temperature (such as a cold wind) and emotional distress as well as eating spicy ... find a genetics professional in my area? Other Names for This Condition familial rectal pain PEPD PEXPD ...

  18. Brain responses to vestibular pain and its anticipation in women with Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Pazmany

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Women with GPPPD are characterized by increased subjective and brain responses to vestibular pain and, to a lesser extent, its anticipation, with fear and anxiety associated with responses to pain, supporting the introduction of anticipatory fear as a criterion of GPPPD in DSM-5.

  19. Association Between Chronic Tension-Type Headache Coexistent with Chronic Temporomandibular Disorder Pain and Limitations in Physical and Emotional Functioning: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emshoff, Rüdiger; Bertram, Felix; Schnabl, Dagmar; Emshoff, Iris

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between chronic tension-type headache coexistent with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and severe limitations in physical and emotional functioning. Sample size estimation was used to determine that this case-control study should include 126 subjects. Subjects suffering from chronic TMD who were aged between 18 and 68 were recruited in routine clinical practice. Of the 126 included subjects, 63 had TMD pain associated with chronic tension-type headache (cases) and 63 had TMD pain without a history of tension-type headache (controls). Clinical diagnosis of TMD was made according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Axis I criteria, and clinical diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache (ICHD-II). RDC/TMD Axis II criteria were applied to record the scores from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised Depression (SCL-DEP) and Somatization (SCL-SOM) scales. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between TMD pain with chronic tension-type headache and high levels of depression and somatization severity as scored on the SCLDEP and SCL-SOM scales, respectively, and high pain-related disability (GCPS grade III or IV). Data were adjusted to take into account age, gender, time since TMD pain onset, chronic TMD pain intensity, and characteristic pain intensity. The presence of chronic tension-type headache was significantly associated with severe SCL-DEP (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2; P headache coexistent with chronic TMD pain and key aspects of physical and emotional functioning reflected in severe depression, severe somatization, and high pain-related disability.

  20. A-MUPS score to differentiate patients with somatic symptom disorder from those with medical disease for complaints of non-acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2017-01-01

    To develop a clinical score to discriminate patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) from those with medical disease (MD) for complaints of non-acute pain. We retrospectively examined the clinical records of consecutive patients with pain for a duration of ≥1 month in our department from April 2003 to March 2015. We divided the subjects according to the diagnoses of definite SSD (as diagnosed and tracked by psychiatrists in our hospital), probable SSD (without evaluation by psychiatrists in our hospital), matched MD (randomly matched two patients by age, sex, and pain location for each definite SSD patient), unmatched MD, other mental disease, or functional somatic syndrome (FSS). We investigated eight clinical factors for definite SSD and matched MD, and developed a diagnostic score to identify SSD. We subsequently validated the model with cases of probable SSD and unmatched MD. The number of patients with definite SSD, probable SSD, matched MD, unmatched MD, other mental disease, and FSS was 104 (3.5%), 214 (7.3%), 197 (6.7%), 742 (25%), 708 (24%), and 978 (33%), respectively. In a conditional logistic regression analysis, the following five factors were included as independent predictors of SSD: Analgesics ineffective, Mental disorder history, Unclear provocative/palliative factors, Persistence without cessation, and Stress feelings/episodes (A-MUPS). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the model was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864-0.937, p <0.001), and the McFadden's pseudo- R -squared was 0.709. For internal validation, the AUC between probable SSD and unmatched MD was 0.930 (95% CI: 0.910-0.950, p <0.001). The prevalence and the likelihood ratio of SSD increased as the score increased. The A-MUPS score was useful for discriminating patients with SSD from those with MD for complaints of non-acute pain, although external validation and refinement should be needed.

  1. Disentangling the Sleep-Pain Relationship in Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric chronic pain often emerges in adolescence and cooccurs with internalizing mental health issues and sleep impairments. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep problems may precede the onset of chronic pain as well as anxiety and depression. Studies conducted in pediatric populations with pain-related chronic illnesses suggest that internalizing mental health symptoms may mediate the sleep-pain relationship; however, this has not been examined in youth with primary pain disorders. Objective. To examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated relationships between sleep quality and pain outcomes among youth with chronic pain. Methods. Participants included 147 youth (66.7% female aged 8–18 years who were referred to a tertiary-level chronic pain program. At intake, the youth completed psychometrically sound measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results. As hypothesized, poor sleep quality was associated with increased pain intensity and pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated these sleep-pain relationships. Discussion. For youth with chronic pain, poor sleep quality may worsen pain through alterations in mood and anxiety; however, prospective research using objective measures is needed. Future research should examine whether targeting sleep and internalizing mental health symptoms in treatments improve pain outcomes in these youth.

  2. 弱激光治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病疼痛的研究进展%The research progress of low level laser therapy for temporomandibular disorders pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高丽; 谷志远; 柳毅

    2015-01-01

    疼痛是颞下颌关节紊乱病患者最常见的临床表现之一,也是大多数人治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病的原因。弱激光在牙科领域的应用越来越广泛,且在颞下颌关节紊乱病治疗中的应用也越来越多,用来抗炎和缓解疼痛。本文对弱激光疗法在治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病疼痛机理方面进行概述。了解弱激光疗法的机制对弱激光治疗颞下颌关节紊乱病具有重要意义。%Pain is a symptom of temporomandibular disorders. It is also the reason for most people to treat temporomandibular disor-ders. Low-level laser is more and more widely applied in the field of dentistry,and is often used in the clinical treatment of temporoman-dibular joint pain for anti-inflammation and pain relief. In this paper,the mechanisms of the low-level laser therapy in treatment of tem-poromandibular disorders pain are summarized. Understanding its mechanism is of great significance for the clinical application of low-level laser in treating temporomandibular disorders.

  3. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: Recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond; Look, John; Anderson, Gary; Goulet, Jean-Paul; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Gonzalez, Yoly; Lobbezoo, Frank; Michelotti, Ambra; Brooks, Sharon L.; Ceusters, Werner; Drangsholt, Mark; Ettlin, Dominik; Gaul, Charly; Goldberg, Louis J.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hollender, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; John, Mike T.; De Laat, Antoon; de Leeuw, Reny; Maixner, William; van der Meulen, Marylee; Murray, Greg M.; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Palla, Sandro; Petersson, Arne; Pionchon, Paul; Smith, Barry; Visscher, Corine M.; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Dworkin, Samuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0.95. Consequently, these empirical results supported the development of revised RDC/TMD Axis I diagnostic algorithms that were subsequently demonstrated to be valid for the most common pain-related TMD and for one temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorder. The original RDC/TMD Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods Through a series of workshops and symposia, a panel of clinical and basic science pain experts modified the revised RDC/TMD Axis I algorithms by using comprehensive searches of published TMD diagnostic literature followed by review and consensus via a formal structured process. The panel's recommendations for further revision of the Axis I diagnostic algorithms were assessed for validity by using the Validation Project's data set, and for reliability by using newly collected data from the ongoing TMJ Impact Project—the follow-up study to the Validation Project. New Axis II instruments were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. Results The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting any pain-related TMD as well as valid diagnostic criteria for differentiating the most common pain-related TMD (sensitivity ≥ 0.86, specificity ≥ 0

  4. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain revisited with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasali, N.; Cubuk, R.; Aricak, M.; Ozarar, M.; Saydam, B.; Nur, H.; Tuncbilek, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to assess the contrast enhancement patterns of the retrodiscal tissue with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) with respect to different temporomandibular joint disc pathologies. Additionally, we questioned the relationship between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the contrast enhancement pattern of the retrodiscal tissue regardless of the TMJ disc position. Materials and methods: 52 joints of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females) who have pain in at least at one of their TMJ were included in this study. For the qualitative analysis, the joints were divided into four groups in terms of their disc positions: normal (1), partially displaced with or without reduction (2), totally dislocated with reduction (3) and totally dislocated without reduction (4). Besides, two different joint groups were constituted, namely the painful group and painless group according to the clinical findings without taking the TMJ disc positions into account. Quantitative analyses were made by means of measuring signal intensity ratios (SI) ratio at the retrodiscal tissue (from internal side and external side of the each joint) using DCE-MRI and these measurements were analyzed with paired samples t test to define the difference between the measurements. At the second stage, the time-dependent arithmetical mean values of the SI ratios were calculated for each joint group and significant differences between the groups were questioned using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Besides, painful and painless groups which were classified on the basis of the clinical data were compared according to the mean SI ratios found for each joint and the significant differences between these two groups were assessed by means of Student's T test. The results were assessed in 95% confidence interval where the significance level was p < 0.05. Results: A significant difference was observed between the internal and external contrast enhancement of the joints with partial

  5. Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major Depressive Disorder: A Family-Based Mixed-Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew M; Hall, Lynsey S; Zeng, Yanni; Adams, Mark J; Gibson, Jude; Wigmore, Eleanor; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Davies, Gail; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Campbell, Archie I; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hayward, Caroline; Haley, Chris S; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; Smith, Daniel J; Nicholl, Barbara I; Hinds, David A; Jones, Amy V; Scollen, Serena; Meng, Weihua; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent and a significant source of disability, yet its genetic and environmental risk factors are poorly understood. Its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD) is of particular importance. We sought to test the contribution of genetic factors and shared and unique environment to risk of chronic pain and its correlation with MDD in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS). We then sought to replicate any significant findings in the United Kingdom Biobank study. Using family-based mixed-model analyses, we examined the contribution of genetics and shared family environment to chronic pain by spouse, sibling, and household relationships. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS (n = 23,960), a family- and population-based study of individuals recruited from the Scottish population through their general practitioners. We then examined and partitioned the correlation between chronic pain and MDD and estimated the contribution of genetic factors and shared environment in GS:SFHS. Finally, we used data from two independent genome-wide association studies to test whether chronic pain has a polygenic architecture and examine whether genomic risk of psychiatric disorder predicted chronic pain and whether genomic risk of chronic pain predicted MDD. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS and repeated in UK Biobank, a study of 500,000 from the UK population, of whom 112,151 had genotyping and phenotypic data. Chronic pain is a moderately heritable trait (heritability = 38.4%, 95% CI 33.6% to 43.9%) that is significantly concordant in spouses (variance explained 18.7%, 95% CI 9.5% to 25.1%). Chronic pain is positively correlated with depression (ρ = 0.13, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.15, p = 2.72x10-68) and shows a tendency to cluster within families for genetic reasons (genetic correlation = 0.51, 95%CI 0.40 to 0.62, p = 8.24x10-19). Polygenic risk profiles for pain, generated using independent GWAS data, were associated with

  6. Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major Depressive Disorder: A Family-Based Mixed-Model Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M McIntosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is highly prevalent and a significant source of disability, yet its genetic and environmental risk factors are poorly understood. Its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD is of particular importance. We sought to test the contribution of genetic factors and shared and unique environment to risk of chronic pain and its correlation with MDD in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS. We then sought to replicate any significant findings in the United Kingdom Biobank study.Using family-based mixed-model analyses, we examined the contribution of genetics and shared family environment to chronic pain by spouse, sibling, and household relationships. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS (n = 23,960, a family- and population-based study of individuals recruited from the Scottish population through their general practitioners. We then examined and partitioned the correlation between chronic pain and MDD and estimated the contribution of genetic factors and shared environment in GS:SFHS. Finally, we used data from two independent genome-wide association studies to test whether chronic pain has a polygenic architecture and examine whether genomic risk of psychiatric disorder predi