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Sample records for package closure control

  1. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  2. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair

  3. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  4. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY-99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-01-01

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing

  5. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure

  6. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Draft Technical Position Subtask 1.1: waste package performance after repository closure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1983-08-01

    This document provides guidance to the DOE on the issues and information necessary for the NRC to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. Minimal performance objectives of the waste package are required by proposed 10 CFR 60. This Draft Technical Position describes the various options available to the DOE for compliance and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various choices. Examples are discussed dealing with demonstrability, predictability and reasonable assurance. The types of performance are considered. The document summarizes presently identified high priority issues needed to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. 20 references, 7 tables

  8. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  9. An approach for the design of closure bolts of spent fuel elements transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel; Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Fainer, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The spent fuel elements transportation packages must be designed for severe conditions including significant fire and impact loads corresponding to hypothetical accident conditions. In general, these packages have large flat lids connected to cylindrical bodies by closure bolts that can be the weak link in the containment system. The bolted closure design depends on the geometrical characteristics of the flat lid and the cylindrical body, including their flanges, on the type of the gaskets and their dimensions, and on the number, strength, and tightness of the bolts. There are well established procedures for the closure bolts design used in pressure vessels and piping. They can not be used directly in the bolts design applied to transportation packages. Prior to the use of these procedures, it is necessary consider the differences in the main loads (pressure for the pressure vessels and piping and impact loads for the transportation packages) and in the geometry (large flat lids are not used in pressure vessels and piping). So, this paper presents an approach for the design of the closure bolts of spent fuel elements transportation packages considering the impact loads and the typical geometrical configuration of the transportation packages. (author)

  10. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment

  11. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  12. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  13. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described

  14. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO CLOSURE TORQUES AND SEQUENTIAL IMPACTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a finite-element technique to simulate the structural responses and to evaluate the cumulative damage of a radioactive material packaging requiring bolt closure-tightening torque and subjected to the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Existing finite-element methods for modeling closure stresses from bolt pre-load are not readily adaptable to dynamic analyses. The HAC events are required to occur sequentially per 10CFR71 and thus the evaluation of the cumulative damage is desirable. Generally, each HAC event is analyzed separately and the cumulative damage is partially addressed by superposition. This results in relying on additional physical testing to comply with 10CFR71 requirements for assessment of cumulative damage. The proposed technique utilizes the combination of kinematic constraints, rigid-body motions and structural deformations to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in modeling the effect of cumulative damage. This methodology provides improved numerical solutions in compliance with the 10CFR71 requirements for sequential HAC tests. Analyses were performed for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) designed by Savannah River National Laboratory to demonstrate the applications of the technique. The methodology proposed simulates the closure bolt torque preload followed by the sequential HAC events, the 30-foot drop and the 30-foot dynamic crush. The analytical results will be compared to the package test data

  15. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact

  16. Regulatory concerns for leakage testing of packagings with three O-ring closure seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The American National Standard for Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment (ANSI N14.5) provides guidance for leakage rate testing to show that a particular packaging complies with regulatory requirements and also provides guidance in determining appropriate acceptance criteria. Recent radioactive packagings designs have incorporated three O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal. These designs have the potential for false positive results of leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time required to conduct the tests. A leak detector samples the evacuated volume between the outer O-ring and the containment O-ring. False positive results can be caused in two ways, a large leakage in the containment seal or leakage in the inner seal. This paper will describe the problem together with possible solutions/areas that need to be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packagings before a particular packaging design can be certified for transport

  17. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-02-01

    Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  18. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  19. Top closure for control rod drive for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raas, J.H.; Schwartz, J.I.

    1978-01-01

    A removable top closure and venting assembly for the tubular housing of a control rod drive includes a mounting ring threadably inserted in the upper end of the housing, a fluid-sealing closure member beneath the mounting ring and which is mounted in and coupled to the mounting ring by means of a ball and socket joint, a gas vent defined by interconnecting passages extending through the closure and through the ball and socket joint, and a vent valve accessible from the top of the closure assembly. 3 claims, 2 figures

  20. Holistic Considerations in Optimizing a Sterile Product Package to Ensure Container Closure Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Fran L

    2018-01-01

    A new major chapter dealing with container closure integrity was released by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Chapter provides a significant amount of education and guidance concerning test methodologies to prove that a system is integral and safe for use. The test method used is only one of the major considerations in approaching the challenge of proving an integral system. This paper takes a holistic review of all the major considerations needed in qualifying a new vial system for container closure integrity. There is substantial interplay among many aspects in the process of sealing a vial. This review helps to define major risks that need to be considered and mitigated and reinforces the need to understand the maximum allowable leakage limit that is acceptable for a specific drug application. A typical risk-based approach considers materials, test methods, process, people, environment, and equipment. Each of these aspects is considered in some detail along with a recommended process flow for building a best practice, science-based approach. This approach will inform decision making for evaluating the correct combination of components and assuring they are assembled and tested in an appropriate manner. This work, once completed, can be the basis for a vial system platform or specific drug application qualification. LAY ABSTRACT: Container closure integrity is a fundamental requirement of every sterile drug package. With recent upgrading of compendia standards and guidance around this issue, there is an opportunity to better define a best practice approach to a complicated subject. It is important to recognize that there is substantial interplay among the components of the system, the process of assembly, and the test methods that are used. This paper takes a holistic approach to discussing these issues and identifying the risks that must be considered in assuring an integral container over the shelf life of a drug product. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  1. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa Monini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper jaw anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  2. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues, Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper arch anchorage. There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  3. Irradiation of microbial controlling on package tofu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Wang Li; Wang Shuo; Wang Ning

    2009-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological controlling, nutrient and sensory qualities of packaged tofu (bean curd) stored at commercial condition. Results showed that D 10 values of Listeria innocua and Samonella enteritidis inoculated in packaged tofu were 0.225 and 0.240kGy, respectively. Irradiation dose lower than 2.0kGy had no significant effects on content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05). γ-irradiation could decrease microbial in packaged tofu and 2.0kGy should be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of the products. (authors)

  4. Management Control Packages in Public Sector Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Berend

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines configurations of management control (MC) packages in public sector organizations, and how they relate to employee motivation and behavior. Using multiple case studies and a survey study, this thesis contributes to the extant literature in three ways. First, it enhances the

  5. Consys Linear Control System Design Software Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantidis, Z.

    1987-01-01

    This package is created in order to help engineers, researchers, students and all who work on linear control systems. The software includes all time and frequency domain analysises, spectral analysises and networks, active filters and regulators design aids. The programmes are written on Hewlett Packard computer in Basic 4.0

  6. Quality control concept for radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Martens, B.R.; Odoj, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a contract with the BfS for the performance of quality control measures is necessary. It is principally possible to apply two alternative methods: random checks on waste packages or qualification of conditioning processes with subsequent inspections. Priority is given to the control by the process qualification. Both methods have successfully been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany and can be applied. In the course of the qualification of conditioning processes it must be demonstrated by inactive and/or active runs that waste packages are produced which fulfil the waste acceptance requirements. The qualification results in the fixation of a handbook for the operation of the respective conditioning process including the process instrumentation and the operational margins. The qualified process will be inspected to assure the compliance of the actual operation with the conditions fixed in the handbook. (orig./DG)

  7. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Jr, Ildeu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extractio...

  8. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    OpenAIRE

    Monini,André da Costa; Gandini Júnior,Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto,Ary dos; Maia,Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues,Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extra...

  9. Long-term integrity of waste package final closure for HLW geological disposal, (2). Applicability of TIG welding method to overpack final closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sawa, Shuusuke; Aritomi, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Overpack, a high-level radioactive waste package for geological disposal, seals vitrified waste and in line with Japan's waste management program is required to isolate it from contact with groundwater for 1,000 years. In this study, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method, a typical arc welding method and widely used in various industries, was examined for its applicability to seal a carbon steel overpack lid with a thickness of 190 mm. Welding conditions and welding parameters were examined for multi-layer welding in a narrow gap for four different groove depths. Weld joint tests were conducted and weld flaws, macro- and microstructure, and mechanical properties were assessed within tentatively applied criteria for weld joints. Measurement and numerical calculation for residual stress were also conducted and the tendency of residual stress distribution was discussed. These test results were compared with the basic requirements of the welding method for overpack which were pointed out in our first report. It is assessed that the TIG welding method has the potential to provide the necessary requirements to complete the final closure of overpack with a maximum thickness of 190 mm. (author)

  10. Interactive orbit control package for INDUS-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, A.A.S.; Ghodke, A.D.; Fatnani, Pravin; Bhujle, A.G.; Singh, Gurnam

    2003-01-01

    Maintaining the proper electron beam orbit is very important for all light sources. This package designed in Meatball provides for orbit control by just drag and drop. Simulation of Indus-2 storage ring in this package makes it useful for beam dynamic studies as well. Package functionality and architecture is described. (author)

  11. Interactive orbit control package for INDUS-2 storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, A A.S.; Ghodke, A D; Fatnani, Pravin; Bhujle, A G; Singh, Gurnam [Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2003-07-01

    Maintaining the proper electron beam orbit is very important for all light sources. This package designed in Meatball provides for orbit control by just drag and drop. Simulation of Indus-2 storage ring in this package makes it useful for beam dynamic studies as well. Package functionality and architecture is described. (author)

  12. Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Nikolaos K; Makris, Eleftherios A; Gantsos, Apostolos; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2014-01-01

    Dog bite wounds represent a major health problem. Despite their importance, their management and especially the role of primary closure remain controversial. In this randomised controlled trial, the outcome between primary suturing and non-closure was compared. 168 consecutive patients with dog bite injuries were included in this study. The wounds were allocated randomly in two treatment approaches: Group 1, consisting of eighty-two patients, had their wound sutured, whilst Group 2, consisting of eighty-six patients, did not have their wounds sutured. All wounds were cleansed using high-pressure irrigation and povidone iodine. All patients received the same type of antibiotic treatment. Our measured outcomes included presence of infection and cosmetic appearance. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Wound and patient characteristics, such as time of management, wound location and size, and patient age, were recorded and analysed for their potential role in the resulting outcome. The overall infection rate was 8.3%. No difference in the infection rate between primary suturing and non-suturing group was detected in the present study. The cosmetic appearance of the sutured wounds was significantly better (mean score 1.74) compared to the wounds that were left open (mean score 3.05) (p=0.0001). The infection rate was comparable among all age groups. Wounds treated within 8h of injury demonstrated an infection rate of 4.5%, which is lower compared to the 22.2% rate observed in wounds treated later than 8h. The wounds located at the head and neck exhibited better results in both infection rate and cosmetic outcome. Additionally, wounds >3 cm negatively affected the cosmetic appearance of the outcome. Primary suturing of wounds caused by dog bites resulted in similar infection rate compared to non-suturing. However, primary suturing exhibited improved cosmetic appearance. Time of management appeared to be critical, as early treatment

  13. Drop Tests Results Of Revised Closure Bolt Configuration Of The Standard Waste Box, Standard Large Box 2, And Ten Drum Overpack Packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  14. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  15. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  16. A Generalized Correlation Plot Package for the CEBAF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Wu; W. Akers; S. Schaffner; H. Shoaee; W. A. Watson; D. Wetherholt

    1996-01-01

    The Correlation Package is a general facility for data acquisition and analysis serving as an online environment for performing a wide variety of machine physics experiments and engineering diagnostics. Typical correlation experiments consist of an initial set of actions followed by stepping one or two accelerator parameters while measuring up to several hundred control system parameters. The package utilizes the CDEV [1] device API to access accelerator systems. A variety of analysis and graphics tools are included through integration with the Matlab math modeling package. A post- acquisition script capability is available to automate the data reduction process. A callable interface allows this facility to serve as the data acquisition and analysis engine for high level applications. A planned interface to archived accelerator data will allow the same analysis and graphics tools to be used for viewing and correlating history data. The object oriented design and C++ implementation details as well as the current status of the Correlation Package will be presented

  17. Adhesive strip wound closure after thyroidectomy/parathyroidectomy: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2013-03-01

    Conventional collar incision closure in thyroid and parathyroid surgery involves the insertion of an epidermal layer of subcutaneous absorbable sutures that are reinforced by a deep layer of sutures. Adhesive strips offer an alternative method to close the epidermal layer. The aim of this study was to compare adhesive strip closure with absorbable sutures for collar incisions in a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

  18. Primary versus secondary closure of cutaneous abscesses in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Taira, Breena R; Chale, Stuart; Bhat, Rahul; Kennedy, David; Schmitz, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscesses have traditionally been treated with incision and drainage (I&D) and left to heal by secondary closure. The objective was to compare the healing rates of cutaneous abscesses following I&D after primary or secondary closure. This was a randomized, controlled, trial, balanced by center, with blocked randomization created by a random-number generator. One urban and one suburban academic emergency department (ED) participated. Subjects were randomized to primary or secondary wound closure following I&D of the abscess. Main outcome measures were the percentage of healed wounds (wound was completely closed by visual inspection; a 40% difference in wound healing was sought) and overall failure rate (need for additional intervention including suture removal, additional drainage, antibiotics, or admission within 7 days after drainage). Fifty-six adult patients with simple localized cutaneous abscesses were included; 29 were randomized to primary closure, and 27 were randomized to secondary closure. Healing rates at 7 days were similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (69.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.1% to 84.4% vs. 59.3%, 95% CI = 40.7% to 75.5%; difference 10.3%, 95% CI = -15.8% to 34.1%). Overall failure rates at 7 days were also similar between the primary and secondary closure groups (30.4%, 95% CI = 15.6% to 50.9% vs. 28.6%, 95% CI = 15.2% to 47.1%; difference 1.8%, 95% CI = -24.2% to 28.8%). The rates of wound healing and treatment failure following I&D of simple abscesses in the ED are similar after primary or secondary closure. The authors did not detect a difference of at least 40% in healing rates between primary and secondary closure. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Early versus conventional stoma closure following bowel surgery: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thirugnanasambandam; Pranavi, Amuda R.; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Sreenath, Gubbi S.; Kate, Vikram

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: To compare early stoma closure with conventional stoma closure following defunctioning diversion stoma surgery with respect to the frequency of complications, health-related quality of life (QoL), and length of hospitalization (LoH). Patients and Methods: This study was designed as a prospective parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Patients who underwent temporary stoma following bowel surgery between February 2014 and November 2015 were included. The rate of complications (medical and surgical) following early and conventional stoma closure was assessed. Health-related QoL and LoH were also measured. Results: One hundred patients were included, with 50 cases in each group. Postoperative complications including laparostoma (6% vs. 2%;P = 0.307), wound infection (32% vs. 18%; P = 0.106), intra-abdominal collection (14% vs. 18%; P = 0.585), anastomotic leak (4%vs. 8%;P = 0.400), and medical complications were comparable (22% vs. 32%;P = 0.257). The length of hospital stay, overall mortality and morbidity (64% vs. 44%; P = 0.05) were similar across the two groups. There was a significant reduction in the cost towards stoma care (96% vs. 2%; P = 0.001) in the early stoma closure group. Patients in the early stoma closure group also had a significantly better QoL. Conclusion: Early stoma closure does not carry an increased risk of postoperative complications, reduces cost towards stoma care, and leads to better a QoL. PMID:29451185

  20. Control of aperture closure during reach-to-grasp movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, M K; Smiley-Oyen, A L; Shimansky, Y P; Bloedel, J R; Stelmach, G E

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the pattern of coordination between arm-reaching toward an object (hand transport) and the initiation of aperture closure for grasping is different between PD patients and healthy individuals, and whether that pattern is affected by the necessity to quickly adjust the reach-to-grasp movement in response to an unexpected shift of target location. Subjects reached for and grasped a vertical dowel, the location of which was indicated by illuminating one of the three dowels placed on a horizontal plane. In control conditions, target location was fixed during the trial. In perturbation conditions, target location was shifted instantaneously by switching the illumination to a different dowel during the reach. The hand distance from the target at which the subject initiated aperture closure (aperture closure distance) was similar for both the control and perturbation conditions within each group of subjects. However, that distance was significantly closer to the target in the PD group than in the control group. The timing of aperture closure initiation varied considerably across the trials in both groups of subjects. In contrast, aperture closure distance was relatively invariant, suggesting that aperture closure initiation was determined by spatial parameters of arm kinematics rather than temporal parameters. The linear regression analysis of aperture closure distance showed that the distance was highly predictable based on the following three parameters: the amplitude of maximum grip aperture, hand velocity, and hand acceleration. This result implies that a control law, the arguments of which include the above parameters, governs the initiation of aperture closure. Further analysis revealed that the control law was very similar between the subject groups under each condition as well as between the control and perturbation conditions for each group. Consequently, the shorter aperture closure distance observed in PD patients apparently is a

  1. Control of aperture closure during reach-to-grasp movements in parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, M. K.; Smiley-Oyen, A. L.; Shimansky, Y. P.; Bloedel, J. R.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the pattern of coordination between arm-reaching toward an object (hand transport) and the initiation of aperture closure for grasping is different between PD patients and healthy individuals, and whether that pattern is affected by the necessity to quickly adjust the reach-to-grasp movement in response to an unexpected shift of target location. Subjects reached for and grasped a vertical dowel, the location of which was indicated by illuminating one of the three dowels placed on a horizontal plane. In control conditions, target location was fixed during the trial. In perturbation conditions, target location was shifted instantaneously by switching the illumination to a different dowel during the reach. The hand distance from the target at which the subject initiated aperture closure (aperture closure distance) was similar for both the control and perturbation conditions within each group of subjects. However, that distance was significantly closer to the target in the PD group than in the control group. The timing of aperture closure initiation varied considerably across the trials in both groups of subjects. In contrast, aperture closure distance was relatively invariant, suggesting that aperture closure initiation was determined by spatial parameters of arm kinematics rather than temporal parameters. The linear regression analysis of aperture closure distance showed that the distance was highly predictable based on the following three parameters: the amplitude of maximum grip aperture, hand velocity, and hand acceleration. This result implies that a control law, the arguments of which include the above parameters, governs the initiation of aperture closure. Further analysis revealed that the control law was very similar between the subject groups under each condition as well as between the control and perturbation conditions for each group. Consequently, the shorter aperture closure distance observed in PD patients apparently is a

  2. Globalization and Localization of the Management Control System package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Through an empirical case study, this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems – cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... the organization and others have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls and reward and compensation controls are glocal systems. The finding leads to the conclusion...... controls – through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. Based on a single-case study, the analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, some of which are universal throughout...

  3. 49 CFR 173.474 - Quality control for construction of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control for construction of packaging. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.474 Quality control for construction of packaging. Prior to the first use of any packaging for the shipment of Class 7...

  4. Authority Defied : Need for Cognitive Closure Influences Regulatory Control When Resisting Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Tom G. E.; van Leeuwen, Matthijs L.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Baaren, Rick B.

    The present studies examined whether differences in need for cognitive closure (NCC) were related to differences in regulatory control when confronted with authority. In two studies, levels of regulatory control were measured when participants resisted (Study 1; N = 46) or prepared to resist the

  5. Authority Defied: Need for Cognitive Closure Influences Regulatory Control When Resisting Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, T.G.E.; Leeuwen, M.L. van; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Baaren, R.B. van

    2014-01-01

    The present studies examined whether differences in need for cognitive closure (NCC) were related to differences in regulatory control when confronted with authority. In two studies, levels of regulatory control were measured when participants resisted (Study 1; N = 46) or prepared to resist the

  6. Portal control of viral prohead expansion and DNA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Krishanu; Oram, Mark; Ma, Jinxia; Black, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 terminase packages DNA in vitro into empty small or large proheads (esps or elps). In vivo maturation of esps yields the more stable and voluminous elps required to contain the 170 kb T4 genome. Functional proheads can be assembled containing portal-GFP fusion proteins. In the absence of terminase activity these accumulated in esps in vivo, whereas wild-type portals were found in elps. By nuclease protection assay dsDNAs of lengths 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 5, 11, 20, 40 or 170 kb were efficiently packaged into wild-type elps in vitro, but less so into esps and gp20-GFP elps; particularly with DNAs shorter than 11 kb. However, 0.1 kb substrates were equally efficiently packaged into all types of proheads as judged by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These data suggest the portal controls the expansion of the major capsid protein lattice during prohead maturation, and that this expansion is necessary for DNA protection but not for packaging.

  7. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials comparing purse-string vs conventional linear closure of the wound following ileostomy (stoma) closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Bhatti, Muhammad I; Miles, William Fa

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure (PSC) of an ileostomy wound with conventional linear closure (CLC). Randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure vs conventional linear closure (CLC) of ileostomy wound in patients undergoing ileostomy closure were analysed using RevMan®, and the combined outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Three randomized, controlled trials, recruiting 206 patients, were retrieved from medical electronic databases. There were 105 patients in the PSC group and 101 patients in the CLC group. There was no heterogeneity among included trials. Duration of operation (SMD: -0.18; 95% CI: -0.45, 0.09; z = 1.28; P SMD: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.26, 0.28; z = 0.07; P infection (OR, 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.33; z = 3.78; P infection apparently without influencing the duration of operation and length of hospital stay. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  9. Role of vision in aperture closure control during reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Lemay, Martin; Squire, Linda M; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2007-08-01

    We have previously shown that the distance from the hand to the target at which finger closure is initiated during the reach (aperture closure distance) depends on the amplitude of peak aperture, as well as hand velocity and acceleration. This dependence suggests the existence of a control law according to which a decision to initiate finger closure during the reach is made when the hand distance to target crosses a threshold that is a function of the above movement-related parameters. The present study examined whether the control law is affected by manipulating the visibility of the hand and the target. Young adults made reach-to-grasp movements to a dowel under conditions in which the target or the hand or both were either visible or not visible. Reaching for and grasping a target when the hand and/or target were not visible significantly increased transport time and widened peak aperture. Aperture closure distance was significantly lengthened and wrist peak velocity was decreased only when the target was not visible. Further analysis showed that the control law was significantly different between the visibility-related conditions. When either the hand or target was not visible, the aperture closure distance systematically increased compared to its value for the same amplitude of peak aperture, hand velocity, and acceleration under full visibility. This implies an increase in the distance-related safety margin for grasping when the hand or target is not visible. It has been also found that the same control law can be applied to all conditions, if variables describing hand and target visibility were included in the control law model, as the parameters of the task-related environmental context, in addition to the above movement-related parameters. This suggests that that the CNS utilizes those variables for controlling grasp initiation based on a general control law.

  10. Effectiveness of Closure of Public Places with Time Delay in Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenggang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree KC: only those nodes with degree higher than KC will be quarantined. The cost CQ incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with KC, while the medical cost CQ incurred for virus spreading increases with KC. The total social cost (CM + CQ will have a minimum at a critical KC, which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient αM and closure cost coeffcient αQ. Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.

  11. Effectiveness of closure of public places with time delay in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenggang; Szeto, Kwok Yip; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2008-08-25

    A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree K(C): only those nodes with degree higher than K(C) will be quarantined. The cost C(Q) incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with K(C), while the medical cost C(Q) incurred for virus spreading increases with K(C). The total social cost (C(M) + C(Q)) will have a minimum at a critical K(*), which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient alpha(M) and closure cost coeffcient alpha(Q). Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.

  12. Online control package for COSY-TOF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodina, Ekaterina [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany); Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Roderburg, Eduard; Ritman, James [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The new Straw Tube Tracker and Quirl Microstrip detectors have been installed at the TOF (Time Of Flight) experiment at the COSY accelerator in IKP FZ-Juelich. These new detectors increase the number of channels of the COSY-TOF detector by about a factor of 3. Therefore, a new control package to adjust electronic parameters and for control the proper functionality of all channels is being developed. The online controlling based on visualization of key parameters of detectors plays an important role. The concept and the techniques of the online software package are developed for the COSY-TOF experiment. It consists of conversion software, which transforms a binary data stream from the DAQ to detector oriented event format, methods of IPC (Inter-Process Communications), and GUI (graphical user interface). To achieve data transfer through the network and real time data performance the IPC tools - sockets and shared memory are used. A special GUI, TOF-ONLINE has been developed, based on ROOT. The GUI allows the detectors, plotting spectra, resetting data, etc., to be selected in an intuitive way. Examples of the visualization and the results of the first beam time will be introduced.

  13. Use of servo controlled weld head for end closure welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    In the PHWR fuel fabrication line resistance welding processes are used for joining various zirconium based alloy components to fuel tube of similar material. The quality requirement of these welding processes is very stringent and has to meet all the product requirements. At present these welding processes are being carried out by using standard resistance welding machines. In the resistance welding process in addition to current and time, force is one of the critical and important parameter, which influences the weld quality. At present advanced feed back type fast response medium frequency weld controllers are being used. This has upslope/down slope, constant and repetitive weld pattern selection features makes this critical welding process more reliable. Compared to weld controllers, squeeze force application devices are limited and normally standard high response pneumatic cylinders are used in the welding process. With this type of devices the force is constant during welding process and cannot be varied during welding process as per the material deformation characteristics. Similarly due to non-availability of feed back systems in the squeeze force application systems restricts the accuracy and quality of the welding process. In the present paper the influence of squeeze force pattern on the weld quality using advanced feed back type servo based force control system was studied. Different squeeze forces were used during pre and post weld heat periods along with constant force and compared with the weld quality. (author)

  14. Endoscopic closure of duodenal perforations by using an over-the-scope clip: a randomized, controlled porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Rudolph, Hans-Ulrich; Schmidt, Arthur; Vassiliou, Melina C; Caca, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Duodenal perforations during diagnostic upper endoscopy are rare; however, when therapeutic techniques are performed, the reported incidence is as great as 2.8%. Surgical repair is usually mandated, but it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To compare closure of duodenal perforations by using an over-the-scope clip (OTSC) with a surgical closure. Randomized, controlled animal study. Animal facility laboratory. Domestic pigs (24 females). Large (10-mm) duodenal perforations were created by using an endoscopic needle-knife. The animals were randomly assigned to either open surgical repair (n=12) or endoscopic closure by using the OTSC system (n=12). Pressurized leak tests were performed during necropsy. One major bleed occurred because of a liver injury during creation of the duodenotomy. Mean time for endoscopic closure was 5 minutes (range, 3-8 min; SD +/- 2). No complications occurred during any of the closure procedures. At necropsy, all OTSC and surgical closures demonstrated complete sealing of duodenotomy sites. Pressurized leak tests demonstrated a mean burst pressure of 166 mm Hg (range, 80-260; SD +/- 65) for OTSC closures and 143 mm Hg (range, 30-300, SD +/- 83) for surgical sutures. Ex vivo intact duodenal specimens exhibited a mean burst pressure of 247 mm Hg (range, 200-300; SD +/- 35), which was significantly higher compared with in vivo OTSC and surgical closures (P < .01). There were no significant differences between burst pressures of OTSC and surgical closures (P = .461). Nonsurvival setting. Endoscopic closure of duodenal perforations by using the OTSC system is comparable with surgical closure in a nonsurvival porcine model. This technique is easy to perform and seems suitable for repairing duodenal perforations. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 111.127 - What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.127 What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations? Quality control operations for packaging and...

  16. Results of coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus using a tapered tip catheter for enhanced control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanagondi, Rajiv; Latson, Larry; Bradley-Skelton, Sharon; Prieto, Lourdes

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the efficacy and embolization rates of coil delivery via modified vertebral catheter (MVC) for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. Various techniques have been devised to enhance coil control and prevent embolization during PDA closure. Since 1995, they have delivered coils via tapered vertebral catheters for improved coil control. Catheterization reports, angiograms, and echocardiograms were reviewed for patients with PDA occlusion via MVC from 2001 to 2014. Residual shunting was determined by angiography and echocardiogram within 24 hr post-procedure. Procedural success was defined as ≤ trivial angiographic and echocardiographic shunt, and no aortic nor LPA obstruction, after final coil delivery. About 125 coil occlusions were attempted in 103 patients. Minimal PDA diameter was 2 (0.6-6) mm. Four coils were removed with a snare/bioptome due to aortic/LPA obstruction following release. Seven were malpositioned while still held by the MVC of which three embolized while attempting withdrawal. Five embolized after full release from the MVC. The embolization rate was 6.4%. Embolizations were more likely in PDAs ≥ 2.5 mm (P closure with lower embolization rates, coil occlusion by MVC should still be considered for small PDAs, especially in resource limited regions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Open abdomen in gastrointestinal surgery: Which technique is the best for temporary closure during damage control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; de Carvalho, Sabrina Marques; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel Neto, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the 3 main techniques of temporary closure of the abdominal cavity, vacuum assisted closure (vacuum-assisted closure therapy - VAC), Bogota bag and Barker technique, in damage control surgery. METHODS After systematic review of the literature, 33 articles were selected to compare the efficiency of the three procedures. Criteria such as cost, infections, capacity of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, diseases associated with the technique, among others were analyzed. RESULTS The Bogota bag and Barker techniques present as advantage the availability of material and low cost, what is not observed in the VAC procedure. The VAC technique is the most efficient, not only because it reduces the tension on the boarders of the lesion, but also removes stagnant fluids and debris and acts at cellular level increasing cell proliferation and division. Bogota bag presents the higher rates of skin laceration and evisceration, greater need for a stent for draining fluids and wash-ups, higher rates of intestinal adhesion to the abdominal wall. The Barker technique presents lack of efficiency in closing the abdominal wall and difficulty on maintaining pressure on the dressing. The VAC dressing can generate irritation and dermatitis when the drape is applied, in addition to pain, infection and bleeding, as well as toxic shock syndrome, anaerobic sepsis and thrombosis. CONCLUSION The VAC technique, showed to be superior allowing a better control of liquid on the third space, avoiding complications such as fistula with small mortality, low infection rate, and easier capability on primary closure of the abdominal cavity. PMID:27648164

  18. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO A. F. RIBEIRO JR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity.

  19. Body mass index affects time to definitive closure after damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Dooley, Adam C; Weinberg, Jordan A; McGwin, Gerald; MacLennan, Paul A; Griffin, Russell L; Rue, Loring W; Reiff, Donald A

    2009-06-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates that irrespective of the mechanism of injury, obesity is associated with significantly worse morbidity and mortality after trauma. Among patients requiring damage control laparotomy (DCL), clinical experience suggests that obesity affects time to definitive closure though this association has never been demonstrated quantitatively. All patients at an academic Level I trauma center requiring a DCL between January 2002 and December 2006 (N = 148) were included. Information pertaining to demographic, injury, and clinical characteristics was abstracted from patient medical records. The risk of specific complications including pneumonia, renal failure, and sepsis was compared between normal and overweight/obese patients, as measured by body mass index (BMI). The lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation as well as time to abdominal closure were also compared. The risk of pneumonia, sepsis, and renal failure was 2.05-times, 1.77-times, and 2.84-times higher among overweight patients compared with patients with a normal BMI. The risk of pneumonia, sepsis, and renal failure was 2.01-times, 4.24-times, and 1.85-times higher among obese patients compared with those with a normal BMI. Obese patients also had a significantly longer ICU length of stay (28.7 days vs. 15.1 days; p < 0.0001), longer hospitalization (39.3 days vs. 27.0 days; p = 0.008), and time to definitive closure (8.4 days vs. 3.9 days; p = 0.03) compared with patients with a normal BMI. Among patients requiring DCL, those who are overweight or obese have a prolonged time to definitive closure. These patients also experience a significantly longer ICU course and a higher risk of pneumonia.

  20. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ali M.; Zaroo, Mohd I.; Laway, Bashir A.; Pala, Nazir A.; Bashir, Sheikh A.; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction.Methods: Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of pa...

  1. Auditory skills of figure-ground and closure in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Anna Carolina Nascimento Waack Braga; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2017-12-04

    To investigate the auditory skills of closure and figure-ground and factors associated with health, communication, and attention in air traffic controllers, and compare these variables with those of other civil and military servants. Study participants were sixty adults with normal audiometric thresholds divided into two groups matched for age and gender: study group (SG), comprising 30 air traffic controllers and control group (CG), composed of 30 other military and civil servants. All participants were asked a number of questions regarding their health, communication, and attention, and underwent the Speech-in-Noise Test (SIN) to assess their closure skills and the Synthetic Sentence Identification Test - Ipsilateral Competitive Message (SSI-ICM) in monotic listening to evaluate their figure-ground abilities. Data were compared using nonparametric statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. More individuals in the SG reported fatigue and/or burnout and work-related stress and showed better performance than that of individuals in the CG for the figure-ground ability. Both groups performed similarly and satisfactorily in the other hearing tests. The odds ratio for participants belonging in the SG was 5.59 and 1.24 times regarding work-related stress and SSI-ICM (right ear), respectively. Results for the variables auditory closure, self-reported health, attention, and communication were similar in both groups. The SG presented significantly better performance in auditory figure-ground compared with that of the CG. Self-reported stress and right-ear SSI-ICM were significant predictors of individuals belonging to the SG.

  2. Applying dynamic mold temperature control to cosmetic package design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Shih-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fashion trend and the market needs, this study developed the eco-cushion compact. Through the product design and the advanced process technology, many issues have improved, for instance, the inconvenience of transportation, the lack of multiuse capability, the increase of costs, and the low yield rate. The eco-cushion compact developed in this study was high quality, low cost, and meets the requirements of the eco market. The study aimed at developing a reusable container. Dynamic mold temperature control was introduced in the injection modeling process. The innovation in the product was its multi-functional formula invention, eco-product design, one-piece powder case design, and multifunctional design in the big powder case, mold flow and development of dynamic mold temperature control. Finally, through 3D drawing and modeling, and computer assistance for mold flow and verification to develop and produce models. During the manufacturing process, in order to solve the problems of tightness and warping, development and manufacture of dynamic mold temperature control were introduced. This decreased the injection cycle and residual stress, and deformation of the products has reduced to less than 0.2 mm, and the air tightness increased. In addition, air leakage was less than 2% and the injection cycle decreased to at least 10%. The results of the study can be extended and applied on the future design on cosmetic package and an alternative can be proposed to solve the problems of air tightness and warping. In this study, dynamic mold temperature control is considered as a design with high price-performance ratio, which can be adopted on industrial application for practical benefit and improvement.

  3. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  4. Potential benefits of a CAD package for designing multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.

    1983-01-01

    An open-ended CAD package, MVPACK, has been developed and implemented on a PDP-11/45 minicomputer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive, and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art methematical library to support development of complex multi-variable control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. The capability of the package as a tool for designing control systems is illustrated with the design of a regulating system for an evaporator

  5. Authority defied: need for cognitive closure influences regulatory control when resisting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen, Tom G E; van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Baaren, Rick B

    2014-08-01

    The present studies examined whether differences in need for cognitive closure (NCC) were related to differences in regulatory control when confronted with authority. In two studies, levels of regulatory control were measured when participants resisted (Study 1; N = 46) or prepared to resist the influence attempt of an authority figure (Study 2; N = 50). Results showed that resisting the influence attempt from a high-authority figure was more depleting for participants higher in NCC compared to individuals lower in NCC. However, when they were given instructions and time to prepare the act of resistance, individuals high in NCC actually showed an increase in regulatory control. Authority is usually viewed as a general principle of influence; however, the present studies suggest that there are individual differences that influence how people may experience interactions with authorities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Increased risk of acute angle closure in retinitis pigmentosa: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Ko

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between retinitis pigmentosa (RP and acute angle closure during a 15-year follow-up period.Using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, we identified 382 RP patients based on the diagnostic code of RP (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM 362.74 made during 1996-2010, excluding subjects under age of 20 years at diagnosis or subjects undergoing lens extraction before the index date. The control group included 3820 randomly selected non-RP subjects matched with the RP patients in age, gender and the index date of diagnosis. The incidence of acute angle closure during the study period was observed based on an ICD-9-CM code of 365.22. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to determine the odds ratio (OR of having acute angle closure in RP patients.The mean age at the diagnosis of RP was 51.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 16.7. Acute angle closure occurred in 5 RP patients (1.3% and in 15 controls (0.4%. The mean age with the acute angle closure was 53.3 years (SD 8.0 in RP patients and 64.6 years (SD 8.4 in controls (P = 0.015. After adjusting for age, gender and comorbid disorders, RP patients had 3.64-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-10.25, P<0.001 greater odds of having acute angle closure. After stratification for gender and age, the risk of acute angle closure in RP was higher in patients under age of 60 years (adjusted OR 11.84; 95% CI, 2.84-49.48 and male patients (adjusted OR 19.36; 95% CI, 3.43-109.40 (both P = 0.001.RP patients had increased risk of acute angle closure than controls. Contrary to the fact that angle closure disease is more prevalent in elderly females in general population, acute angle closure attack occurred earlier in life and the risk was higher in males among RP patients.

  7. MCO Monitoring issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Agreement on a focused, limited approach to MCO monitoring has been documented. While the value of monitoring has been understood by those interested in the SNF Project, there had been a diversity of opinion on details of approach and implementation. For this reason, MCO monitoring had been identified as a technical issue. A cooperative effort involving the contractor, RL, and the technical assistance group (TAG), resulted in the definition of an approach agreeable to all and of the remaining details to be resolved through conceptual engineering. MCO monitoring will consist of temperature, pressure, and gas composition monitoring of 4 to 6 MCOs for up to two years. High pressure detection capability for the duration of interim storage for every MCO will also be evaluated and implemented within the current project baseline, if possible. Otherwise a BCR will be prepared and submitted

  8. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  9. Design and implementation of a slow orbit control package at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijts, J. van; Witherspoon, S.; Watson, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the design and implementation of a C++ client/server based slow orbit and energy control package based on the CDEV software control bus. Several client applications are described and operational experience is given

  10. The transient analysis of single turbine control valve closure for Lungmen ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shaoshih; Yuann Yngruey; Shih Chunkuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The LRM was used to evaluate the single control valve closure event. ► The purpose is to offer an updated analysis about the MCFL under the partial arc mode instead of FSAR’s result. ► It is concluded that the 112% MCFL setting is the most limiting case. ► The MCFL setting actually used in SBPCS must be kept between 112% to 114% to gain the operational margin. ► The HFF index defined by the normalized heat flux can be used to predict the CPR change. - Abstract: The single control valve closure in fast (SCVCF) event is the most limiting transient in terms of delta critical power ratio (ΔCPR) for the Lungmen Plant, which is a basis to determine the operating limit minimum critical power ratio value. The partial arc mode is adopted in Lungmen Plant to control the position of the turbine control valve. However, the transient analyses presented in the Lungmen Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) assume that the TCVs are in the full arc mode. In this study, the Lungmen RETRAM model with partial arc mode is used to analyze the SCVCF event to offer more realistic results than the FSAR. It is concluded that the most limiting maximum combined flow limiter (MCFL) setting in RETRAN analysis is different from that of FSAR. An optimum operating range for the MCFL is suggested to gain the margin against the operating drift. Additionally, a Heat Flux Factor index is defined to appropriately determine the ranking of these cases in terms of ΔCPR.

  11. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of tomatoes; controlling gas and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelo, R.G.; Horst, J.

    1996-01-01

    Modified atmosphere (MA) packaging technology is a modern technique of which the application is steadily growing. Its essence is to reduce the decay of perishable produce by creating a special atmosphere around the produce. The MA factors influencing the quality behaviour of the produce are oxygen

  12. MVPACK: a package for the computer-aided design of multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and analysis of high performing controllers for large complex plants require a collection of interactive, powerful computer software. MVPACK, an open-ended package for the computer aided design of control systems has been developed in the Reactor Control Branch of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive, and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art mathematical library to support development of complex multivariable control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. This report provides the technical description of the package. It reviews the specifications used in the design and implementation of the package. The database structure, the supporting libraries and the design and analysis modules of MVPACK are described. The report includes several application examples to illustrate the capability of the package. Experience with MVPACK shows that the package provides a synergistic environment for control and regulation systems design, and that it is a unique tool in training of control system engineers

  13. Critical review of controlled release packaging to improve food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Mo; Xu, Chenyi; Yam, Kit L

    2018-03-19

    Controlled release packaging (CRP) is an innovative technology that uses the package to release active compounds in a controlled manner to improve safety and quality for a wide range of food products during storage. This paper provides a critical review of the uniqueness, design considerations, and research gaps of CRP, with a focus on the kinetics and mechanism of active compounds releasing from the package. Literature data and practical examples are presented to illustrate how CRP controls what active compounds to release, when and how to release, how much and how fast to release, in order to improve food safety and quality.

  14. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoch, Fahed; Al-Khadra, Yasser; Soud, Mohamad; Fanari, Zaher; Alraies, M Chadi

    2018-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) with atrial septal aneurysm is suggested as an important potential source for cryptogenic strokes. Percutaneous PFO closure to reduce the recurrence of stroke compared to medical therapy has been intensely debated. The aim of this study is to assess whether PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective compared with medical therapy. A search of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Central Register from January 2000 through September 2017 for randomized controlled trails (RCT), which compared PFO closure to medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke was conducted. We used the items "PFO or patent foramen ovale", "paradoxical embolism", "PFO closure" and "stroke". Data were pooled for the primary outcome measure using the random-effects model as pooled rate ratio (RR). The primary outcome was reduction in recurrent strokes. Among 282 studies, 5 were selected. Our analysis included 3,440 patients (mean age 45 years, 55% men, mean follow-up 2.9 years), 1,829 in the PFO closure group and 1,611 in the medical therapy group. The I2 heterogeneity test was found to be 48%. A random effects model combining the results of the included studies demonstrated a statistically significant risk reduction in risk of recurrent stroke in the PFO closure group when compared with medical therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.91, p = 0.03). Pooled data from 5 large RCTs showed that PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective intervention for prevention of stroke recurrence compared with medical therapy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Vacuum-assisted closure versus closure without vacuum assistance for preventing surgical site infections and infections of chronic wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, Giannoula S; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z; Stratoulias, Constantinos; Peppas, George; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Falagas, Matthew E

    2014-08-01

    We sought to examine whether vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is associated with fewer surgical site infections (SSIs) or infections of chronic wounds than other management procedures for surgical wounds. The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the development of SSIs or infections of chronic wounds between patients treated with VAC for acute or chronic wounds and those whose wounds were treated without VAC were considered eligible for inclusion in the study. Eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria for the study. Four of the studies included chronic or diabetic lower extremity wounds and four included fractures. In three of four studies reporting on fractures, the wounds were not closed post-operatively, whereas in one study primary closure of the wound was performed. With regard to wounds left open after the stabilization of fractures, patients whose wounds were treated with VAC developed fewer SSIs than those whose wounds were treated without VAC ([367 patients (196 with VAC; 171 without VAC) relative risk [RR], 0.47; 95% CI 0.28-0.81]). On the contrary, no difference in the development of SSIs occurred among patients with chronic or diabetic lower-extremity wounds treated with VAC and those whose wounds were treated without VAC ([638 patients (320 with VAC; 318 without VAC) RR 1.67; 95% CI: 0.71-3.94]). The available evidence suggests that the development of infections in wounds treated with VAC depends on the type of wound being treated.

  16. Dynamic modelling and PID loop control of an oil-injected screw compressor package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G. W.; Milligan, W. J.; McKenna, P.

    2017-08-01

    A significant amount of time is spent tuning the PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) control loops of a screw compressor package due to the unique characteristics of the system. Common mistakes incurred during the tuning of a PID control loop include improper PID algorithm selection and unsuitable tuning parameters of the system resulting in erratic and inefficient operation. This paper details the design and development of software that aims to dynamically model the operation of a single stage oil injected screw compressor package deployed in upstream oil and gas applications. The developed software will be used to assess and accurately tune PID control loops present on the screw compressor package employed in controlling the oil pressures, temperatures and gas pressures, in a bid to improve control of the operation of the screw compressor package. Other applications of the modelling software will include its use as an evaluation tool that can estimate compressor package performance during start up, shutdown and emergency shutdown processes. The paper first details the study into the fundamental operational characteristics of each of the components present on the API 619 screw compressor package and then discusses the creation of a dynamic screw compressor model within the MATLAB/Simulink software suite. The paper concludes by verifying and assessing the accuracy of the created compressor model using data collected from physical screw compressor packages.

  17. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing absorbable barbed sutures versus conventional absorbable sutures for dermal closure in open surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J Peter; Hunstad, Joseph P; Polynice, Alain; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Schoeller, Thomas; Dunn, Raymond; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Hansen, Juliana E

    2014-02-01

    Barbed sutures were developed to reduce operative time and improve security of wound closure. The authors compare absorbable barbed sutures (V-Loc, Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) with conventional (smooth) absorbable sutures for soft tissue approximation. A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing barbed sutures with smooth sutures was undertaken between August 13, 2009, and January 31, 2010, in 241 patients undergoing abdominoplasty, mastopexy, and reduction mammaplasty. Each patient received barbed sutures on 1 side of the body, with deep dermal sutures eliminated or reduced. Smooth sutures with deep dermal and subcuticular closure were used on the other side as a control. The primary endpoint was dermal closure time. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting through a 12-week follow-up. A total of 229 patients were ultimately treated (115 with slow-absorbing polymer and 114 with rapid-absorbing polymer). Mean dermal closure time was significantly quicker with the barbed suture compared with the smooth suture (12.0 vs 19.2 minutes; P<.001), primarily due to the need for fewer deep dermal sutures. The rapid-absorbing barbed suture showed a complication profile equivalent to the smooth suture, while the slow-absorbing barbed suture had a higher incidence of minor suture extrusion. Barbed sutures enabled faster dermal closure quicker than smooth sutures, with a comparable complication profile. 1.

  18. Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.

  19. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; Carvalho, Sabrina Marques DE; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos, com ênfase em peritoneostomia, geralmente resulta em retração da aponeurose e perda da capacidade de fechar a parede abdominal, levando à formação de hérnias ventrais incisionais. Atualmente, várias técnicas oferecem maiores chances de fechamento da cavidade abdominal, com menor tensão. Deste modo, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar três técnicas de fechamento temporário da cavidade abdominal: fechamento a vácuo (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC), Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com seleção de 28 artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. As técnicas de Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack tiveram como vantagem o acesso fácil ao material, na maioria dos centros, e baixo custo, ao contrário do que se observa na terapia a vácuo, VAC, que além de apresentar

  20. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.; Pinner, A.; Smith, A.; Quartermaine, J.

    1997-01-01

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery gastrotomy closure with an over-the-endoscope clip: a randomized, controlled porcine study (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Schmidt, Arthur; Vassiliou, Melina C; Gieselmann, Maria; Caca, Karel

    2009-10-01

    Secure endoscopic closure of transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) access is of paramount importance. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system has previously been shown to be effective for NOTES gastrotomy closure. To compare OTSC gastrotomy closure with surgical closure. Randomized, controlled animal study. Animal facility laboratory. Thirty-six female domestic pigs. Gastrotomies were created by using a needle-knife and an 18-mm balloon. The animals were subsequently randomized to either open surgical repair with interrupted sutures or endoscopic repair with 12-mm OTSCs. In addition, pressurized leak tests were performed in ex vivo specimens of 18-mm scalpel incisions closed with suture (n = 14) and of intact stomachs (n = 10). The mean time for endoscopic closure was 9.8 minutes (range 3-22, SD 5.5). No complications occurred during either type of gastrotomy closure. At necropsy, examination of all OTSC and surgical closures demonstrated complete sealing of gastrotomy sites without evidence of injury to adjacent organs. Pressurized leak tests showed a mean burst pressure of 83 mm Hg (range 30-140, SD 27) for OTSC closures and 67 mm Hg (range 30-130, SD 27.7) for surgical sutures. Ex vivo hand-sewn sutures of 18-mm gastrotomies (n = 14) exhibited a mean burst pressure of 65 mm Hg (range 20-140, SD 31) and intact ex vivo stomachs (n = 10) had a mean burst pressure of 126 mm Hg (range 90-170, SD 28). The burst pressure of ex vivo intact stomachs was significantly higher compared with OTSC closures (P < .01), in vivo surgical closures (P < .01), and ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P < .01). There was a trend toward higher burst pressures in the OTSC closures compared with surgical closures (P = .063) and ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P = .094). In vivo surgical closures demonstrated similar burst pressures compared with ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P = .848). Nonsurvival setting. Endoscopic closure by using the OTSC system is comparable to

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published, randomized, controlled trials comparing suture anastomosis to stapled anastomosis for ileostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, M S; Craciunas, L; Baig, M K; Sains, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically analyze the randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of suture anastomosis (SUA) versus stapled anastomosis (STA) in patients undergoing ileostomy closure. Randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of SUA versus STA in patients undergoing ileostomy closure were analyzed using RevMan(®), and combined outcomes were expressed as odds risk ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Four randomized, controlled trials that recruited 645 patients were retrieved from electronic databases. There were 327 patients in the STA group and 318 patients in the SUA group. There was significant heterogeneity among included trials. Operative time (SMD -1.02; 95 % CI -1.89, -0.15; z = 2.29; p infection, reoperation and readmission were similar following STA and SUA in patients undergoing ileostomy closure. Length of hospital stay was also similar between STA and SUA groups. In ileostomy closure, STA was associated with shorter operative time and lower risk of postoperative small bowel obstruction. However, STA and SUA were similar in terms of anastomotic leak, surgical site infection, readmission, reoperations and length of hospital stay.

  3. CONTROL OF APERTURE CLOSURE INITIATION DURING TRUNK-ASSISTED REACH-TO-GRASP MOVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K.; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Hossain, Abul B.M.I.; Shimansky, Yury P.; Stelmach, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relation between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relation between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or became less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation that is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation in

  4. Control of aperture closure initiation during trunk-assisted reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Hossain, Abul B M I; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relationship between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relationship between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or become less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation, which is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp

  5. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; López-Carballo, Gracia; Lara, Marta; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-02

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Moderation control in low enriched 235U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low 235 U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation

  7. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  8. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Techniques for Abdominal Wall Closure after Damage Control Laparotomy: From Temporary Abdominal Closure to Early/Delayed Fascial Closure—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Open abdomen (OA has been an effective treatment for abdominal catastrophes in traumatic and general surgery. However, management of patients with OA remains a formidable task for surgeons. The central goal of OA is closure of fascial defect as early as is clinically feasible without precipitating abdominal compartment syndrome. Historically, techniques such as packing, mesh, and vacuum-assisted closure have been developed to assist temporary abdominal closure, and techniques such as components separation, mesh-mediated traction, bridging fascial defect with permanent synthetic mesh, or biologic mesh have also been attempted to achieve early primary fascial closure, either alone or in combined use. The objective of this review is to present the challenges of these techniques for OA with a goal of early primary fascial closure, when the patient’s physiological condition allows.

  10. Effect of gender and Frankfort mandibular plane angle on orthodontic space closure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, A J; Songra, G; Clover, M; Atack, N E; Sherriff, M; Sandy, J R

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effect of gender and Frankfort mandibular plane angle (FMPA) on extraction space closure. A single district general hospital. The sample population were 11- to 18-year-olds undergoing upper and lower fixed appliance therapy following the loss of a premolar in each quadrant. A total of 100 patients undergoing upper and lower fixed appliance therapy following the loss of four premolars were randomized with stratification on two age ranges (11-14 years and 15-18 years) and three FMPAs (high, medium and low). Allocation was to one of three treatment groups: conventional, active or passive self-ligating brackets, with an allocation ratio of 1:2:2. All subjects were treated using the same archwire sequence and space closing mechanics. Space closure was measured on models taken every 12 weeks throughout treatment. All measurements were taken by one operator, blinded to bracket type. A total of 98 patients were followed to completion. Data were analysed using linear mixed models and demonstrated no statistically significant difference between bracket types with respect to space closure. Therefore, the data were pooled to determine the effect of gender and FMPA on space closure. At all stages of space closure, there was a significant effect of gender (results are presented as effect size, lower and upper 95% confidence intervals and probability), that is passive [1.064, 0.521, 1.607, 0.001], active [0.825, 0.312, 1.339, 0.002] and total space closure [1.029, 0.527, 1.531, 0.001]. There was no statistically significant effect of FMPA on space closure. Space closure during fixed appliance therapy is affected by gender but is unaffected by FMPA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Specification of safety requirements for waste packages with respect to practicable quality control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Waste packages for disposal in a repository in the Federal Republic of Germany have to meet safety requirements derived from site specific safety analyses. The examination of the waste packages with regard to compliance with these requirements is the main objective of quality control measures. With respect to quality control the requirements have to be specified in a way that practicable control measures can be applied. This is dealt with for the quality control of the activity inventory and the quality control of the waste form. The paper discusses the determination of the activity of hard-to-measure radionuclides and the specification of safety related requirements for the waste form and the packaging using typical examples

  12. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  13. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  14. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  15. Development of a new control software package for Pakistan Research Reactor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.K.

    1993-05-01

    The development of a new control software package for Pakistan Research Reactor-2 is presented. The software operates in different modes which comprises of surveillance, pre-operational self tests, operator, supervisor and robotic control. The control logic critically damp the system minimizing power overshoots. The software, handles multiple abnormal conditions, provides an elaborate access control and maintains startup/shutdown record. The report describes the functional details and covers the operational aspects of the new control software. (author)

  16. A combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape compared with conventional interrupted sutures for skin closure. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, M.; Porter, R. J.; Lord, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    We have conducted a controlled trial to compare skin closure using conventional interrupted sutures with a combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape in 169 patients undergoing appendicectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, or saphenofemoral ligation. We have found that the combination technique consistently gives a better cosmetic result and that the tape acts well as a dressing, is convenient, and is well tolerated by patients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6344732

  17. A process control software package for the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, V.R.; Poole, D.E.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1980-03-01

    The development of software to give high level access from application programs for monitoring and control of the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source on a network-wide basis is described. The design and implementation of the control system database, a special supervisor call and and 'executive' type task handling of all process input/output services for the 7/32 (which runs under 05/32-MT), and process control 'device driver' software for the 7/16 (run under L5/16-MT) are included. (UK)

  18. QuickDirect - Payload Control Software Template Package, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the need to quickly, cost-effectively and reliably develop software to control science instruments deployed on spacecraft, QuickFlex proposes to create a...

  19. Impact of adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of Cesarean uterine incision: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, Martin; Bennich, G; Wilken-Jensen, C

    2016-01-01

    the criteria and accepted participation. Thirty-eight women were assigned to single-layer and 38 to double-layer unlocked closure technique. Groups were comparable regarding gestational age at delivery, duration of surgery and peroperative blood loss. RMT was without difference between the two groups, both......The purpose of the present study was to investigate short- and long term effects on residual myometrial thickness (RMT) by adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of caesarean uterine incision. METHOD: he study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Healthy nulliparous scheduled...... for first-time elective Caesarean delivery were operated using a modified version of the Misgav-Ladach surgical technique. The women were examined by abdominal ultrasound before discharge from the maternity ward and by hysterosonography five months post partum. RESULTS: Seventy-six nulliparous met...

  20. A randomised controlled trial of absorbable versus non-absorbable sutures for skin closure after open carpal tunnel release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Theopold, C

    2012-05-01

    We compared the aesthetic outcome of scars after closure of open carpal tunnel incisions with either absorbable 4-0 Vicryl Rapide or non-absorbable 4-0 Novafil. Patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial and scars were scored at 6 weeks using a modified Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scores demonstrated differences only for pain, vascularity and cross-hatching between both groups, though none of these were statistically significant. The dissolving and falling out of Vicryl Rapide was significantly more comfortable than removal of 4-0 Novafil sutures, assessed on a numerical analogue scale. There was no difference in infection rate between both study groups, supporting overall the use of Vicryl Rapide for the closure of palmar hand incisions, in light of the convenience and cost savings associated with absorbable sutures.

  1. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS (Eff. 12-12-2011) Control of... supplier as a source of each lot of each component, container, and closure. (1)(i) If you conduct finished...

  2. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ali M; Zaroo, Mohd I; Laway, Bashir A; Pala, Nazir A; Bashir, Sheikh A; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction. Randomized case-control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85%) patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57%) patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78%) patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40%) patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ali M.; Zaroo, Mohd I.; Laway, Bashir A.; Pala, Nazir A.; Bashir, Sheikh A.; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction. Methods Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Results Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85%) patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57%) patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78%) patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40%) patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. Conclusion VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24765245

  4. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b* was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the study. The wine was bottled with an average total oxygen content of 2 mg/L. The heterogeneity intra and inter procedure was controlled, including for the dissolved carbon dioxide content. Conclusion: Unlike closures with highest OTR, the two technical corks and the two screw caps with Saranex seal, harboring the lowest OTR, matched with the wines exhibiting a low total O2 content at equilibrium (from 4th to 18th month, with more free SO2 and less changed colour. However this OTR gradient (5 to 67 μg/d observed through the physicochemical analyses was not necessarily confirmed by both sensory analyses performed. Significance and impact of study: This study puts into perspective the impact of OTR closure on sensory characteristics evolution of wine consumed during the first two years, especially when the total oxygen at bottling exceeds 1.5 mg/L.

  5. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Lone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery, safety, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings, with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Results: Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85% patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57% patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78% patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40% patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. Conclusion: VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

  6. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  7. Monolithically Integrated Light Feedback Control Circuit for Blue/UV LED Smart Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koladouz Esfahani, Z.; Tohidian, M.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Given the performance decay of high-power light-emitting diode (LED) chips over time and package condition changes, having a reliable output light for sensitive applications is a point of concern. In this study, a light feedback control circuit, including blue-selective photodiodes, for

  8. Quality assurance guidance for TRUPACT-II [Transuranic Package Transporter-II] payload control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), discusses authorized methods for payload control in Appendix 1.3.7 and the Quality Assurance (QA) requirements in Section 9.3. Subsection 9.3.2.1 covers maintenance and use of the TRUPACT-II and the specific QA requirements are given in DOE/WIPP 89-012. Subsection 9.3.2.2 covers payload compliance, for which this document was written. 6 refs

  9. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of polymer cable ties versus standard wire closure of midline sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Fuller, Louise; Zimmet, Adam; McGiffin, David; Seitz, Michael; Ch'ng, Stephanie; Gangahanumaiah, Shivanand; Bailey, Michael

    2018-04-16

    Midline sternotomy remains the most common access incision for cardiac operations. Traditionally, the sternum is closed with stainless steel wires. Wires are well known to stretch and break, however, leading to pain, nonunion, and potential deep sternal wound infection. We hypothesized that biocompatible plastic cable ties would achieve a more rigid sternal fixation, reducing postoperative pain and analgesia requirements. A prospective, randomized study compared the ZIPFIX (De Puy Synthes, West Chester, Pa) sternal closure system (n = 58) with standard stainless steel wires (n = 60). Primary outcomes were pain and analgesia requirements in the early postoperative period. Secondary outcome was sternal movement, as assessed by ultrasound at the postoperative follow-up visit. Groups were well matched in demographic and operative variables. There were no significant differences between groups in postoperative pain, analgesia, or early ventilatory requirements. Patients in the ZIPFIX group had significantly more movement in the sternum and manubrium on ultrasound at 4 weeks. ZIPFIX sternal cable ties provide reliable closure but no demonstrable benefit in this study in pain or analgesic requirements relative to standard wire closure after median sternotomy. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of high precision temperature control system for TO packaged LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Enji; Luo, Baoke; Zhuang, Bin; He, Zhengquan

    2017-10-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting the performance of TO package LD. In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of LD, a temperature control circuit for LD based on PID technology is designed. The MAX1978 and an external PID circuit are used to form a control circuit that drives the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to achieve control of temperature and the external load can be changed. The system circuit has low power consumption, high integration and high precision,and the circuit can achieve precise control of the LD temperature. Experiment results show that the circuit can achieve effective and stable control of the laser temperature.

  11. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  12. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  13. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  14. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  15. Chest closure without drainage after open patent ductus arteriosus ligation in Ugandan children: A non blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebba, Naomi; Mwambu, Tom; Oketcho, Michael; Izudi, Jonathan; Obuku, Ekwaro A

    2016-09-29

    There is clinical equipoise regarding post-operative management of patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) without insertion of a chest drain. This study evaluated post operative outcomes of chest closure with or without a drain following Patent Ductus Arteriosus ligation among childen at Uganda Heart Instritute (UHI). This was an open label randomized controlled trial of 62 children 12 years of age and below diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus at Mulago National Teaching and Referral Hospital, Uganda. Participants were randomized in the ratio of 1:1 with surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus to either thoracotomy closure with a chest tube or without a chest tube. All participants received standard care and were monitored hourly for 24 hours then until hospital discharge. The combined primary endpoint consisted of significant pleural space accumulation of fluid or air, higher oxygen need or infection of the surgical site. Analysis was conducted by multivariable logistic regression analysis at 5 % significance level. We enrolled 62 participants, 46 (74 %) of whom were females. Their median age was 12 months (IQR: 8-36). Participants in the no-drain arm significantly had less post-operative complications compared to the drain arm (Unadjusted odds ratio [uOR]: 0.21, 95 % CI: 0.06-0.73, p = 0.015). This "protective effect" remained without statistical significance in the multivariable regression model (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.07, 95 % CI: 0.00-2.50, p = 0.144). Children aged below 6 years with patent ductus arterious can safely and effectively have thoracotomy closure without using a drain in uncomplicated surgical ligation of the PDA. Chest drain was associated with post-operative complications. The trial was registered in the Pan African Clinical Trials registry on 1st/July/2012, retrospectively registered. Identifier number PACTR201207000395469 .

  16. Incorporation of nisin in natural casing for the control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Regina de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of natural casing treatment with nisin and phosphoric acid on control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausages. Ovine casings were dipped in the following baths: 1 0.1% food grade phosphoric acid; 2 5.0 mg/L nisin; 3 0.1% phosphoric acid and 5.0 mg/L nisin; and 4 sterile water (control. The sausages were produced in a pilot plant, stuffed into the pretreated natural casings, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 and 10 °C for 56 days. The experiments were performed according to a full factorial design 2³, totalizing 8 treatments that were repeated in 3 blocks. Aerobic plate counts and lactic acid bacteria analysis were conducted at 1, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days of storage. Treatment of casings with phosphoric acid 0.1% alone did not inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria and reduced the aerobic plate count by 1 log. The activity of nisin against lactic acid bacteria was enhanced by the addition of phosphoric acid, demonstrating a synergistic effect. Furthermore nisin activity was more evident at lower storage temperature (4 ºC. Therefore treatment of the natural casings with nisin and phosphoric acid, combined with low storage temperature, are obstacles that present a potential for controlling the growth of lactic acid bacteria in vacuum packaged sausage.

  17. Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials with 3440 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz de Albuquerque Pereira; do Nascimento, Gabriella Caroline Sales; Vieira, Erik Everton da Silva; Martins, Gabriel Lopes; Rodrigues, Karine Coelho; Nascimento, Giulia Cioffi; de Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure. PMID:29617507

  18. Closure for spent-fuel transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Knackstedt, H.G.; Srostlik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The container has a transport closure and a shielding closure. This shielding closure consists of two pieces (double closure system), which can be fartened to one another like a bayonet fixing. A central motion of rotation is enough to open the closure. It can be done remote-controlled as well as manually. (DG) [de

  19. Genetic algorithm to optimize two-echelon inventory control system for perishable goods in terms of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi Yegane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an inventory control policy for a two-echelon inventory control system with one supplier-one buyer. We consider the case of deteriorating items which lead to shortage in supply chain. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the deterioration rate by adding some specification to the packaging of these items that is known as active packaging. Although this packaging can reduce the deteriorating rate of products, but may be increases the cost of both supplier and buyer. Because of the complexity of the mathematical model, a genetic algorithm has been developed to determine the best policy of this inventory control system.

  20. Packaging properties and control of Listeria monocytogenes in bologna by cellulosic films incorporated with pediocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Judith Pérez Espitia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, able to survive and proliferate at refrigeration temperatures. As a result, ready-to-eat meat products have been associated with major outbreaks. Producing meat products involves lethal preservation treatments, e.g. thermal treatments. Listeria contamination, however, may be introduced when products are sliced and packaged at retail businesses or delicatessens. In Brazil, sliced bologna is very popular at retail markets. After slicing, however, bologna has a short shelf-life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of pediocin incorporation on the load at break, water vapor permeability rate and structure, by microscopic analysis, of antimicrobial cellulosic packaging. The potential application of the developed packaging for the preservation of bologna and inhibition of Listeria biofilm formation was also studied. Cellulosic antimicrobial packaging films were produced with cellulose acetate and acetone. Pediocin (commercially available concentrate ALTA TM 2341 was incorporated at 30, 40 and 50 % w/w. The load at break of films was studied using the Universal Testing Machine (Instron at 10 °C and 25 °C. The water vapor permeability was determined by gravimetric method. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the developed packaging structure. Antimicrobial activity of films against Listeria innoucua and L. monocytogenes was tested both in vitro and in bologna samples. Results showed that values of load at break decreased with increasing concentrations of pediocin at 10 °C and 25 °C. Regarding water vapor permeability, only the control and 50 % pediocin films presented statistical difference, with the 50 % pediocin film being more permeable. In vitro tests showed antimicrobial activity against L. innocua. Cellulosic film with 50 % pediocin reduced L. monocytogenes growth on sliced bologna by 1.2 log cycles after 9 days and prevented biofilm formation on packaging and bologna

  1. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  2. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  4. Options for reducing food waste by quality-controlled logistics using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    Optimising supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This paper describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on quality-controlled logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach it is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and to use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging, QCL can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates, a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  5. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). A methodology for the control and tracking of LILW waste package conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.M.; Nieto, J.L.L.; Garrido, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of its low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) characterisation and acceptance activities, ENRESA has set up a quality control programme that covers the different phases of radioactive waste package production and implies different levels of tracking in generation, assessment of activity and control of the documentation associated therewith. Furthermore, ENRESA has made available the mechanisms required for verification, depending on the results of periodic sampling, of the quality of the end product delivered by the waste producers. Both processes are included within the framework of two programmes of complementary activities: production controls (PC) and technical verification testing (TVT). (orig.)

  7. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  8. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, Abdul; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul; Leesar, Massoud; Bailey, Steven R.; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group

  9. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakeem, Abdul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Hospital Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Leesar, Massoud [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bailey, Steven R. [University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mcilingiroglu@yahoo.com [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group.

  10. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  11. rpanel: Simple Interactive Controls for R Functions Using the tcltk Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a variety of settings it is extremely helpful to be able to apply R functions through buttons, sliders and other types of graphical control. This is particularly true in plotting activities where immediate communication between such controls and a graphical display allows the user to interact with a plot in a very effective manner. The tcltk package provides extensive tools for this and the aim of the rpanel package is to provide simple and well documented functions which make these facilities as accessible as possible. In addition, the operations which form the basis of communication within tcltk are managed in a way which allows users to write functions with a more standard form of parameter passing. This paper describes the basic design of the software and illustrates it on a variety of examples of interactive control of graphics. The tkrplot system is used to allow plots to be integrated with controls into a single panel. An example of the use of a graphical image, and the ability to interact with this, is also discussed.

  12. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  13. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  14. 21 CFR 111.120 - What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and labels before use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for..., OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.120 What quality control operations are required for components, packaging, and...

  15. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  16. Restaurant closures

    CERN Document Server

    Novae Restauration

    2012-01-01

    Christmas Restaurant closures Please note that the Restaurant 1 and Restaurant 3 will be closed from Friday, 21 December at 5 p.m. to Sunday, 6 January, inclusive. They will reopen on Monday, 7 January 2013.   Restaurant 2 closure for renovation To meet greater demand and to modernize its infrastructure, Restaurant 2 will be closed from Monday, 17 December. On Monday, 14 January 2013, Sophie Vuetaz’s team will welcome you to a renovated self-service area on the 1st floor. The selections on the ground floor will also be expanded to include pasta and pizza, as well as snacks to eat in or take away. To ensure a continuity of service, we suggest you take your break at Restaurant 1 or Restaurant 3 (Prévessin).

  17. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  18. Economic evaluation of neonatal care packages in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Amnesty E; Shillcutt, Samuel D; Waters, Hugh R; Haider, Sabbir; El Arifeen, Shams; Mannan, Ishtiaq; Seraji, Habibur R; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Darmstadt, Gary L; Wall, Steve N; Williams, Emma K; Black, Robert E; Santosham, Mathuram; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for neonatal care in Sylhet division, Bangladesh. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial, two strategies for neonatal care--known as home care and community care--were compared with existing services. For each study arm, economic costs were estimated from a societal perspective, inclusive of programme costs, provider costs and household out-of-pocket payments on care-seeking. Neonatal mortality in each study arm was determined through household surveys. The incremental cost-effectiveness of each strategy--compared with that of the pre-existing levels of maternal and neonatal care--was then estimated. The levels of uncertainty in our estimates were quantified through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The incremental programme costs of implementing the home-care package were 2939 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1833-7616) United States dollars (US$) per neonatal death averted and US$ 103.49 (95% CI: 64.72-265.93) per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The corresponding total societal costs were US$ 2971 (95% CI: 1844-7628) and US$ 104.62 (95% CI: 65.15-266.60), respectively. The home-care package was cost-effective--with 95% certainty--if healthy life years were valued above US$ 214 per DALY averted. In contrast, implementation of the community-care strategy led to no reduction in neonatal mortality and did not appear to be cost-effective. The home-care package represents a highly cost-effective intervention strategy that should be considered for replication and scale-up in Bangladesh and similar settings elsewhere.

  19. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  20. Does the bracket-ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry; Collins, Jill; Tinsley, David; Sandler, Jonathan; Benson, Philip

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of bracket-ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and elastomeric ligatures; (2) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and Super Slick(®) low friction elastomeric ligatures; (3) Damon 3MX(®) passive self-ligating brackets. Space closure was undertaken on 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel archwires with nickel-titanium coil springs. Participants were recalled at four weekly intervals. Upper alginate impressions were taken at each visit (maximum three). The primary outcome measure was the mean amount of space closure in a 3-month period. A one-way ANOVA was undertaken [dependent variable: mean space closure (mm); independent variable: group allocation]. The amount of space closure was very similar between the three groups (1 mm per 28 days); however, there was a wide variation in the rate of space closure between individuals. The differences in the amount of space closure over three months between the three groups was very small and non-significant (P = 0·718). The hypothesis that reducing friction by modifying the bracket/ligature interface increases the rate of space closure was not supported. The major determinant of orthodontic tooth movement is probably the individual patient response.

  1. Evidence-based new service package vs. routine service package for smoking cessation to prevent high risk patients from cardiovascular diseases (CVD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Lorga, Thaworn; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Ono, Koichi; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Thinuan, Payom; Kawai, Sachio; Suya, Yaoyanee; Chumvicharana, Somboon; Marui, Eiji

    2013-12-05

    Smoking cessation is a high-priority intervention to prevent CVD events and deaths in developing countries. While several interventions to stop smoking have been proved successful, the question of how to increase their effectiveness and practicality in developing countries remains. In this study, a newly devised evidence-based smoking cessation service package will be compared with the existing service in a randomized controlled trial within the community setting of Thailand. This randomized control trial will recruit 440 current smokers at CVD risk because of being diabetic and/or hypertensive. Informed, consented participants will be randomly allocated into the new service-package arm and the routine service arm. The study will take place in the non-communicable disease clinics of the Maetha District Hospital, Lampang, northern Thailand. The new smoking-cessation service-package comprises (1) regular patient motivation and coaching from the same primary care nurse over a 3-month period; (2) monthly application of piCO + smokerlyzer to sustain motivation of smoker's quitting attempt and provide positive feedback over a 3-month period; (3) assistance by an assigned family member; (4) nicotine replacement chewing gum to relieve withdrawal symptoms. This new service will be compared with the traditional routine service comprising the 5A approach in a 1-year follow-up. Participants who consent to participate in the study but refuse to attempt quitting smoking will be allocated to the non-randomized arm, where they will be just followed up and monitored. Primary outcome of the study is smoking cessation rate at 1-year follow-up proven by breath analysis measuring carbomonoxide in parts per million in expired air. Secondary outcomes are smoking cessation rate at the 6-month follow-up, blood pressure and heart rate, CVD risk according to the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score, CVD events and deaths at the 12-month follow-up, and the cost-effectiveness of the

  2. Re-evaluation of Moisture Controls During ARIES Oxide Processing, Packaging and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmiol, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-18

    DOE-STD-3013 [1] requires limiting the relative humidity (RH) in the glovebox during processing of the oxide product for specific types of plutonium oxides. This requirement is mandated in order to limit corrosion of the stainless steel containers by deliquescence of chloride salts if present in the PuO2. DOE-STD-3013 also specifies the need to limit and monitor internal pressure buildup in the 3013 containers due to the potential for the generation of free H2 and O2 gas from the radiolysis of surfaceadsorbed water. DOE-STD-3013 requires that the oxide sample taken for moisture content verification be representative of the stabilized material in the 3013 container. This is accomplished by either limiting the time between sampling and packaging, or by control of the glovebox relative humidity (%RH). This requirement ensures that the sample is not only representative, but also conservative from the standpoint of moisture content.

  3. Controlling lipid oxidation via a biomimetic iron chelating active packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-12-18

    Previously, a siderophore-mimetic metal chelating active packaging film was developed by grafting poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) from the surface of polypropylene (PP) films. The objective of the current work was to demonstrate the potential applicability of this PP-g-PHA film to control iron-promoted lipid oxidation in food emulsions. The iron chelating activity of this film was investigated, and the surface chemistry and color intensity of films were also analyzed after iron chelation. In comparison to the iron chelating activity in the free Fe(3+) solution, the PP-g-PHA film retained approximately 50 and 30% of its activity in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)/Fe(3+) and citric acid/Fe(3+) solutions, respectively (pH 5.0), indicating a strong chelating strength for iron. The ability of PP-g-PHA films to control lipid oxidation was demonstrated in a model emulsion system (pH 3.0). PP-g-PHA films performed even better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in preventing the formation of volatile oxidation products. The particle size and ζ potential results of emulsions indicated that PP-g-PHA films had no adverse effects on the stability of the emulsion system. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis suggested a non-migratory nature of the PP-g-PHA film surface. These results suggest that such biomimetic, non-migratory metal chelating active packaging films have commercial potential in protecting foods against iron-promoted lipid oxidation.

  4. Incidence and severity of gingival invaginations associated with early versus late initiation of orthodontic space closure after tooth extraction : A multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Christoph; Kutschera, Eric; Plötz, Christina; Scharf, Sven; Gölz, Lina; Fimmers, Rolf; Fuhrmann, Christine; Wahl, Gerhard; Braumann, Bert; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Gingival invaginations are a common side effect of orthodontic extraction-space closure. The timing of initiating the closure of an extraction space varies greatly in clinical practice. In this multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial, we prospectively investigated whether initiating space closure in the early stage of wound healing would benefit the incidence and severity of invaginations developing in the extraction sites. A total of 368 patients were screened for indications to extract at least one mandibular premolar. Those recruited were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: initiation of space closure either 2-4 weeks (arm A) or ≥12 weeks (arm B) after tooth extraction. Clinical data regarding treatment process and periodontal tissue response were recorded during and after space closure and analyzed by a specialized biometrics unit. The study was performed under continuous surveillance by an independent study control center. A total of 74 extraction sites were analyzed. Regarding the incidence of gingival invaginations, there were no significant intergroup differences [p = 0.13; group A comprising 37/44 (84.1%) and group B 29/30 (96.7%) invaginated sites]. The same was true based on either maxillary (p = 0.52) or mandibular (p = 0.21) sites only, and the severity of the invaginations did not differ between the treatment arms. As to the incidence and severity of gingival invaginations, we did not notice any statistically significant differences between the two timeframes. Our data do, however, provide a basis to identify additional confounders and to improve the accuracy of case-load estimations for future trials.

  5. Skin graft secured by VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy in chronic leg ulcers: A controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vercherin, P; Cambazard, F

    2016-01-01

    Leg ulcers are a common condition. There have been very few studies of combined therapy involving VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) and skin graft. We performed a randomized controlled trial of VAC therapy vs. hydrocolloid dressings over 5 days following autologous grafting on chronic leg ulcers. The primary objective was to assess the difference in success (defined as a reduction in wound area of at least 50% at 1 month) between the two dressing methods. Forty-six patients with ulcers present for over one month were included. Following a 7-day hospitalization period, follow-up was performed for 3 months on an outpatient basis. Our study does not demonstrate a statistically significant difference, with a 45.8% success rate in the VAC group vs. 40.9% in the conventional dressing group (P=0.73). In the venous ulcer group, the success rate was 57.9% for VAC vs. 40% for conventional dressings (P=0.3). The difference in favor of VAC in this group was not statistically significant, most likely due to an insufficient number of patients studied. Our study does not demonstrate superiority of VAC associated with skin graft over conventional dressings. We observed more complications with VAC (40%) than with conventional dressings (23%) (P=0.06). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Hand-suture versus stapling for closure of loop ileostomy: HASTA-Trial: a study rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common tumor in developed countries, with a lifetime prevalence of 5%. About one third of these tumors are located in the rectum. Surgery in terms of low anterior resection with mesorectal excision is the central element in the treatment of rectal cancer being the only option for definite cure. Creating a protective diverting stoma prevents complications like anastomotic failure and meanwhile is the standard procedure. Bowel obstruction is one of the main and the clinically and economically most relevant complication following closure of loop ileostomy. The best surgical technique for closure of loop ileostomy has not been defined yet. Methods/Design A study protocol was developed on the basis of the only randomized controlled mono-center trial to solve clinical equipoise concerning the optimal surgical technique for closure of loop ileostomy after low anterior resection due to rectal cancer. The HASTA trial is a multi-center pragmatic randomized controlled surgical trial with two parallel groups to compare hand-suture versus stapling for closure of loop ileostomy. It will include 334 randomized patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy after low anterior resection with protective ileostomy due to rectal cancer in approximately 20 centers consisting of German hospitals of all level of health care. The primary endpoint is the rate of bowel obstruction within 30 days after ileostomy closure. In addition, a set of surgical and general variables including quality of life will be analyzed with a follow-up of 12 months. An investigators meeting with a practical session will help to minimize performance bias and enforce protocol adherence. Centers are monitored centrally as well as on-site before and during recruitment phase to assure inclusion, treatment and follow up according to the protocol. Discussion Aim of the HASTA trial is to evaluate the efficacy of hand-suture versus stapling for

  7. Controlling Brochothrix thermosphacta as a spoilage risk using in-package atmospheric cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is the predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta, taking microbial and food environment factors into consideration, and investigated the shelf-life of lamb chop after in-package plasma treatment in modified atmosphere. Community profiling was used to assess the treatment effects on the lamb microflora. ACP treatment (80 kV) for 30s inactivated B. thermosphacta populations below detection levels in PBS, while 5 min treatment achieved a 2 Log cycle reduction using a complex meat model medium and attached cells. The antimicrobial efficacy of plasma was reduced but still apparent on lamb chop surface-inoculated with high concentrations of B. thermosphacta. Lamb chop treated under modified atmosphere exhibited reduced microbial growth over the product shelf-life and community profiling showed no evident changes to the microbial populations after the treatment. The overall results indicated potential of ACP to enhance microbial control leading to meat storage life extension through adjusting the modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Practice of producing cement packages for sea dumping and their quality control in Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiro; Fujisaki, Setsuo; Usami, Jun; Morishita, Satoru; Komatsu, Shigeru

    1980-07-01

    The production of cement packages for the exploratory sea dumping has been carried out at Waste Disposal and Decontamination Section, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI. And around 1,000 packages were completed until 1979. The production practice were conducted based on NEA guideline and domestic regulation. In order to meet the guideline and regulation, consistent quality control is necessary to the production procedure. This Report describes about the procedure and quality control that were practiced from 1977 to 1979 in Tokai Research Establishment. (author)

  9. Release kinetics of tocopherol and quercetin from binary antioxidant controlled-release packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lee, Dong Sun; Zhu, Xuntao; Yam, Kit L

    2012-04-04

    This paper investigated the feasibility of manipulating packaging polymers with various degrees of hydrophobicity to release two antioxidants, tocopherol and quercetin, at rates suitable for long-term inhibition of lipid oxidation in food. For example, one antioxidant can be released at a fast rate to provide short-term/intermediate protection, whereas the other antioxidant can be released at a slower rate to provide intermediate/long-term protection of lipid oxidation. Controlled-release packaging films containing tocopherol and quercetin were produced using ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP) polymers; the release of these antioxidants to 95% ethanol (a fatty food simulant) was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Fickian diffusion models with appropriate initial and boundary conditions were used to fit the data. For films containing only quercetin, the results show that the release of quercetin was much faster but lasted for a much shorter time for hydrophilic polymers (EVOH and EVA) than for hydrophobic polymers (LDPE and PP). For binary antioxidant films containing tocopherol and quercetin, the results show that tocopherol released more rapidly but for a shorter period of time than quercetin in LDPE and EVOH films, and the difference is more pronounced for LDPE films than EVOH films. The results also show the presence of tocopherol can accelerate the release of quercetin. Although none of the films produced is acceptable for long-term lipid oxidation inhibition, the study provides encouraging results suggesting that acceptable films may be produced in the future using polymer blend films.

  10. Helping a community control its future: Potential negotiating packages and benefits for an MRS host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helvey, E.; Kane, D.; Trebules, V.

    1993-01-01

    The voluntary sitting process for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) of 1987 provides a potential host community a unique opportunity to improve its present situation and to gain greater control over its future. To take full advantage of that opportunity throughout the life of the facility, an interested host must bring two things to the negotiating table: (1) a clear understanding of the special benefits, concerns and impacts associated with siting a controversial facility along with a detailed plan for addressing the requirements and impacts of such a facility; and (2) a vision of what the community wants to be in the future and list of specific measures it might achieve through negotiations that would help it realize that future. This paper investigates potential negotiating options a host might develop that, while addressing the impacts arena, also set forth terms by which the host can use the MRS to gain greater control over its unique set of resources and needs. The first section of this paper highlights the major concerns that a community might raise when debating whether to host an MRS and lists generic mitigation techniques that address those concerns. The second section pulls those mitigation techniques together into negotiating packages to show how the same concerns can be addressed differently depending on the strengths, weaknesses, and priorities of two different hypothetical host communities

  11. Gravity packaging final waste recovery based on gravity separation and chemical imaging control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Potenza, Fabio; Luciani, Valentina; Di Maio, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Plastic polymers are characterized by a high calorific value. Post-consumer plastic waste can be thus considered, in many cases, as a typical secondary solid fuels according to the European Commission directive on End of Waste (EoW). In Europe the practice of incineration is considered one of the solutions for waste disposal waste, for energy recovery and, as a consequence, for the reduction of waste sent to landfill. A full characterization of these products represents the first step to profitably and correctly utilize them. Several techniques have been investigated in this paper in order to separate and characterize post-consumer plastic packaging waste fulfilling the previous goals, that is: gravity separation (i.e. Reflux Classifier), FT-IR spectroscopy, NIR HyperSpectralImaging (HSI) based techniques and calorimetric test. The study demonstrated as the proposed separation technique and the HyperSpectral NIR Imaging approach allow to separate and recognize the different polymers (i.e. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC), PolyStyrene (PS), PolyEthylene (PE), PoliEtilene Tereftalato (PET), PolyPropylene (PP)) in order to maximize the removal of the PVC fraction from plastic waste and to perform the full quality control of the resulting products, can be profitably utilized to set up analytical/control strategies finalized to obtain a low content of PVC in the final Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF), thus enhancing SRF quality, increasing its value and reducing the "final waste". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion

  13. Impact of eight closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of two (red and rosé) wines

    OpenAIRE

    Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of closure are two key factors of the shelf life of bottled wines before bringing them to market. The impact of eight closures (four screw caps, two synthetic stoppers and two technical stoppers) was evaluated on a red Merlot/Tannat wine. The results of a rosé wine are also discussed. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out over 538 days of storage at 20°C,...

  14. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders’ reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  15. Getting hold of approaching objects : In search of a common control of hand-closure initiation in catching and grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Cornelis; Bongers, Raoul M.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    Both in the catching and grasping component of prehension, the hand opens and closes before hand-object contact is made. The initiation of hand closure has to be coordinated with the time course of the decrease of the distance between the hand and the target object, i.e., with the reaching component

  16. A Stakeholder Survey on Live Bird Market Closures Policy for Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Thuy; Fearnley, Lyle; Dinh, Xuan Tung; Tran, Thi Tram Anh; Tran, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Van Trong; Tago, Damian; Padungtod, Pawin; Newman, Scott H; Tripodi, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces. Combining efforts of anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and veterinarians can be useful to elucidate the drivers behind poultry traders' reactions and better understanding the barriers to implementing risk mitigation measures. In this paper, we present results from a stakeholder survey of LBM stakeholders in Vietnam. Our qualitative data show that trading outside formal markets is very likely to occur in the event of a temporary LBM market closure. Our data show that the poultry value chain in Vietnam remains highly flexible, with traders willing and able to trade poultry in many possible locations. Our results indicate that simplification of the poultry value chain along with strict enforcement, engagement of stakeholders, and adequate communication would be a necessary prerequisite before market closure could be an effective policy.

  17. Effect of PPG-PEG-PPG on the tocopherol-controlled release from films intended for food-packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro López, María del Mar; Dopico García, Sonia; Ares Pernas, Ana; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2012-08-22

    The feasibility of novel controlled release systems for the delivery of active substances from films intended for food packaging was investigated. Because polyolefins are used highly for food-packaging applications, the reported high retention degree of antioxidants has limited their use for active packaging. Thus, in this study, PP films modified with different chain extenders have been developed to favor and control the release rates of the low molecular weight antioxidant tocopherol. The use of different chain extenders as polymer modifiers (PE-PEG M(w), 575; and PPG-PEG-PPG M(w), 2000) has caused significant changes in tocopherol-specific release properties. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to PDA-FL and PDA-MS was used to test tocopherol and chain extender migration, respectively. The release of tocopherol from the prepared films with two chain extenders into two food simulants was studied. Different temperatures and storage times were also tested. Varying the structural features of the films with the incorporation of different levels of PPG-PEG-PPG, the release of tocopherol (food-packaging additive) into different ethanolic simulants could be clearly controlled. The effect of the temperature and storage time on the release of the antioxidant has been outstanding as their values increased. The migration of the chain extender, also tested, was well below the limits set by European legislation.

  18. NOISY DISPERSION CURVE PICKING (NDCP): a Matlab friendly suite package for fully control dispersion curve picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, I.; Calo, M.; Ramos, V.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Matlab suite package (NDCP, Noisy Dispersion Curve Picking) that allows a full control over parameters to identify correctly group velocity dispersion curves in two types of datasets: correlograms between two stations or surface wave records from earthquakes. Using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN), the procedure to obtain the dispersion curves from records with a high noise level becomes difficult, and sometimes, the picked curve result in a misinterpreted character. For correlogram functions, obtained with cross-correlation of noise records or earthquake's coda, a non-homogeneous noise sources distribution yield to a non-symmetric Green's function (GF); to retrieve the complete information contained in there, NDCP allows to pick the dispersion curve in the time domain both in the causal and non-causal part of the GF. Then the picked dispersion curve is displayed on the FTAN diagram to in order to check if it matches with the maximum of the signal energy avoiding confusion with overtones or spike of noise. To illustrate how NDCP performs, we show exemple using: i) local correlograms functions obtained from sensors deployed into a volcanic caldera (Los Humeros, in Puebla, Mexico), ii) regional correlograms functions between two stations of the National Seismological Service (SSN, Servicio Sismológico Nacional in Spanish), and iii) surface wave seismic record for an earthquake located in the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and recorded by the SSN. This work is supported by the GEMEX project (Geothermal Europe-Mexico consortium).

  19. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  20. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  1. DESIGN OF A WELDING AND INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR WASTE STORAGE CLOSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.B. Smartt; A.D. Watkins; D.P. Pace; R.J. Bitsoi; E.D. Larsen T.R. McJunkin; C.R. Tolle

    2005-01-01

    This work reported here was done to provide a conceptual design for a robotic welding and inspection system for the Yucca Mountain Repository waste package closure system. The welding and inspection system is intended to make the various closure welds that seal and/or structurally join the lids to the waste package vessels. The welding and inspection system will also perform surface and volumetric inspections of the various closure welds and has the means to repair closure welds, if required. The system is designed to perform these various activities remotely, without the necessity of having personnel in the closure cell

  2. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  3. Type B Package Radioactive Material Contents Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENSEL, STEVE

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of packaging and transportation requirements can be subdivided into three categories; contents compliance, packaging closure, and transportation or logistical compliance. This paper addresses the area of contents compliance within the context of regulations, DOE Orders, and appropriate standards. Common practices and current pitfalls are also discussed

  4. Does the bracket–ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Henry; Collins, Jill; Tinsley, David; Sandler, Jonathan; Benson, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bracket–ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. Design: Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. Setting: A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). Participants: Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. Methods: Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise bra...

  5. A special pair of phytohormones controls excitability, slow closure, and external stomach formation in the Venus flytrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Pérez, María; Krol, Elzbieta; Stange, Annette; Geiger, Dietmar; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hause, Bettina; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2011-09-13

    Venus flytrap's leaves can catch an insect in a fraction of a second. Since the time of Charles Darwin, scientists have struggled to understand the sensory biology and biomechanics of this plant, Dionaea muscipula. Here we show that insect-capture of Dionaea traps is modulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates. Water-stressed Dionaea, as well as those exposed to the drought-stress hormone ABA, are less sensitive to mechanical stimulation. In contrast, application of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), the methyl ester of JA (Me-JA), and coronatine (COR), the molecular mimic of the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile), triggers secretion of digestive enzymes without any preceding mechanical stimulus. Such secretion is accompanied by slow trap closure. Under physiological conditions, insect-capture is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and a rise in OPDA, Apparently, jasmonates bypass hapto-electric processes associated with trap closure. However, ABA does not affect OPDA-dependent gland activity. Therefore, signals for trap movement and secretion seem to involve separate pathways. Jasmonates are systemically active because application to a single trap induces secretion and slow closure not only in the given trap but also in all others. Furthermore, formerly touch-insensitive trap sectors are converted into mechanosensitive ones. These findings demonstrate that prey-catching Dionaea combines plant-specific signaling pathways, involving OPDA and ABA with a rapidly acting trigger, which uses ion channels, action potentials, and Ca(2+) signals.

  6. Effect of controlled potential on SCC of nuclear waste package container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lum, B. Y.; Roy, A. K.; Spragge, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The slow-strain-rate (SSR) test technique was used to evaluate the susceptibility of Titanium (Ti) Gr-7 (UNS R52400) and Ti Gr-12 (UNS R53400) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Ti Gr-7 and Ti Gr-12 are two candidate container materials for the multi-barrier package for nuclear waste. The tests were done in a deaerated 90 C acidic brine (pH ∼ 2.7) containing 5 weight percent (wt%) sodium chloride (NaCl) using a strain rate of 3.3 x 10 -6 sec -1 . Before being tested in the acidic brine, specimens of each alloy were pulled inside the test chamber in the dry condition at ambient temperature. Then while in the test solution, specimens were strained under different cathodic (negative) controlled electrochemical potentials. These controlled potentials were selected based on the corrosion potential measured in the test solution before the specimens were strained. Results indicate that the times to failure (TTF) for Ti Gr-12 were much shorter than those for Ti Gr-7. Furthermore, as the applied potential became more cathodic, Ti Gr-12 showed reduced ductility in terms of percent reduction in area (%RA) and true fracture stress (σ f ). In addition, TTF and percent elongation (%El) reached the minimum values when Ti Gr-12 was tested under an impressed potential of -1162 mV. However, for Ti Gr-7, all these ductility parameters were not significantly influenced by the changes in applied potential. In general, the results of hydrogen analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed increased hydrogen concentration at more cathodic controlled potentials. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the morphology of cracking both at the primary fracture face and the secondary cracks along the gage section of the broken tensile specimen. Transgranular secondary cracks were observed in both alloys possibly resulting from the formation of brittle titanium hydrides due to cathodic charging. The primary fracture face was characterized

  7. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  8. Semi-Parametric Maximum Likelihood Method for Interaction in Case-Mother Control-Mother Designs: Package SPmlficmcm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moliere Nguile-Makao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of interaction effects involving genetic variants and environmental exposures on the risk of adverse obstetric and early-life outcomes is generally performed using standard logistic regression in the case-mother and control-mother design. However such an analysis is inefficient because it does not take into account the natural family-based constraints present in the parent-child relationship. Recently, a new approach based on semi-parametric maximum likelihood estimation was proposed. The advantage of this approach is that it takes into account the parental relationship between the mother and her child in estimation. But a package implementing this method has not been widely available. In this paper, we present SPmlficmcm, an R package implementing this new method and we propose an extension of the method to handle missing offspring genotype data by maximum likelihood estimation. Our choice to treat missing data of the offspring genotype was motivated by the fact that in genetic association studies where the genetic data of mother and child are available, there are usually more missing data on the genotype of the offspring than that of the mother. The package builds a non-linear system from the data and solves and computes the estimates from the gradient and the Hessian matrix of the log profile semi-parametric likelihood function. Finally, we analyze a simulated dataset to show the usefulness of the package.

  9. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  10. Effectiveness of early lens extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer; Ramsay, Craig; Cooper, David; Foster, Paul J; Friedman, David S; Scotland, Graham; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Cochrane, Claire; Norrie, John

    2016-10-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In early-stage disease, intraocular pressure is raised without visual loss. Because the crystalline lens has a major mechanistic role, lens extraction might be a useful initial treatment. From Jan 8, 2009, to Dec 28, 2011, we enrolled patients from 30 hospital eye services in five countries. Randomisation was done by a web-based application. Patients were assigned to undergo clear-lens extraction or receive standard care with laser peripheral iridotomy and topical medical treatment. Eligible patients were aged 50 years or older, did not have cataracts, and had newly diagnosed primary angle closure with intraocular pressure 30 mm Hg or greater or primary angle-closure glaucoma. The co-primary endpoints were patient-reported health status, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year gained 36 months after treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN44464607. Of 419 participants enrolled, 155 had primary angle closure and 263 primary angle-closure glaucoma. 208 were assigned to clear-lens extraction and 211 to standard care, of whom 351 (84%) had complete data on health status and 366 (87%) on intraocular pressure. The mean health status score (0·87 [SD 0·12]), assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire, was 0·052 higher (95% CI 0·015-0·088, p=0·005) and mean intraocular pressure (16·6 [SD 3·5] mm Hg) 1·18 mm Hg lower (95% CI -1·99 to -0·38, p=0·004) after clear-lens extraction than after standard care. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £14 284 for initial lens extraction versus standard care. Irreversible loss of vision occurred in one participant who underwent clear-lens extraction and three who received standard care. No patients had serious adverse events. Clear-lens extraction showed greater efficacy and was more cost-effective than

  11. Statistical Disclosure Control for Micro-Data Using the R Package sdcMicro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Templ

    2015-10-01

    The R package sdcMicro serves as an easy-to-handle, object-oriented S4 class implementation of SDC methods to evaluate and anonymize confidential micro-data sets. It includes all popular disclosure risk and perturbation methods. The package performs automated recalculation of frequency counts, individual and global risk measures, information loss and data utility statistics after each anonymization step. All methods are highly optimized in terms of computational costs to be able to work with large data sets. Reporting facilities that summarize the anonymization process can also be easily used by practitioners. We describe the package and demonstrate its functionality with a complex household survey test data set that has been distributed by the International Household Survey Network.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  13. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  14. Control of lipid oxidation by nonmigratory active packaging films prepared by photoinitiated graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-08-08

    Transition metal-promoted oxidation impacts the quality, shelf life, and nutrition of many packaged foods. Metal-chelating active packaging therefore offers a means to protect foods against oxidation. Herein, we report the development and characterization of nonmigratory metal-chelating active packaging. To prepare the films, carboxylic acids were grafted onto the surfaces of polypropylene films by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and iron-chelating assay were used to characterize film properties. Graft polymerization yielded a carboxylic acid density of 68.67 ± 9.99 nmol per cm(2) film, with ferrous iron-chelating activity of 71.07 ± 12.95 nmol per cm(2). The functionalized films extended the lag phase of lipid oxidation in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion system from 2 to 9 days. The application of such nonmigratory active packaging films represents a promising approach to reduce additive use while maintaining food quality.

  15. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  16. Sternal exploration or closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAC - vacuum-assisted closure - sternal wound; Sternal dehiscence; Sternal infection ... in the wound to look for signs of infection Remove dead or infected ... use a VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) dressing. It is a negative ...

  17. Control of aperture closure initiation during reach-to-grasp movements under manipulations of visual feedback and trunk involvement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya Kato; Lemay, Martin; Squire, Linda M; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2010-03-01

    The present project was aimed at investigating how two distinct and important difficulties (coordination difficulty and pronounced dependency on visual feedback) in Parkinson's disease (PD) affect each other for the coordination between hand transport toward an object and the initiation of finger closure during reach-to-grasp movement. Subjects with PD and age-matched healthy subjects made reach-to-grasp movements to a dowel under conditions in which the target object and/or the hand were either visible or not visible. The involvement of the trunk in task performance was manipulated by positioning the target object within or beyond the participant's outstretched arm to evaluate the effects of increasing the complexity of intersegmental coordination under different conditions related to the availability of visual feedback in subjects with PD. General kinematic characteristics of the reach-to-grasp movements of the subjects with PD were altered substantially by the removal of target object visibility. Compared with the controls, the subjects with PD considerably lengthened transport time, especially during the aperture closure period, and decreased peak velocity of wrist and trunk movement without target object visibility. Most of these differences were accentuated when the trunk was involved. In contrast, these kinematic parameters did not change depending on the visibility of the hand for both groups. The transport-aperture coordination was assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurred when the hand distance-to-target crossed a hand-target distance threshold for grasp initiation that is a function of peak aperture, hand velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. When the hand or the target object was not visible, both groups increased the hand-target distance threshold for grasp initiation compared to its

  18. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  19. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  20. Effectiveness of early lens extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer; Ramsay, Craig; Cooper, David; Foster, Paul J.; Friedman, David S.; Scotland, Graham; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Cochrane, Claire; Norrie, John; For the EAGLE study group

    2016-01-01

    PJF is supported by salary funding from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) through a grant to the Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology. This work is supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC G0701604) and funding is managed by the NIHR (NIHR-EME 09-800-26) on behalf of the MRC–NIHR partnership. Background . Primary angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In early-stage disease, in...

  1. Comparison of the effect of 8 closures in controlled industrial conditions on the shelf life of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jean-Claude; Caille, Soline; Samson, Alain; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The management of O2, CO2 and SO2 at bottling and the choice of the closure are two key factors of the shelf life of wine in bottles before bringing them to market. The impact of four screw caps, two synthetic and two technical corks was evaluated on a red wine of Merlot/Tannat. Methods and results: Analytical monitoring (O2, CO2, SO2, aphrometric pressure, L*, a*, b*) was carried out during 538 days of storage at 20 °C. Two sensory analyses at 10 and 17 months completed the stu...

  2. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  3. An anti-Compton suppression Ge-telescope detection system for quality control of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Para, A. Foglio; Chabalier, B.; Huot, N.; Graf, U.; Ravazzani, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kekki, T.; Tanner, V.; Tiitta, A.

    2001-01-01

    An anti-Compton suppression system is studied for the quality control of radioactive waste packages by nondestructive assay. The main objective is the reduction of the detection limit of actinides in the packages. The optimization of a final device is based on Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP and FLUKA) validated by experiments using a prototype consisting of a Ge-telescope detector surrounded by a NaI detector. The validation reveals that most of the discrepancies between experimental and simulated data are due to an incomplete description of the experimental conditions. After fine-tuning of the input file the uncertainties on the simulated full-energy peak efficiency are reduced to less than 5%. Also the total detector response for mono-energetic photons and real waste, including the photon interactions within the drum, can be simulated satisfactorily

  4. HumMeth27QCReport: an R package for quality control and primary analysis of Illumina Infinium methylation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Francesco M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the human DNA methylome has gained particular interest in the last few years. Researchers can nowadays investigate the potential role of DNA methylation in common disorders by taking advantage of new high-throughput technologies. Among these, Illumina Infinium assays can interrogate the methylation levels of hundreds of thousands of CpG sites, offering an ideal solution for genome-wide methylation profiling. However, like for other high-throughput technologies, the main bottleneck remains at the stage of data analysis rather than data production. Findings We have developed HumMeth27QCReport, an R package devoted to researchers wanting to quickly analyse their Illumina Infinium methylation arrays. This package automates quality control steps by generating a report including sample-independent and sample-dependent quality plots, and performs primary analysis of raw methylation calls by computing data normalization, statistics, and sample similarities. This package is available at CRAN repository, and can be integrated in any Galaxy instance through the implementation of ad-hoc scripts accessible at Galaxy Tool Shed. Conclusions Our package provides users of the Illumina Infinium Methylation assays with a simplified, automated, open-source quality control and primary analysis of their methylation data. Moreover, to enhance its use by experimental researchers, the tool is being distributed along with the scripts necessary for its implementation in the Galaxy workbench. Finally, although it was originally developed for HumanMethylation27, we proved its compatibility with data generated with the HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip.

  5. Closure The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bolin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    If you're ready to use Closure to build rich web applications with JavaScript, this hands-on guide has precisely what you need to learn this suite of tools in depth. Closure makes it easy for experienced JavaScript developers to write and maintain large and complex codebases -- as Google has demonstrated by using Closure with Gmail, Google Docs, and Google Maps. Author and Closure contributor Michael Bolin has included numerous code examples and best practices, as well as valuable information not available publicly until now. You'll learn all about Closure's Library, Compiler, Templates, tes

  6. Example of a quality control operation performed on a nuclear reactor waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouguier, H.; Nomine, J.S.; Vaunois, P.

    1983-01-01

    The need has emerged to secure the possibility of the spot sampling and inspection of a package, in the production line or on its arrival at the disposal center. This external inspection (or superinspection) has a threefold objective: to check the conformity of the package and of all its components with the mechanical, chemical and radiochemical specifications; to ensure, by thorough inspection, that the product is similar to the product which was characterized and qualified, and which secured ANDRA's approval of the process; and, through the detection of any variations and discrepancies, to advise the process promoter and the research laboratories, so as to improve the process, the product and the specifications. This paper describes an operation of this type conducted in 1982 by ANDRA, with the help of the CEA's laboratories and technical units, on low and medium-level waste packages produced by an industrial installation in an EDF nuclear power plant. The following are described: dismantling and sampling methods implemented, means employed, and the specific characteristics tested and the first results obtained

  7. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  8. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  9. Oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen for closure of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates (<32 weeks): a blinded, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Yadav, Rahul; Oleti, Tejo Pratap; Murki, Srinivas; Krishna, Arun; Sundaram, Mangalabharathi; Saini, Shiv Sajan; Dutta, Sourabh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Existing medical therapies with ibuprofen or indomethacin have multiple adverse effects. Hence, an alternative drug like paracetamol given through oral route with less side effects need to be tested in an appropriate study design with least risk of bias to arrive at a conclusion. Methods and analysis Multisite, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority design. The primary objective is to study the efficacy of oral paracetamol for closure of hsPDA in comparison to oral ibuprofen in preterm neonates of Closure of PDA by the end of last dose of study drug or earlier would be the study endpoint. A sample size of 196 neonates would be enrolled with a non-inferiority margin of 15%. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis will be done to assess the effect of contamination and protocol violations in the primary outcome. Ethics and dissemination The trial would follow international code of ethics for clinical trial. The trial protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee of all three centres. All serious adverse events would be reported in detail to the Institute Ethics Committee. A written informed consent would be obtained from one of the parents. No plan has been made for dissemination. Trial registration number CTRI/2014/08/004805. PMID:29637155

  10. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  11. Wafer-level packaging with compression-controlled seal ring bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farino, Anthony J

    2013-11-05

    A device may be provided in a sealed package by aligning a seal ring provided on a first surface of a first semiconductor wafer in opposing relationship with a seal ring that is provided on a second surface of a second semiconductor wafer and surrounds a portion of the second wafer that contains the device. Forcible movement of the first and second wafer surfaces toward one another compresses the first and second seal rings against one another. A physical barrier against the movement, other than the first and second seal rings, is provided between the first and second wafer surfaces.

  12. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  13. Inspection and verification of waste packages for near surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Extensive experience has been gained with various disposal options for low and intermediate level waste at or near surface disposal facilities. Near surface disposal is based on proven and well demonstrated technologies. To ensure the safety of near surface disposal facilities when available technologies are applied, it is necessary to control and assure the quality of the repository system's performance, which includes waste packages, engineered features and natural barriers, as well as siting, design, construction, operation, closure and institutional controls. Recognizing the importance of repository performance, the IAEA is producing a set of technical publications on quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for waste disposal to provide Member States with technical guidance and current information. These publications cover issues on the application of QA/QC programmes to waste disposal, long term record management, and specific QA/QC aspects of waste packaging, repository design and R and D. Waste package QA/QC is especially important because the package is the primary barrier to radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Waste packaging also involves interface issues between the waste generator and the disposal facility operator. Waste should be packaged by generators to meet waste acceptance requirements set for a repository or disposal system. However, it is essential that the disposal facility operator ensure that waste packages conform with disposal facility acceptance requirements. Demonstration of conformance with disposal facility acceptance requirements can be achieved through the systematic inspection and verification of waste packages at both the waste generator's site and at the disposal facility, based on a waste package QA/QC programme established by the waste generator and approved by the disposal operator. However, strategies, approaches and the scope of inspection and verification will be somewhat different from country to country

  14. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  15. Effects of a just-in-time educational intervention placed on wound dressing packages: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dea J

    2010-01-01

    I compared the effects of a just-in-time educational intervention (educational materials for dressing application attached to the manufacturer's dressing package) to traditional wound care education on reported confidence and dressing application in a simulated model. Nurses from a variety of backgrounds were recruited for this study. The nurses possessed all levels of education ranging from licensed practical nurse to master of science in nursing. Both novice and seasoned nurses were included, with no stipulations regarding years of nursing experience. Exclusion criteria included nurses who spent less than 50% of their time in direct patient care and nurses with advanced wound care training and/or certification (CWOCN, CWON). Study settings included community-based acute care facilities, critical access hospitals, long-term care facilities, long-term acute care facilities, and home care agencies. No level 1 trauma centers were included in the study for geographical reasons. Participants were randomly allocated to control or intervention groups. Each participant completed the Kent Dressing Confidence Assessment tool. Subjects were then asked to apply the dressing to a wound model under the observation of either the principal investigator or a trained observer, who scored the accuracy of dressing application according to established criteria. None of the 139 nurses who received traditional dressing packaging were able to apply the dressing to a wound model correctly. In contrast, 88% of the nurses who received the package with the educational guide attached to it were able to apply the dressing to a wound model correctly (χ2 = 107.22, df = 1, P = .0001). Nurses who received the dressing package with the attached educational guide agreed that this feature gave them confidence to correctly apply the dressing (88%), while no nurse agreed that the traditional package gave him or her the confidence to apply the dressing correctly (χ2 = 147.47, df = 4, P just

  16. Effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus versus uncoated PDS II sutures for prevention of surgical site infection after abdominal wall closure: the randomised controlled PROUD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip; Kieser, Meinhard; Schüler, Philipp; Schiergens, Tobias S; Atanassov, Vladimir; Neudecker, Jens; Stein, Erwin; Thielemann, Henryk; Kunz, Reiner; von Frankenberg, Moritz; Schernikau, Utz; Bunse, Jörg; Jansen-Winkeln, Boris; Partecke, Lars I; Prechtl, Gerald; Pochhammer, Julius; Bouchard, Ralf; Hodina, René; Beckurts, K Tobias E; Leißner, Lothar; Lemmens, Hans-Peter; Kallinowski, Friedrich; Thomusch, Oliver; Seehofer, Daniel; Simon, Thomas; Hyhlik-Dürr, Alexander; Seiler, Christoph M; Hackert, Thilo; Reissfelder, Christoph; Hennig, René; Doerr-Harim, Colette; Klose, Christina; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W

    2014-07-12

    Postoperative surgical site infections are one of the most frequent complications after open abdominal surgery, and triclosan-coated sutures were developed to reduce their occurrence. The aim of the PROUD trial was to obtain reliable data for the effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus sutures for abdominal wall closure, compared with non-coated PDS II sutures, in the prevention of surgical site infections. This multicentre, randomised controlled group-sequential superiority trial was done in 24 German hospitals. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who underwent elective midline abdominal laparotomy for any reason were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were impaired mental state, language problems, and participation in another intervention trial that interfered with the intervention or outcome of this trial. A central web-based randomisation tool was used to randomly assign eligible participants by permuted block randomisation with a 1:1 allocation ratio and block size 4 before mass closure to either triclosan-coated sutures (PDS Plus) or uncoated sutures (PDS II) for abdominal fascia closure. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of superficial or deep surgical site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria within 30 days after the operation. Patients, surgeons, and the outcome assessors were masked to group assignment. Interim and final analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, number DRKS00000390. Between April 7, 2010, and Oct 19, 2012, 1224 patients were randomly assigned to intervention groups (607 to PDS Plus, and 617 to PDS II), of whom 1185 (587 PDS Plus and 598 PDS II) were analysed by intention to treat. The study groups were well balanced in terms of patient and procedure characteristics. The occurrence of surgical site infections did not differ between the PDS Plus group (87 [14·8%] of 587) and the PDS II group (96 [16·1%] of 598

  17. A comparison of space closure rates between preactivated nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloy T-loops: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Feng-Yi; Quick, Andrew N; Swain, Michael V; Herbison, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the rate of space closure and tooth angulation during maxillary canine retraction using preactivated T-loops made from titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) and nickel-titanium (NiTi). Twelve patients (six males and six females) aged between 13 and 20 years who had upper premolar extractions were included, and each acted as their own control, with a NiTi T-loop allocated to one quadrant and TMA to the other using a split mouth block randomization design. The loops were activated 3 mm at each visit to deliver a load of approximately 150 g to the upper canine teeth. Maxillary dental casts, taken at the first and each subsequent monthly visit, were used to evaluate changes in extraction space and canine angulation. All used T-loops were compared with unused loops in order to assess distortion. Mixed model statistical analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. The mean rate of canine retraction using preactivated NiTi and TMA T-loops was 0.91 mm/month (±0.46) and 0.87 mm/month (±0.34), respectively. The canine tipping rates were 0.71 degrees/month (±2.34) for NiTi and 1.15 degrees/month (±2.86) for TMA. Both the rate of space closure and the tipping were not significantly different between the two wire types. The average percentage distortion of the TMA T-loop was 10 times greater than that of the NiTi loops when all other variables were matched. There was no difference in the rate of space closure or tooth angulation between preactivated TMA or NiTi T-loops when used to retract upper canines. The NiTi loops possessed a greater ability to retain and return to their original shapes following cyclical activation.

  18. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  19. Enzymatic browning control in cut apples (Red delicious through a system of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jadán Piedra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic browning is one of the most relevant mechanisms of deterioration that take place in fresh-cut fruit and vegetables, as a consequence of the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme on the phenolic compounds release after cellular lysis . This work is focused on the reduction of these enzymatic activity by an active packaging technology, which make use of a material that incorporates antioxidant active agents. Thus, films of ethylene-vynil alcohol copolymer (EVOH containing a typical food antioxidant, such as ascorbic acid and a polyphenol oxidase-inhibiting agent, the 4-hexylresorcinol have been developed and used to wrap apple slices. The evolution of color, the enzymatic activity and the kinetic of agents release to food simulants were monitored. The results showed an improvement of apple slice color stability and a reduction of the enzymatic activity. The film with 10 % of agents in 3/1 ratio (4-hexylresorcinol/ascorbic acid provided the best results.

  20. Effect of a bacteriophage cocktail in combination with modified atmosphere packaging in controlling Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyacioglu O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Listeria monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail was evaluated for its activity against a nalidixic acid-resistant L. monocytogenes (Lm-NalR isolate on fresh-cut spinach stored under modified atmosphere packaging at various temperatures. Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2 of fresh spinach inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 Lm-NalR were sprayed with the phage cocktail (6.5 log plaque-forming units [PFU]/cm2 or a control. The samples were stored at 4°C or 10°C for up to 14 d in sealed packages filled with either atmospheric air (AA or modified atmosphere (MA. At 4°C under AA, the phages significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lowered the Lm-NalR populations on spinach, compared to control-treated inoculated samples, by 1.12 and 1.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d, respectively. At 4°C under MA, Lm-NalR was significantly reduced by 1.95 log CFU/cm2 compared to control leaves after both 1 and 14 d. At 10°C under AA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.50 and 2.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d compared to the control. Again at 10°C under MA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.71 and 3.24 log CFU/cm2 compared to control after 1 and 14 d, respectively. The results support the potential of lytic bacteriophages in effectively reducing populations of L. monocytogenes on freshcut leafy produce, under both AA and MA conditions.

  1. Efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farrash, Rania A; El Shimy, Mohammed S; El-Sakka, Abeer S; Ahmed, Manal G; Abdel-Moez, Dina G

    2018-05-09

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol versus oral ibuprofen in the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) in preterm infants. An interventional randomized case-control study, registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03265782), was conducted on 60 preterm infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, postnatal age of 2-7 d and color Doppler echocardiographic evidence of hsPDA. Neonates were randomly assigned to two groups: 30 received oral ibuprofen and 30 received oral paracetamol. With failure of ductal closure, a second course of ibuprofen or paracetamol was given. The included newborns were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations that included complete blood count, renal, and liver function tests and echocardiographic evaluation. Oral paracetamol was as effective as ibuprofen for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with one course of treatment (p > .05). Moreover, oral paracetamol was superior to ibuprofen among neonates who needed second course of treatment with significant decrease in end diastolic flow velocity in the left pulmonary artery (0.35 ± 0.09 versus 0.19 ± 0.06, p = .014), right ventricular systolic pressure (40.50 ± 12.91 versus 20.50 ± 0.58, p = .016) and left atrium to aortic root ratio (1.23 ± 0.14 versus 1.07 ± 0.04, p = .046) when compared to ibuprofen group. Furthermore, the mean difference between pre- and post-treatment PDA size was significantly higher in the paracetamol group compared with ibuprofen group after the second course of treatment (1.07 ± 0.32 versus 0.73 ± 0.38, p = .024). Oral paracetamol was comparable with ibuprofen in terms of the rate of non-surgical ductal closure [28 (93.3%) versus 24 (80%), p = .591]. In addition, oral paracetamol was as safe as oral ibuprofen in terms of gastrointestinal perforation or bleeding, necrotizing

  2. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blanton, Paul [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bobbitt, John H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  3. Tubular closure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for closing openings such as the bore of a conduit and for releasably securing members within the bore. More particularly, this invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors

  4. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  5. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system

  6. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  7. Quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits using enhanced-spatial-resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Asadizanjani, Navid

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of techniques for quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits (IC) using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is developed. By material characterization, the presence of unexpected materials in counterfeit components is revealed. Blacktopping layers are detected using THz time-of-flight tomography, and thickness of hidden layers is measured. Sanded and contaminated components are detected by THz reflection-mode imaging. Differences between inside structures of counterfeit and authentic components are revealed through developing THz transmission imaging. For enabling accurate measurement of features by THz transmission imaging, a novel resolution enhancement technique (RET) has been developed. This RET is based on deconvolution of the THz image and the THz point spread function (PSF). The THz PSF is mathematically modeled through incorporating the spectrum of the THz imaging system, the axis of propagation of the beam, and the intensity extinction coefficient of the object into a Gaussian beam distribution. As a result of implementing this RET, the accuracy of the measurements on THz images has been improved from 2.4 mm to 0.1 mm and bond wires as small as 550 μm inside the packaging of the ICs are imaged.

  8. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of PLA/PCL films with natural substances for bacterial growth control in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Hollermann, Gesa; Errenst, Cornelia; Pajnik, Jelena; Frerich, Sulamith; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch; Ivanovic, Jasna

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable polymers with antibacterial properties are highly desirable materials for active food packaging applications. Thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol with a strong antibacterial activity is abundant in plants belonging to the genus Thymus. This study presents two approaches for supercritical CO 2 impregnation of poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) blended films to induce antibacterial properties of the material: (i) a batch impregnation process for loading pure thymol, and (ii) an integrated supercritical extraction-impregnation process for isolation of thyme extract and its incorporation into the films, operated in both batch or semi-continuous modes with supercritical solution circulation. The PCL content in films, impregnation time and CO 2 flow regime were varied to maximize loading of the films with thymol or thyme extract with preserving films' structure and thermal stability. Representative film samples impregnated with thymol and thyme extract were tested against Gram (-) (Escherichia coli) and Gram(+) (Bacillus subtilis) model strains, by measuring their metabolic activity and re-cultivation after exposure to the films. The film containing thymol (35.8 wt%) showed a strong antibacterial activity leading to a total reduction of bacterial cell viability. Proposed processes enable fast, controlled and organic solvent-free fabrication of the PLA/PCL films containing natural antibacterial substances at moderately low temperature, with a compact structure and a good thermal stability, for potential use as active food packaging materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present information confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place with administrative controls for one CAS, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs

  10. Study design of the CLOSURE I Trial: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the STARFlex septal closure system versus best medical therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack due to presumed paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Anthony J; Reisman, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Adams, Harold; Albers, Gregory W; Felberg, Robert; Herrmann, Howard; Kar, Saibal; Landzberg, Michael; Raizner, Albert; Wechsler, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Some strokes of unknown etiology may be the result of a paradoxical embolism traversing through a nonfused foramen ovale (patent foramen ovale [PFO]). The utility of percutaneously placed devices for treatment of patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PFO is unknown. In addition, there are no clear data about the utility of medical interventions or other surgical procedures in this situation. Despite limited data, many patients are being treated with PFO closure devices. Thus, there is a strong need for clinical trials that test the potential efficacy of PFO occlusive devices in this situation. To address this gap in medical knowledge, we designed the CLOSURE I trial, a randomized, clinical trial comparing the use of a percutaneously placed PFO occlusive device and best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for prevention of recurrent ischemic neurologic symptoms among persons with TIA or ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has finished enrollment. Two-year follow-up for all 910 patients is required. The primary end point is the 2-year incidence of stroke or TIA, all-cause mortality for the first 30 days, and neurologic mortality from ≥ 31 days of follow-up, as adjudicated by a panel of physicians who are unaware of treatment allocation. This article describes the rationale and study design of CLOSURE I. This trial should provide information as to whether the STARFlex septal closure system is safe and more effective than best medical therapy alone in preventing recurrent stroke/TIA and mortality in patients with PFO and whether the STARFlex septal closure device can demonstrate superiority compared with best medical therapy alone. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00201461.

  11. A waste package strategy for regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategy given in the Site Characterization Plan for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the Engineered Barrier System contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. 7 refs., 1 fig

  12. Plain packaging: a logical progression for tobacco control in one of the world's ‘darkest markets’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The Australian approach to tobacco control has been a comprehensive one, encompassing mass media campaigns, consumer information, taxation policy, access for smokers to smoking cessation advice and pharmaceutical treatments, protection from exposure to tobacco smoke and regulation of promotion. World-first legislation to standardise the packaging of tobacco was a logical next step to further reduce misleadingly reassuring promotion of a product known for the past 50 years to kill a high proportion of its long-term users. Similarly, refreshed, larger pack warnings which started appearing on packs at the end of 2012 were a logical progression of efforts to ensure that consumers are better informed about the health risks associated with smoking. Regardless of the immediate effects of legislation, further progress will continue to require a comprehensive approach to maintain momentum and ensure that government efforts on one front are not undermined by more vigorous efforts and greater investment by tobacco companies elsewhere. PMID:28407604

  13. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to be closed, including the maximum extent of operation, be prepared and submitted as part is of the soil sampling and analysis plan. This document describes the sampling and analysis that is to be performed in response to these requirements and amends the closure plan. Specifically, this document supersedes Section 6.2, lines 43--46, and Section 7.3.6 of the closure plan. Results from the analysis will be compared to cleanup levels identified in the closure plan. These cleanup levels will be established using residential exposure assumptions in accordance with the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Cleanup Regulation (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340) as required in Amendment V.13.B.I. Results of all sampling, including the raw analytical data, a summary of analytical results, a data validation package, and a narrative summary with conclusions will be provided to Ecology as specified in Amendment V.13.B.e. The results and process used to collect and analyze the soil samples will be certified by a licensed professional engineer. These results and a certificate of closure for the balance of the TSD unit, as outlined in Chapter 7.0 of the approved closure plan (storage shed, concrete pad, burn building, scrubber, and reaction tanks), will provide the basis for a closure determination.

  14. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Amendment V.13.B.b to the approved closure plan (DOE-RL 1995a) requires that a soil sampling and analysis plan be prepared and submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for review and approval. Amendment V.13.B.c requires that a diagram of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility unit (the treatment, storage, and disposal [TSD] unit) boundary that is to be closed, including the maximum extent of operation, be prepared and submitted as part is of the soil sampling and analysis plan. This document describes the sampling and analysis that is to be performed in response to these requirements and amends the closure plan. Specifically, this document supersedes Section 6.2, lines 43--46, and Section 7.3.6 of the closure plan. Results from the analysis will be compared to cleanup levels identified in the closure plan. These cleanup levels will be established using residential exposure assumptions in accordance with the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Cleanup Regulation (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340) as required in Amendment V.13.B.I. Results of all sampling, including the raw analytical data, a summary of analytical results, a data validation package, and a narrative summary with conclusions will be provided to Ecology as specified in Amendment V.13.B.e. The results and process used to collect and analyze the soil samples will be certified by a licensed professional engineer. These results and a certificate of closure for the balance of the TSD unit, as outlined in Chapter 7.0 of the approved closure plan (storage shed, concrete pad, burn building, scrubber, and reaction tanks), will provide the basis for a closure determination

  15. Design and characterization of controlled-release edible packaging films prepared with synergistic whey-protein polysaccharide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Du, Bingjian; Chai, Zhi; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2013-06-19

    This paper describes an investigation into the properties of a doubly emulsified film incorporated with protein-polysaccharide microcapsules, which serves as a multifunctional food packaging film prepared using common edible materials in place of petroleum--based plastics. The relationships between the microstructural properties and controlled release features of a series of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) microcapsulated edible films prepared in thermodynamically incompatible conditions were analyzed. The hydrophilic riboflavin (V(B2)) nano-droplets (13-50 nm) dispersed in α-tocopherol (V(E)) oil phase were embedded in whey protein-polysaccharide (WPs) microcapsules with a shell thickness of 20-56 nm. These microcapsules were then integrated in 103 μm thick WPs films. Different polysaccharides, including gum arabic (GA), low-methoxyl pectin (LMP), and κ-carrageenan (KCG), exhibited different in vitro synergistic effects on the ability of both films to effect enteric controlled release of both vitamins. GA, which showed a strong emulsifying ability, also showed better control of V(E) than other polysaccharides, and the highly charged KCG showed better control of V(B2) than GA did.

  16. Eyelid closure at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Macleod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.

  17. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  18. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  19. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  20. Post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.W.; Maqsood, R.; Saleem, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the mean post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from 1st August 2014 to 30th April 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in this study and were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A underwent open appendectomy with closure of peritoneum while patients in group B had non-closure of peritoneum during the same procedure. Post-operatively, pain severity was assessed on visual analogue scale (VAS) numeric pain distress scale. On presence of VAS numeric pain distress scale between 5 to 7, intramuscular (IM) diclofenac sodium was given and on score >7, intravascular (IV) tramadol was given. The final outcome was measured at day 0 and day 1. Results: Pain score and analgesic requirements were significantly less in non-closure group than closure group on day 0 and day 1, showing statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Mean post-operative analgesic requirement is significantly less in non-closure group as compared to closure group during open appendectomy. (author)

  1. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  2. Corrosion of packaged cadmium plated electrical control units from paint vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most widely used methods of controlling the degradation of steel is the application of paint. It is relatively easy to accomplish and very economical. Painted steel is used successfully for many applications, including industrial equipment with electrical enclosures. Unless the proper paint and application procedures are selected, corrosion problems may develop directly from the paint, as the following incident will illustrate. A few years ago, a large electrical control enclosure [30 x 72 x 18 in. (76 x 183 x 46 cm)] was supplied to a customer with the control wiring and hardware mounted inside, which included a number of cadmium plated components. The enclosure had been painted inside with a fast drying, vinyl alkyd white enamel shortly before assembly. Since it was known that the completed unit would probably be stored at the customer's plant site for some time before installation, elaborate procedures were followed to retard or prevent degradation of any part of the system

  3. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  4. Analysis of the problems, which have the users employing software packages in the production control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortherms, B.; Moeller, C.

    1977-08-01

    The use of EDP is particularly effective in the dispositive area of enterprises. The realization of adequate systems, however, is involving considerable problems. This study is analyzing such problems of production control which have been obtained by investigations carried out in several enterprises. The problems of production control, the procedure in carrying out investigations and the prevalence of EDP in enterprises are demonstrated. The problems found out and their causes are then systematized and analyzed. The solution proposals derived are orientation aids for an optimum use of EDP. (orig.) [de

  5. Scope and closures

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    No matter how much experience you have with JavaScript, odds are you don’t fully understand the language. This concise yet in-depth guide takes you inside scope and closures, two core concepts you need to know to become a more efficient and effective JavaScript programmer. You’ll learn how and why they work, and how an understanding of closures can be a powerful part of your development skillset.

  6. Strategy Implementation through Hierarchical Couplings in a Management Control Package : An Explorative Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore

  7. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  8. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Cochran, Claire; Ramsay, Craig; Vale, Luke; Foster, Paul; Friedman, David; Quayyum, Zahidul; Lai, Jimmy; Nolan, Winnie; Aung, Tin; Chew, Paul; McPherson, Gladys; McDonald, Alison; Norrie, John

    2011-05-23

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle) and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure). If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy) is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care.EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible.The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy), costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events.A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). 400 participants (200 in each group) will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05, and a mean difference in intraocular pressure of

  9. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure. If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care. EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. Methods/Design EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible. The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy, costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events. A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat. 400 participants (200 in each group will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05

  10. Longitudinal transvaginal ultrasound evaluation of cesarean scar niche incidence and depth in the first two years after single- or double-layer uterotomy closure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Christian; Hinkson, Larry; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Bujak, Verena; Kalache, Karim D; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Cesarean deliveries are the most common abdominal surgery procedure globally, and the optimal way to suture the hysterotomy remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cesarean scar niches and the depth after single- or double-layer uterine closure. We performed a randomized controlled trial in which women were allocated to three uterotomy suture techniques: continuous single-layer unlocked, continuous locked single-layer, or double-layer sutures. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed six weeks and 6-24 months after cesarean delivery [Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02338388)]. The study included 435 women. Six weeks after delivery, the incidence of niche was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.52): 40% for single-layer unlocked, 32% for single-layer locked and 43% for double-layer sutures. The mean ± SD niche depths were 3.0 ± 1.4 mm for single-layer unlocked, 3.6 ± 1.7 mm for single-layer locked and 3.3 ± 1.3 mm for double-layer sutures (p = 1.0). There were no significant differences (p = 0.58) in niche incidence between the three groups at the second ultrasound follow up: 30% for single-layer unlocked, 23% for single-layer locked and 29% for double-layer sutures. The mean ± SD niche depth was 3.1 ± 1.5 mm after single-layer unlocked, 2.8 ± 1.5 mm after single-layer locked and 2.5 ± 1.2 mm after double-layer sutures (p = 0.61). There was a trend (p = 0.06) for the residual myometrium thickness to be thicker after double-layer repair at the long-term follow up. The incidence of cesarean scar niche formation and the niche depth was independent of the hysterotomy closure technique. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Strategy Implementation through Hierarchical Couplings in a Management Control Package: An Explorative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore three hierarchical relations between MC elements, and examine how these couplings help to implement the organization’s strategy. We conducted a single case study in a medium-sized Dutch municipali...

  12. G-paq: a motion control and data acquisition package for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spizzirri, P.G.; Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of crystalline materials using nuclear microprobe techniques is now commonplace. Channeling contrast microscopy (CCM) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) angular two-dimensional scans, which are used to study defects, strain, surface effects and the presence of impurity atoms in crystalline materials, can benefit from automation through computer control. Important criteria for a computer controlled instrument such as this are: suitable operating system (eg. Microsoft Windows), a graphical user interface (GUI), readily available components, cost effectiveness, ease of use, flexibility and scalability. While there are a number of effective RBS channeling angular scanning solutions in use throughout the microprobe community, few can provide this level of application abstraction. Recent trends in software and hardware development have seen the emergence of desktop/laptop personal computer-based virtual instruments. It has been said that the PC is now the most powerful and cost effective approach to building instruments because they can outperform 'blackbox' solutions in computing power, data transfer rates, memory, data storage, graphics, ease of use and familiarity. Other benefits stem from the availability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components (hardware) that can often provide complex functionality and third party analysis software that can extend the instrument's use beyond the vendor defined limits. This paper discusses a general purpose, data acquisition and motion control solution, G-Paq, based upon the National Instruments LabVIEW hardware and software development environment. Locally developed, this solution uses a minimum of customised components, is compatible with the principals of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), is easy to use, has a graphical user interface and is flexible. While it has been developed for nuclear microprobe based channeling contrast microscopy using a specimen stage goniometer, its application to general motion control

  13. Angle observation of laser peripheral iridoplasty for the treatment of acute angle-closure glaucoma which could not be controlled by drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of laser peripheral iridoplasty(LPIPto treat acute angle-closure glaucoma(AACGwhich could not controlled by drugs and with persistent ocular hypertension. METHODS: Totally 67 patients(69 eyeswith AACG were performed LPIP when intraocular pressure(IOPwas still over 30mmHg after the medicine therapy for 3-6 hours. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were under detection before laser treatment and 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 2 hours after laser treatment. We measured the anterior chamber depth, width of angle, iris thickness with ultrasound biomicroscope(UBM. Dynamic gonioscopy was used to evaluate the degree of peripheral anterior synechia(PAS.RESULTS: Angle open distance(AODafter iridoplasty was increased(PPF=151.79, PCONCLUSION: LPIP can deepen peripheral anterior chamber, increase the angle access and lower the IOP immediately. It is an important ongoing adjuvant treatment, which can reduce the patients suffering by lowering the IOP quickly, reduce the damage of visual function caused by long-term high intraocular pressure, avoid side effect of the drugs, and can improve the prognosis.

  14. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Senger, R.K.; Leem, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analyses of a potential post-closure pyrophoric event in a waste package containing uranium metal spent fuel. The analyses include temperature at adjacent waste packages caused by the event and the dose to humans due to the event. The thermal analyses show that the event would not be expected to damage the adjacent waste packages. The dose analyses show that the doses due to the event are small. These analyses provide support to screening arguments used to demonstrate that the pyrophoric event should not be considered in the total system performance assessment model

  15. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes

  16. [Monitoring strategy for control of tobacco in Mexico: advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packaging and labeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Ibañez-Hernández, Norma A; Santos-Luna, René; Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Avila-Tang, Erika; Stillman, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Tobacco products points of sale (POS) were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006) schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS). In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control legislation in regards to selling to minors and single cigarettes. It is necessary to implement a surveillance system to monitor strategies for tobacco control and the tobacco industry.

  17. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  18. Waterpipe product packaging and labelling at the 3rd international Hookah Fair; does it comply with Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Darzi, Andrea; Lotfi, Tamara; Nakkash, Rima; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2017-08-01

    We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19.4-27.4 per cent) of those areas. Three had pictorial, in-colour health warnings. We judged all packaging information on constituents and emissions to be misleading. Eight of 13 charcoal products displayed environmentally friendly descriptors and/or claims of reduced harm that we judged to be misleading. Increased compliance with waterpipe tobacco regulation is warranted. An improved policy framework for waterpipe tobacco should also consider regulation of accessories such as charcoal products.

  19. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  20. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packing activated control rod assemblies in MOSAIK"R-casks. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packaging 160 control rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the decommissioning of numerous nuclear power plants in Germany, techniques to reduce the number of costly waste casks or containers are sought after. The large bandwidth of limits (dose rate, mass, individual nuclide activities, chemical composition...) the waste packages have to comply with for both interim storage facilities and the repository Konrad render the manual planning of packaging concepts prohibitive. However, in the past, the planning for packaging has been performed in this way, albeit on the basis of several facilitating assumptions. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, the automated computer-assisted generation of packaging plans for radioactive waste has not been demonstrated previously. In this talk we demonstrate how the conditioning and packing of 160 control rod assemblies was optimised using constraint satisfaction algorithms. These algorithms can be executed by a computer in a few minutes, thus considerably accelerating the generation of packaging plans, while optimising the utilisation of the waste casks and containers with respect to mass, activity, dose rate, etc. This automated and computer-assisted procedure took into account complex logistical boundary conditions present during decommissioning, such as space requirements, the sequence of the waste and the (lack of) availability of suitable waste casks. In addition, packaging concepts based on several scenarios (cask availability, space requirements,...) were easily and automatically generated once the packaging rules had been coded. We demonstrate the successful application of these algorithms to a real packaging campaign of control rod assemblies of a boiling water reactor, for which excellent results were achieved. We also present an outlook of a much larger scale project, in which the logistics and storage of radioactive waste packages is mathematically optimised. Finally, we give prospects on these techniques to others, similar logistical problems currently

  1. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  3. Advancements to Visualization Control System (VCS, part of UV-CDAT), a Visualization Package Designed for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsa, D.; Chaudhary, A.; Williams, D. N.; Doutriaux, C.; Jhaveri, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT, https://uvcdat.llnl.gov) is a data analysis and visualization software package developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and designed for climate scientists. Core components of UV-CDAT include: 1) Community Data Management System (CDMS) which provides I/O support and a data model for climate data;2) CDAT Utilities (GenUtil) that processes data using spatial and temporal averaging and statistic functions; and 3) Visualization Control System (VCS) for interactive visualization of the data. VCS is a Python visualization package primarily built for climate scientists, however, because of its generality and breadth of functionality, it can be a useful tool to other scientific applications. VCS provides 1D, 2D and 3D visualization functions such as scatter plot and line graphs for 1d data, boxfill, meshfill, isofill, isoline for 2d scalar data, vector glyphs and streamlines for 2d vector data and 3d_scalar and 3d_vector for 3d data. Specifically for climate data our plotting routines include projections, Skew-T plots and Taylor diagrams. While VCS provided a user-friendly API, the previous implementation of VCS relied on slow performing vector graphics (Cairo) backend which is suitable for smaller dataset and non-interactive graphics. LLNL and Kitware team has added a new backend to VCS that uses the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as its visualization backend. VTK is one of the most popular open source, multi-platform scientific visualization library written in C++. Its use of OpenGL and pipeline processing architecture results in a high performant VCS library. Its multitude of available data formats and visualization algorithms results in easy adoption of new visualization methods and new data formats in VCS. In this presentation, we describe recent contributions to VCS that includes new visualization plots, continuous integration testing using Conda and CircleCI, tutorials and examples using Jupyter notebooks as well as

  4. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance

  5. Computational package for the dynamic analysis of synchronous generators and their controls; Paquete computacional para el analisis de generadores sincronos y sus controles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Guillen, Jesus Artemio

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a computational package for the dynamic analysis of synchronous generators and their controls in a machine - infinite bus system. The package is integrated by a graphic interface for Windows environment and several models for the different components of the generation system. The development of the graphic interface was carried out with object oriented programming under Windows environment, available from Borland C++, which generates a group of menus that integrates an environment of interactive and versatile simulation. The package contains mathematical models of third, fourth, fifth and sixth order for synchronous generators of round and salient poles. Several mathematical models for the excitation systems DC1A, AC1A and ST1A, according to the IEEE classification, are included. Models for thermal and hydraulic turbines with governor of speed are also included, as well as a mathematical model for the power system stabilizer and magnetic saturation on synchronous generators. Numerical methods like Euler, Modified Euler and Runge Kutta of second and fourth order are used to solve the characteristics differential equations of the system under study. Algorithms for graphic generation includes phasor diagram, capability and saturation curves for synchronous machine. Computer models are validated and sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to assess the ef ect of type of model for synchronous machine, excitation systems, power system stabilizer, magnetic saturation in the synchronous generator and different numerical methods of integration. The computational package is useful in teaching and research on the dynamic response of synchronous machines and their controls. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un paquete computacional para el analisis dinamico de generadores sincronos y sus controles en el esquema de una unidad de generacion - bus infinito. El paquete esta integrado por una interfaz grafica para ambiente Windows y un

  6. Evolution of chemical conditions and estimated solubility controls on radionuclides in the residual waste layer during post-closure aging of high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Millings, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  7. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  8. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  9. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holder used in nuclear reactors. The closure mechanism is composed of a latching member which includes a generally circular chamber with a plurality of elongated latches depending therefrom. The latching member circumscribes part of an actuator member which is disposed within the latching member so as to be axially movable. The axial movement of the actuator actuates positioning of the latches between positions in which the latches are locked and secured within the actuator member. Means, capable of being remotely manipulated, are provided to move the actuator in order to position the latches and load the articles within the tube

  10. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  11. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  12. Professional Closure Beyond State Authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Sommer Harrits

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the Weberian approach to the study of professions has been strong, emphasizing state authorization and market monopolies as constituting what is considered a profession. Originally, however, the Weberian conception of closure, or the ways in which a profession is constituted and made separate, was broader. This article suggests a revision of the closure concept, integrating insights from Pierre Bourdieu, and conceptualizing professional closure as the intersection of social, symbolic and legal closure. Based on this revision, this article demonstrates how to apply such a concept in empirical studies. This is done by exploring social, symbolic and legal closure across sixteen professional degree programs. The analyses show a tendency for some overlap between different forms of closure, with a somewhat divergent pattern for legal closure. Results support the argument that we need to study these processes as an intersection of different sources of closure, including capital, lifestyles and discourse

  13. MNC Subsidiary Closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. In particular, we examine the extent to which the human capital that these employees acquired while employed by the MNC influences the wages they receive in their new jobs. We propose an employee...

  14. Friction or Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundahl, Mikela

    2014-01-01

    Heritage is a discourse that aims at closure. It fixates the narrative of the past through the celebration of specific material (or sometimes immaterial non-) ob-jects. It organizes temporality and construct events and freezes time. How does this unfold in the case of the UNESCO World Heritage si...

  15. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  16. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  17. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  18. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  19. Crack closure, a literature study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report crack closure is treated. The state of the art is reviewed. Different empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other, and their benefits are discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are discussed, and some results from fatigue tests are also reported. Experimental data from the literature are reported.

  20. Vascularized fibular graft combined with vacuum assisted closure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flowthrough fibular graft combined with Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) controlled the infection, shortened the course of treatment, and effectively restored limb function when applied to the treatment of tibial defects. Keywords: Tibial defect, Flow-through fibular graft, Vacuum Assisted Closure, Chronic Osteomyelitis ...

  1. Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nasr, Nabil A; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-09-02

    This study was carried out to develop a health education learning package (HELP) about soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and to evaluate what impact such a package could have in terms of reducing the incidence and intensity of STH infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia. To identify the key risk factors of STH in Orang Asli communities, we applied an extensive mixed methods approach which involved an intensive literature review, as well as community-based discussions with children, their parents, teachers and health personnel, whilst also placing the children under direct observation. To evaluate the package, 317 children from two schools in Lipis, Pahang were screened for STH infections, treated by a 3-day course of albendazole and then followed up over the next 6 months. The knowledge of teachers, parents and children towards STH infections were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The developed package consists of a half day workshop for teachers, a teacher's guide book to STH infections, posters, a comic book, a music video, a puppet show, drawing activities and an aid kit. The package was well-received with effective contributions being made by teachers, children and their parents. The incidence rates of hookworm infection at different assessment points were significantly lower among children in the intervention school compared to those in the control school. Similarly, the intensity of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were found to be significantly lower among children in the HELP group compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the package significantly improved the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of Orang Asli people and the knowledge of teachers towards STH infections. A school-based health education learning package (HELP) was developed which displayed a significant impact in terms of reducing the intensity of all three main STH infections, as well as in reducing the

  2. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L.; Torkington, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias. PMID:29670882

  3. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Observations: Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy. Conclusions and importance: Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control. Keywords: Congenital ectropion uvea, Juvenile glaucoma, Angle-closure glaucoma, Glaucoma drainage device

  4. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon L. Harries

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias.

  5. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  6. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Nurse-Led Supportive Care Package (SurvivorCare) for Survivors of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Michael; Gough, Karla; Drosdowsky, Allison; Russell, Lahiru; Aranda, Sanchia; Butow, Phyllis; Phipps-Nelson, Jo; Young, Jane; Krishnasamy, Mei; Ugalde, Anna; King, Dorothy; Strickland, Andrew; Franco, Michael; Blum, Robert; Johnson, Catherine; Ganju, Vinod; Shapiro, Jeremy; Chong, Geoffrey; Charlton, Julie; Haydon, Andrew; Schofield, Penelope

    2016-08-01

    colorectal cancer report distressing effects after completing treatment. Strategies to identify and respond to survivors' issues are needed. In a randomized controlled trial, the addition of a nurse-led supportive care package (SurvivorCare) to usual post-treatment care did not impact survivors' distress, quality of life, or unmet needs. However, patients receiving the SurvivorCare intervention were more satisfied with survivorship care. Factors for consideration in the design of subsequent studies are discussed. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  9. osDesign: An R Package for the Analysis, Evaluation, and Design of Two-Phase and Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Haneuse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-phase design has recently received attention in the statistical literature as an extension to the traditional case-control study for settings where a predictor of interest is rare or subject to missclassification. Despite a thorough methodological treatment and the potential for substantial efficiency gains, the two-phase design has not been widely adopted. This may be due, in part, to a lack of general-purpose, readily-available software. The osDesign package for R provides a suite of functions for analyzing data from a two-phase and/or case-control design, as well as evaluating operating characteristics, including bias, efficiency and power. The evaluation is simulation-based, permitting flexible application of the package to a broad range of scientific settings. Using lung cancer mortality data from Ohio, the package is illustrated with a detailed case-study in which two statistical goals are considered: (i the evaluation of small-sample operating characteristics for two-phase and case-control designs and (ii the planning and design of a future two-phase study.

  10. Rheological behaviors of edible casein-based packaging films under extreme environmental conditions, using humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin casein films for food packaging applications possess good strength and low oxygen permeability but low water-resistance and elasticity. Customizing the mechanical properties of the films to target specific behaviors depending on temperature and humidity changes would enable a variety of commerc...

  11. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-02-01

    CAU 127, Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, consists of twelve CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  13. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  14. RELAP-7 Closure Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansel, J. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, J. P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johns, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s and TRACE’s capabilities and extends their analysis capabilities for all reactor system simulation scenarios. The RELAP-7 code utilizes the well-posed 7-equation two-phase flow model for compressible two-phase flow. Closure models used in the TRACE code has been reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past decades and provide a basis for the colure correlations implemented in the RELAP-7 code. This document provides a summary on the closure correlations that are currently implemented in the RELAP-7 code. The closure correlations include sub-grid models that describe interactions between the fluids and the flow channel, and interactions between the two phases.

  15. Urethrovaginal fistula closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2017-01-01

    In the developed world, urethrovaginal fistulas are most the likely the result of iatrogenic injury. These fistulas are quite rare. Proper surgical repair requires careful dissection and tension-free closure. The objective of this video is to demonstrate the identification and surgical correction of an urethrovaginal fistula. The case presented is of a 59-year-old woman with a history of pelvic organ prolapse and symptomatic stress urinary incontinence who underwent vaginal hysterectomy, anterior colporrhaphy, posterior colporrhaphy, and synthetic sling placement. Postoperatively, she developed a mesh extrusion and underwent sling excision. After removal of her synthetic sling, she began to experience continuous urinary incontinence. Physical examination and cystourethroscopy demonstrated an urethrovaginal fistula at the midurethra. Options were discussed and the patient wished to undergo transvaginal fistula repair. The urethrovaginal fistula was intubated with a Foley catheter. The fistula tract was isolated and removed. The urethra was then closed with multiple tension-free layers. This video demonstrates several techniques for identifying and subsequently repairing an urethrovaginal fistula. Additionally, it demonstrates the importance of tension-free closure. Urethrovaginal fistulas are rare. They should be repaired with careful dissection and tension-free closure.

  16. 303-K Storage Facility: Report on FY98 closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample analysis performed in support of the closure of the 303-K Storage Facility. The evaluation is based on the validated data included in the data validation package (98-EAP-346) for the 303-K Storage Facility. The results of this evaluation will be used for assessing contamination for the purpose of closing the 303-K Storage Facility as described in the 303-K Storage Facility Closure Plan, DOE/RL-90-04. The closure strategy for the 303-K Storage Facility is to decontaminate the interior of the north half of the 303-K Building to remove known or suspected dangerous waste contamination, to sample the interior concrete and exterior soils for the constituents of concern, and then to perform data analysis, with an evaluation to determine if the closure activities and data meet the closure criteria. The closure criteria for the 303-K Storage Facility is that the concentrations of constituents of concern are not present above the cleanup levels. Based on the evaluation of the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample data, determination has been made that the soils at the 303-K Storage Facility meet the cleanup performance standards (WMH 1997) and can be clean closed. The evaluation determined that the 303-K Building cannot be clean closed without additional closure activities. An additional evaluation will be needed to determine the specific activities required to clean close the 303-K Storage Facility. The radiological contamination at the 303-K Storage Facility is not addressed by the closure strategy

  17. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer treatment. Application of proper space closure biomechanics strategies is necessary to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This cases report aimed to show the space closure biomechanics strategies that effectively control the overbite as well as posterior anchorage in deep overbite patients without increasing treatment time. Two patients who presented with class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with fixed orthodontic appliance. The primary strategies included extraction space closure on segmented arch that employed two-step space closure, namely single canine retraction simultaneously with incisors intrusion followed by enmasse retraction of four incisors by using differential moment concept. These strategies successfully closed the space, corrected deep overbite and controlled posterior anchorage simultaneously so that the treatment time was shortened. Biomechanics strategies that utilized were effective to achieve the desired treatment outcome.

  18. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  19. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  20. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  1. SHAPE analysis of the FIV Leader RNA reveals a structural switch potentially controlling viral packaging and genome dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C; Tanner, Sian J; Legiewicz, Michal; Phillip, Pretty S; Rizvi, Tahir A; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Lever, Andrew M L

    2011-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects many species of cat, and is related to HIV, causing a similar pathology. High-throughput selective 2' hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE), a technique that allows structural interrogation at each nucleotide, was used to map the secondary structure of the FIV packaging signal RNA. Previous studies of this RNA showed four conserved stem-loops, extensive long-range interactions (LRIs) and a small, palindromic stem-loop (SL5) within the gag open reading frame (ORF) that may act as a dimerization initiation site (DIS), enabling the virus to package two copies of its genome. Our analyses of wild-type (wt) and mutant RNAs suggest that although the four conserved stem-loops are static structures, the 5' and 3' regions previously shown to form LRI also adopt an alternative, yet similarly conserved conformation, in which the putative DIS is occluded, and which may thus favour translational and splicing functions over encapsidation. SHAPE and in vitro dimerization assays were used to examine SL5 mutants. Dimerization contacts appear to be made between palindromic loop sequences in SL5. As this stem-loop is located within the gag ORF, recognition of a dimeric RNA provides a possible mechanism for the specific packaging of genomic over spliced viral RNAs.

  2. Word Length Selection Method for Controller Implementation on FPGAs Using the VHDL-2008 Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urriza I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a word length selection method for the implementation of digital controllers in both fixed-point and floating-point hardware on FPGAs. This method uses the new types defined in the VHDL-2008 fixed-point and floating-point packages. These packages allow customizing the word length of fixed and floating point representations and shorten the design cycle simplifying the design of arithmetic operations. The method performs bit-true simulations in order to determine the word length to represent the constant coefficients and the internal signals of the digital controller while maintaining the control system specifications. A mixed-signal simulation tool is used to simulate the closed loop system as a whole in order to analyze the impact of the quantization effects and loop delays on the control system performance. The method is applied to implement a digital controller for a switching power converter. The digital circuit is implemented on an FPGA, and the simulations are experimentally verified.

  3. Nevada Test Site closure program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use

  4. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  5. Comparative assessment of alignment efficiency and space closure of active and passive self-ligating vs conventional appliances in adolescents: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songra, Goldie; Clover, Matthew; Atack, Nikki E; Ewings, Paul; Sherriff, Martyn; Sandy, Jonathan R; Ireland, Anthony J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to initial alignment and extraction space closure using conventional brackets and active and passive self-ligating brackets. One hundred adolescent patients 11 to 18 years of age undergoing maxillary and mandibular fixed appliance therapy after the extraction of 4 premolars were randomized with stratification of 2 age ranges (11-14 and 15-18 years) and 3 maxillomandibular plane angles (high, medium, and low) with an allocation ratio of 1:2:2. Restrictions were applied using a block size of 10. Allocation was to 1 of 3 treatment groups: conventional brackets, active self-ligating, or passive self-ligating brackets. All subjects were treated with the same archwire sequence and space-closing mechanics in a district general hospital setting. The trial was a 3-arm parallel design. Labial-segment alignment and space closure were measured on study models taken every 12 weeks throughout treatment. All measurements were made by 1 operator who was blinded to bracket type. The patients and other operators were not blinded to bracket type during treatment. Ninety-eight patients were followed to completion of treatment (conventional, n = 20; active self-ligating brackets, n = 37; passive self-ligating brackets, n = 41). The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and demonstrated a significant effect of bracket type on the time to initial alignment (P = 0.001), which was shorter with the conventional brackets than either of the self-ligating brackets. Sidak's adjustment showed no significant difference in effect size (the difference in average response in millimeters) between the active and passive self-ligating brackets (the results are presented as effect size, 95% confidence intervals, probabilities, and intraclass correlation coefficients) (-0.42 [-1.32, 0.48], 0.600, 0.15), but the conventional bracket was significantly different from both of these (-1.98 [-3.19, -0.76], 0.001, 0.15; and -1.56 [-2.79, -0.32], 0.001, 0

  6. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage; Les colis de dechets radioactifs stockes au centre de stockage FMA de l'Aube. Une stockage selectif et maitrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  7. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  8. MNC Subsidiary Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. We ask to what degree the foreign knowledge that they were exposed to is valued in their new job. We argue theoretically that this foreign knowledge is both valuable and not readily available in the host...... country but is also distant and therefore difficult to absorb. We predict an inverse u-shaped relationship between the exposure to foreign knowledge and the salary in the new job. We empirically support our predictions for a sample of almost 140,000 affected employees in Portugal from 2002 to 2009....

  9. Randomized clinical trial of intestinal ostomy takedown comparing pursestring wound closure vs conventional closure to eliminate the risk of wound infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Mauries, Daniel; Rodriguez-Díaz, José Luis; Salgado-Nesme, Noel; González, Quintín H; Vergara-Fernández, Omar

    2013-02-01

    The use of temporary stomas has been demonstrated to reduce septic complications, especially in high-risk anastomosis; therefore, it is necessary to reduce the number of complications secondary to ostomy takedowns, namely wound infection, anastomotic leaks, and intestinal obstruction. To compare the rates of superficial wound infection and patient satisfaction after pursestring closure of ostomy wound vs conventional linear closure. Patients undergoing colostomy or ileostomy closure between January 2010 and February 2011 were randomly assigned to linear closure (n = 30) or pursestring closure (n = 31) of their ostomy wound. Wound infection within 30 days of surgery was defined as the presence of purulent discharge, pain, erythema, warmth, or positive culture for bacteria. Patient satisfaction, healing time, difficulty managing the wound, and limitation of activities were analyzed with the Likert questionnaire. The infection rate for the control group was 36.6% (n = 11) vs 0% in the pursestring closure group (p ostomy wound closure (shorter healing time and improved patient satisfaction).

  10. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells

  11. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  12. Chernobyl: closure by 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions on the future of the Chernobyl nuclear plant between the Ukrainian government, the Group of Seven Industrial nations (GT) and the European Union (EU) are summarized. At the G7 meeting, a timetable for the closure of the entire station by 2000 was presented by Ukrainian officials. The timetable depends on financial commitments from Western governments. Without these, the project would take 10 to 15 years. Following this meeting, which took place on 16-17th May 1995. EU finance ministers authorized release of a ECU 85 million loan. On 23 May, the European Parliament's Committee on Research, Technology and Energy held a public hearing on the Chernobyl station. The primary topic was a feasibility study on the clean-up of Chernobyl 4 and plans for the sarcophagus. Other matters discussed included the effect of the delays and indecision in settling the plants's future. Safety improvements being made to other RBMKs were not being carried out at Chernobyl because of the expected closure. The replacement of the power now supplied to the Ukraine by the Chernobyl reactors is also an issue. The solution favoured by the Ukraine is to being on-line three VVER-1000s that are currently close to completion. Western governments find this solution difficult to accept, however. (UK)

  13. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  14. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  15. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  16. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  17. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  18. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  20. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-04

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of six different PFSs from three different manufacturers (including one polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate CCIT. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. DEVELOPING AND QUANTIFYING PARAMETERS FOR CLOSURE WELDING OVERPACKS CONTAINING RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL GR

    2007-01-01

    Fluor engineers developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrated requisite weld quality and successfully closure-welded packaged spent nuclear fuel (SNF) overpacks at the Hanford Site. This paper reviews weld development and qualification activities associated with the overpack closure-welding and provides a summary of the production campaign. The primary requirement of the closure weld is to provide leaktight confinement of the packaged material against release to the environment during interim storage (40-year design term). Required weld quality, in this case, was established through up-front development and qualification, and then verification of parameter compliance during production welding. This approach was implemented to allow for a simpler overpack design and more efficient production operations than possible with approaches using routine post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE). . A series of welding trials were conducted to establish the desired welding technique and parameters. Qualification of the process included statistical evaluation and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section IX testing. In addition, pull testing with a weighted mockup, and thermal calculation/physical testing to identify the maximum temperature the packaged contents would be subject to during welding, was performed. Thirteen overpacks were successfully packaged and placed into interim storage. The closure-welding development activities (including pull testing and thermal analysis) provided the needed confidence that the packaged SNF overpacks could be safely handled and placed into interim storage, and remain leaktight for the duration of the storage term

  2. Effectiveness of a training package for implementing a community-based occupational therapy program in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpp, Carola M E; Graff, Maud J L; Teerenstra, Steven; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of a training package to implement a community occupational therapy program for people with dementia and their caregiver (COTiD). Cluster randomized controlled trial. A total of 45 service units including 94 occupational therapists, 48 managers, 80 physicians, treating 71 client-caregiver couples. Control intervention: A postgraduate course for occupational therapists only. A training package including the usual postgraduate course, additional training days, outreach visits, regional meetings, and access to a reporting system for occupational therapists. Physicians and managers received newsletters, had access to a website, and were approached by telephone. The intended adherence of therapists to the COTiD program. This was assessed using vignettes. clients' daily functioning, caregivers' sense of competence, quality of life, and self-perceived performance of daily activities of both clients and caregivers. Between-group differences were assessed using multilevel analyses with therapist and intervention factors as covariates. No significant between-group differences between baseline and 12 months were found for adherence (1.58, 95% CI -0.10 to 3.25), nor for any client or caregiver outcome. A higher number of coaching sessions and higher self-perceived knowledge of dementia at baseline positively correlated with adherence scores. In contrast, experiencing more support from occupational therapy colleagues or having conducted more COTiD treatments at baseline negatively affected adherence scores. The training package was not effective in increasing therapist adherence and client-caregiver outcomes. This study suggests that coaching sessions and increasing therapist knowledge on dementia positively affect adherence. NCT01117285. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  4. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... NPRM, we proposed to remove the maximum net mass and water capacity limits from these definitions and... a water capacity greater than 454 kg (1,000 pounds) as a receptacle for a gas are bulk packagings.... Negative comments were generally focused on issues related to record retention of closure instructions...

  5. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  6. RepoSTAR. A Code package for control and evaluation of statistical calculations with the program package RepoTREND; RepoSTAR. Ein Codepaket zur Steuerung und Auswertung statistischer Rechenlaeufe mit dem Programmpaket RepoTREND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2016-05-15

    The program package RepoTREND for the integrated long terms safety analysis of final repositories allows besides deterministic studies of defined problems also statistical or probabilistic analyses. Probabilistic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are realized in the program package repoTREND by a specific statistic frame called RepoSTAR. The report covers the following issues: concept, sampling and data supply of single simulations, evaluation of statistical calculations with the program RepoSUN.

  7. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

  8. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  9. Anterior Segment Imaging Predicts Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Iyer, Jayant V; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; He, Yingke; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Liu, Dianna; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the incidence of gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years in subjects with gonioscopically open angles but varying degrees of angle closure detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT; Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) at baseline. Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-two subjects, mostly Chinese, 50 years of age or older, were recruited, of whom 65 were controls with open angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline, and 277 were cases with baseline open angles on gonioscopy but closed angles (1-4 quadrants) on AS OCT scans. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline (horizontal and vertical single scans) and after 4 years. The examiner performing gonioscopy was masked to the baseline and AS OCT data. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as nonvisibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork by gonioscopy and visible iridotrabecular contact beyond the scleral spur in AS OCT scans. Gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or 3 quadrants after 4 years. There were no statistically significant differences in age, ethnicity, or gender between cases and controls. None of the control subjects demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. Forty-eight of the 277 subjects (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8-23; P < 0.0001) with at least 1 quadrant of angle closure on AS OCT at baseline demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or more quadrants, whereas 28 subjects (10.1%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.6; P < 0.004) demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 3 or more quadrants after 4 years. Individuals with more quadrants of angle closure on baseline AS OCT scans had a greater likelihood of gonioscopic angle closure developing after 4 years (P < 0.0001, chi-square test for trend for both definitions of angle closure). Anterior segment OCT imaging at baseline predicts incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among subjects who have gonioscopically open angles and iridotrabecular contact on AS OCT at

  10. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  11. Closure report for N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule

  12. Closure report for N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  13. Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric imaging now achieves angular resolutions as fine as ∼10 μas, probing scales that are inaccessible to single telescopes. Traditional synthesis imaging methods require calibrated visibilities; however, interferometric calibration is challenging, especially at high frequencies. Nevertheless, most studies present only a single image of their data after a process of “self-calibration,” an iterative procedure where the initial image and calibration assumptions can significantly influence the final image. We present a method for efficient interferometric imaging directly using only closure amplitudes and closure phases, which are immune to station-based calibration errors. Closure-only imaging provides results that are as noncommittal as possible and allows for reconstructing an image independently from separate amplitude and phase self-calibration. While closure-only imaging eliminates some image information (e.g., the total image flux density and the image centroid), this information can be recovered through a small number of additional constraints. We demonstrate that closure-only imaging can produce high-fidelity results, even for sparse arrays such as the Event Horizon Telescope, and that the resulting images are independent of the level of systematic amplitude error. We apply closure imaging to VLBA and ALMA data and show that it is capable of matching or exceeding the performance of traditional self-calibration and CLEAN for these data sets.

  14. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  15. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  16. Autocracy bias in informal groups under need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo; Livi, Stefano; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2003-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the tendency of groups with members under high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure to develop an autocratic leadership structure in which some members dominate the discussion, constitute the "hubs" of communication, and influence the group more than other members. The first experiment found that high (vs. low) need for closure groups, as assessed via dispositional measure of the need for closure, manifested greater asymmetry of conversational floor control, such that members with autocratic interactional style were more conversationally dominant and influential than less autocratic members. The second experiment manipulated the need for closure via time pressure and utilized a social network analysis. Consistent with expectation, groups under time pressure (vs. no pressure) showed a greater asymmetry of participation, of centrality, and of prestige among the group members, such that the more focal members were perceived to exert the greater influence over the groups' decisions.

  17. Effectiveness of an annular closure device in a "real-world" population: stratification of registry data using screening criteria from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuršumović, Adisa; Rath, Stefan A

    2018-01-01

    Increased focus has been put on the use of "'real-world" data to support randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence for clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of an annular closure device (ACD) after stratifying a consecutive series of "real-world" patients by the screening criteria of an ongoing RCT. This was a single-center registry analysis of 164 subjects who underwent limited discectomy combined with ACD for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Patients were stratified into two groups using the selection criteria of a pivotal RCT on the same device: Trial (met inclusion; n=44) or non-Trial (did not meet inclusion; n=120). Patient-reported outcomes, including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) for leg and back pain, and adverse events were collected from baseline to last follow-up (mean: Trial - 15.6 months; non-Trial - 14.6 months). Statistical analyses were performed with significance set at p population. Stratification of this "real-world" series on the basis of RCT screening criteria did not result in significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the efficacy of the ACD extends beyond the strictly defined patient population being studied in the RCT of this device. Furthermore, reducing the reherniation rate following lumbar discectomy has positive clinical and economic implications.

  18. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  19. MCO closure welding process parameter development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key elements in the SNF process is final closure of the MCO by welding. Fuel is loaded into the MCO (approximately 2 ft. in diameter and 13 ft. long) and a heavy shield plug is inserted into the top, creating a mechanical seal. The plug contains several process ports for various operations, including vacuum drying and inert-gas backfilling of the packaged fuel. When fully processed, the Canister Cover Assembly (CCA) is placed over the shield plug and final closure made by welding. The following reports the effort between the Amer Industrial Technology (AIT) and Fluor Hanford (FH) to develop and qualify the welding process for making the final closure--with primary emphasis on developing a set of robust parameters for deposition of the root pass. Work was carried out in three phases: (1) Initial welding process and equipment selection with subsequent field demonstration testing; (2) Development and qualification of a specific process technique and parameters; and (3) Validation of the process and parameters at the CSB under mock production conditions. This work establishes the process technique and parameters that provide a high level of confidence that acceptable MCO closure welds will be made on a consistent and repeatable basis

  20. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  1. The use of dual material seals for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Nichols, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of dual material seals, metal and elastomeric for a transportation package, provides a viable option for packages requiring high temperature seal capability. Allowing the seal area to go to higher temperatures then allowed for all elastomeric seal reduce the necessity of providing thermal protection during a postulated accident condition fire. It also increases the options for impact limiting features that do not also mitigate the affects of accident thermal events. Typically, high temperature seals require the use of metal O-rings. Only one seal (typically identified as the containment seal) needs to survive the hypothetical accident conditions, including the high temperatures that may occur during the prescribed hypothetical thermal event. However, to expedite the assembly leakage rate testing of radioactive material packages, a dual O-ring seal arrangement is often used to allow creation of a relatively small volume test cavity between the seals. For any package that is being used on a frequent basis, the total cost of seals can be significantly reduced by using an elastomeric seal as the secondary seal. The elastomeric seal is not the containment boundary seal and does not need to survive the high temperature condition. To get the dual material O-ring seals to seat properly, a different approach has to be taken than with closure of a radioactive material package that does not use metallic O-ring(s). A metal O-ring requires an application of a seating force while the elastomeric package requires a certain percentage of deformation. This is further complicated when the seating force is developed using a multi-bolt closure. Because of the nature of multi-bolt closures, elastic interaction prevents the equal application of force. This paper develops the methods involved in properly closing and establishing containment when using dual material seals with a multi-bolt closure. These methods were demonstrated in two production casks requiring testing leak

  2. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  3. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  4. Study protocol: Improving patient choice in treating low back pain (IMPACT - LBP: A randomised controlled trial of a decision support package for use in physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysall Colin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common and costly condition. There are several treatment options for people suffering from back pain, but there are few data on how to improve patients' treatment choices. This study will test the effects of a decision support package (DSP, designed to help patients seeking care for back pain to make better, more informed choices about their treatment within a physiotherapy department. The package will be designed to assist both therapist and patient. Methods/Design Firstly, in collaboration with physiotherapists, patients and experts in the field of decision support and decision aids, we will develop the DSP. The work will include: a literature and evidence review; secondary analysis of existing qualitative data; exploration of patients' perspectives through focus groups and exploration of experts' perspectives using a nominal group technique and a Delphi study. Secondly, we will carry out a pilot single centre randomised controlled trial within NHS Coventry Community Physiotherapy. We will randomise physiotherapists to receive either training for the DSP or not. We will randomly allocate patients seeking treatment for non specific low back pain to either a physiotherapist trained in decision support or to receive usual care. Our primary outcome measure will be patient satisfaction with treatment at three month follow-up. We will also estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and assess the value of conducting further research. Discussion Informed shared decision-making should be an important part of any clinical consultation, particularly when there are several treatments, which potentially have moderate effects. The results of this pilot will help us determine the benefits of improving the decision-making process in clinical practice on patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46035546

  5. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  6. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  7. The effect of educational package on functional status and maternal self-confidence of primiparous women in postpartum period: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinia, Marzieh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a training package on functional status and self-confidence of primiparous women in the postpartum period. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 136 primiparous women who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for their second postpartum care (10-15 days after delivery). These women were randomly assigned to education (n= 68) and control (n = 68) groups. The education group was provided with a face-to-face training session, three phone sessions, and a booklet. The control group received the routine postpartum care on days 1-3, 10-15 and 42-60. Participants completed the functional status and maternal self-confidence questionnaires before the interventio n and eight weeks postpartum. Independent t, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, except for infant's gender (p > .05). At six weeks after the intervention and by adjusting for baseline scores and infant's sex, mean scores of functional status (adjusted mean difference: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.03, p education group than in the control group. This study showed that training women has a positive effect in increasing their self-confidence and improving their functional status.

  8. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  9. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  10. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  11. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  12. Influence of packaging materials on Kashkaval quality

    OpenAIRE

    Talevski, Goce; Srbinovska, Sonja; Santa, Dushica; Mateva, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the influence of 4 different packaging materials (A - the control, B - polymer emulsion, C - wax and D - polymer foil) on the quality of Kashkaval cheese. The lowest pH value had the sample protected by wax, which is most probably related to the retention of the formed organic acids and gases from the packaging material. A significant influence of the tested packaging materials (p

  13. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  16. Safety analysis report: packages. DOT specification 7A - Type A container Mark 15 sludge shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeh, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Sludge or filter cake containing 1.1 wt % 235 U enriched uranium from Mark 15 fabrication will be packaged in 55-gallon containers and shipped from SRP to NLO, Fernald, Ohio for recovery of product. About 7 Metric Tons (MT) of filter cake will be produced from fabricating Mark 15 slugs each reactor charge. Packaged shipments of this material, consigned as exclusive use, will be shipped to NLO in Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A - Type A packages under a DOE Certificate of Compliance for Fissile Class III shipments. ''Type A packaging'' is designed to retain containment and shielding integrity under normal conditions of transport. This report documents compliance of the package design, construction methods, material and test performance with DOT Specification 7A. This DOT 7A Type A package contains a carbon steel outer container which is a 0.060-in.-thick 55-gal, galvanized drum equipped with a gasketed closure. The outer container encloses a 0.090-in.-thick, open head, polyethylene liner with lid

  17. Economic and financial aspects of mine closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, James R.; Franceschi, Dina; Curi, Adilson; Vale, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Today, mine reclamation is a key component to a successful mine plan. Most of the industrialized nations have recognized the need to make mining activities relatively environmentally friendly, if they want to continue to benefit from the economic gains from mineral resource development. Countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and South Africa are leaders in the field and have implemented relatively sophisticated legislation to ensure environmentally correct mine closure. These countries rely on a combination of strict control strategies and economic penalties to ensure compliance. Yet, from the firm's perspective, reclamation activities are counterproductive as they cut into properties. In order to attract economic development and earn much needed economic capital, most of the rest of the world, particularly the developing countries, lack effective mine closure legislation. The traditional command and control type of legislation that is sometimes used is either vague and therefore avoided, or not enforced appropriately, resulting in an undesirable level of environmental degradation. With the use of case studies from Brazil, this article shows that direct controls are effective in some instances and not in others. It proposes that economic and financial tools may be more effective than the traditional direct controls in getting firms to comply with environmental standards, particularly in developing countries where environmental compliance is more difficult to achieve. It explains the use of performance bonding as one type of economic incentive that has proven to be an effective environmental policy in mine planning and closure. The authors additionally push beyond the typical style of performance bonds to introduce a flexible bonding and insurance system that allows governments to maintain strict environmental standards but limits firms financial exposure during the mining process. Such a system learns from the successes of the industrialized

  18. A pilot randomised controlled trial to assess the utility of an e-learning package that trains users in adverse drug reaction causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth J; Kirkham, Jamie J; Bellis, Jennifer R; Peak, Matthew; Smyth, Rosalind L; Williamson, Paula R; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-12-01

    Causality assessment of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by healthcare professionals is often informal which can lead to inconsistencies in practice. The Liverpool Causality Assessment Tool (LCAT) offers a systematic approach. An interactive, web-based, e-learning package, the Liverpool ADR Causality Assessment e-learning Package (LACAeP), was designed to improve causality assessment using the LCAT. This study aimed to (1) get feedback on usability and usefulness on the LACAeP, identify areas for improvement and development, and generate data on effect size to inform a larger scale study; and (2) test the usability and usefulness of the LCAT. A pilot, single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial hosted by the University of Liverpool was undertaken. Participants were paediatric medical trainees at specialty training level 1+ within the Mersey and North-West England Deaneries. Participants were randomised (1 : 1) access to the LACAeP or no training. The primary efficacy outcome was score by correct classification, predefined by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Following participation, feedback on both the LCAT and the LACAeP was obtained, via a built in survey, from participants. Of 57 randomised, 35 completed the study. Feedback was mainly positive although areas for improvement were identified. Seventy-four per cent of participants found the LCAT easy to use and 78% found the LACAeP training useful. Sixty-one per cent would be unlikely to recommend the training. Scores ranged from 4 to 13 out of 20. The LACAeP increased scores by 1.3, but this was not significant. Improving the LACAeP before testing it in an appropriately powered trial, informed by the differences observed, is required. Rigorous evaluation will enable a quality resource that will be of value in healthcare professional training. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) to evaluate the impact and operational assessment of "safe motherhood and newborn health promotion package": study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Billah, Sk Masum; Bari, Sanwarul; Tahsina, Tazeen; Hasan, Mohammad Mehedi; Islam, Sajia; Islam, Tajul; Mori, Rintaro; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-05-03

    Despite considerable progress in reduction of both under-five and maternal mortality in recent decades, Bangladesh is still one of the low and middle income countries with high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality. The primary objective of the current study is to measure the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions on maternal and neonatal mortality. In addition, changes in coverage, quality and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, social capital, and cost effectiveness of the interventions will be measured. A community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial design will be adopted and implemented in 30 unions of three sub-districts of Chandpur district of Bangladesh. Every union, the lowest administrative unit of the local government with population of around 20,000-30,000, will be considered a cluster. Based on the baseline estimates, 15 clusters will be paired for random assignment as intervention and comparison clusters. The primary outcome measure is neonatal mortality, and secondary outcomes are coverage of key interventions like ANC, PNC, facility and skilled provider delivery. Baseline, midterm and endline household survey will be conducted to assess the key coverage of interventions. Health facility assessment surveys will be conducted periodically to assess facility readiness and utilization of MNH services in the participating health facilities. The current study is expected to provide essential strong evidences on the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions to the Bangladesh government, and other developmental partners. The study results may help in prioritizing, planning, and scaling-up of Safe Motherhood Promotional interventions in other geographical areas of Bangladesh as well as to inform other developing countries of similar settings. NCT03032276 .

  20. The open abdomen and temporary abdominal closure systems--historical evolution and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyn, A J; Johnston, C; Hall, D; Chambers, A; Arapova, N; Ogston, S; Amin, A I

    2012-08-01

    Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. We systematically review the literature on temporary abdominal closure to ascertain whether the method can be tailored to the indication. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant meeting abstracts until December 2009 were searched using the following headings: open abdomen, laparostomy, VAC (vacuum assisted closure), TNP (topical negative pressure), fascial closure, temporary abdominal closure, fascial dehiscence and deep wound dehiscence. The data were analysed by closure technique and aetiology. The primary end-points included delayed fascial closure and in-hospital mortality. The secondary end-points were intra-abdominal complications. The search identified 106 papers for inclusion. The techniques described were VAC (38 series), mesh/sheet (30 series), packing (15 series), Wittmann patch (eight series), Bogotá bag (six series), dynamic retention sutures (three series), zipper (15 series), skin only and locking device (one series each). The highest facial closure rates were seen with the Wittmann patch (78%), dynamic retention sutures (71%) and VAC (61%). Temporary abdominal closure has evolved from simple packing to VAC based systems. In the absence of sepsis Wittmann patch and VAC offered the best outcome. In its presence VAC had the highest delayed primary closure and the lowest mortality rates. However, due to data heterogeneity only limited conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  3. Perspectives on essential oil-loaded nano-delivery packaging technology for controlling stored cereal and grain pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests and food-borne fungi and their associated toxic metabolites cause significant losses in stored food products. Plant-derived essential oils (EOs) can control the growth and proliferation of insect and fungal pests. Plant EOs are environmentally friendly and non-toxic, and their applicati...

  4. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  5. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  6. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  7. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  8. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  9. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  10. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, James; Senger, R.; Leem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) is categorized into eleven different spent fuel groups. Group 7, is predominantly uranium metal spent fuel from N Reactor that could oxidize rapidly in the presence of air when a waste package is breached. Such rapid oxidation constitutes a pyrophoric event. The consequences of a post closure pyrophoric event were evaluated in terms of its potential to damage adjacent waste packages and consequences of it in terms of long-term dose to humans. This work was conducted as part of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of DOE spent fuel for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. These analyses were performed in support of the site recommendation for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  11. Self-testing security sensor for monitoring closure of vault doors and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawthorne, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    A self-testing device is provided for a monitoring system for monitoring whether a closure member such as a door or window is closed. The monitoring system includes a switch unit mounted on the frame of the closure member being monitored and including magnetically biased switches connected in one or more electrical monitoring circuits, and a door magnet unit mounted on the closure member being monitored. The door magnet includes one or more permanent magnets that produce a magnetic field which, when the closure member is closed, cause said switches to assume a first state. When the closure member is opened, the switches switch to a second, alarm state. The self-testing device is electrically controllable from a remote location and produces a canceling or diverting magnetic field which simulates the effect of movement of the closure member from the closed position thereof without any actual movement of the member. 5 figs

  12. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... and post-closure care objectives of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Type and amount of hazardous..., including amount, frequency, and pH of precipitation; (5) Geological and soil profiles and surface and...

  13. CAPL: an efficient association software package using family and case-control data and accounting for population stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Schmidt, Michael A; Martin, Eden R

    2011-05-25

    With many genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets available, it is critical that we have statistical tools that are both flexible to accommodate different study designs and fast. We recently proposed the combined APL (CAPL) method, which can use family and case-control datasets and can account for population stratification in the data. Because computationally intensive algorithms are used in CAPL, implementing CAPL with efficient parallel algorithms is essential. We used a hybrid of open message passing interface (open MPI) and POSIX threads to parallelize CAPL, which enable the program to operate in a cluster environment. We used simulations to demonstrate that the parallel implementation of CAPL can analyze a large GWAS dataset in a reasonable time frame when a parallel computing resource is available. As many GWAS datasets based on both family and case-control designs are available, a flexible and efficient tool such as CAPL will be very helpful to combine the datasets to greatly increase statistical power and finish the analysis in a reasonable time frame.

  14. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management. PMID:26083862

  15. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  16. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 50 CFR 648.161 - Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Bluefish Fishery § 648.161 Closures. (a) EEZ closure. NMFS shall close the EEZ to fishing for bluefish by... dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing bluefish in that state. ...

  18. Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P

    2006-01-01

    ..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...

  19. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  20. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  1. 304 Concretion facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets in the 304 Concretion Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility). Clean closure of the 304 Facility is the proposed method for closure of the facility. Justification for this proposal is presented. 15 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Telephone switchboard closure | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 4 p.m. on Friday, 19 December, instead of the usual time of 6 p.m., to allow time for closing all systems properly before the annual closure. Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will stop. All other phone services will run as usual.

  3. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  4. Nuclear waste package design for the Vadose zone in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Gregg, D.W.; Russell, E.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package designs that will be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada Site. The design requirements that the waste packages are required to meet are listed. Concept drawings for the reference designs and one alternative package design are shown. Four metal alloys; 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and economic analysis supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Post-closure containment and release rates are not discussed in this paper. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Moya, J.L.; McClure, J.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Golliher, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    A new package was developed for transporting Pu and U quantities that are currently carried in DOT-6M packages. It uses double containment with threaded closures and elastomeric seals. A composite overpack of metallic wire mesh and ceramic or quartz cloth insulation is provided for protection in accidents. Two prototypes were subjected to dynamic crush tests. A thermal computer model was developed and benchmarked by test results to predict package behavior in fires. The material performed isotropically in a global fashion. A Type B Pu transport package can be developed for DOE Pu shipments for less than $5000 if manufactured in quantity. 5 figs, 6 refs

  6. Understanding the Risk Factors of Trauma Center Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Hsia, Renee Y.; Kuzma, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We analyze whether hazard rates of shutting down trauma centers are higher due to financial pressures or in areas with vulnerable populations (such as minorities or the poor). Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study of all hospitals with trauma center services in urban areas in the continental US between 1990 and 2005, identified from the American Hospital Association Annual Surveys. These data were linked with Medicare cost reports, and supplemented with other sources, including the Area Resource File. We analyze the hazard rates of trauma center closures among several dimensions of risk factors using discrete-time proportional hazard models. Results The number of trauma center closures increased from 1990 to 2005, with a total of 339 during this period. The hazard rate of closing trauma centers in hospitals with a negative profit margin is 1.38 times higher than those hospitals without the negative profit margin (P lower hazard of shutting down trauma centers (ratio: 0.58, P penetration face a higher hazard of trauma center closure (ratio: 2.06, P < 0.01). Finally, hospitals in areas with higher shares of minorities face a higher risk of trauma center closure (ratio: 1.69, P < 0.01). Medicaid load and uninsured populations, however, are not risk factors for higher rates of closure after we control for other financial and community characteristics. Conclusions Our findings give an indication on how the current proposals to cut public spending could exacerbate the trauma closure particularly among areas with high shares of minorities. In addition, given the negative effect of health maintenance organizations on trauma center survival, the growth of Medicaid managed care population should be monitored. Finally, high shares of Medicaid or uninsurance by themselves are not independent risk factors for higher closure as long as financial pressures are mitigated. Targeted policy interventions and further research on the causes, are needed to

  7. Association of iris crypts with acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Chua, Jacqueline; Shi, Yuan; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Lee, Ryan; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relationship between iris surface features and acute primary angle closure (APAC) in eyes with angle closure. Case-control study involving Asian patients diagnosed with previous APAC, primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) at an eye centre in Singapore between August 2012 and January 2015. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination and digital slit-lamp iris photography. Iris surface features were graded based on crypts, furrows and colour. Fellow eyes of APAC were compared with PACS and PAC/PACG eyes with regard to their iris surface features. Occurrence of APAC. A total of 309 patients (71 APAC, 139 PACS, 47 PAC and 52 PACG) were included (mean age: 67.7±7.2 years and 36.6% male). Compared with PACS, higher crypt grade was significantly associated with lower odds of APAC (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.027, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and pupil diameter). The results remained similar when compared with PAC/PACG group (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.043). We did not observe any significant associations between iris furrows or colour with presence of APAC. Our study comprising Asian eyes with angle closure suggests that the presence of a higher crypt grading may be protective for APAC. As such, assessing iris surface architecture for crypts could be a new measure for risk stratification of developing APAC in eyes with angle closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. 75 FR 29322 - Base Closure and Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Base Closure and Realignment AGENCY: Office of...)(ii) of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990. It provides a partial list of military installations closing or realigning pursuant to the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC) Report. It also...

  9. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  10. Application of Humidity-Controlled Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA-RH to Moisture-Sensitive Edible Casein Films for Use in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio during isohume temperature (T ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities; the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5–40 °C and 20%–61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions.

  11. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  12. Water hammer and column separation due to accidental simultaneous closure of control valves in a large scale two-phase flow experimental test rig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Westende, van 't J.M.C.; Koppel, T.; Gale, J.; Hou, Q.; Pandula, Z.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale pipeline test rig at Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands has been used for filling and emptying experiments. Tests have been conducted in a horizontal 250 mm diameter PVC pipe of 258 m length with control valves at the downstream and upstream ends. This paper investigates the accidental

  13. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  14. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  15. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  16. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  17. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  18. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  19. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Continuous Post-Closure Ventilation Design- Open Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; P.K. Mast; R. Howard; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by the open loop option of the post-closure ventilation design and, (2) post-processing of these results into tables of waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems version 5.19.0 1 (RIP) computer program (Golder Associates 1998). Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA), with the exception that the open loop option of the post-closure ventilation License Application Design Selection (LADS) Design Alternative (Design Alternative 3b) was analyzed. The open loop post-closure ventilation design alternative, under which airways to the surface remain open after repository closure, could result in substantial cooling and drying of the potential repository. In open loop post-closure ventilation, expanded air heated by waste decay would move up an exhaust shaft, pulling denser, cooler air into the repository through intake shafts. The exchange of air with the atmosphere could remove more heat and moisture. As a result of the enhanced ventilation relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently different waste package failure histories (as calculated by WAPDEG) result

  20. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  1. The structure of a factory closure: individual responses to job-loss and unemployment in a 10-year controlled follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, S

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study has been conducted of 85 employees (72 women and 13 men) made redundant when a brisling sardine factory on the west coast of Norway was shut down in 1975. 87 employees (66 women and 21 men) in a 'sister factory' which was not shut down, were used as controls. Previous analyses have shown a substantial reduction in future employment of the study group, a two-fold increase in time consumed on sick leave during the first follow-up year, and a more than three-fold increase in the life-table based rates of disability pensions (invalidity) during the first four follow-up years compared to the controls. In this paper the follow-up data regarding six mutually exclusive and inclusive conditions related to employment and health have been analysed on a weeks per person per year basis, permitting the effects of job-loss over 10 years to be compared with what could have been expected had the factory not been closed. For those not subjected to old age pension or death, three kinds of long-term adaptation showed a marked differential effect among study subjects and controls: a substantial long-term reduction in mean time spent in job, an increase in consumption of time on disability pension, and an increase in time spent outside the labour force without social security coverage, the latter being mostly confined to women. These follow-up data provide a comprehensive picture of individual long-term adaptation to involuntary job-loss, emphasizing its effects on future employment, health, social readjustment and social security benefit consumption.

  2. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  3. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  4. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  5. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  6. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  7. Procedural method for the development of scenarios in the operational phase following closure of final repositories in deep geological formations. Report on the working package 1. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases; Vorgehensweise bei der Szenarienentwicklung in der Nachverschlussphase von Endlagern in tiefen geologieschen Formationen. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 1. Weiterentwicklung des internationalen Stands von Wissenschaft und Technik zu Methoden und Werkzeugen fuer Betriebs- und Langzeitsicherheitsnachweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, Stephan

    2016-09-15

    For the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes the disposal in deep geological formations is internationally favored. The safety cases include the scientific, technical, administrative and operational safety analyses and arguments, including the management system. According to IAEA the safety case includes site qualification, the design of the facility, construction and operation including an accident analysis, the closure phase and the post-closure phase. The safety case includes the evaluation of radiological risks for several scenarios. The report covers the methodology of scenario assumption in the post-closure phase of repositories in deep geological formations.

  8. 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon allo , uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gal containers) in the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility), located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040 (Ecology 1991). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The strategy for closure of the 304 Facility is presented in Section 6.0

  9. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  10. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  11. Information report issued in application of the article 146 of the Regulation by the Commission for finances, general economy and budget control about the cost of the early closure of nuclear reactors: the example of Fessenheim - Nr 2233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goua, Marc; Mariton, Herve

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report discusses the early closures of nuclear power stations for matters of energy policy. It comments how the reduction of the nuclear share in the electric mix would lead to the early closure of about twenty reactors, i.e. two reactors a year. It also notices that the future of the nuclear stock could better be an extension of its exploitation beyond 40 and even 50 years. The authors discuss the fact that the bill project on energy transition for a green growth modifies the legal framework for the closure of a nuclear plant. They state that no technical reason leads to the choice of the Fessenheim site for a closure: it significantly contributes to the de-carbonated electricity production, its age has only a symbolic meaning as it never has been so safe, the ASN authorized the operation of two reactors for ten additional years, and the investments prescribed by the ASN and achieved by the operator guarantee the highest level of safety. The second part of this report addresses and discusses the various issues associated with the costs of an early closure of a nuclear plant: cost for the community, impact on jobs, and loss of earnings for the operator which will result in compensation paid by the State

  12. Evaluating a nurse-led survivorship care package (SurvivorCare) for bowel cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Michael; Aranda, Sanchia; Gough, Karla; Lotfi-Jam, Kerryann; Butow, Phyllis; Krishnasamy, Mei; Young, Jane; Phipps-Nelson, Jo; Russell, Lahiru; King, Dorothy; Schofield, Penelope

    2013-08-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer affecting both men and women in Australia. The illness and related treatments can cause distressing adverse effects, impact on emotional and psychological well-being, and adversely affect social, occupational and relationship functioning for many years after the end of treatment or, in fact, lifelong. Current models of follow-up fail to address the complex needs arising after treatment completion. Strategies to better prepare and support survivors are urgently required. We previously developed a nurse-led supportive care program (SurvivorCare) and tested it in a pilot study involving 10 CRC survivors. The intervention was found to be highly acceptable, appropriate, relevant and useful. This study is a multisite, randomised controlled trial, designed to assess the impact of the addition of the SurvivorCare intervention to usual post-treatment care, for people with potentially cured CRC. SurvivorCare comprises the provision of survivorship educational materials, a tailored survivorship care plan, an individually tailored nurse-led, face-to-face end of treatment consultation and three subsequent telephone calls. Eligible patients have completed treatment for potentially cured CRC. Other eligibility criteria include stage I to III disease, age greater than 18 years and adequate understanding of English. All consenting patients complete questionnaires at three time points over a six-month period (baseline, two and six months). Measures assess psychological distress, unmet needs and quality of life. This supportive care package has the potential to significantly reduce individual suffering, whilst reducing the burden of follow-up on acute cancer services through enhanced engagement with and utilisation of general practitioners and community based services. If the intervention is successful in achieving the expected health benefits, it could be disseminated readily. All training and supporting materials have been developed

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  14. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  18. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  19. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  20. Innovative Approaches to Large Component Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, A.; Hooper, M.; Posivak, E.; Sullivan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal often times requires creative approaches in packaging design, especially for large components. Innovative design techniques are required to meet the needs for handling, transporting, and disposing of these large packages. Large components (i.e., Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) heads and even RPVs themselves) require special packaging for shielding and contamination control, as well as for transport and disposal. WMG Inc designed and used standard packaging for RPV heads without control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) attached for five RPV heads and has also more recently met an even bigger challenge and developed the innovative Intact Vessel Head Transport System (IVHTS) for RPV heads with CRDMs intact. This packaging system has been given a manufacturer's exemption by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) for packaging RPV heads. The IVHTS packaging has now been successfully used at two commercial nuclear power plants. Another example of innovative packaging is the large component packaging that WMG designed, fabricated, and utilized at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In 2002, West Valley's high-level waste vitrification process was shut down in preparation for D and D of the West Valley Vitrification Facility. Three of the major components of concern within the Vitrification Facility were the Melter, the Concentrate Feed Makeup Tank (CFMT), and the Melter Feed Holdup Tank (MFHT). The removal, packaging, and disposition of these three components presented significant radiological and handling challenges for the project. WMG designed, fabricated, and installed special packaging for the transport and disposal of each of these three components, which eliminated an otherwise time intensive and costly segmentation process that WVDP was considering. Finally, WMG has also designed and fabricated special packaging for both the Connecticut Yankee (CY) and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) RPVs. This paper

  1. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Continuous Pre-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the creation of .tables for input into Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) from Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables (representing waste package corrosion degradation over time) for the License Application Design Selection (LADS) analysis of the effects of continuous pre-closure ventilation. Ventilation during the operational phase of the repository could remove considerable water from the system, as well as reduce temperatures. Pre-closure ventilation is LADS Design Feature 7

  2. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  3. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  4. DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berusch, A.; Gause, E.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 10 5 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

  5. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters sprayed with lactic acid alone or in combination with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Sofos, John N

    2008-04-01

    U.S. regulations require that processors employ lethal or inhibitory antimicrobial alternatives in production of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products that support growth of Listeria monocytogenes and may be exposed to the processing environment after a lethality treatment. In this study, lactic acid (LA; 5%, vol/vol) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS; 0.5%, wt/vol) were evaluated individually or as a mixture (LASLS) for control of L. monocytogenes on frankfurters. Frankfurters were inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes, sprayed for 10 s (20 bar, 23 +/- 2 degrees C) with antimicrobials or distilled water (DW) before (LASLS or DW) or after (LA, SLS, LASLS, or DW) inoculation (4.8 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm2), vacuum packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C for 90 days. Samples were analyzed for numbers of the pathogen (on PALCAM agar) and for total microbial counts (on tryptic soy agar with yeast extract) during storage. Spraying with DW, LA, or SLS after inoculation reduced numbers of L. monocytogenes by 1.3 +/- 0.2, 1.8 +/- 0.5, and 2.0 +/- 0.4 log CFU/cm2, respectively. The LASLS mixture applied before or after inoculation reduced pathogen populations by 1.8 +/- 0.4 and 2.8 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm2, respectively. No further reduction by any treatment was observed during storage. The bacterial growth curves (fitted by the model of Baranyi and Roberts) indicated that the lag-phase duration of the bacterium on control samples (13.85 to 15.18 days) was extended by spraying with all solutions containing LA. For example, LA suppressed growth of L. monocytogenes for 39.14 to 41.01 days. Pathogen growth rates also were lower on frankfurters sprayed after inoculation with LA or LASLS compared to those sprayed with DW. Therefore, spraying frankfurters with a mixture of LA and SLS may be a useful antilisterial alternative treatment for ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  6. The effects of school closures on influenza outbreaks and pandemics: systematic review of simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Charlotte; Mangtani, Punam; Hawker, Jeremy; Olowokure, Babatunde; Vynnycky, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    School closure is a potential intervention during an influenza pandemic and has been investigated in many modelling studies. To systematically review the effects of school closure on influenza outbreaks as predicted by simulation studies. We searched Medline and Embase for relevant modelling studies published by the end of October 2012, and handsearched key journals. We summarised the predicted effects of school closure on the peak and cumulative attack rates and the duration of the epidemic. We investigated how these predictions depended on the basic reproduction number, the timing and duration of closure and the assumed effects of school closures on contact patterns. School closures were usually predicted to be most effective if they caused large reductions in contact, if transmissibility was low (e.g. a basic reproduction number 90% reductions or even increases under certain assumptions). This partly reflected differences in model assumptions, such as those regarding population contact patterns. Simulation studies suggest that school closure can be a useful control measure during an influenza pandemic, particularly for reducing peak demand on health services. However, it is difficult to accurately quantify the likely benefits. Further studies of the effects of reactive school closures on contact patterns are needed to improve the accuracy of model predictions.

  7. 2727-S Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility clean closure evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the analytical results of 2727-S NRDWS facility closure verification soil sampling and compares these results to clean closure criteria. The results of this comparison will determine if clean closure of the unit is regulatorily achievable. This report also serves to notify regulators that concentrations of some analytes at the site exceed sitewide background threshold levels (DOE-RL 1993b) and/or the limits of quantitation (LOQ). This report also presents a Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup (MTCA) (WAC 173-340) regulation health-based closure standard under which the unit can clean close in lieu of closure to background levels or LOQ in accordance with WAC 173-303-610. The health-based clean closure standard will be closure to MTCA Method B residential cleanup levels. This report reconciles all analyte concentrations reported above background or LOQ to this health-based cleanup standard. Regulator acceptance of the findings presented in this report will qualify the TSD unit for clean closure in accordance with WAC 173-303-610 without further TSD unit soil sampling, or soil removal and/or decontamination. Nondetected analytes require no further evaluation

  8. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  9. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  10. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  11. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Closure Welding Process Parameter Development and Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) top priorities at the Hanford Site (southeastern Washington state), is the processing of more than 2,000 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) into large stainless steel containers called Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO). Packaging into MCO's will assist in the safe and economic disposition of SNF and greatly reduce risk to the environment. Packaged fuel will be removed from close proximity to the Columbia River to a more suitable area of the site where it will be stored on an interim basis. Eventually, the fuel will be transferred to the federal geologic repository for long-term storage. One of the key elements in the SNF process is final closure of the MCO by welding. Fuel is loaded into the MCO (approximately 2 ft. in diameter and 13 ft. long) and a heavy shield plug inserted into the top, creating a mechanical seal. The plug contains several process ports for various operations, including vacuum drying and inert-gas backfilling of the packaged fuel. When fully processed, the Canister Cover Assembly (CCA) is placed over the shield plug and final closure made by welding. The following describes the effort to develop and qualify the root-pass technique associated with the MCO final closure weld

  12. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  13. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 1. Method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mats; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    In Part 1 of this three-part research series, a leak test performed using high-voltage leak detection (HVLD) technology, also referred to as an electrical conductivity and capacitance leak test, was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution for injection. The sterile parenteral product is the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®, by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark). The aseptically filled and sealed package is designed to preserve product sterility through expiry. Method development and validation work incorporated positive control packages with a single hole laser-drilled through the laminate film of each bag. A unique HVLD method characterized by specific high-voltage and potentiometer set points was established for testing bags positioned in each of three possible orientations as they are conveyed through the instrument's test zone in each of two possible directions-resulting in a total of six different test method options. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the ability of all six methods to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes from 2.5-11.2 μm in nominal diameter. Part 2 of this series will further explore HVLD test results as a function of package seal and product storage variables. The final Part 3 will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product physico-chemical stability. In this Part 1 of a three-part research series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, called high voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with an insulin pharmaceutical solution for human injection by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsværd, Denmark). To perform the test, the package is electrically grounded while being conveyed past an electrode linked to a high-voltage, low-amperage transformer. The instrument measures the current that passes

  14. Application of humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) to moisture-sensitive edible casein films for use in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to appli...

  15. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  16. Occupational closure in nursing work reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traynor, Michael; Nissen, Nina; Lincoln, Carol

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, occupational groups have adopted tactics to maintain autonomy and control over their areas of work. Witz described a credentialist approach to occupational closure adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the recent advancement...... boundaries and a usurpatory stance towards these boundaries. Participants had usually been handpicked by managers and some were ambitious and confident in their abilities. Many aspired to train to be nurses claiming that they will gain recognition that they do not currently get but which they deserve....... Their scope of practice is based upon their managers' or supervisors' perception of their individual aptitude rather than on a credentialist claim. They 'usurp' nurses claim to be the healthcare worker with privileged access to patients, saying they have taken over what nursing has considered its core work...

  17. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout

  18. Joint Cross-Service Group for Laboratories 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Donald

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that discusses the Joint Cross-Service Group implementation of the internal control plan developed by the 1995 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Steering Group (the Steering Group...

  19. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  20. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  1. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  2. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  3. Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages

  4. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  5. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  7. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  8. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  9. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  10. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  11. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  12. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-01-01

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted

  13. Comparison of different moment-closure approximations for stochastic chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnoerr, David [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Sanguinetti, Guido [School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grima, Ramon [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-14

    In recent years, moment-closure approximations (MAs) of the chemical master equation have become a popular method for the study of stochastic effects in chemical reaction systems. Several different MA methods have been proposed and applied in the literature, but it remains unclear how they perform with respect to each other. In this paper, we study the normal, Poisson, log-normal, and central-moment-neglect MAs by applying them to understand the stochastic properties of chemical systems whose deterministic rate equations show the properties of bistability, ultrasensitivity, and oscillatory behaviour. Our results suggest that the normal MA is favourable over the other studied MAs. In particular, we found that (i) the size of the region of parameter space where a closure gives physically meaningful results, e.g., positive mean and variance, is considerably larger for the normal closure than for the other three closures, (ii) the accuracy of the predictions of the four closures (relative to simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm) is comparable in those regions of parameter space where all closures give physically meaningful results, and (iii) the Poisson and log-normal MAs are not uniquely defined for systems involving conservation laws in molecule numbers. We also describe the new software package MOCA which enables the automated numerical analysis of various MA methods in a graphical user interface and which was used to perform the comparative analysis presented in this paper. MOCA allows the user to develop novel closure methods and can treat polynomial, non-polynomial, as well as time-dependent propensity functions, thus being applicable to virtually any chemical reaction system.

  14. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  15. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  18. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  19. Interim storage of radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage

  20. APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Also, nanomaterials have been already applied in many fields of human life. Nanocomposites have already led to several innovations with potential applications in the food packaging sector. The use of nanocomposite formulations is expected to considerably enhance the shelf-life of many types of food. This improvement can lead to lower weight packages because less material is needed to obtain the same or even better barrier properties. This, in turn, can lead to reduced package cost with less packaging waste. Antimicrobial packaging is another area with high potential for applying nanocomposite technology. Nanostructured antimicrobials have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio when compared with their higher scale counterparts. Therefore, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging systems are supposed to be particularly efficient in their activities against microbial cells. In this review, definition of nanomaterials is presented. Besides, the paper shows examples of nanocomposities and antimicrobial nanopackaging mainly with the use of nanosilver. Moreover, nanoparticles such ZnO, TiO2, MgO and nanosensors in packaging were presented.

  1. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives

  2. Industrial feasibility study of a spent nuclear fuel package for direct deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lous, K.; Loubrieu, J.; Chupeau, J.; Serpantie, J.P.; Becle, D.; Aubry, S.

    2001-01-01

    EDF has undertaken to study the industrial feasibility of a spent nuclear fuel package meeting direct disposal requirements. In this context, a disposal concept has been defined in which packages are cooled in place until the module is finally sealed. Indeed, one of the objectives of that disposal concept is to reduce the underground area occupied by the repository. A functional analysis has been performed within the framework of that ventilated disposal concept, taking into account the phases of the package lifetime from its conditioning until the disposal post-closure phase. An industrial feasibility study is in progress, which takes into account the functional specifications and some preliminary studies. (author)

  3. Comparison of primary and delayed primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, O.B.A.; Ahmed, N.; Butt, M.W.U.D.; Saleem, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study was to compare primary and delayed primary wound closure for dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Multan. From 16 Sep 2010 to 15 Mar 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 110 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 55 patients each using random numbers table. Abdominal wounds of one group were closed primarily and of other group were subjected to delayed primary wound closure. The wounds were then checked for surgical site infection for seven post operative days. Results: A higher frequency of surgical site infection was observed in primary closure group (27.3%) as compared to delayed primary closure group (9.1%) which was statistically significant (p=0.013). Conclusion: Delayed primary closure is superior to primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. (author)

  4. Study on a monitoring strategy to support decision making for geological repository closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Eto, Jiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2010-01-01

    Japan currently plans to dispose of high-level radioactive wastes (vitrified HLWs) produced from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in deep geological formations, in order to isolate the radioactive wastes from the human environment for tens of thousands of years. Such a geological repository must be designed to ensure operational safety and post-closure safety. Then, following the closure of the geological repository, post-closure safety will be provided by an engineered barrier system (EBS) and a natural barrier system (NBS) without relying on monitoring or institutional control. However, from a technical standpoint, monitoring has been required during backfilling in current studies. Additionally, there has been strong social pressure to continue monitoring during all the phases including post-closure. On the basis of the current situations, a monitoring strategy for geological disposal must be studied to ensure the long term safety of geological disposal. Focusing on decision making for geological repository closure, the authors have created a basic logical structure for the decision making process with the principles for ensuring safety and have developed a monitoring strategy based on the logical structure. The monitoring strategy is founded on three key aspects: the role of monitoring, boundary conditions of monitoring at the time of decision making, and a methodology for monitoring planning. Then, the monitoring strategy becomes a starting point of monitoring planning during site characterization, construction, operation and staged closure, as well as post-closure with institutional control, and of social science studies. (author)

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  6. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  7. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  9. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  10. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  11. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed...

  12. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  13. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  14. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  16. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  17. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  18. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). WESF is located within the 225B Facility in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based on Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the storage unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the intention is to clean close WESF, postclosure activities are not applicable to this interim status closure plan. To clean close the storage unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or environmentally is impracticable, the interim status closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. WESF stores cesium and strontium encapsulated salts. The encapsulated salts are stored in the pool cells or process cells located within 225B Facility. The dangerous waste is contained within a double containment system to preclude spills to the environment. In the unlikely event that a waste spill does occur outside the capsules, operating methods and administrative controls require that waste spills be cleaned up promptly and completely, and a notation made in the operating record. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  19. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  20. Closure of Microcosm for refurbishment

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 1994, the Microcosm exhibition has given the opportunity to visitors of all ages and backgrounds to have a first glimpse into the secrets of physics.   To ensure that Microcosm can continue fulfilling its educational aims at the same level of quality for many years to come, it is closing for renovation work on 8 December 2014 and is expected to reopen during Summer 2015. During the closure, the “Fun with Physics” workshop will not take place, but the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe and the Passport to the Big Bang circuit will remain accessible to the public, free of charge and with no need to book in advance.  Guided tours of CERN are also available (advance booking required via this page).

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  3. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    phases (P, {mu}, and {sigma}) are present in the weld metal in the as-welded condition. It may be possible to eliminate these phases through a solution anneal heat treatment, but that may not be possible for the closure weld because the spent nuclear fuel cladding cannot be heated to more than 350 C. The effects of any stress mitigation techniques (such as laser peening or solution heat treating) that may be used to reduce the tensile stresses on the closure welds must also be determined. Cold-work will cause an increase in dislocation density, and such an increase in dislocation density may cause an increase in diffusion rates that control precipitation kinetics (Porter et al. 1992 [DIRS 161265]; Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). Long-range order (LRO) occurs in nickel (Ni)-Cr-Mo alloys (such as Alloy 22) at temperatures less than approximately 600 C. This ordering has been linked to an increased susceptibility of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement (Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). These analyses provide information on the rate at which LRO may occur in Alloy 22 under repository conditions. Determination of the kinetics of transformations through experimental techniques requires that the transformations being investigated be accelerated due to the fact that the expected service life is at least 10,000 years. Phase transformations are typically accelerated through an increase in temperature. The rate of transformation is determined at the higher temperature and is extrapolated to the lower temperatures of interest.

  4. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Wong

    2004-01-01

    the weld metal in the as-welded condition. It may be possible to eliminate these phases through a solution anneal heat treatment, but that may not be possible for the closure weld because the spent nuclear fuel cladding cannot be heated to more than 350 C. The effects of any stress mitigation techniques (such as laser peening or solution heat treating) that may be used to reduce the tensile stresses on the closure welds must also be determined. Cold-work will cause an increase in dislocation density, and such an increase in dislocation density may cause an increase in diffusion rates that control precipitation kinetics (Porter et al. 1992 [DIRS 161265]; Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). Long-range order (LRO) occurs in nickel (Ni)-Cr-Mo alloys (such as Alloy 22) at temperatures less than approximately 600 C. This ordering has been linked to an increased susceptibility of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement (Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). These analyses provide information on the rate at which LRO may occur in Alloy 22 under repository conditions. Determination of the kinetics of transformations through experimental techniques requires that the transformations being investigated be accelerated due to the fact that the expected service life is at least 10,000 years. Phase transformations are typically accelerated through an increase in temperature. The rate of transformation is determined at the higher temperature and is extrapolated to the lower temperatures of interest

  5. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  6. The Synthesis of Force Closure Grasps in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    TASK U Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UN IT "NMUIERS ~( 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 SI. CONTROLLING OFICE NAME ANO... ARTIFICIAL INThLLIX’ ENCE LABORATORY A. 1. Memo 861 September, 1985 The Synthesis of Force-Closure Grasps In the Plane DTIC ’VeL% ,#ECTE 1 VnDcNguyenU Abstract... Artificial In- telligenmcc Liabomatory of thle Massachuset Is hInsttute of Teclhnolog3 . Support for the Lahoratot * s Artificial Intelligence research is

  7. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...... repair at Hvidovre Hospital and Herlev Hospital, Denmark, are invited to participate. CONCLUSION: The gap closure technique may induce more post-operative pain than the non-closure repair, but it may also be superior with regard to other important surgical outcomes. No studies have previously...

  8. Continuous indomethacin infusion may be less effective than bolus infusions for ductal closure in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, NKS; Jagroep, FK; Jaarsma, AS; Elzenga, NJ; Bos, AF

    The effectiveness of continuous indomethacin (INDO) infusion versus bolus infusions for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was investigated. The study design was an open-label case series (continuous INDO) with historic controls matched for gestational age (bolus INDO). Ductal closure rates

  9. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  10. Changes in Serum Natriuretic Peptide Levels after Percutaneous Closure of Small to Moderate Ventricular Septal Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. B-type natriuretic peptide has been shown to be a very sensitive and specific marker of heart failure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defects with Amplatzer septal occluders on brain natriuretic peptide levels. Methods. Between 2008 and 2011, 23 patients underwent successfully percutaneous ventricular septal defect closure in 4 cardiology centers. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were measured in nine patients (4 male, mean ages were 25.3±14.3 who underwent percutaneous closure with Amplatzer occluders for membranous or muscular ventricular septal defects were enrolled in the study. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were measured one day before and one month after the closure. Patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography one month after the procedure. Results. Percutaneous closures of ventricular septal defects were successfully performed in all patients. There was not any significant adverse event in patients group during followup. Decrease in brain natriuretic peptide levels after closure were statistically significant (97.3±78.6 versus 26.8±15.6, =0.013. Conclusion. Brain Natriuretic Peptide levels are elevated in patients with ventricular septal defects as compared to controls. Percutaneous closure of Ventricular Septal Defect with Amplatzer occluders decreases the BNP levels.

  11. Comparative Study Between Coaptive Film Versus Suture For Wound Closure After Long Bone Fracture Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Anuar Ramdhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Coaptive film (i.e., Steri-StripsTM is an adhesive tape used to replace sutures in wound closure. The use of coaptive film for wound closure after long bone fracture fixation has not been well documented in the literature. METHODS: The aim of this prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing coaptive film with sutures for wound closure after long bone fracture fixation was skin closure time, incidence of wound complications and scar width at 12 week follow-up. Forty-five patients underwent femur fracture fixation (22 patients’ wound closed with sutures, 23 with coaptive film. RESULTS: The mean time for skin closure using coaptive film was 171.13 seconds compared to 437.27 seconds using suture. The mean wound lengths in the coaptive film group and suture group were 187.65 mm and 196.73 mm, respectively. One patient in each group had wound complications. CONCLUSION: Coaptive film is a time-saving procedure for skin closure following long bone fracture fixation. There is no difference in the incidence of wound complications and scar width between these two methods of skin closure.

  12. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  13. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  14. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  15. Intercomparison of alpha particle spectrometry software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Software has reached an important level as the 'logical controller' at different levels, from a single instrument to an entire computer-controlled experiment. This is also the case for software packages in nuclear instruments and experiments. In particular, because of the range of applications of alpha-particle spectrometry, software packages in this field are often used. It is the aim of this intercomparison to test and describe the abilities of four such software packages. The main objectives of the intercomparison were the ability of the programs to determine the peak areas and the peak area uncertainties, and the statistical control and stability of reported results. In this report, the task, methods and results of the intercomparison are presented in order to asist the potential users of such software and to stimulate the development of even better alpha-particle spectrum analysis software

  16. Procedural method for the development of scenarios in the post-closure phase. Report on the working package 1. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases; Vorgehensweise bei der Entwicklung von Szenarien fuer die Nachverschlussphase. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 1. Weiterentwicklung des internationalen Stands von Wissenschaft und Technik zu Methoden und Werkzeugen fuer Betriebs- und Langzeitsicherheitsnachweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuth, Thomas; Mayer, Kim-Marisa

    2016-09-15

    The report on the procedural method for the development of scenarios in the post-closure phase covers the following topics: development of scenarios and derivation of calculation cases, approaches for verification of derived scenarios, human penetration in a final repository (including national and international regulations and guidelines and safety standards).

  17. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  18. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  19. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  20. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-01-01

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO 2 ) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality

  1. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-11-15

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

  2. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  3. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  4. Time temperature indicators as devices intelligent packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging is an important part of food production. Temperature is a one of crucial factor which affecting the quality and safety of food products during distribution, transport and storage. The one way of control of food quality and safety is the application of new packaging systems, which also include the intelligent or smart packaging. Intelligent packaging is a packaging system using different indicators for monitoring the conditions of production, but in particular the conditions during transport and storage. Among these indicators include the time-temperature indicators to monitor changes in temperature, which is exposed the product and to inform consumers about the potential risks associated with consumption of these products. Time temperature indicators are devices that show an irreversible change in a physical characteristic, usually color or shape, in response to temperature history. Some are designed to monitor the evolution of temperature with time along the distribution chain and others are designed to be used in the consumer packages.

  5. System certification: An alternative to package certification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. This is a particular problem for materials that should be shipped in a Type B package, but because such packages are designed and certified for specific contents, the package is usually fairly expensive, available in relatively small numbers, and often requires a fairly long period to achieve certification or amended certification for new contents. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement

  6. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  7. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  8. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level. Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to recombinantly derived therapeutic biologics. Concerns associated with this transformation are becoming prominent, as therapeutic biologics are uncharacteristic to small-molecule drugs. Maintaining the stability of a therapeutic biologic is a combination of balancing intrinsic factors and external elements within the biologic's microenvironment. An important aspect of this balance is relegated to the overall compatibility of primary, parenteral container-closure systems with therapeutic biologics

  9. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  10. Closure development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robitz, E.S. Jr.; McAninch, M.D. Jr.; Edmonds, D.P.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes Phase 1 activities for closure development of the high-level nuclear waste package task for the tuff repository. Work was conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract 9172105, administered through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), funded through the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The goal of this phase was to select five closure processes for further evaluation in later phases of the program. A decision tree methodology was utilized to perform an objective evaluation of 15 potential closure processes. Information was gathered via a literature survey, industrial contacts, and discussions with project team members, other experts in the field, and the LLNL waste package task staff. The five processes selected were friction welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding. These are felt to represent the best combination of weldment material properties and process performance in a remote, radioactive environment. Conceptual designs have been generated for these processes to illustrate how they would be implemented in practice. Homopolar resistance welding was included in the Phase 1 analysis, and developments in this process will be monitored via literature in Phases 2 and 3. Work was conducted in accordance with the YMP Quality Assurance Program. 223 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  13. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  14. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  15. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  16. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  17. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  18. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  19. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  20. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.