WorldWideScience

Sample records for pacific islander population

  1. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  2. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  3. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  4. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  5. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  6. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  7. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  8. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  9. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  10. The use Pb- and Sr- isotopes for the study of Pacific Islander population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, P.; Gulson, B.L.; Montgomery, J.; Rainbird, P.; Thomas, R.G.; Young, S.

    1997-01-01

    Lead isotope measurements of dental enamel are regularly used as a means of determining information as to the source of the lead burden in modern human populations (Gulson and Wilson 1994). Lead ions have a considerable propensity to replace calcium ions in skeletal hard tissue; principally composed of hydroxy-apatite. The lead isotopic composition of teeth in adult humans has been shown to relate directly to the subject's exposure to the element at the time of eruption of their adult teeth and is unaffected by changes in the lead burden of an individual in latter life. In children, the analogous lead burden relates to the lead exposure of the mother during pregnancy and in the neo-natal period. Moreover due to its high crystallinity and density dental enamel does not undergo post-mortem recrystallization. This fact raised the exciting possibility that isotopic measurements of hard tissue could be used as a means of determining whether and individual is a migrant to a particular region. Despite a number of complications, briefly described, this paper presents the results of the ongoing study which uses measurements of Sr and Pb isotopes within dental enamel to determine the origin of Pacific Islander populations

  11. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  12. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  13. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  14. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulau, Violaine; Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07'), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  15. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Dulau

    Full Text Available Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07', in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast. The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85, based on a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03 distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958 and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01, while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only and temporally (five months per year. Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  16. Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Lowe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the limited genetic diversity and reduced allelic heterogeneity observed in isolated founder populations facilitates discovery of loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease. A strong founder effect, severe isolation, and substantial inbreeding have dramatically reduced genetic diversity in natives from the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, who exhibit a high prevalence of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that genetic drift and possibly natural selection on Kosrae might have increased the frequency of previously rare genetic variants with relatively large effects, making these alleles readily detectable in genome-wide association analysis. However, mapping in large, inbred cohorts introduces analytic challenges, as extensive relatedness between subjects violates the assumptions of independence upon which traditional association test statistics are based. We performed genome-wide association analysis for 15 quantitative traits in 2,906 members of the Kosrae population, using novel approaches to manage the extreme relatedness in the sample. As positive controls, we observe association to known loci for plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein and to a compelling candidate loci for thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting plasma glucose. We show that our study is well powered to detect common alleles explaining >/=5% phenotypic variance. However, no such large effects were observed with genome-wide significance, arguing that even in such a severely inbred population, common alleles typically have modest effects. Finally, we show that a majority of common variants discovered in Caucasians have indistinguishable effect sizes on Kosrae, despite the major differences in population genetics and environment.

  17. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis in the Pacific...

  18. Operculina from the northwestern Pacific (Sesoko Island, Japan) Species Differentiation, Population Dynamics, Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades larger benthic foraminifera have gained importance as indicator species and are used in a variety of applications, from ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, or reconstructing paleoenvironments. They significantly contribute to the carbonate budget of costal areas and are invaluable tools in biostratigraphy. Even before their advancement as bioindicators, laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of various ecological parameters on community composition, biology of single species, or investigating the effects of salinity and temperature on stable isotope composition of the foraminiferal test, to name only a few. The natural laboratory approach (continuous sampling over a period of more than one year) was conducted at the island of Sesoko (Okinawa, Japan). in combination with µ-CT scanning was used to reveal population dynamics of 3 different morphotypes of Operculina. The clarification of reproductive cycles as well as generation and size abundances were used to calculate natural growth models. Best fit was achieved using Bertalanffy and Michaelis-Menten functions. Exponential-, logistic-, generalized logistic-, Gompertz-function yielded weaker fits, when compared by coefficient of determination as well as Akaike Information criterion. The resulting growth curves and inferred growth rates were in turn used to evaluate the quality of a laboratory cultivation experiment carried out simultaneously over a period of 15 months. Culturing parameters such as temperature, light intensities, salinity and pH and light-dark duration were continuously adapted to measurements in the field. The average investigation time in culture was 77days. 13 Individuals lived more than 200 days, 3 reproduced asexually and one sexually. 14% of 186 Individuals were lost, while 22% could not be kept alive for more than one month. Growth curves also represent an instrumental source of information for the various

  19. Acoustic occurrence detection of a newly recorded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Jianchen; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29.1% were during the day. A diurnal rhythm with a nighttime peak in acoustic detections was found. Passive acoustic detections indicated that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins frequently occurred in this area and were detected mainly at night. This information may be relevant to conservation efforts for these dolphins in the near future.

  20. Conceptual parameters of acculturation within the Asian and Pacific Islander American populations: applications for nursing practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (A&PIAs) are experiencing health inequities. For example, A&PIA is the only racial/ethnic group in America to experience cancer as their leading cause of death. Several studies within the A&PIA population have pointed to acculturation as a significant variable to explain their health and health-seeking behaviors. Acculturation is a key construct in understanding the health of the A&PIA population. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide a current conceptual understanding of the relationship between acculturation and health, especially within the A&PIA populations, which will serve as a pragmatic guideline for nursing practice and research. Understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the conceptual application of acculturation will aid in the development of appropriate programs to reduce health inequities. Acculturation was explored using the Morse method of concept analysis. An iterative historical and contemporary literature review across the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, and nursing was completed. Analytical questions asked of the resultant data provided the theoretical definition, antecedents, key attributes, outcomes, and implications. The concept analysis resulted in a new theoretical definition that includes multidimensional concepts of acculturation. Dilemmas in the measurement of key attributes of acculturation include unidirectional and bidirectional analysis, psychometric issues, and the appropriateness of proxy measurements. Outcomes of acculturation on health can be positive or negative and depend on an individual's or group's ability to navigate freely with necessary supports. Results of the conceptual analysis resulted in recommendations for nursing practice and future acculturation research. While debate continues about the appropriate use and definition of acculturation, researchers agree that it is an important construct in understanding the health of migrating

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  3. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  4. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands.

  5. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  6. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  7. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  8. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  9. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  10. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  11. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  12. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  13. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  14. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  15. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  16. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  17. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  18. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  19. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  20. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  1. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  4. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  5. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  6. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  8. Nuclear activities and the Pacific islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, J. Van; Smith, K.R.; Siwatibau, S.

    1984-01-01

    Although to outsiders the Pacific islands may seem far removed from the center of activities and controversies related to nuclear energy, this area has had more direct and negative experiences with nuclear issues than any other area in the world. These experiences have led to a deep-rooted skepticism of all nuclear activities in which distinctions between civilian and military activities, weapons and power, and low-and high-level waste bear little relation to the important Pacific concerns. Antinuclear sentiments are intimately linked to anticolonialism, growing regionalism and emerging cultural pride. Opposition and concern have been expressed in a number of international, regional, national and nongovernmental forums. In this climate, arguments about the relative safety of various waste disposal operations and other nuclear activities are not likely to be meaningful. (author)

  9. The case for improving road safety in Pacific Islands: a population-based study from Fiji (TRIP 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs) resulting in deaths or hospital admission for 12 hours or more in Viti Levu, Fiji. Analysis of the prospective population-based Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals database (October 2005 - September 2006). Of the 374 RTI cases identified (17% of all injuries), 72% were males and one third were aged 15-29 years. RTI fatalities (10.3 per 100,000 per year) were higher among Indians compared to Fijians. Two-thirds of deaths (largely ascribed to head, chest and abdominal trauma) occurred before hospital admission. While the RTI fatality rate was comparable to the global average for high-income countries, the level of motorisation in Fiji is considerably lower. To avert rising RTI rates with increasing motorisation, Fiji requires a robust road safety strategy alongside effective trauma-care services and a reliable population-based RTI surveillance system. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  11. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  12. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  13. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  14. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  15. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  16. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  17. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously.

  18. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  19. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  20. Cardiac surgery in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip John; Wainer, Zoe; O'Keefe, Michael; Nand, Parma

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease constitutes a significant disease burden in under-resourced communities. Recognition of the devastating impact of rheumatic heart disease has resulted in volunteer cardiac teams from Australasia providing surgical services to regions of need. The primary objective of this study was to compare New Zealand hospitals' volunteer cardiac surgical operative results in Samoa and Fiji with the accepted surgical mortality and morbidity rates for Australasia. A retrospective review from seven volunteer cardiac surgical trips to Samoa and Fiji from 2003 to 2009 was conducted. Patient data were retrospectively and prospectively collected. Preoperative morbidity and mortality risk were calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE). Audit data were collated in line with the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. One hundred and three operations were performed over 6 years. EuroSCORE predicted an operative mortality of 3.32%. In-hospital mortality was 0.97% and post-discharge mortality was 2.91%, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 3.88%. This study demonstrated that performing cardiac surgery in Fiji and Samoa is viable and safe. However, the mortality was slightly higher than predicted by euroSCORE. Difficulties exist in predicting mortality rates in patients with rheumatic heart disease from Pacific Island nations as known risk scoring models fail to be disease, ethnically or culturally inclusive. Audit processes and risk model development and assessment are an essential part of this complex surgical charity work and will result in improved patient selection and outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. Precipitation Frequency for Wake Island, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  16. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  17. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  18. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  19. Characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L; Young, Lisa M; Hopkins, Raewyn; Cornere, Megan

    2017-02-01

    Ethnicity is strongly associated with variable clinical presentation in sarcoidosis but the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics has not previously been described in patients of Polynesian ancestry, Maori and Pacific Islander (PI). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and PI patients and determine if those were different to European patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 406 patients (69 Maori/PI) attending a specialist interstitial lung disease (ILD) clinic. The population (207 females, mean age at presentation: 36) reflected the current New Zealand census data (2013) with only people of Indian ethnicity over-represented. Parenchymal lung involvement was uncommon in Maori and PI patients (21% Scadding stage 2, 2% stage 3), and no patient had extensive pulmonary fibrosis (stage 4). Computed tomography (CT) patterns of sarcoid parenchymal lung involvement were less commonly reported for Maori/PI. There were no differences in respect of baseline lung function or requirement for treatment. Ocular and skin involvement occurred more frequently in Maori and PI (P = 0.0045, P = 0.03), and erythema nodosum was more common in Caucasians (P = 0.0008). People of Polynesian ancestry appear to have less pulmonary and more extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis. This adds to our knowledge that sarcoidosis heterogeneity is influenced by ethnicity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  1. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  2. Mesozoic possibilities seen on Tonga islands in Southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helu, S.P.; Khanna, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Kingdom of Tonga in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprises 171 islands of which only 37 are inhabited. There are four main groups of islands: Tongatapu, H'apai, Vava'u, and the Niuas. The total land area is 700 sq km, and the territorial waters extend to 700,000 sq km. The kingdom is bordered by New Zealand, Fiji, Walhis and Fortuna, the Samoas, and Niue

  3. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  4. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  5. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  6. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  7. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  8. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  9. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Trauma surgery in Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, H; Martin, C

    2017-10-01

    The small developing countries in the Pacific are grouped together as Small Island Development States (SIDS) because they face similar problems which they cannot cope with nationally. They are developing countries, so-called low and lower middle income countries (LMIC), are economically weak and the islands of the different nations are widely scattered. Approximately 80% of the 10 million inhabitants live in rural regions. Over 40% of patients in the surgical departments of hospitals are hospitalized for injuries, and this tendency is increasing. Fractures of the upper extremities are relatively more frequent in the Pacific than in the countries of the North. Long distances, lack of possibilities for treatment and lack of transport often cause complications, such as infected open fractures, pseudarthrosis and posttraumatic malformations. There are too few hospitals with sufficiently competent surgeons, anesthetists and obstetricians (SAO) and appropriate equipment. The PIOA was founded in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and offers surgeons of the Pacific SIDS a comprehensive, structured trauma and orthopedic surgery training in their own countries. It lasts 4 years and leads to an M‑Med (orthopaedic surgery) diploma and to a Fellowship of the International College of Surgeons (FICS), which are both recognized by the participating hospitals. It is free for participants. The AOAF is an independent organization with the only aim to enhance trauma surgery capacity in LMICs. The AOAF supports the PIOA program together with the Wyss Medical Foundation. Currently, 18 trainees from 8 Pacific SIDS are participating in the PIOA training program.

  11. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  12. Atypical antipsychotic usage among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junji; Goebert, Deborah; Else, Iwalani; Carlton, Barry; Matsu, Courtenay; Guerrero, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown significant ethnic differences in prescribing patterns of two or more antipsychotics. This study examined changes in atypical and typical antipsychotic prescriptions among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Five hundred consecutive charts were reviewed for antipsychotics at the time of admission and discharge from each of two inpatient psychiatric facilities in Hawai'i. Multiple antipsychotic prescription rates were 9% at intake and 6% at discharge. For the ethnic groups studied, there were no statistically significant differences by patient ethnicity regarding antipsychotics at intake (χ(2) = 29.2, df = 21, P = .110) or discharge (χ(2) = 20.5, df = 24, P = .667). There were no significant differences in prescription and polypharmacy patterns among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders ethnic groups in this study.

  13. Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing; Thomas A. Spies

    1995-01-01

    A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade...

  14. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  15. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  16. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  17. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone. AGENCY: U.S... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts weapon systems testing and other military... Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal...

  18. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  19. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  20. Depth Contours for select locations across the U.S. Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are depth contours (isobaths) derived at 50 meters for most islands and reefs in the Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  1. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  2. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  3. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  4. Dental manpower development in the Pacific: case study in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Langidrik, Justina R; Milgrom, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    This case study reports the ongoing progress and results of a manpower development program to expand indigenous dental personnel at four levels in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program was designed to: 1) increase the number of Marshallese students who successfully complete dentistry training; 2) recruit and train a group of Marshallese high school graduates in dental assisting for service in new preventive outreach programs within the community; 3) enhance the dental training of health assistants providing primary medical care to outer islands away from the main population centers of Majuro and Ebeye; and 4) provide in-service training on tooth decay prevention for Head Start teachers. The program resulted in the training of one Marshallese dentist and two Marshallese dental therapist, 16 primary care health aides who received oral health training for work in the outer island dispensaries, and 200 Head Start and kindergarten teachers who completed in-service training in oral health. Additional expertise was shared with other United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to enhance the dental workforce throughout the Pacific.

  5. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Proclamation 8810--Law Day, U.S.A., 2012 Proclamation 8811--Loyalty Day, 2012 Proclamation 8812--National Day... AAPI communities by improving access to Federal programs where Asian American and Pacific Islanders are... Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe this month with appropriate programs and activities. IN...

  6. The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Nakajima, G A; Kanouse, D E

    1998-10-01

    To describe the sexual behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes of Asian and Pacific Islander California high school students and to compare them to other racial/ethnic groups. Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 ninth to 12th graders in a Los Angeles County school district; 186 of the respondents described themselves as Asian and Pacific Islander. The survey was conducted in April 1992. A higher percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents (73%) compared with African-American (28%, p masturbation of or by a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse. Few students in any group reported homosexual genital sexual activities. Asians and Pacific Islanders who had had vaginal intercourse were more likely than most other groups to have used a condom at first vaginal intercourse, but Asians and Pacific Islanders had not used condoms more consistently over the prior year. Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely to expect parental disapproval if they had vaginal intercourse and less likely to think that their peers had had vaginal intercourse. Asian and Pacific Islander high school students in one California school district appear to be at lower sexual risk than other racial/ethnic groups. However, a large minority are engaging in activities that can transmit disease and lead to unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, current efforts to develop culturally sensitive clinical and community-based approaches to sexual risk prevention should include Asians and Pacific Islanders.

  7. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  8. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  9. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  11. The Racialized Experiences of Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: An Examination of Campus Racial Climate at the University of California, Los Angeles. iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Chan, Jason; Teranishi, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE) launched iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education, a collaborative effort with the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI) and with generous support from the…

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Brewer, Tom D; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E; Lewis, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  14. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The proposed rule is intended to...). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577...

  15. The late Quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    People have lived on tropical Pacific islands over the past 30,000 years (Bismarcks, Solomons) or 3000 to 1000 years (the rest of Oceania). Their activities have led to the loss of many thousands of populations and as many as 2000 species of birds that probably otherwise would exist today. This extinction event is documented by avian fossils from archaeological (cultural) and paleontological (noncultural) sites from nearly 70 islands in 19 island groups. Extinction of birds in Oceania rivals the late Pleistocene loss of large mammals in North America as the best substantiated rapid extinction episode in the vertebrate fossil record. Some avian extinctions in Oceania occurred within a century or less after human arrival, while others required millennia or even tens of millennia. Any of these time frames is rapid in an evolutionary or geochronological sense. Inter-island differences in the speed and extent of extinction can be explained by variation in abiotic (A), biotic (B), and cultural (C) factors. Levels of extinction on large, near islands can be comparable to those on small, remote islands when C factors (such as high human population density and introduction of invasive plants and animals) override A factors (such as large land area or little isolation) or B factors (such as rich indigenous floras and faunas). An innovative, proactive conservation strategy is needed not only to prevent further extinctions of birds in Oceania, but also to restart evolution of some of the lineages that have suffered the most loss, such as flightless rails. This strategy should focus on islands with ABC traits that retard rather than enhance extinction.

  16. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  17. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14?15?years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland...

  18. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos

    2018-07-01

    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    Wrangel Island subpopulations should be considered a metapopulation in better understanding and managing Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese. Yet the absence of a strong population connection between Banks Island and Wrangel Island geese suggests that these breeding colonies can be managed as separate but overlapping populations. Additionally, winter population fidelity may be more important in lesser snow geese than in other species, and both breeding and wintering areas are important components of population management for sympatric wintering populations.

  20. Energy expenditure and metabolism in Maori, Pacific Island and New Zealand European men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for many diseases that contribute to premature death and illness. Particularly for Maori and Pacific Island people in New Zealand, death rates from diabetes, stroke and coronary heart disease are much higher than those of other New Zealanders. We hypothesise that the greater prevalence of obesity in Pacific Island and Maori groups compared to NZ European is related to metabolic differences. We have already shown significant differences in body composition and metabolism in young NZ European and Polynesian women. The goal of the proposed study is to determine whether such differences are also present among young NZ European, Pacific Island and Maori males. (author)

  1. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  2. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  4. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology No claim to original US government works.

  5. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  6. Octocoral densities and mortalities in Gorgona Island, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the decrease of reef organisms in general, it has become essential to study populations that are prone to marine diseases, with the purpose of developing accurate survivorship predictions and in turn alarm on triggers and drivers of disease outbreaks. In this study, we quantified the octocorals of Gorgona island, Tropical Eastern Pacific (Colombia, during 2007 and 2009 documenting a mass mortality occurred during 2008. We recorded 16 octocoral species with densities that ranged between 2 and 30 colonies m-2. Most abundant octocorals were Leptogorgia alba and Pacifigorgia spp. (Gorgoniidae: Octocorallia. During 2009 we noticed a mass mortality involving Pacifigorgia irene, P. adamsi, P. rubicunda and P. eximia, with a reduction of 70% of the colonies between 12 and 20 m in water depth. Around 5% of seafans during 2007 had an epizootic disease similar to aspergillosis, which seems the cause of the mass octocoral mortality. This disease outbreak observed in Gorgona island, and other nearby areas of the Colombian Pacific during 2007-2010, corresponded to extended periods of anomalous elevated seawater surface temperatures and thermal anomalies during the upwelling season of 2008. Constant monitoring of seawater temperatures and octocoral populations are urgently needed in this area to understand the nature of this new disease outbreak. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 209-219. Epub 2014 February 01.

  7. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  8. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Pohnpei, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  12. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  13. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Kosrae, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  15. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  16. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  20. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. Lessons from Principal-Agent Theory for Public Expenditure Management in Pacific Island Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific island economies Peer reviewed

  3. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, James Russell; Xie, Bin; Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-07

    Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) system capable of measuring cigarette use among Pacific Islanders in Southern California. This system integrated the ubiquity of text messaging, the ease of use associated with mobile phone apps, the enhanced functionality offered by Internet-based Cell phone-optimized Assessment Techniques (ICAT), and the high survey completion rates exhibited by EMA studies that used electronic diaries. These features were tested in a feasibility study designed to assess whether Pacific Islanders would respond to this method of measurement and whether the data gathered would lead to novel insights regarding the intrapersonal, social, and ecological factors associated with cigarette use. 20 young adult smokers in Southern California who self-identified as Pacific Islanders were recruited by 5 community-based organizations to take part in a 7-day EMA study. Participants selected six consecutive two-hour time blocks per day during which they would be willing to receive a text message linking them to an online survey formatted for Web-enabled mobile phones. Both automated reminders and community coaches were used to facilitate survey completion. 720 surveys were completed from 840 survey time blocks, representing a completion rate of 86%. After adjusting for gender, age, and nicotine dependence, feeling happy (P=technology-based assessments of tobacco use among Pacific Islanders. Such systems can foster high levels of survey completion and may lead to novel insights for future research and interventions.

  4. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A. Harper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub land. Black rats tend to dominate the literature but despite this the population biology of invasive rats, particularly Norway rats, is poorly researched on tropical islands. Pacific rats can often exceed population densities of well over 100 rats ha−1 and black rats can attain densities of 119 rats ha−1, which is much higher than recorded on most temperate islands. High densities are possibly due to high recruitment of young although the data to support this are limited. The generally aseasonally warm climate can lead to year-round breeding but can be restricted by either density-dependent effects interacting with resource constraints often due to aridity. Apparent adverse impacts on birds have been well recorded and almost all tropical seabirds and land birds can be affected by rats. On the Pacific islands, black rats have added to declines and extinctions of land birds caused initially by Pacific rats. Rats have likely caused unrecorded extinctions of native species on tropical islands. Further research required on invasive rats on tropical islands includes the drivers of population growth and carrying capacities that result in high densities and how these differ to temperate islands, habitat use of rats in tropical vegetation types and interactions with other tropical species, particularly the reptiles and invertebrates, including crustaceans.

  5. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  6. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  7. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  8. Biology and impacts of Pacific Islands invasive species. 14. Sus scrofa the feral pig (Artiodactyla: Suidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Nathaniel H.; Hess, Steven C.; Litton, Creighton M.

    2018-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa L.) are perhaps the most abundant, widespread, and economically significant large introduced vertebrate across the Pacific island region. Unlike many other nonnative invasive species, feral pigs have both cultural and recreational importance in the region, complicating their management. Today, Pacific island feral pigs are a mixture of several strains of domestic swine, Asiatic wild boar, and European wild boar. Due to their generalist diet and rooting behavior, feral pigs alter soils and watersheds and negatively impact native and nonnative flora and fauna. As a result, feral pigs have played a role in the extinction of several species of plants and animals on Pacific islands and have negative effects on both ecotourism and agricultural industries in the region. Despite numerous published studies on feral pigs in the Pacific island region, of which the majority include systematic analyses of original empirical data, some fundamental aspects of feral pig ecology remain poorly characterized, at least partly due to the remote and inaccessible environments that they often inhabit. To address these knowledge gaps, effort should be made to integrate research conducted outside the Pacific island region into local management strategies. This review summarizes the origins, history, ecology, environmental effects, and current management of feral pigs in the Pacific island region; integrates regional scientific findings with those of other insular and continental systems; and identifies current knowledge gaps requiring further research to inform the ecology and management of this impactful invasive species.

  9. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Ecology and Diabetes Self-Management among Pacific Islanders in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Woodring, David; Purvis, Rachel S; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Hudson, Jonell; Kohler, Peter O; Goulden, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases disproportionately affect ethnic and racial minorities. Pacific Islanders, including the Marshallese, experience some of the highest documented rates of type 2 diabetes. Northwest Arkansas is home to the largest population of Marshallese outside of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and many migrants are employed by the local poultry industry. This migrant population continues to increase because of climate change, limited health care and educational infrastructure in the Marshall Islands, and the ongoing health effects of US nuclear testing. The US nuclear weapons testing program had extensive social, economic, and ecological consequences for the Marshallese and many of the health disparities they face are related to the nuclear fallout. Beginning in 2013, researchers using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach began working with the local Marshallese community to address diabetes through the development and implementation of culturally appropriate diabetes self-management education in a family setting. Preliminary research captured numerous and significant environmental barriers that constrain self-management behaviors. At the request of our CBPR stakeholders, researchers have documented the ecological barriers faced by the Marshallese living in Arkansas through a series of qualitative research projects. Using the Social Ecological Model as a framework, this research provides an analysis of Marshallese health that expands the traditional diabetes self-management perspective. Participants identified barriers at the organizational, community, and policy levels that constrain their efforts to achieve diabetes self-management. We offer practice and policy recommendations to address barriers at the community, organizational, and policy level.

  11. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY... with, or any U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region), to complete...

  12. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National... using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the... allowed in the regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef...

  13. Using Indicators as a Catalyst for Inclusive Education in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris; Marella, Manjula; Jitoko, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are committed to promoting disability-inclusive education through enactment of the Pacific Education Development Framework. To support this move, key stakeholders have identified the need for developing local and contextually appropriate indicators for measuring progress of disability-inclusive education. This paper…

  14. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  15. Exploring the role of Micronesian islands in the maintenance of coral genetic diversity in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S W; Treml, E A; Kenkel, C D; Matz, M V

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity is maintained across patchy marine environments remains a fundamental problem in marine biology. The Coral Triangle, located in the Indo-West Pacific, is the centre of marine biodiversity and has been proposed as an important source of genetic diversity for remote Pacific reefs. Several studies highlight Micronesia, a scattering of hundreds of small islands situated within the North Equatorial Counter Current, as a potentially important migration corridor. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the population genetic structure of two ecologically important congeneric species of reef-building corals across greater Micronesia, from Palau to the Marshall Islands. Genetic divergences between islands followed an isolation-by-distance pattern, with Acropora hyacinthus exhibiting greater genetic divergences than A. digitifera, suggesting different migration capabilities or different effective population sizes for these closely related species. We inferred dispersal distance using a biophysical larval transport model, which explained an additional 15-21% of the observed genetic variation compared to between-island geographical distance alone. For both species, genetic divergence accumulates and genetic diversity diminishes with distance from the Coral Triangle, supporting the hypothesis that Micronesian islands act as important stepping stones connecting the central Pacific with the species-rich Coral Triangle. However, for A. hyacinthus, the species with lower genetic connectivity, immigration from the subequatorial Pacific begins to play a larger role in shaping diversity than input from the Coral Triangle. This work highlights the enormous dispersal potential of broadcast-spawning corals and identifies the biological and physical drivers that influence coral genetic diversity on a regional scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  17. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of a public health approach to pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Annette; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Swanepoel, De Wet; Goulios, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Childhood hearing impairment is a significant cause of disability in developing countries. Otitis media and meningitis are leading infectious causes of preventable hearing loss in children. It is estimated that the Pacific Islands have among the greatest global burden of childhood hearing impairment due to infectious causes, and yet there is currently very little in the research literature on pediatric hearing disorders in this region. (1) To review existing research literature on pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands, and (2) to present a public health approach to the development and improvement of childhood hearing services in the Pacific Islands. The primary tool was a comprehensive literature review. MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant journal articles. There was no limit on the date of publication. Any article reporting on hearing impairment in the Pacific Region was included. A total of 23 journal articles were found that satisfied the above inclusion criteria. The limited information available in the literature suggests that otitis media and vaccine-preventable infections are a significant cause of avoidable childhood hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands. Pediatric audiology services are limited in this region. Further research is required to develop effective public health programs that should reduce the burden of preventable childhood hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. There is limited information in the research literature on pediatric hearing impairment and audiology services in the Pacific Islands. Epidemiological data based on the WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol are urgently needed, and the development of audiology services within the existing public and primary health care framework should reduce the burden of preventable hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  20. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  1. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowasch, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in the vast mineral resources in the Pacific Island region, visible in increasing investment. Nevertheless, Australia remains the principal economic and key security partner for most of the Island states. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements that are another issue in Pacific Island politics.

  5. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.

  6. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Maori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, M.; Bosman, A.; Wagemakers, A.; Kira, A.; Paton, C.; Cowie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Maori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a

  7. Low health literacy and poor health status in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Baker, Kay Kromer; Onaka, Alvin; Braun, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AA/PI). We used a population-based sample in Hawai'i to consider if low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes in Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiians, and other AA/PI groups compared with Whites. In data weighted and adjusted for population undercounts and complex survey design, low health literacy varied significantly by group, from 23.9% among Filipinos, 20.6% in Other AA/PI, 16.0% in Japanese, 15.9% in Native Hawaiians, and 13.2% in Whites (χ(2) (4) = 52.22; p culture, and health outcomes.

  8. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  9. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-10-16

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use.

  10. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Mackay, Andrew J; Santiago, Gilberto A; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

  11. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and... Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009 Proc. 8369 Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009By the... cultural traditions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders continues to strengthen the fabric of American...

  12. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  13. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  14. A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Reduction for Asian and Pacific Islander American Women With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-11-02

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce inequalities for Pacific people. Published by the BMJ

  16. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  17. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  18. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  19. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  20. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  1. Invasive exotic plants in the tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Denslow; J.C. Space; P.A. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic islands are good model systems with which to explore factors affecting exotic species diversity. Islands vary in size, topography, substrate type, degree of isolation, native species diversity, history, human population characteristics, and economic development. Moreover, islands are highly vulnerable to exotic species establishment. We used AICc analyses of...

  2. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  3. 76 FR 11227 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... improve the economic and community development of AAPI businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public... White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  4. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as... order to attend the meeting (e.g., interpreting services, assistive listening devices, or material in...

  5. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... generations of striving immigrants who shaped our history--reaching and sweating and scraping to give their... Islanders have prevailed over adversity and risen to the top of their fields--from medicine to business to..., including Asia and the Pacific. Meeting those challenges will not be easy. But the history of the AAPI...

  6. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.

    2005-01-01

    Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    in the Asian American and Pacific Islander community waiting to sworn into the President's Advisory Command's first dedicated campaign geared towards the Asian-American community, 'A Warriors' Education,' is Northwestern University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in 2005. After college, Lt. Sham attended

  8. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  9. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  10. The Potential for Soviet Penetration of the Pacific Islands: An Assessment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    economies also implies diseconornies of 0 scale in both the public and private sectors. Investments in econmic and social infrastructures such as...source) was less to be feared by the Pacific Islands under current circunstances than econmic dcmination (again, whatever the source). Econacnic

  11. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...

  12. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  13. The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

    1999-01-01

    Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

  14. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  15. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY... and gear, as specified in 50 CFR 665 and 50 CFR 300. Vessels registered for use with a permit issued... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel operator...

  16. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  17. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... opportunities, and weaving their rich heritage into our cultural tapestry. During Asian American and Pacific... 100th anniversary of the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay, a milestone that reminds..., unsanitary barracks. Many who were not turned back by racially prejudiced immigration laws endured hardship...

  18. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  19. Scurvy in a tropical paradise? Evaluating the possibility of infant and adult vitamin C deficiency in the Lapita skeletal sample of Teouma, Vanuatu, Pacific islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hallie R; Kinaston, Rebecca; Halcrow, Siân E; Foster, Aimee; Spriggs, Matthew; Bedford, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The Neolithic colonisation of the Pacific islands was one of the most challenging migration events in human history. The regions east of the Solomon Islands were colonised relatively recently by a people known as the Lapita. The Lapita brought with them a 'transported landscape' of domesticated plants and animals that had to be established upon arrival for the survival of these fledgling communities. Colonisation of these previously uninhabited islands was potentially perilous, and could leave colonisers vulnerable to periods of resource stress. The largest cemetery sample of Lapita people from the site of Teouma in Vanuatu offers a unique opportunity to assess the impact of colonisation on the health of pioneering populations. This paper explores the possibility that Teouma people experienced vitamin C deficiency as one of the consequences of the agricultural subsistence practices during the initial phases of island colonisation. Skeletal lesions in infants and adults indicative of scurvy suggest that initial colonisation phases in the Pacific islands involved precarious times involving deficiencies of key nutrients. Colonisation of the Pacific islands may share similar frameworks and problems as periods of subsistence transition in other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Three Mile Island Population Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M K; Tokuhata, G K; Digon, E; Caldwell, G G; Stein, G F; Lutz, G; Gur, D

    1983-01-01

    Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and health-related information was collected on each person to provide baseline data for future short- and long-term epidemiologic studies of the effects of the accident. Individual radiation doses were estimated on the basis of residential location and the amount of time each person spent in the 5-mile area during the 10 days after the accident. Health and behavioral resurveys of the population will be conducted approximately every 5 years. Population-mobility, morbidity, and mortality will be studied yearly by matching the TMI Population Registry with postal records, cancer registry records, and death certificate data. Because the radiation dose from TMI was extremely small, any increase in morbidity or mortality attributable to the accident would be so small as not to be measurable by present methods; however, adverse health effects as a result of psychological stress may occur. Also, a temporary increase in reporting of disease could occur because of increased surveillance and attention to health.

  1. Development on the periphery: monitoring science, technology and innovation for sustainable development among Pacific Island Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaradasa, R.; Turpin, T

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of science, technology and innovation indicators in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries. Data are drawn from interviews with senior officials in Fiji, regional policy documents, and data held at the University of the South Pacific. The limited data available is mostly held in separate national agencies with little national or regional collaboration. The paper argues that the paucity of S&T data available for policy making or analysis is symptomatic of the nature of development in the region and the inappropriateness of indicators designed primarily for industrialised economies. It concludes with an observation that the drive toward sustainable development is steering a regional move toward development of an S,T&I indicator hub located across one or more Pacific Island countries. (Author)

  2. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... Islands and Ontong Java, have been and will be affected, and what adaptation strategies they may employ. An attempt is made to cover a wide range of aspects of this problem field, spanning from climate change itself and its impacts on livelihood activities to decision-making processes and sets of actions......, while current voluntary migration may be claimed to have positive effects on island communities. In order for migration to constitute a viable ‘adaptation option’ in a future situation of increased rate of sea-level rise, certain barriers to migration need to be overcome, however. Theses barriers...

  3. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  4. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in prehistoric Pacific islanders determined by analysis of ancient bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, E; Clegg, J B

    1993-05-22

    A previously characterized Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length mutation has been detected in DNA isolated from prehistoric human bones from Polynesia, including Hawaii, Chatham Islands and Society Islands. In contrast, the Asian mutation was absent in skeletal samples from the Melanesian archipelagos of New Britain and Vanuatu and in the oldest samples from Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in the central Pacific (2700-1600 years BP) although it was present in a more recent prehistoric sample from Tonga. These results, augmented by informative DNA sequence data from the hypervariable region of mtDNA, fail to support current views that the central Pacific was settled directly by voyagers from island Southeast Asia, the putative ancestors of modern Polynesians. An earlier occupation by peoples from the neighbouring Melanesian archipelagos seems more likely.

  6. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  7. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.-O. Pettersson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS (which includes microcephaly and Guillain-BarrÅèôÉééééÅèé syndrome (GBS have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

  8. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  9. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    OpenAIRE

    Kowasch, Matthias; Lindenmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in t...

  10. Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofer Tamara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of differentiation among populations depend both on demographic and selective factors: genetic drift and local adaptation increase population differentiation, which is eroded by gene flow and balancing selection. We describe here the genomic distribution and the properties of genomic regions with unusually high and low levels of population differentiation in humans to assess the influence of selective and neutral processes on human genetic structure. Methods Individual SNPs of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP showing significantly high or low levels of population differentiation were detected under a hierarchical-island model (HIM. A Hidden Markov Model allowed us to detect genomic regions or islands of high or low population differentiation. Results Under the HIM, only 1.5% of all SNPs are significant at the 1% level, but their genomic spatial distribution is significantly non-random. We find evidence that local adaptation shaped high-differentiation islands, as they are enriched for non-synonymous SNPs and overlap with previously identified candidate regions for positive selection. Moreover there is a negative relationship between the size of islands and recombination rate, which is stronger for islands overlapping with genes. Gene ontology analysis supports the role of diet as a major selective pressure in those highly differentiated islands. Low-differentiation islands are also enriched for non-synonymous SNPs, and contain an overly high proportion of genes belonging to the 'Oncogenesis' biological process. Conclusions Even though selection seems to be acting in shaping islands of high population differentiation, neutral demographic processes might have promoted the appearance of some genomic islands since i as much as 20% of islands are in non-genic regions ii these non-genic islands are on average two times shorter than genic islands, suggesting a more rapid erosion by recombination, and iii most loci are

  11. Barriers, Springboards and Benchmarks: China Conceptualizes the Pacific Island Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    similarly prescient predictions by 1921 before dying on Japanese Palau in 1923. Friedman 2015. For theatre geometry and island chains descriptions, see...Zhongguo de ‘ni huo’ he ‘xiong’” ([ Russian ] “Backfire” and “Bear” [Strategic Bombers] to fly to China). Jianzai wuqi March, 12–16. Ding, Zhaolun. 2011

  12. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    Full Text Available Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4. Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI. To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT, and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population were reported. Of 867 (54% laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24% had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7% had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future

  13. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  14. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. Flint; Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  15. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  16. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  17. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  18. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  19. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  20. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  1. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  2. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  3. Tomographic imaging of subducted lithosphere below northwest Pacific island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hilst, R.; Engdahl, R.; Spakman, W.; Nolet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The seismic tomography problem does not have a unique solution, and published tomographic images have been equivocal with regard to the deep structure of subducting slabs. An improved tomographic method, using a more realistic background Earth model and surf ace-reflected as well as direct seismic phases, shows that slabs beneath the Japan and Izu Bonin island arcs are deflected at the boundary between upper and lower mantle, whereas those beneath the northern Kuril and Mariana arcs sink into the lower mantle.

  4. Holocene emergence in the Cook Islands, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Stoddart, D. R.; Spencer, T.; Scoffin, T. P.; Tudhope, A. W.

    1990-03-01

    There is evidence of Holocene emergence on several of the Cook Islands. On Suwarrow Atoll there are extensive outcrops of emergent, but truncated, reef on the northern atoll rim, radiocarbon-dated 4680 4310 years B. P., overlain by younger cemented boulder conglomerates. On the northeast of the atoll there are fossil algal ridges indicating up to 1 m of emergence; the landwardmost has been dated 4220 years B. P., the intermediate one 3420 years B. P. and the present one 1250 years B. P. On Mitiaro, a makatea island in the Southern Cooks, there are emergent reefal deposits in the centre of the reef flat dated 5140 3620 years B. P. Similar thought poorly preserved deposits occur on Mauke, and an erosional bench and notch occurs on Atiu. Emergence on all islands appears synchronous with that reported on Mangaia, where a relative fall of sea level of at least 1.7 m in the last 3400 years has been reported. The evidence for emergence is broadly similar to that described from French Polynesia, though timing of emergence appears to differ.

  5. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  6. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables.

  8. Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

    2014-02-01

    The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

  9. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  10. Comparing metabolic control and complications in type 2 diabetes in two Pacific Islands at baseline and following diabetes care intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Thu Win Tin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates improved metabolic control but little change in diabetes complications 15 months after intervention. Efforts to improve and evaluate the ongoing quality and accessibility of diabetes care in Pacific Island settings need to be further strengthened.

  11. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  12. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  13. A systems-based approach to transform climate education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. English is the common language of instruction in all jurisdictions, but is not the language spoken at home for most students outside of Hawai'i. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. PCEP has developed a regional network, tools, and an emerging plan to systemically transform K-14 climate education in the USAPI. More than 50 organizations and networks have joined the partnership. These partners include all of the region's state departments of education, major universities, and community colleges, and a wide range of local partners, particularly conservation organizations. One of PCEP's major tools is general, multidisciplinary K-14 climate science education framework that organizes major underlying concepts and skills within appropriate grade-span progressions. This framework is based largely upon prior national science and climate literacy work and the National Research Council's recent document "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The PCEP climate education framework has an Earth System Science foundation that is directly applicable in all locations, and it also has orientations that are

  14. Pliocene-Quaternary history of Futuna island, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; McCulloch, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium-series ages from thermal ionisation mass spectrometry are reported here for the raised coral reefs of Futuna Island, which lies adjacent to the eastern margin of the backarc Futuna Trough in south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. U-series ages from coral from the lowest raised reef indicate that its upper part is most likely to be ca 210 ka, whereas the most elevated raised reef has a likely age of ca 520 ka (range 600-440 ka). The inferred Pliocene-Quaternary history for Futuna Island and the adjacent Futuna Trough is: (i) formation of the Pliocene - Early Quaternary basaltic-andesite cone in a southeast part of the Vanuatu Island Arc; (ii) inception of the Futuna Trough (adjacent to the west margin of Futuna Island) since 1.8Ma; (iii) subsequent uplift of the volcanic cone above sea-level caused ∼ 500 m of its upper part to be removed by marine erosion; (iv) the island then subsided and at least 160 m of limestone was deposited on the truncated cone; and (v) during the period 520 ka to ca 210 ka seven fringing reefs formed at the margin of the cone as the island was uplifted. Since ca 210 ka Futuna further subsided and, as a result, the post ca 210 ka history of the island is obscure. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  15. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Sharma, Susan; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands.

  17. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  18. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  19. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  20. Pacific Islanders and Amerindian relatedness according to HLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups of populations, like the presence of South American sweet potato in earlier .... Aymara (Bolivia), Uros (Peru) and Lamas (Peru) populations were .... Redish to yellow colours mean a gradient of HLA relatedness according to geography.

  1. Labour market institutions in small Pacific island countries: Main guidelines for labour market reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, Miguel Á.

    2017-01-01

    This report consists of a comprehensive overview of labour market institutions in the small Pacific island countries in order to propose recommendations to improve the performance of their labour markets. We pay particular attention to three countries: Fiji, Palau and Papua New Guinea. We focus on the main pillars of labour market institutions, as employment protection legislation, minimum wage, and labour organization. The analysis considers the possibilities for institutional change in the ...

  2. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  3. Uranium geochemistry and dating of Pacific island apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, K K; Burnett, W C [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    1985-07-01

    Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of island phosphate deposits is evaluated in terms of known associated coral ages, uranium geochemistry, and stratigraphic sequences as well as the concordance between the geochronometers /sup 234/U//sup 238/U, /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U and /sup 226/Ra//sup 238/U. U(VI) is the predominant oxidation state of uranium in island phosphorites and by analogy to the youngest surficial deposits, most of the uranium initially bound is in the form of U(VI) sorbed by surfaces from seawater. Insular deposits contain more organic matter than even very young ocean floor samples and this leads to a greater probability of reduction of available recoil uranium than occurs in marine deposits. As a consequence, R(VI) <= R(T) <= R(VI), where R represents the /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio. This situation is completely opposite from that observed for marine-origin phosphorites. We determined that a fraction of U(VI) in ancient insular phosphorites is very labile and lost to alkaline carbonate solutions with a uranium activity ratio even more depleted in /sup 234/U than the bulk R(VI). The results are discussed.

  4. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  5. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Anderson, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  7. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  8. Exploring the hypothesis of ethnic practice as social capital: violence among Asian/Pacific Islander youth in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Irwin, Katherine; Umemoto, Karen N; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Choi-Misailidis, Soojean

    2009-11-01

    Studies of youth violence have usually examined social capital using qualitative methods, but remain limited by small sample sizes. In addition, few studies examine violence among Asian/Pacific Islander (API) youth, even though they are one of the fastest-growing youth populations in the USA. To contribute to a better understanding of culture and ethnicity in youth violence among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by quantifying ethnic forms of social capital. We use an n = 326 sample of three API groups from Oahu, Hawaii. Defining social capital as ethnic practice, we test Filipino, Hawaiian and Samoan forms of youth social capital on intimate and non-intimate violence. Bivariate findings associate lower violence with language ability among Filipinos, coming-of-age practices among Hawaiians, and community leader engagement among Samoans. Multivariate tests showed language to be the strongest correlation. Bivariate tests also suggested potentially risky forms of social capital. results lead us to hypothesize that social capital that deliberately places individuals within their respective ethnic communities are risk-reducing, as are those that promote formal ethnic community structures. Those that formalize ethnic practice and social capital into commercial activities may be associated with higher risk of violence. Given the relatively small sample size and the exploratory approach for the present investigation, further research is needed to determine whether the findings can be replicated and to extend the findings of the present preliminary study.

  9. Increasing Awareness of Gynecologic Cancer Risks and Symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-Associated Pacific Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinson, Daniel; Puckett, Mary; Townsend, Julie; Reichhardt, Martina; Tareg, Aileen; Palemar, Jennifer; Wichilib, Ritchie; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-08-27

    Background: Gynecologic cancers are common among Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (A/NH/PI) women. Prevention is important in United States associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPIJ) because there are limited resources to treat cancer. The objective of this study was to educate A/NH/PI women and providers about evidence-based interventions to prevent and control gynecologic cancers in Yap, one of four major islands comprising the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This was done through a partnership between Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer national campaign and the Yap comprehensive cancer control program, both funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods: Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer. Results: Twenty-nine providers and 326 adult women participated in sessions. All participants demonstrated significant increases in knowledge across all measured domains post-session. Public knowledge that HPV causes cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer increased from 4.9% pre-session to 51.4% post-session (pgynecologic cancer knowledge pre-session compared to 91.7% post-session. Conclusion: Targeted education about gynecologic cancer symptoms and risk factors can be effective at increasing awareness, behavioral intention, confidence and knowledge. These increases can lead to more widespread prevention of these five cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Dietary intake of aluminum in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this study was to analyze the aluminum content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island population to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro). Four hundred and forty samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Estimated total intake of aluminum for the Canary population was 10.171 mg/day, slightly higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI; 10 mg/day for a person weighing 70 kg). Aluminum intake by age and sex of the Canary Island population was also determined and compared values from other populations, both national and international.

  11. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  13. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  15. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands o Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Krauss; D.R. Cahoon; J.A. Allen; K.C. Ewel; J.C. Lynch; N. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marinecommunities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer...

  16. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed.

  17. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  18. Gender Differences in the Use of Drug Resistance Strategies: An Analysis of Rural Asian/Pacific Islander Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Pel, Suzanne; Helm, Susana; Valdez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the use of drug resistance strategies for rural Asian/Pacific Islander youth. Multi-ethnic Asian/Pacific Islander youth (N = 213) from 6 middle/intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai’i participated in the study, and gender differences in their real-world use of specific strategies (e.g., refuse, explain, avoid, leave) were examined. Despite similar levels of exposure to situations where drugs and/or alcohol were offered, girls indicated significa...

  19. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  20. Renewable Energy in the Pacific Islands: An overview and exemplary projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcourigaray, Jean; Wary, David; Bitot, Stephane; Audras, Frederic; Riviere, Francoise

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an objective documentary source, relevant and usable for institutional and economic players at a regional colloquium on renewable energies which was to be organized by the French Polynesian community and the High Commission of the Republic in the second quarter of 2014. However, the date was put back due to local political changes which occurred following the last territorial elections (mid-2013). More largely, in the context of the fight against climate change, the subject of renewable energies takes on considerable importance. A large number of island States in the Pacific zone are extremely dependent on fossil fuels, and in the coming years, will face major impacts related to climate change (biodiversity, rising sea level, food security,...). It should be noted here that the small island countries (notably those of the Pacific) which belong to the intergovernmental organization AOSIS (Alliance of Small Island States), constitute a real lobbying force in the face of large industrialized countries at climate negotiations. Images of the Maldives' Council of Ministers meeting underwater demonstrate the will of small island States to make themselves heard at the highest levels. The notion of 'climate refugees' is not a mere idea; it could soon become a veritable legal concept. This study in no way claims to meet these challenges, but strives to highlight some solutions which are working ('good practices' in donors' terms), in order to propose adapting or replicating them. The accepted approach is thus above all positive and constructive: solutions exist, sometimes at low cost, and the projects help give Pacific peoples the feeling that they belong to wider global community, not to mention a sometimes small but important part of their harmony

  1. Population structure of Pacific Common Eiders breeding in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.; Flint, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study the migration routes and wintering areas of two allopatric breeding populations of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) in Alaska: the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and the western Beaufort Sea coast. Only 6% (2 of 36) of females wintered within the wintering area of the other breeding population. Both breeding populations wintered in the closest available ice-free habitat, perhaps to minimize migratory distance. Two Beaufort Sea females wintered in areas used by Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta females, implying potential gene flow among breeding areas. Yet, we conclude that these two populations are largely geographically isolated throughout the annual cycle and the environmental factors influencing survival and reproduction likely differ between these groups of birds. Thus, regardless of the potential gene flow among breeding populations, we suggest that birds from these two breeding areas should be managed as separate populations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  2. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  3. Population diversity in Pacific herring of the Puget Sound, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, Margaret C; Francis, Tessa B

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, functional, or habitat diversity can confer stability on populations via portfolio effects (PEs) that integrate across multiple ecological responses and buffer against environmental impacts. The prevalence of these PEs in aquatic organisms is as yet unknown, and can be difficult to quantify; however, understanding mechanisms that stabilize populations in the face of environmental change is a key concern in ecology. Here, we examine PEs in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound (USA) using a 40-year time series of biomass data for 19 distinct spawning population units collected using two survey types. Multivariate auto-regressive state-space models show independent dynamics among spawning subpopulations, suggesting that variation in herring production is partially driven by local effects at spawning grounds or during the earliest life history stages. This independence at the subpopulation level confers a stabilizing effect on the overall Puget Sound spawning stock, with herring being as much as three times more stable in the face of environmental perturbation than a single population unit of the same size. Herring populations within Puget Sound are highly asynchronous but share a common negative growth rate and may be influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The biocomplexity in the herring stock shown here demonstrates that preserving spatial and demographic diversity can increase the stability of this herring population and its availability as a resource for consumers.

  4. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Mapping the Forgotten Colony: The Ogasawara Islands and the Tokugawa Pivot to the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rüegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1862, Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate claimed the Ogasawara Islands, a small archipelago between Honshu and Guam, as a part of Japan. In the manageable setting of the islands, the shogunate undertook a colonial experiment that revealed changing attitudes toward non-Japanese ethnicities, modern technologies, and maritime space. Through an examination of four maps, this article shows that Japanese intellectuals had been discussing plans for settler colonialism in the Pacific almost a century before Tokugawa leaders began exploring the open sea as an economic space. In the shogunate’s two-tiered strategy, agriculture assimilated the land, and law subjected its earlier settlers. This approach provided a foothold for offshore whaling, which transformed the surrounding seas into a space of production. However, expanding the sphere of Tokugawa influence necessitated a redefinition of the Japanese realm. Geographical notions were reshaped to make the overseas territory a part of the Izu archipelago some 700 kilometers farther north, and the presence of Western settlers was countered with narratives of earlier possession and relocation of Japanese individuals. Officials were particularly intrigued by formerly unknown plant and animal species found on the islands. Exploring economic opportunities in the Pacific sphere, they prepared a geopolitical shift that is often associated with Japan’s modern empire. This article, by contrast, locates the origins of modern Japan’s “pelagic empire” well before the Meiji Reform and shows how expansionism was reconciled with earlier perceptions of geography.

  6. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  7. A Framework for Disaster Vulnerability in a Small Island in the Southwest Pacific: A Case Study of Emae Island, Vanuatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Jackson; Karen McNamara; Bradd Witt

    2017-01-01

    The societal costs of disasters around the world are continuing to increase and Pacific Island countries are considered some of the most vulnerable.This is primarily due to a combination of high hazard exposure coupled with a range of social,economic,physical,and political vulnerabilities.This article contributes to the growing body of work that aims to understand the causal factors of disaster vulnerability,but with a specific focus on small island developing states.The article first develops a framework for understanding disaster vulnerability,drawing on extensive literature and the well-established Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability in Europe (MOVE) framework,and second,applies this adapted framework using empirically-derived data from fieldwork on Emae Island,Vanuatu to provide a working understanding of the causal elements of disaster vulnerability.Drawn from a significant body of scholarship at the time,the MOVE framework was primarily developed as a heuristic tool in which disaster vulnerability is considered to be a function of exposure,susceptibility (socially,economically,physically,culturally,environmentally,institutionally),and a lack of resilience.We posit that this adapted framework for small islands should also include historical susceptibility,and we prefer livelihood resilience (as capabilities,social capital,knowledge,participation,and human rights) over lack of resilience.We maintain that understanding disaster vulnerability holistically,which is inclusive of both strengths and drawbacks,is crucial to ensure that limited resources can target the causal factors that produce vulnerability and help safeguard and improve livelihoods in both the short and long term.

  8. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  9. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  10. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  11. Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast during the summers of 1974 - 1976 and 1977 - 1978 and correction factors for undercounting and seasonal cycles were applied. Present population size is approximately 200000, giving an intrinsic rate of ...

  12. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Todd Jones

    Full Text Available The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance. Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112 with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6 equivalent to 4.2×10(8 megajoules (MJ (range 2.0-7.4×10(8. Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6 t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8 MJ per year. Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians; they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output.

  13. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  14. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    OpenAIRE

    Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...

  15. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  16. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  17. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  18. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  19. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  20. Utilizing the NASA and NOAA Joint Ocean Surface Topography Mission to Assess Patterns and Trends in Sea-Surface Height in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, S. S.; Walker, K. A.; Courtright, A. B.; Young, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are home to a population of low-lying coral atolls which are extremely vulnerable to sea level rise. Coastal infrastructure like groundwater reservoirs, harbor operations, and sewage systems, as well as natural coastal features such as reefs and beach ecosystems, are most vulnerable during inundation events. These Pacific Islanders face increasing hazards as coastal flooding infiltrates freshwater resources and may even lead to displacement. The two main components of inundation include tidal fluctuations and sea level anomalies; however, low-lying atolls are also vulnerable to the additional influence of waves. This study created a climatology of significant wave height in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and incorporated this dataset with tides and sea level anomalies to create a novel approach to assessing inundation flood risk in the RMI. The risk metric was applied to the RMI as a study site with the goal of assessing wider-scale applicability across the rest of the USAPI. The inclusion of wave height and wave direction as a crucial component of the risk metric will better inform USAPI coastal-managers for future inundation events and disaster preparedness. In addition to the risk metric, a wave-rose atlas was created for decision-makers in the RMI. This study highlights the often-overlooked region of the Pacific and demonstrates the application of the risk metric to specific examples in the RMI.

  1. Conservation biology for suites of species: Demographic modeling for Pacific island kingfishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation practitioners frequently extrapolate data from single-species investigations when managing critically endangered populations. However, few researchers initiate work with the intent of making findings useful to conservation efforts for other species. We presented and explored the concept of conducting conservation-oriented research for suites of geographically separated populations with similar natural histories, resource needs, and extinction threats. An example was provided in the form of an investigation into the population demography of endangered Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus). We provided the first demographic parameter estimates for any of the 12 endangered Pacific Todiramphus species, and used results to develop a population projection matrix model for management throughout the insular Pacific. Further, we used the model for elasticity and simulation analyses with demographic values that randomly varied across ranges that might characterize congener populations. Results from elasticity and simulation analyses indicated that changes in breeding adult survival exerted the greatest magnitude of influence on population dynamics. However, changes in nestling survival were more consistently correlated with population dynamics as demographic rates were randomly altered. We concluded that conservation practitioners working with endangered Pacific kingfishers should primarily focus efforts on factors affecting nestling and breeder survival, and secondarily address fledgling juveniles and helpers. Further, we described how the generalized base model might be changed to focus on individual populations and discussed the potential application of multi-species models to other conservation situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Population Ecology of Caribou Populations without Predators: Southampton and Coats Island Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Quellet

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the ecology of two caribou populations inhabiting predator-free northern islands, Coats and Southampton Island. Findings are analyzed in light of the hypothesis that in absence of prédation or high human harvest, food competition results in delayed puberty, reduced calf production, increased winter starvation of caribou and regulates populations at high densities (>2 km-2. Caribou were hunted to extinction on Southampton Island (Northwest Territories, Canada by mid-century. In 1967, 48 caribou were captured on neighbouring Coats Island and released on Southampton Island. Southampton Island is characterized by a high per capita winter food availability in summer and in winter. The population on Southampton Island has been increasing at a rapid rate of growth since re-introduction (Lamba=1.27. Fast population growth was possible because females invested early in reproduction and over winter survival rate was high. The population on Coats Island is also characterized by high per capita food availability in summer but low food availability in winter. The population size has undergone some marked fluctuations, abrupt declines followed by relatively rapid recovery and, contrary to predictions, densities were always less than 1 km-2. Low population densities on Coats Island result primarily from low food availability. This review suggests that in the absence of prédation or high human harvest competition for food regulates caribou population abundance. However, caribou numbers can fluctuate markedly among years because inter-annual variation of weather conditions affects forage accessibility in winter. This review also emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between factors that determine absolute population density and variation in density among years (in our case probably plant production and winter weather conditions which influence forage accessibility from the regulatory factors, processes that stop population

  3. The case for investing in family planning in the Pacific: costs and benefits of reducing unmet need for contraception in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unmet need for family planning in the Pacific is among the highest in the world. Better understanding of required investments and associated benefits of increased access to family planning in the Pacific may assist prioritisation and funding. Methods We modelled the costs and associated health, demographic and economic impacts of reducing unmet need for family planning between 2010–2025 in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Baseline data were obtained from census reports, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UN agency reports. Using a demographic modelling program we compared a scenario of “no change in unmet need” with two distinct scenarios: 1) all family planning needs met by 2020; and, 2) all needs met by 2050. Results Meeting family planning needs by 2020 would increase prevalence of modern contraception in 2025 from 36.8 to 65.5% in Vanuatu and 28.5 to 37.6% in the Solomon Islands. Between 2010–2025 the average annual number of unintended pregnancies would decline by 68% in Vanuatu and 50% in the Solomon Islands, and high-risk births would fall by more than 20%, averting 2,573 maternal and infant deaths. Total fertility rates would fall from 4.1 to 2.2 in Vanuatu and 3.5 in the Solomon Islands, contributing to slowed population growth and lower dependency ratios. The direct cost of reducing unmet need by 2020 was estimated to be $5.19 million for Vanuatu and $3.36 million for the Solomon Islands between 2010–2025. Preventing unintended pregnancies would save $112 million in health and education expenditure. Conclusions In small island developing states such as Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, increasing investment in family planning would contribute to improved maternal and infant outcomes and substantial public sector savings. PMID:23758783

  4. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  5. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term

  6. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  7. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  8. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  9. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  10. Comprehensive Review of Preschool Age Anemia in the Pacific Island Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiffany F; Huang, James N; Cash, Haley L

    2017-12-01

    Anemia can be an indicator of poor nutrition and health, and it can have significant consequences. Children are disproportionately affected by anemia. This comprehensive review summarizes the available literature on anemia prevalence in young children in the islands of the Oceania region. The anemia prevalence, the criteria used for diagnosis, the date the data was reported, and the types of samples collected were reviewed. Anemia prevalence estimates were reported for eighteen of the Pacific Island Jurisdictions. From the fifteen data sources that were evaluable, anemia prevalence ranged from 12.3% to over 70%. A major limitation in the data is a lack of representative primary data from many of the jurisdictions in the region. Prevalance estimates reported for those jurisdictions are estimated by regression analysis from the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the primary data available does not use standardized reporting criteria. Nevertheless, this review serves as a new baseline for further investigations on the prevalence of anemia and a baseline for evaluating public health prevention and treatment measures to detect and improve anemia prevalence in the Pacific.

  11. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.

  12. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  14. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  15. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  16. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  17. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  18. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003-08-22 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0129066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  19. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  20. First record and impact of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Spinulosida: Acanthasteridae on corals of Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupskaya Narváez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. We have recently found two individuals of A. planci at Malpelo Island, a small oceanic island with significant coral communities located off the Colombian Pacific coast. The recent discovery of A. planci at Malpelo is significant in light of recent reports of its increased frequency of observation at Cocos Island and occurrence at the Galapagos Islands. The individuals found at Malpelo have been repeatedly sighted since 2004, actively feeding on nine species of coral. Although densities of A. planci are low at Malpelo and other oceanic islands of the TEP, these islands may act as stepping stones for the colonization of other coral reef areas in the region. However, the low densities of A. planci suggest that it currently poses no threat to coral reefs in the TEP. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 139-143. Epub 2010 May 01.La estrella de mar corona de espinas Acanthaster planci, es un importante depredador de coral ampliamente distribuido en la región del Indo-Pacifico, donde explosiones poblacionales han causado dramáticos impactos sobre los arrecifes coralinos. En el Pacifico Oriental Tropical (POT A. planci ocurre con densidades poblacionales bajas; solamente en Panamá e Isla de Cocos su abundancia ha sido significativa. Nosotros encontramos recientemente al menos dos individuos de A. planci en la Isla de Malpelo, una pequeña isla oceánica con comunidades coralinas importantes localizada en el Pacífico Colombiano. El hallazgo de A. planci en Malpelo es significativo a la luz de reportes recientes de un incremento en su frecuencia de observación en Isla de Cocos y su registro en Galápagos. Los

  1. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  2. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Ethnic and Gender Subgroup Differences in Education, Employment, and Incarceration in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The stratification of opportunities and disparate outcomes for Black and Latino boys and men has been well documented. However, there remains a lack of awareness about the extent to which these issues are relevant for the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. This brief focuses on key status and leading indicators for the mobility…

  4. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... any of the following methods. For information on viewing or obtaining the documents, see ``Public... species in their natural setting on the Atoll. The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument... eliminate black rats from Palmyra Atoll. Public Availability of the DEIS The DEIS is available for viewing...

  5. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  6. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  7. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  8. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  9. Doctor William Gunn (1804-1890): From the South Pacific Islands to Chatham Royal Dockyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Richard

    2016-11-24

    Doctor William Gunn had a long and varied career in the Royal Navy. After spending time on anti-slavery patrols along the west coast of Africa, he was posted to the south Pacific. At Pitcairn Island, he treated the inhabitants during an influenza epidemic, proving himself to be a determined and dedicated practitioner. Subsequently, he was appointed head of the medical department at Chatham Royal Dockyard (1859-1865), an appointment that coincided with the final stages of the Royal Navy's transition from sail and wood to steam and iron. The impact of these changes on the health of dockworkers was quickly felt at Chatham, and Gunn found himself in charge during the building of the first iron warship in a royal dockyard. His story thus offers a window through which to observe a practitioner confronting the health issues and medical uncertainties thrown up by technological change in the Victorian era. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  11. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  12. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Manu-Sione, Inez; Schubert, Lisa

    2017-01-13

    Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. The study has shown that the Good Start Program was effective in engaging children from Maori and Pacific Island backgrounds and in improving knowledge, and some attitudes and practices, related to healthy eating and physical activity. The evaluation contributes valuable information about components and impacts of this type of intervention, and considerations relevant to this population in order to successfully change behaviours and reduce the burden of chronic disease.

  13. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  14. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  15. MSAP In Tiger Snakes: Island Populations Are Epigenetically More Divergent

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Moumouni; Lopez, Carlos; Thomson, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Research on changes in phenotypic plasticity within wild animal populations is centuries old, however far fewer studies have investigated the role that epigenetics play in the development or persistence of natural variation in response to environmental change. Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are an ideal study organism to investigate the link between epigenetics and phenotypic responses to environmental change, as they live on a range of offshore islands with different environments and prey ...

  16. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  17. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  18. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  19. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, T.K.; Choong, Chee-Keong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverages in Pacific Island countries and territories: problems and solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W

    2014-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases are a major problem in the Pacific Islands, with poor diets an important contributing factor. Available data suggests high levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) across the region, and particularly in adolescents. Due to concerns about the risks to health of high intakes, efforts have been made across the region to reduce the intake of SSBs. French Polynesia, Nauru, Cook Islands, Tonga and Fiji have implemented sales or excise taxes on SSBs to increase the price to the consumer. Many countries in the region have adopted school food policies which intend to limit or ban access to SSBs in schools. Guam also adopted legislation to ensure that healthier foods and beverages were available in all vending machines in schools. Efforts to control advertising and sponsorship of SSBs have been limited to-date in the region, although some school food policies do restrict advertising and sponsorship in schools, school grounds and school vehicles. Efforts around education and awareness raising have shown mixed success in terms of changing behaviour. Greater attention is needed to evaluate the impact of these measures to ensure that actions are effective, and to increase the evidence regionally of the most effective approaches to tackle SSBs.

  1. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  2. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  3. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  4. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  5. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  6. Shallow CTD profiles collected from NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell and NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette, near tropical pacific islands, atolls and shoals of the NE Pacific from 2000 to 2010 (NODC Accession 0039382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  7. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  8. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  9. Validating Stages of Change for Obesogenic Behaviors Across Filipino and Other Asian-American and Pacific Islander Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A; Tagorda, M; Kim, S; Rathke, M; Nigg, C R

    2018-06-01

    Filipino adolescents are underrepresented in obesity research, although Filipinos are the second largest Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulation in the USA. An understanding of how well the theories of behavior change apply to Filipino and other AAPI adolescents is critical to addressing obesogenic behaviors in these groups. This study aimed to validate the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake (FV) among a majority Filipino adolescent population. Adolescents in grades 9-11 (N = 159, 82.4% female) completed measures of PA and FV behaviors and PA and FV stages of change. One-way ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were computed to assess the validity of the PA and FV stages of change with the respective behaviors. There was a significant effect for fruit (action > contemplation, preparation) and vegetable (maintenance, action > contemplation) intakes across the FV stages of change. There was a significant effect of strenuous PA (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation Filipino and other AAPI adolescents. This validation, in turn, extends the generalizability of the stages of change construct to include this ethnic group and replicates other adolescent studies.

  10. NOAA/NMFS/CRED Deep CTD profiles from 15 cruises near islands, atolls and shoals in the central tropical Pacific 1999-2012 (NODC Accession 0115299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99118, Lat: -00.36291 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00816, Lat: -00.36887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.60m; Data Date Range: 20100405-20100708.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.62134, Lat: 00.80661 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.30m; Data Date Range: 20100203-20120312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bonnie J; Williams, Samuel M; Otway, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Einar E; Maher, Safia L; Bennett, Mike B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring ( F ST  > 0.14, p  Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional efforts to manage the sustainable exploitation of large migratory sharks like G. cuvier .

  19. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  1. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  2. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  3. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  4. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  5. 78 FR 32996 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The intent of this rule is to implement fishery management... Islands Monument, and Proclamation 8337 established the Rose Atoll Monument. The Proclamations define the...

  6. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  7. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Gender Comparisons Among Asian American and Pacific Islander Patients in Drug Dependency Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Lin, Veronique; Wu, Fei; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-05-11

    Few studies have focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), despite indications of increasing substance abuse among AAPIs in recent years. This prospective longitudinal study examined gender differences among AAPIs in treatment. The study included 567 (177 women, 390 men) AAPI patients drawn from two prior studies, one with 32 community treatment programs in 13 California counties (CalTOP, 3, 9 months), and another project including 36 treatment sites in 5 California counties (TSI, 3, 12 months). Baseline and follow-up assessments utilized the Addiction Severity Index(ASI). A subset of patients was assessed at 3 and 9/12 months (n = 106). Significant gender-related differences were observed at baseline: fewer women than men were employed or never married. More women were living with someone having alcohol and drug problems. Methamphetamine was the primary drug for women and men, followed by alcohol and heroin. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women reported greater problem severity in family/social relationships (0.18 vs. 0.11, p drug, and legal domains for both genders, and in mental health for men only. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women demonstrated significantly greater improvements in drug problems (ΔASI = 0.07, p drug use problems for AAPI men.

  9. Mapping Precipitation in the Lower Mekong River Basin and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sutton, J. R. P.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying precipitation across varying temporal and spatial scales is of utmost importance in understanding, monitoring, and predicting flooding and drought. While there exists many in-situ precipitation gages that can accurately estimate precipitation in a given location, there are still many areas that lack in-situ gages. Many of these locations do not have precipitation gages because they are rural and/or topographically complex. The purpose of our research was to compare different remotely sensed satellite precipitation estimates with in-situ estimates across topographically complex and rural terrain within the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB). We utilize the publicly available Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) Climate Data Record (CDR) from NOAA and two remotely sensed precipitation products from NASA; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). These precipitation estimates were compared with each other and to the available in-situ precipitation estimates from station gages. We also utilize NASA Landsat data to determine the land cover types of these study areas. Using the precipitation estimates, topography, and the land cover of the study areas, we were able to show areas experiencing differing amounts of rainfall and their agreement with in-situ estimates. Additionally, we study the seasonal and spatial trends in precipitation. These analyses can be used to help understand areas that are experience frequent flood or drought.

  10. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  11. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  12. Genetic and morphological differences among populations of the Bonin Islands White-eye in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kazuto; Harada, Sachiko; Suzuki, Tadashi; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2008-09-01

    The Bonin Islands White-eye, Apalopteron familiare , is the sole endemic avian species surviving on the Bonin Islands. The current distribution of this species is limited to only three islands of the Hahajima Island group: Hahajima, Imotojima, and Mukohjima. Imotojima and Mukohjima, which are small satellite islands of Hahajima, are about 3.6 km and 5.5 km, respectively, from the larger island. To investigate genetic and morphological differences among A. familiare populations on these islands, we assayed 634 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence for 132 birds from five locations among the three islands. We detected five haplotypes: two endemic haplotypes each on Hahajima and Imotojima and one on Mukohjima. Principal component analysis based on eight morphological characters of 162 birds from the three island populations revealed that birds from the small satellite islands had significantly different beak morphological characters. Our findings indicate that over-sea dispersal is rare in A. familiare , even when islands are separated by only a few kilometers, and suggest that little movement occurs on Hahajima. Thus, each population on each island should be conserved as an evolutionarily significant unit. The low dispersal ability of this species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. Although the populations are currently stable and do not require rapid countermeasures, they should be monitored, especially those on the smaller islands.

  13. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Grant A.; Bunbury, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub la...

  14. Are life histories of Norwegian fjord herring populations of Pacific ancestry similar to those of Atlantic or Pacific herring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Nina; Pedersen, Torstein; dos Santos Schmidt, Thassya Christina; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Slotte, Aril

    2018-04-01

    Herring from two unexploited fjord populations, Lake Rossfjord (LRH, n = 100) and Balsfjord (BFH, n = 420) in northern Norway, were sampled in 2014 and 2015. Life history characteristics were analysed and compared to the oceanic Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH), and other Atlantic and Pacific herring stocks. Genetic studies have shown that LRH and BFH are ancestors evolved from Pacific herring that hybridized with Atlantic herring. This study shows that both LRH and BFH mature at a relatively early age, at 2-3 years and ca. 4 years respectively, compared to ca. 5 years for NSSH. The spawning stocks of LRH and BFH consist of small fish and contain relatively few age classes. Both fjord populations have slow growth after sexual maturity; LRH has a very low asymptotic length (L∞ = 19.8 cm), while that of BFH is higher (L∞ of 28.5 cm); both these values being lower than that of NSSH (L∞ of ca. 37 cm). The somatic relative fecundity of LRH is 176.6 oocytes g- 1, while the somatic relative fecundity of recruit and repeat BFH spawners is 152.4 and 183.1 oocytes g- 1, respectively. These estimates are lower than those for NSSH and other Atlantic herring fjord populations, but comparable with other Pacific herring. Due to the smaller body sizes of the spawners in the LRH and BFH populations, absolute fecundity is much lower than in NSSH. The gonadosomatic indices of prespawning fish are similar in LRH and BFH, being slightly higher compared to the NSSH, but lower than values reported for Pacific herring. The natural mortality rates of LRH and BFH (M = 0.64 year- 1 and M = 0.76 year- 1, respectively) are much higher than in NSSH (M = 0.15 year- 1) and most other Atlantic herring populations, except the Lusterfjord herring. However, these high mortality rates are similar to those of several Pacific herring populations. It is concluded that LRH and BFH show low somatic growth and high natural mortality rate. These life history characteristics differ from those of

  15. Cost-related Nonadherence to Medication Treatment Plans: Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl A; Long, Christopher R; Payakachat, Nalin; Felix, Holly; Bursac, Zoran; Rowland, Brett; Hudson, Jonell S; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2018-04-01

    Adherence to medication treatment plans is important for chronic disease (CD) management. Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) puts patients at risk for complications. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) suffer from high rates of CD and socioeconomic disparities that could increase CRN behaviors. Examine factors related to CRN to medication treatment plans within an understudied population. Using 2014 NHPI-National Health Interview Survey data, we examined CRN among a nationally representative sample of NHPI adults. Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine associations among financial burden-related factors, CD status, and CRN. Across CD status, NHPI engaged in CRN behaviors had, on an average, increased levels of perceived financial stress, financial insecurity with health care, and food insecurity compared with adults in the total NHPI population. Regression analysis indicated perceived financial stress [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.10-1.22], financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.90), and food insecurity (AOR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61) all increase the odds of CRN among those with CD. We also found significant associations between perceived financial stress (AOR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12), and food insecurity (AOR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and request for lower cost medication. This study demonstrated health-related and non-health-related financial burdens can influence CRN behaviors. It is important for health care providers to collect and use data about the social determinants of health to better inform their conversations about medication adherence and prevent CRN.

  16. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (PAsian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Population Genetic Diversity in Three Indo-West Pacific Rhizophora Mangrove Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Bin; Duke, Norm C; Sun, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata , and Rhizophora stylosa across the IWP region. In contrast to the pattern expected of long-lived woody plants with predominant wind-pollination, water-dispersed seeds and wide geographic range, genetic variation within populations was generally low in all the three species, especially in those peripheral populations from geographic range limits. Although the large water-buoyant propagules of Rhizophora have capacity for long distance dispersal, such events might be rare in reality, as reflected by the low level of gene flow and high genetic differentiation between most of population pairs within each species. Phylogeographic separation of Australian and Pacific island populations from SE Asian lineages previously revealed with DNA sequence data was still detectable in R. apiculata based on genetic distances, but this pattern of disjunction was not always evident in R. mucronata and R. stylosa , suggesting that fast-evolving molecular markers could be more suitable for detecting contemporary genetic structure but not deep evolutionary divergence caused by historical vicariance. Given that mangrove species generally have small effective population sizes, we conclude that genetic drift coupled with limited gene flow have played a dominant role in producing the current pattern of population genetic diversity in the IWP Rhizophora species, overshadowing the

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Population Genetic Diversity in Three Indo-West Pacific Rhizophora Mangrove Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, and R. stylosa across the IWP region. In contrast to the pattern expected of long-lived woody plants with predominant wind-pollination, water-dispersed seeds and wide geographic range, genetic variation within populations was generally low in all the three species, especially in those peripheral populations from geographic range limits. Although the large water-buoyant propagules of Rhizophora have capacity for long distance dispersal, such events might be rare in reality, as reflected by the low level of gene flow and high genetic differentiation between most of population pairs within each species. Phylogeographic separation of Australian and Pacific island populations from SE Asian lineages previously revealed with DNA sequence data was still detectable in R. apiculata based on genetic distances, but this pattern of disjunction was not always evident in R. mucronata and R. stylosa, suggesting that fast-evolving molecular markers could be more suitable for detecting contemporary genetic structure but not deep evolutionary divergence caused by historical vicariance. Given that mangrove species generally have small effective population sizes, we conclude that genetic drift coupled with limited gene flow have played a dominant role in producing the current pattern of population genetic diversity in the IWP Rhizophora species, overshadowing the

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July 16-20, 1990; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Raynor; Roger R. Bay

    1993-01-01

    Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

  20. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  1. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  2. Pronounced fixation, strong population differentiation and complex population history in the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward

  3. Pronounced fixation, strong population differentiation and complex population history in the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hansson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene

  4. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place.

  5. Palaeo island-affinities revisited--biogeography and systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Cethosia Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C J; Beheregaray, L B

    2010-10-01

    The Indo-Pacific is a very complex region encompassing several micro-continents with unique tectonic and geomorphologic histories. Unsurprisingly, the biogeographic history of Indo-Pacific biota is generally poorly known, especially that of organisms found in the heart of the region, the biodiversity hotspot known as Wallacea. Here, we explore the biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific butterfly genus Cethosia using all known species and many distinctive subspecies. Cethosia butterflies span the Indo-Pacific tropics, including several lineages with localized endemism that are critically important when reconstructing biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific and, in particular, of Wallacea. A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed, based on sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), and the nuclear wingless gene. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the genus is monophyletic and consistently recovered seven, generally very well supported, clades, namely the cydippe, leschenault, biblis, nietneri, hypsea, penthesilea and cyane clades. Species group relationships are largely concordant with general morphology (i.e., wing pattern and colouration) and, based on the phylogeny, we propose a revised systematic classification at the species level. The evolution of the genus appears associated with the inferred geological history of the region, in particular with respect to the expanding Wallacea theory, whereby ancient connected terranes were fragmented during the mid Miocene to early Pliocene, approximately 14-3 Mya. Recent diversification events in Cethosia were likely promoted by climatic fluctuations during the Pliocene and, to a lesser extent, the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that, while dispersal has been important for Cethosia throughout much of the region, the high levels of island endemism and the essentially allopatric radiations recovered in Cethosia in Wallacea are

  6. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  7. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... indicates that the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... businesses and small governments). Unless information is obtained to the contrary during the public notice..., http://www.cnic.navy.mil/PMRF/ , and Facebook Web site, http://www.facebook.com/PacificMissileRange...

  8. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably

  9. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. Methods This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492 using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. Results There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman’s rho = .765 p < 0.001. There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002–1.459 in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04–7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02–6.97 respectively p < 0.001 in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Conclusion Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage

  10. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen; Ward, Paul; Grace, Blair S; Gleadle, Jonathan

    2017-10-11

    Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492) using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman's rho = .765 p < 0.001). There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002-1.459) in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04-7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02-6.97 respectively p < 0.001) in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  11. Growth of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in povi masima, a traditional Pacific island food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T L; Whyte, R J; Graham, C G; Saunders, D; Schumacher, J; Hudson, J A

    2004-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. The povi masima were divided into two lots each containing two uninoculated control and an inoculated container. Lot 1 was incubated at room temperature (20 degrees C) and lot 2 under refrigeration (4-5 degrees C) for up to 98 days. During storage, samples were removed and tested for aerobic plate count, coagulase-producing Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, staphylococcal enterotoxin and various chemical parameters of the food. Coagulase-producing Staphylococci and aerobic plate counts grew to high levels in both the inoculated and uninoculated lots stored at room temperature, but enterotoxin was only detected at one time point in these lots and this may represent a false positive result. The concentration of NaCl in the meat increased with time as concentrations equilibrated, and nitrite was rapidly lost in those lots stored at room temperature. Storage at 4-5 degrees C prevented proliferation of coagulase-producing Staphylococci. For safe curing and storage, this food should be kept under refrigeration as this prevented growth of staphylococci. Optimum storage would also be achieved with improved attempts to ensure equal distribution of NaCl prior to storage. Under conditions traditionally used to cure and store this food, enterotoxigenic staphylococci can grow to numbers where toxigenesis might occur, especially during the early stages of curing where the salt has not diffused from the brine into the meat.

  12. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  13. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1607 (CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-08-25 to 2016-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in and around the Wake Island Unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). Operations...

  14. Pacific Island publications in the reproductive health literature 2000-2011: with New Zealand as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Key Factors in Obstetric Delivery Decision-Making among Asian and Pacific Islander Women by English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-10-01

    Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.

  16. Cardiac structure and function in elite Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Rugby Football League athletes: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; Papadakis, Michael; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to define the Athletes Heart (AH) phenotype in Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander (NH&PI) Rugby Football League (RFL) athletes. Specifically, (1) to describe conventional echocardiographic indices of left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) structure and function in NH&PI RFL players and matched RFL Caucasian controls (CC) and (2) to demonstrate LV and RV mechanics in these populations. Ethnicity is a contributory factor to the phenotypical expression of the AH. There are no data describing the cardiac phenotype in NH&PI athletes. Twenty-one male elite NH&PI RFL athletes were evaluated using conventional echocardiography and myocardial speckle tracking, allowing the assessment of global longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rate (SR); and basal, mid and global radial and circumferential ε and SR. Basal and apical rotation and twist were also assessed. Results were compared with age-matched Caucasian counterparts (CC; n = 21). LV mass [42 ± 9 versus 37 ± 4 g/(m 2.7 )], mean LV wall thickness (MWT: 9.5 ± 0.7 and 8.7 ± 0.4 mm), relative wall thickness (RWT: 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.31 ± 0.03) and RV wall thickness (5 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mm, all p rugby players have a greater LV mass, MWT and RWT with concomitant reductions in circumferential and twist mechanics. This data acts to prompt further research in NH&PI athletes.

  17. Evolutionary history of a vanishing radiation: isolation-dependent persistence and diversification in Pacific Island partulid tree snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwan; Li, Jingchun; Churchill, Celia K C; Foighil, Diarmaid Ó

    2014-09-24

    Partulid tree snails are endemic to Pacific high islands and have experienced extraordinary rates of extinction in recent decades. Although they collectively range across a 10,000 km swath of Oceania, half of the family's total species diversity is endemic to a single Eastern Pacific hot spot archipelago (the Society Islands) and all three partulid genera display highly distinctive distributions. Our goal was to investigate broad scale (range wide) and fine scale (within-Society Islands) molecular phylogenetic relationships of the two widespread genera, Partula and Samoana. What can such data tell us regarding the genesis of such divergent generic distribution patterns, and nominal species diversity levels across Oceania? Museum, captive (zoo) and contemporary field specimens enabled us to genotype 54 of the ~120 recognized species, including many extinct or extirpated taxa, from 14 archipelagoes. The genera Partula and Samoana are products of very distinct diversification processes. Originating at the western edge of the familial range, the derived genus Samoana is a relatively recent arrival in the far eastern archipelagoes (Society, Austral, Marquesas) where it exhibits a stepping-stone phylogenetic pattern and has proven adept at both intra-and inter- archipelago colonization. The pronounced east-west geographic disjunction exhibited by the genus Partula stems from a much older long-distance dispersal event and its high taxonomic diversity in the Society Islands is a product of a long history of within-archipelago diversification. The central importance of isolation for partulid lineage persistence and diversification is evident in time-calibrated phylogenetic trees that show that remote archipelagoes least impacted by continental biotas bear the oldest clades and/or the most speciose radiations. In contemporary Oceania, that isolation is being progressively undermined and these tree snails are now directly exposed to introduced continental predators

  18. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. Methods The intervention was delivered to children aged 6–19 years (N = 375 in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. Results There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P < 0.05. There was also increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (P < 0.001, as well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P < 0.001 and improving self-esteem (P < 0.001. In terms of attitudes, there were significant improvements in some attitudes to vegetables (P = 0.02, and sugar-sweetened drinks (P < 0.05. In terms of practices and behaviours, although the reported intake of vegetables increased significantly (P < 0.001, the proportion of children eating discretionary foods regularly did not change significantly, suggesting that modifying the program with an increased emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. Conclusion The study has shown that the Good

  19. The Influence of Basaltic Islands on the Oceanic REE Distribution: A Case Study From the Tropical South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Molina-Kescher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Earth Elements (REEs have been widely used to investigate marine biogeochemical processes as well as the sources and mixing of water masses. However, there are still important uncertainties about the global aqueous REE cycle with respect to the contributions of highly reactive basaltic minerals originating from volcanic islands and the role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD. Here we present dissolved REE concentrations obtained from waters at the island-ocean interface (including SGD, river, lagoon and coastal waters from the island of Tahiti and from three detailed open ocean profiles on the Manihiki Plateau (including neodymium (Nd isotope compositions, which are located in ocean currents downstream of Tahiti. Tahitian fresh waters have highly variable REE concentrations that likely result from variable water–rock interaction and removal by secondary minerals. In contrast to studies on other islands, the SGD samples do not exhibit elevated REE concentrations but have distinctive REE distributions and Y/Ho ratios. The basaltic Tahitian rocks impart a REE pattern to the waters characterized by a middle REE enrichment, with a peak at europium similar to groundwaters and coastal waters of other volcanic islands in the Pacific. However, the basaltic island REE characteristics (with the exception of elevated Y/Ho ratios are lost during transport to the Manihiki Plateau within surface waters that also exhibit highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. Our new data demonstrate that REE concentrations are enriched in Tahitian coastal water, but without multidimensional sampling, basaltic island Nd flux estimates range over orders of magnitude from relatively small to globally significant. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW loses its characteristic Nd isotopic signature (−6 to −9 around the Manihiki Plateau as a consequence of mixing with South Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Water (SEqPIW, which shows more positive values (−1 to

  20. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  1. Conservation of erupting ungulate populations on islands – a comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A generalised model for herbivores experiencing abundant forage over time is that their numbers erupt and then decline. This model has been applied to fluctuations in caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations especially those on islands. Since this generalised model for erupting herbivores was first proposed, two assumptions have slipped in (1 that an erupting population will crash; and (2 that the crash will be density-dependent. The problem with the assumptions is that, without testing, they can lead to inappropriate management such as culls. The first assumption arises from uncritical use of earlier accounts and the second assumption from not discriminating between the effects of environmental variation from the effects of the high herbivore numbers on forage availability (density-dependence. Often typical densitydependent effects such as lowered initial reproduction, reduced early survival of calves, and subsequent calf, yearling and juvenile survival are used to justify the contention that there are too many herbivores. But such reasoning is flawed unless cause/effect relationships are established and the role of environmental variation is evaluated. We argue that it is overly simplistic to believe that every population’s subsequent performance and fate will follow a singular pattern with only one paramount factor driving and ultimately dictating an inevitable outcome. The relative importance of unpredictable abiotic factors in influencing and causing variation in the response of ungulate populations should be investigated, no matter whether those factors are sporadic or periodic.

  2. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  3. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  4. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  5. Population differentiation or species formation across the Indian and the Pacific Oceans? An example from the brooding marine hydrozoan Macrorhynchia phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postaire, Bautisse; Gélin, Pauline; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Pratlong, Marine; Magalon, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Assessing population connectivity is necessary to construct effective marine protected areas. This connectivity depends, among other parameters, inherently on species dispersal capacities. Isolation by distance (IBD) is one of the main modes of differentiation in marine species, above all in species presenting low dispersal abilities. This study reports the genetic structuring in the tropical hydrozoan Macrorhynchia phoenicea α ( sensu Postaire et al ., 2016a), a brooding species, from 30 sampling sites in the Western Indian Ocean and the Tropical Southwestern Pacific, using 15 microsatellite loci. At the local scale, genet dispersal relied on asexual propagation at short distance, which was not found at larger scales. Considering one representative per clone, significant positive F IS values (from -0.327*** to 0.411***) were found within almost all sites. Gene flow was extremely low at all spatial scales, among sites within islands (11,000 km distance), with significant pairwise F ST values (from 0.035*** to 0.645***). A general pattern of IBD was found at the Indo-Pacific scale, but also within ecoregions in the Western Indian Ocean province. Clustering and network analyses identified each island as a potential independent population, while analysis of molecular variance indicated that population genetic differentiation was significant at small (within island) and intermediate (among islands within province) spatial scales. As shown by this species, a brooding life cycle might be corollary of the high population differentiation found in some coastal marine species, thwarting regular dispersal at distances more than a few kilometers and probably leading to high cryptic diversity, each island housing independent evolutionary lineages.

  6. The brown tree snake, an introduced pest species in the central Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    The reproduction of endangered Mariana crows (Corvus kubaryi) is intensively monitored, nests are protected, and (when necessary) eggs or young are moved to the safety of lab conditions until they are less vulnerable to the threats in natural habitats. Barriers on tree trunks and judicious pruning of adjacent trees are used in attempts to exclude snakes from nest trees. Two birds unique to Guam--the Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) and Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni)-- are maintained at captive propagation facilities on Guam and in mainland zoos. Studies of these and other species, in captivity and on nearby islands, are underway to bolster our biological understanding of their behavior, reproduction, habitat use, and population biology.

  7. Species richness of squamate reptiles from two islands in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Salinas, Uriel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Mata-Silva, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Cocinas and San Pancho Islands, located in the Bay of Chamela, Jalisco, México, are two of the few remaining island ecosystems with little ecological disturbance. We studied both islands aiming to assess their reptile richness. Because the environment in Chamela is seasonal, we conducted biodiversity surveys during six samplings: three in the dry season and three in rainy season. We found a total of seven reptile species on Cocinas and San Pancho Islands representing the first description of ...

  8. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland, Phoenix...

  10. Consequences of an uncertain mass mortality regime triggered by climate variability on giant clam population management in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Remoissenet, Georges

    2018-02-01

    Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies. The model was parameterized by in situ estimations of growth and mortality and fishing effort, and was validated by historical and new in situ surveys of giant clam stocks in two French Polynesia lagoons. Projections on the long run (100 years) suggested that the best management strategy was a decrease of fishing pressure through quota implementation, regardless of the mortality regime considered. In contrast, increasing the minimum legal size of catch and closing areas to fishing were less efficient. When high mortality occurred due to climate variability, the efficiency of all management scenarios decreased markedly. Simulating El Niño Southern Oscillation event by adding temporal autocorrelation in natural mortality rates increased the natural variability of stocks, and also decreased the efficiency of management. These results highlight the difficulties that managers in small Pacific islands can expect in the future in the face of global warming, climate anomalies and new mass mortalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detailed Analysis of Japanese Population Substructure with a Focus on the Southwest Islands of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Sadao; Ando, Ryosuke; Niimura, Hideshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Horita, Mikako; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mikami, Haruo; Takashima, Naoyuki; Mastuo, Keitaro; Guang, Yin; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering population structure is important for properly conducting association studies and for examining the demographic history of a population. Here, we examined the Japanese population substructure using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC), which covers all but the northern region of Japan. Using 222 autosomal loci from 4502 subjects, we investigated population substructure by estimating FST among populations, testing population differentiation, and performing principal component analysis (PCA) and correspondence analysis (CA). All analyses revealed a low but significant differentiation between the Amami Islanders and the mainland Japanese population. Furthermore, we examined the genetic differentiation between the mainland population, Amami Islanders and Okinawa Islanders using six loci included in both the Pan-Asian SNP (PASNP) consortium data and the J-MICC data. This analysis revealed that the Amami and Okinawa Islanders were differentiated from the mainland population. In conclusion, we revealed a low but significant level of genetic differentiation between the mainland population and populations in or to the south of the Amami Islands, although genetic variation between both populations might be clinal. Therefore, the possibility of population stratification must be considered when enrolling the islander population of this area, such as in the J-MICC study. PMID:22509376

  12. Assessment of Gestational Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors and Outcomes in the Pacific Island Nation of Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mindy S; Cash, Haley L; Roseveare, Christine; Reklai, Rumi; Basilius, Kliu; Madraisau, Sherilynn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Palau and across the Pacific Islands is a serious public health issue that is currently understudied. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study that included 1730 women with a single live birth in Palau between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The overall prevalence of GDM among women in Palau was 5.5%. Women who were older (≥30 years) or obese (BMI ≥30) were more likely to have GDM than women who were younger (monitoring and treatment of women with GDM should be evaluated and strengthened in order to reduce neonatal mortality rates in Palau.

  13. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (densidad de tiburones en ausencia de humanos (línea de base) es obstaculizada por la falta de datos de series de tiempo pertinentes. Recientemente, los investigadores han utilizado muestreos visuales submarinos, de extensión espacial limitada o de diseño no estándar, para inferir asociaciones negativas entre la abundancia de tiburones de arrecife y las poblaciones humanas. Analizamos datos de 1607 muestreos por remolque de buzos (transectos >1ha muestreados por observadores remolcados por una lancha) realizados en 46 arrecifes en el Océano Pacífico centro-occidental, arrecifes que incluyeron algunos de los más prístinos del mundo. Las estimaciones de densidad de tiburones fue sustancialmente menor (densidad de tiburones de arrecife observados en los muestreos por remolque de buzos y la población humana en modelos y consideramos la influencia de la productividad oceánica primaria, la temperatura de la superficie del mar, la superficie del arrecife y su complejidad física. Utilizamos estos modelos para estimar la densidad de tiburones en ausencia de humanos. Las densidades de Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Triaenodon obesus y

  14. Inter-island transfers and population dynamics of Seychelles Warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950s the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300–360

  15. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  16. Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of Dengue in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Maite; Roche, Claudine; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Aaskov, John; Viallon, Jérôme; Marfel, Maria; Lalita, Paul; Elbourne-Duituturaga, Salanieta; Chanteau, Suzanne; Musso, Didier; Pavlin, Boris I; Harrison, Dustin; Kool, Jacob L; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2012-09-01

    In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwoma, Levy Michael; Kochzius, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1) Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani) and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani) and (2) the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03). The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13) in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1) WIO (2) Eastern Indian Ocean (3) IMPA and (4) Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  18. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael Otwoma

    Full Text Available The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1 Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani and (2 the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03. The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13 in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P < 0.001 suggests that Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1 WIO (2 Eastern Indian Ocean (3 IMPA and (4 Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  19. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  20. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island–associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33’/21°S07’), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June–October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61–85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886–0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ” = γ’ < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat. PMID:28640918

  1. Thyroid cancer characteristics in the population surrounding Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2012-06-01

    To determine differences in disease characteristics between the thyroid cancer populations in the area around the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant and the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2008 were reviewed and information regarding age at diagnosis, sex, race, residential status, county of residence, thyroid pathology, thyroid surgery, and staging was recorded. Dauphin, Lancaster, and York counties were defined as the TMI area. Records of 26,357 thyroid cancer patients were reviewed, with 2,611 patients within the TMI area. A higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer (P < .001) and lower proportion of follicular thyroid cancer (P < .001) were noted in the TMI area population. Thyroid cancer cases from the TMI area were found to be more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 65 years (P < .001), be Pennsylvania born (P < .001), be well differentiated (P < .001), be <10 mm in size (P < .001), and be localized without spread (P < .001). Although the TMI area shows a higher incidence of thyroid cancer as compared to the rest of the state, this was not statistically significant. The TMI population showed a higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer and less aggressive pathology and earlier diagnosis compared to the rest of Pennsylvania. No statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence was noted. Overall, the study does not show a clear link with more advanced thyroid cancer and proximity to the TMI nuclear reactors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  3. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  4. Population ecology of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Flint, Paul L.; Powell, Abby N.; Grand, J. Barry; Moral, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska declined by 50–90% from 1957 to 1992 and then stabilized at reduced numbers from the early 1990s to the present. We investigated the underlying processes affecting their population dynamics by collection and analysis of demographic data from Pacific common eiders at 3 sites on the YKD (1991–2004) for 29 site-years. We examined variation in components of reproduction, tested hypotheses about the influence of specific ecological factors on life-history variables, and investigated their relative contributions to local population dynamics. Reproductive output was low and variable, both within and among individuals, whereas apparent survival of adult females was high and relatively invariant (0.89 ± 0.005). All reproductive parameters varied across study sites and years. Clutch initiation dates ranged from 4 May to 28 June, with peak (modal) initiation occurring on 26 May. Females at an island study site consistently initiated clutches 3–5 days earlier in each year than those on 2 mainland sites. Population variance in nest initiation date was negatively related to the peak, suggesting increased synchrony in years of delayed initiation. On average, total clutch size (laid) ranged from 4.8 to 6.6 eggs, and declined with date of nest initiation. After accounting for partial predation and non-viability of eggs, average clutch size at hatch ranged from 2.0 to 5.8 eggs. Within seasons, daily survival probability (DSP) of nests was lowest during egg-laying and late-initiation dates. Estimated nest survival varied considerably across sites and years (mean = 0.55, range: 0.06–0.92), but process variance in nest survival was relatively low (0.02, CI: 0.01–0.05), indicating that most variance was likely attributed to sampling error. We found evidence that observer effects may have reduced overall nest survival by 0.0–0.36 across site

  5. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  6. Strong indication of an extinction-based saturation of the flora on the Pacific Robinson Crusoe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimler, Josef; Schulze, Christian H; López Sepúlveda, Patricio; Novoa, Patricio; Gatica, Alejandro; Reiter, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Baeza, Carlos; Peñailillo, Patricio; Ruiz, Eduardo; Stuessy, Tod

    2018-03-01

    Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile). We compared species richness and species composition of historical vegetation samples from 1917 with recent ones from 2011. Changes in species' relative occurrence frequency were related to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode, distribution status, and humidity and temperature preferences. While total species richness of vascular plants remained relatively similar, species composition changed significantly. Plants endemic to the Robinson Crusoe Islands declined, exotic species increased substantially within the period of ca. 100 years. Further, the relative occurrence frequency of plants with preferences for very warm and humid climate decreased, while the opposite was found for plants preferring drier and colder environments. Potential drivers responsible for this dramatic shift in the vegetation within only one century might have been the large goat population affecting especially small populations of endemic plants and climatic changes. Taking into account a substantial extinction debt, we expect further shifts in the vegetation of this small oceanic island toward alien plants. This would have significant negative consequences on global biodiversity, considering that island floras contribute substantially to global plant species richness due to their high proportion of endemics.

  7. Commonwealth Local Government Forum Pacific Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Parker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF Pacific Project works with local government and other stakeholders in nine Pacific Island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. It seeks to strengthen local democracy and good governance, and to help local governments deal with the increasing challenges of service delivery and urban management in the unique Pacific environment. Human settlement patterns in the region are changing rapidly. The Pacific has traditionally been a rural agricultural/subsistence society, but this is no longer the case. The accelerated pace of urbanisation has impacted significantly on Pacific nations and in the very near future the majority of Pacific Islanders will be found in urban areas. Already over 50% of Fiji’s population are urban dwellers. Rapid urbanisation brings with it unique challenges and opportunities. Local governments are at the forefront of this phenomenon, with the responsibility to manage urban development and the transition from rural areas to cities and towns. Their success or failure to manage urbanisation and provide the required levels of physical and social infrastructure will affect many lives in a new urban Pacific. The project now has three components – the main Pacific Regional Project and two country-specific programmes: the Honiara City Council Institutional Capacity Building Project and the Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme in Papua New Guinea.

  8. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  11. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  12. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  14. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  15. The Cape Verde Islands are home to a small and genetically distinct humpback whale breeding population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bérubé, Martine; Ryan, Conor; Berrow, Simon D.; Suarez, Pedro Lopez; Monteiro, Vanda; Wenzel, Frederick; Robbins, Jooke; Mattila, David; Vikingsson, G.A.; Øien, Nils; Palsboll, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Cape Verde Islands appear to be winter breeding ground of the smallest humpback whale population yet known. However, it is unclear whether the humpback whales at the Cape Verde Islands interbreed with those in the West Indies. Here we present the results of the genetic analysis of 50 humpback

  16. Application of the modified PGW method for determining the smoking attributable fraction of deaths in New Zealand Maori, Pacific and non-Maori non-Pacific populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sandiford

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preston, Glei and Wilmoth recently proposed a new method for estimating smoking-attributable mortality in high income countries and an improvement to the method was proposed by Rostron. The method greatly simplifies estimation of smoking attributable fractions but additional testing has been recommended to validate the approach. OBJECTIVE We apply the Rostron (PGW-R method to ethnic groups in New Zealand and compare the results with published estimates from other sources with the purpose of determining their consistency and exploring possible reasons for any divergence. METHODS Four different sources were identified with ethnic-specific estimates of smoking attributable mortality fractions (SAMFfor Maori, Pacific Island and European/Other ethnic groups in New Zealand for periods between 1995 and 1999. These employed a variety of direct and indirect estimation techniques. The results were compared with PGW-R method estimates for the same period and ethnic groups. RESULTS Although the PGW-R method produced SAMF estimates that were within 5Š of those derived using the Peto-Lopez method for the European/other and total populations (in males and females, there were significant discrepancies between them in the Maori and Pacific SAMF estimates. Results using direct methods from a census linkage study were inconsistent with both the Peto-Lopez and the PGW-R method. Seven possible explanations for these discrepancies were considered and discussed but none could fully account for the differences. CONCLUSIONS The results of this work raise questions not only about the validity of the PGW-R method, but also about the accuracy of the estimates derived from the Peto-Lopez and direct methods, at least in these populations. Further research should examine the applicability of the key assumptions of the PGW method. Other work to determine the effects of possible misclassification bias in the direct method estimates would also aid interpretation of

  17. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... have played important roles in creating isolated populations by cutting ... marginal seas separate Asia from the Pacific, straddling the world's largest ... from the Pacific. Ocean by the NE–SW-extending Ryukyu Islands Arc. The.

  18. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific. General dietary overlap (GO was quantified and relative biomass, relative frequency and the leaf litter percentage in the guts were used to establish the relative importance of each taxon in the shredding guild. Various indices were used to identify the spatial arrangement (i.e. contagious or random of each taxon and shredding guild among streams. We identified 31 shredding taxa that were divided into specialist-shredders (14 taxa, generalist-shredders (10, and collector-shredders (7. There was a complete GO (0.75, p<0.001 for the guild. Cockroaches (Epilampra were the most represented shredders due to the greatest contribution to guild total biomass and to the highest content of leaf litter in their guts. These organisms were more important than shrimps and crabs in terms of abundance and biomass in leaf pack samples. Potimirin shrimps ranked second and Stenochironomus midges ranked third. Among aquatic insects, other secondarily important species were Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera, Macrelmis, Anchytarsus and Tetraglosa (Coleoptera. Ten taxa exhibited contagious spatial pattern and twenty-one exhibited a random distribution. Resource distribution (i.e., leaf packs between streams was random too. The guild was contagiously distributed, but this result could be highly influenced by the taxa with contagious distribution. Mean abundance, richness and mean biomass of shredders were not significantly correlated with any of the environmental variables

  19. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  20. Patterns at Multi-Spatial Scales on Tropical Island Stream Insect Assemblages: Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Eastern Pacific island streams (TEPis differ from other neotropical streams in their rainy climate, mixed sedimentary-volcanic geology and faunal composition. Yet, their relationships between environmental characteristics and stream biota remain unexplored. We analyzed the environmental subject at three spatial scales using a fully nested sampling design (6 streams, 2 reaches within each stream, 2 habitats within each reach, and 4 replicates per habitat on Gorgona Island (Colombia. Sampling was carried out in two months with contrasting rainfall during early 2009. We studied the spatial variation of assemblage composition and density along with 27 independent variables within two contrasting rainfall conditions. Five stream-scale variables, two reach-scale variables, and five habitat-scale variables were selected using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A partial CCA showed that the total variance explained was 13.98%, while stream- and habitat-scale variables explained the highest proportion of the variance (5.74 and 5.01%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen (as affected by rainfall, high-density use zone (a management category, and sedimentary geology were the best descriptors of insect assemblages. The two latter descriptors affected fine-scale variables such as total benthic organic matter and gravel substratum, respectively. A Nested ANOVA showed significant differences in total density and richness among streams and habitats, and significant differences between the two sampling months regardless of the spatial scale. The evenness showed a significant stream- and habitat-dependent temporal variability. These results suggested that rainfall regime in Gorgona Island might be a driver of insect assemblage dynamics mediated by water chemistry and substratum properties. Spatial assemblage variability here is greater within habitats (among samples, and a minor fraction occurs at habitat- and stream-scales, while no longitudinal

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in the...

  2. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 site at Necker Island in the...

  3. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in the...

  4. Dispersal and population state of an endangered island lizard following a conservation translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Nicole F; Lundgren, Ian F; Pollock, Clayton G; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2018-03-01

    Population size is widely used as a unit of ecological analysis, yet to estimate population size requires accounting for observed and latent heterogeneity influencing dispersion of individuals across landscapes. In newly established populations, such as when animals are translocated for conservation, dispersal and availability of resources influence patterns of abundance. We developed a process to estimate population size using N-mixture models and spatial models for newly established and dispersing populations. We used our approach to estimate the population size of critically endangered St. Croix ground lizards (Ameiva polops) five years after translocation of 57 individuals to Buck Island, an offshore island of St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. Estimates of population size incorporated abiotic variables, dispersal limits, and operative environmental temperature available to the lizards to account for low species detection. Operative environmental temperature and distance from the translocation site were always important in fitting the N-mixture model indicating effects of dispersal and species biology on estimates of population size. We found that the population is increasing its range across the island by 5-10% every six months. We spatially interpolated site-specific abundance from the N-mixture model to the entire island, and we estimated 1,473 (95% CI, 940-1,802) St. Croix ground lizards on Buck Island in 2013 corresponding to survey results. This represents a 26-fold increase since the translocation. We predicted the future dispersal of the lizards to all habitats on Buck Island, with the potential for the population to increase by another five times in the future. Incorporating biologically relevant covariates as explicit parameters in population models can improve predictions of population size and the future spread of species introduced to new localities. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  6. Aloha Teachers: Teacher Autonomy Support Promotes Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Students' Motivation, School Belonging, Course-Taking and Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Among 110 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, teacher autonomy support in 9th grade significantly predicted intrinsic motivation for math in 9th grade as well as math course-taking over the next 2 years, both of which in turn significantly predicted math achievement by 11th grade. In a second model, teacher autonomy support was positively…

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  8. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  9. Grazing by sheep Ovis aries reduces island populations of water voles Arvicola amphibius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Frafjord

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of water voles Arvicola amphibius was surveyed on 21 islands in the Solvær archipelago, northern Norway, in August 2012; 11 islands with semi-wild domestic sheep Ovis aries and 10 islands without sheep. Signs from water voles are very easy to detect and were used as a measure of the population (on a scale 0-10, and the numbers of sheep were counted. The ranking of signs on islands with and without sheep was compared, and a significant difference was found. Islands with sheep had, with one exception, only very small and fragmented populations of water voles, the one exception being a fairly large Carex swamp that was not grazed by the sheep and where a moderate-sized population of voles was found. Islands without sheep had much larger populations of water voles, giving a ranking about four times higher. One reason for the devastating effect of sheep on water voles is probably the fact that the sheep are living year-round on these islands with no supplemental food.

  10. Coral reefs as buffers during the 2009 South Pacific tsunami, Upolu Island, Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Ah-Leong, Joyce Samuelu; Bell, Lui; Ifopo, Pulea; Ward, Juney; Lovell, Edward; Skelton, Posa

    2011-07-01

    The coral reef bordering the coastline of Samoa affected by the 29 September 2009 tsunami provides a variety of ecosystem services — from nurseries for fisheries and inshore source of food for local communities, to aesthetics for tourists, and the width of the lagoon may have been a factor in reducing the onshore wave height. To understand the complex interactions between the onshore human population and the offshore coral, we formed an interdisciplinary survey team to document the effects the tsunami had on the nearshore coral reef, and how these changes might affect local inhabitants. The scale of reef damage varied from severe, where piles of freshly-killed coral fragments and mortality were present, to areas that exhibited little impact, despite being overrun by the tsunami. We found that many coral colonies were impacted by tsunami-entrained coral debris, which had been ripped up and deposited on the fore reef by repeated cyclones and storm waves. In other places, large surface area tabular coral sustained damage as the tsunami velocity increased as it was funneled through channels. Areas that lacked debris entrained by the waves as well as areas in the lee of islands came through relatively unscathed, with the exception of the delicate corals that lived on a sandy substrate. In the lagoon on the south coast with its steep topography, coral colonies were damaged by tsunami-generated debris from onshore entrained in the backwash. Despite the potential for severe tsunami-related damage, there were no noticeable decreases in live coral cover between successive surveys at two locations, although algal cover was higher with the increased nutrients mobilized by the tsunami. While there was an immediate decrease in fish takes in the month following the tsunami, when supporting services were likely impacted, both volume and income have rapidly increased to pre-tsunami levels. Long-term monitoring should be implemented to determine if nursery services were affected.

  11. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  12. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippins, Ashley; Murthy, Neil; Meghani, Mehreen; Solsman, Amy; Apaisam, Carter; Basilius, Merlyn; Eckert, Maribeth; Judicpa, Peter; Masunu, Yolanda; Pistotnik, Kelsey; Pedro, Daisy; Sasamoto, Jeremy; Underwood, J Michael

    2018-05-25

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, † USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. This was the first concurrent assessment of childhood vaccination coverage across five USAPI jurisdictions (American Samoa; Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia [FSM]; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [CNMI]; Republic of the Marshall Islands [RMI]; and Republic of Palau). § Differences in vaccination coverage between main and outer islands ¶ were assessed for two jurisdictions where data were adequate.** Series coverage in this report includes the following doses of vaccines: ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); ≥3 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); i.e., 4:3:1:3:3:4. Coverage with ≥3 doses of rotavirus vaccine was also assessed. Completion of the recommended series of each of these vaccines †† was <90% in all jurisdictions except Palau. Coverage with the full recommended six-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:4) ranged from 19.5% (Chuuk) to 69.1% (Palau). In RMI and Chuuk, coverage was lower in the outer islands than in the main islands for most vaccines, with differences ranging from 0.9 to 66.8 percentage points. Medical record abstraction enabled rapid vaccination coverage assessment and timely dissemination of results to guide programmatic decision-making. Effectively monitoring vaccination coverage, coupled with implementation of data-driven interventions

  13. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.

  14. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  15. Iron storage disease in Asia-Pacific populations: the importance of non-HFE mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron J; Wallace, Daniel F; Crawford, Darrell H G; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a widely recognized and well-studied condition in European populations. This is largely due to the high prevalence of the C282Y mutation of HFE. Although less common than in Europe, HH cases have been reported in the Asia-Pacific region because of mutations in both HFE and non-HFE genes. Mutations in all of the currently known genes implicated in non-HFE HH (hemojuvelin, hepcidin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin) have been reported in patients from the Asia-Pacific region. This review discusses the molecular basis of HH and the genes and mutations known to cause non-HFE HH with particular reference to the Asia-Pacific region. Challenges in the genetic diagnosis of non-HFE HH are also discussed and how new technologies such as next generation sequencing may be informative in the future. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Tomato Species from the Galapagos Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles, Yveline

    2017-02-15

    Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense, are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance.

  17. A Pan-Pacific Samoan Population/Language Dominance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Naerssen, Margaret M.

    Population and language dominance data were gathered on Samoans from New Zealand to the West Coast of the United States, in order to assist educational programs in coordinating the development of classroom and teacher training materials and programs for Samoan students. It is hoped that by pinpointing locations where Samoans are most likely to be…

  18. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  19. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  20. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  1. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumatalolo was named head coach of the U.S. Naval Academy's football team, making him the first Samoan Heritage Month History U.S. Army Military District of Washington Bases Hold Educational, Cultural Events Veterans History Project: Stories of Asian Pacific Americans Department of Veterans Affairs- Center for

  3. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  4. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  5. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  6. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kendrich C Fontanilla

    Full Text Available The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  7. Role of the urate transporter SLC2A9 gene in susceptibility to gout in New Zealand Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian case-control sample sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E; Xu, Xin; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Marilyn E; Topless, Ruth; Waddell, Chloe; Gow, Peter J; Harrison, Andrew A; Highton, John; Jones, Peter B B; Stamp, Lisa K; Merriman, Tony R

    2009-11-01

    To examine the role of genetic variation in the renal urate transporter SLC2A9 in gout in New Zealand sample sets of Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian ancestry and to determine if the Māori and Pacific Island samples could be useful for fine-mapping. Patients (n= 56 Māori, 69 Pacific Island, and 131 Caucasian) were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics and satisfied the American College of Rheumatology criteria for gout. The control samples comprised 125 Māori subjects, 41 Pacific Island subjects, and 568 Caucasian subjects without arthritis. SLC2A9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs16890979 (V253I), rs5028843, rs11942223, and rs12510549 were genotyped (possible etiologic variants in Caucasians). Association of the major allele of rs16890979, rs11942223, and rs5028843 with gout was observed in all sample sets (P = 3.7 x 10(-7), 1.6 x 10(-6), and 7.6 x 10(-5) for rs11942223 in the Māori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian samples, respectively). One 4-marker haplotype (1/1/2/1; more prevalent in the Māori and Pacific Island control samples) was not observed in a single gout case. Our data confirm a role of SLC2A9 in gout susceptibility in a New Zealand Caucasian sample set, with the effect on risk (odds ratio >2.0) greater than previous estimates. We also demonstrate association of SLC2A9 with gout in samples of Māori and Pacific Island ancestry and a consistent pattern of haplotype association. The presence of both alleles of rs16890979 on susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the Māori and Pacific Island sample is evidence against a role for this nonsynonymous variant as the sole etiologic agent. More extensive linkage disequilibrium in Māori and Pacific Island samples suggests that Caucasian samples may be more useful for fine-mapping.

  8. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  9. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Cypher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability. Keywords: Channel islands, Endangered species, Food-item selection, Foraging ecology, Island fox, Urocyon littoralis

  10. High mite burdens in an island population of Cape Wagtails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mite infection of birds captured on the island was explored graphically against the morphometrics of individuals using cubic splines. Formal statistics were then applied using generalised linear mixed models, with observation and unique ring number as random effects within a two-level hierarchical mixed binomial model, ...

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west-east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  12. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae on the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat. The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  13. Migration and Ageing of the Island Population – Five Stories from Iž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klempić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses population development on the island of Iž during the period from 1857 to 2001, with special focus on the role that migration has on the ageing of the population. The processes that effected the demographic picture of the island during the twentieth century were high war loses in two world wars and continuous migration. Depopulation on Iž began in 1921 and has persisted until today. According to the last census, 557 persons live on the island, which is half the number that was registered in the first census. The dominant demo-reproduction processes are depopulation and ageing. All indicators in regard to the age structure show a very old population. At the same time, there is a strong return migration flow of persons that have received pensions after having worked elsewhere, which further increases the percentage of elderly in the overall population. Apart from analysis of the demographic data, the aim of the paper was also to determine the existing models of return migration, based on the example of several typical migration experiences. The authors attempted to illustrate the effect of migration on the life cycle of the Iž’s older population through five typical island stories, collected in October 2001 while interviewing persons 60 or more years of age. If a major change does not occur in regard to the present trend of emigration of the younger population (creation of jobs, revival of economic activities that have a future on the island etc. and in the behaviour of younger islanders (both those living at present on the island and those living elsewhere who would accept such new programmes, Iž will remain in the group of islands that is threatened by further ageing and depopulation.

  14. Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat.

  15. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  16. 77 FR 22771 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  17. 75 FR 54858 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Islanders. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The notice sets forth the schedule and agenda of the... attend. Date: September 20, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EDT. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30... meeting because of issues related to scheduling the meeting. Agenda The purpose of the meeting is review...

  18. Gentleness and Violence in the Pacific: A View from the Marquesas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research reports on an ethnographic study of Marquesas Islanders and their concepts of violent and aggressive behavior. The study interviewed six mothers about their children's behavior at three stages of early life: (1) infants and toddlers; (2) school-aged children; and (3) adolescents. Analysis of the research suggests that violence is…

  19. Process evaluation of a walking programme delivered through the workplace in the South Pacific island Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefken, Katja; Schofield, Grant; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific region is experiencing significant rates of chronic diseases. Well-evaluated health promotion programmes are needed as a central piece of a strategic solution. Just as important as the evaluation itself is how that evaluation outcome can be communicated for future programme use by local programme planners. The objective of this study is to evaluate a physical activity (PA) programme that was designed for Pacific women in urban Vanuatu, and subsequently to develop new techniques to display data that support the understanding and communication of programme success and challenges. Data collection methods included quantitative Likert scale questions and qualitative open-ended questions. A new analysis technique visualises open-ended process evaluation data. We present themes using word sizes proportional to the frequency of the themes identified through thematic analysis. The Likert scale technique revealed little meaningful information; almost all participants rated most elements of the programme highly. This may be related to Pacific people being frequently inclined to assent with external ideas. Open-ended questions provided more significant insights. For example, we found a stronger change in eating habits (68.9%) than in exercise behaviour (28.2%). We present an evaluation of the first pedometer-based PA intervention in the Pacific and respond to the paucity of process evaluations that have been carried out in the context of low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, the new thematic data visualisation (TDV) approach may aid in understanding complex and cluttered data in a constructive and coordinated way; we present a new approach in health promotion research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  1. Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Baum, Julia K; Reddy, Sheila M W; Trebilco, Rowan; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Briggs, Amy A; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2015-05-01

    Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity and fishing pressure that spans six coral islands of the Line Islands archipelago and within the largest Line Island, Kiritimati, which experiences a west-to-east gradient in fishing pressure and upwelling-driven productivity. In the across-islands data set, we found that increasing productivity was correlated with increased parasite abundance overall, but that the effects of productivity differed among parasite groups. Trophically transmitted parasites increased in abundance with increasing productivity, but directly transmitted parasites did not exhibit significant changes. This probably arises because productivity has stronger effects on the abundance of the planktonic crustaceans and herbivorous snails that serve as the intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites than on the higher-trophic level fishes that are the sole hosts of directly transmitted parasites. We also found that specialist parasites increased in response to increasing productivity, while generalists did not, possibly because specialist parasites tend to be more strongly limited by host availability than are generalist parasites. After the effect of productivity was controlled for, fishing was correlated with decreases in the abundance of trophically transmitted parasites, while directly transmitted parasites appeared to track host density; we observed increases in the abundance of parasites using hosts that experienced fishing-driven compensatory increases in abundance. The within-island data set confirmed these patterns for the combined effects of productivity and fishing on parasite abundance, suggesting that our conclusions are robust

  2. Beyond the Continent: Creating an Independent Scientific Assessment Process for the Hawai`i and U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    An external evaluation found that the inclusion of users of climate information and diverse regional experts in developing the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment was a key factor in the report's perceived credibility and usefulness (Moser 2013). The 2012 assessment is seen as a foundational summary for Hawai`i and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and is still used in vulnerability assessments and to support decisions by public- and private-sector actors. Recently, lessons learned from the 2012 assessment process were applied in engaging technical experts and potential future users in developing a chapter for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, as a regional update that builds on previous assessment activities. In the absence of downscaled climate projection scenarios and products available to the contiguous U.S., the Pacific Islands chapter continued to draw on projections from regional climate models and extensive user engagement. Through surveys, webinars, technical sectoral workshops, and peer review networks, the regional author team received input from a range of stakeholders. In particular, engagement aimed to identify key risks in sectors of importance to the Hawai`i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands region and cases in which stakeholder groups are already implementing measures toward resilience and adaptation. Data collection began during the chapter development process and will continue at the release of the 4th National Climate Assessment in 2018, with the aim of evaluating how stakeholder engagement affects the assessment's usefulness in assisting island communities to understand risks and vulnerabilities and review potential adaptation strategies.

  3. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrie Rose

    Full Text Available Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  4. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D C; Kauffman, J B; Mackenzie, R A; Ainsworth, A; Pfleeger, A Z

    2012-04-30

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced in tropical islands and low-lying coastal areas where climate change impacts are expected to be among the most severe. This study presents the first field estimate of island-wide carbon storage in ecosystems of Oceania, with special attention to the regional role of coastal mangroves, which occur on islands and coastal zones throughout the tropics. On two island groups of Micronesia (Yap and Palau), we sampled all above- and belowground C pools, including soil and vegetation, in 24 sites distributed evenly among the three major vegetation structural types: mangroves, upland forests, and open savannas (generally on degraded lands formerly forested). Total C stocks were estimated to be 3.9 and 15.2 Tg C on Yap and Palau, respectively. Mangroves contained by far the largest per-hectare C pools (830-1218 Mg C ha(-1)), with deep organic-rich soils alone storing more C (631-754 Mg C ha(-1)) than all pools combined in upland systems. Despite covering just 12-13% of land area, mangroves accounted for 24-34% of total island C stocks. Savannas (156-203 Mg C ha(-1)) contained significantly lower C stocks than upland forests (375-437 Mg C ha(-1)), suggesting that reforesting savannas where appropriate has high potential for carbon-based funding to aid restoration objectives. For mangroves, these results demonstrate the key role of these systems within the broader context of C storage in island and coastal landscapes. Sustainable management of mangrove forests and their large C stocks is of high importance at the regional scale, and climate change mitigation programs such as REDD+ could play a large role in

  5. Macrophthalmus graeffei A. Milne Edwards, 1873 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae: a new Indo-Pacific guest off Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. PANCUCCI-PAPADOPOULOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new alien crab, the macrophthalmid Macrophthalmus graeffei, is reported from the eastern coastline of Rhodes Island. The species, of Indo-West Pacific origin, is known from muddy sediments up to about 80 m depth. In the Mediterranean, its presence has been observed along Levantine coasts as well as along the Turkish coast of the Aegean Sea.Macrophthalmus graeffei increases to twelve the number of alien brachyurans present in the Hellenic SE Aegean Sea, ten of them having Indo-Pacific origin.

  6. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  7. Evaluation of a Leadership in Mental Health course for Pacific Island Nation delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    We report the background to and preliminary evaluation of the Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course, run for the first time in Cairns in conjunction with Creating Futures 2015. The course was well attended and well received, with increased confidence in key areas demonstrated and concerns regarding local application identified. In addition to positive comments, content and delivery issues were raised. Future opportunities for expanding upon this initial course are discussed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium and demographic history of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Degn, Birte; Wang, August G

    2002-01-01

    The isolated population of the Faroe Islands has a history of recent expansion after being limited to a small size for centuries. Such an isolated population may be ideal for linkage disequilibrium mapping of disease genes if linkage disequilibrium (LD) extends over large regions. Analyses of 18 ...

  10. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  11. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (n = 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (n = 2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n = 5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (n = 2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors-as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water-were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  12. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  13. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness.We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  14. STRIVE, San Diego! Methodology of a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Enhance Healthy Dining at Asian and Pacific Islander Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, Sarah; Sadile, Mary Grace; Phung, Chantine Nguyen; Cabiles, Moana; Spackman, Sandy; Abuan, Myleen; Seligman, Fe; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2018-03-01

    Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) populations have elevated prevalence of dietary-related chronic conditions; however, culturally relevant dietary interventions are lacking. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity, San Diego! aims to increase access to healthy food in AANHPI restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors. AANHPI restaurants in San Diego County, CA. Twenty restaurants and 600 diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1,800 diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including (1) analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; (2) providing nutrition labels on selected food items; (3) marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and (4) offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments. Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Program evaluation consists of assessment of the nutritional environment in 20 participating restaurants and surveys of customers' opinions and behaviors at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention. Fifteen restaurants have been recruited to date. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander Young Adults: Through a Social Determinants of Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; To, Tu My; Ling, Irving; Melo, Jason; Chavarin, Josue

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based policies to address the health of the 11.7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) offers temporary relief to qualified undocumented immigrants. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs), in particular, are the fastest growing immigrant population; yet, little is known about their health challenges. This article examines the influence of DACA on the health of API undocumented young adults. In total, 32 unique participants participated in 24 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions. Participants were aged 18-31 years and identified as undocumented API. DACA potentially improves health outcomes through four potential social determinants: economic stability, educational opportunities, social and community contexts, and access to health care. These determinants improve the mental health and sense of well-being among undocumented young adults. Targeted outreach and education in communities should be informed by these research findings with an eye toward promoting the economic, education, and health benefits of enrolling in DACA. Social policies that address the social determinants of health have significant potential to address health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  18. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62847, Lat: 19.28011 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.65704, Lat: 19.27666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.33m; Data Date Range: 20090404-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12653, Lat: 05.86666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100407-20110503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.59486, Lat: 19.30300 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091114.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62730, Lat: 19.31588 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.34221, Lat: 06.39242 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.00m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20120512.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03300, Lat: 05.88243 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20110816.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.60979, Lat: 19.32583 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20100308.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.43914, Lat: 06.41887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.50m; Data Date Range: 20100417-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. Population genetic structure in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean common murres (Uria aalge): Natural replicate tests of post-Pleistocene evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Pocock, J. A.; Taylor, S.A.; Birt, T.P.; Damus, M.; Piatt, John F.; Warheit, K.I.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence population differentiation in temperate taxa can be difficult because the signatures of both historic and contemporary demographics are often reflected in population genetic patterns. Fortunately, analyses based on coalescent theory can help untangle the relative influence of these historic and contemporary factors. Common murres (Uria aalge) are vagile seabirds that breed in the boreal and low arctic waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Previous analyses revealed that Atlantic and Pacific populations are genetically distinct; however, less is known about population genetic structure within ocean basins. We employed the mitochondrial control region, four microsatellite loci and four intron loci to investigate population genetic structure throughout the range of common murres. As in previous studies, we found that Atlantic and Pacific populations diverged during the Pleistocene and do not currently exchange migrants. Therefore, Atlantic and Pacific murre populations can be used as natural replicates to test mechanisms of population differentiation. While we found little population genetic structure within the Pacific, we detected significant east-west structuring among Atlantic colonies. The degree that population genetic structure reflected contemporary population demographics also differed between ocean basins. Specifically, while the low levels of population differentiation in the Pacific are at least partially due to high levels of contemporary gene flow, the east-west structuring of populations within the Atlantic appears to be the result of historic fragmentation of populations rather than restricted contemporary gene flow. The contrasting results in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans highlight the necessity of carefully considering multilocus nonequilibrium population genetic approaches when reconstructing the demographic history of temperate Northern Hemisphere taxa. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  11. Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C.M.; Huxley, R.R.; Woodward, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by four MetS definitions in four Asia-Pacific populations, and to compare the prevalence of individual metabolic components. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies from Australia, Japan, Korea, and Samoa were used...... for EGIR. There were marked differences in the prevalence of MetS between the sexes, with no systematic pattern, and between the prevalences of individual metabolic components. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the prevalence of MetS and its components, using the various definitions, both within and between...

  12. Establishment and extinction of a population of South Georgian diving petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand, during the late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A population of South Georgian diving petrels (Pelecanoides georgicus) (c. 130 g) became extinct at Mason Bay, on the west coast of Stewart Island, before European settlement. Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) bones with the diving petrel fossils provided an opportunity to determine whether the rats arrived before the petrels went extinct. Fifteen 14 C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ages on purified diving petrel bone gelatin from various parts of Mason Bay clustered unexpectedly in the 14th and 15th centuries AD, and none was older. Bayesian statistical analysis, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure, gave a 95% probability that the diving petrel colony was founded between 1338 and 1440 AD, lasted 40-310 years, and became extinct between 1475 and 1650 AD. Possible reasons for the late colonisation of Mason Bay by South Georgian diving petrels burrow are discussed. Bayesian analysis of five 14 C AMS determinations on Pacific rat bone gelatin did not exclude the possibility that the Pacific rat arrived before the diving petrel colony was established. However, the enriched δ 13 C of their bone gelatin suggests that the rats had a partially marine diet, and a terrestrial calibration procedure for their AMS ages was probably not appropriate. The Pacific rat is likely to have arrived after the diving petrel colony became established and probably caused the bird's extinction after a short period of coexistence. (author). 103 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  14. Population Structure of Island-Associated Dolphins: Evidence from Photo-Identification of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    individuals show fidelity to the areas. A Bayesian analysis designed to determine what range of dispersal rates are consistent with our photo...few hundred meters. What is known is that the waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands are oligotrophic, and productivity is higher immediately around...to thank Whale Quest Kapalua, UFO Chuting, Central Pacific Ma- rine, and Atlantic Submarine for support. We would like to thank Alison Stimpert

  15. Genomic differentiation and demographic histories of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J M I; Damerau, M; Matschiner, M; Jentoft, S; Hanel, R

    2017-04-13

    Recent developments in the field of genomics have provided new and powerful insights into population structure and dynamics that are essential for the conservation of biological diversity. As a commercially highly valuable species, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is intensely exploited throughout its distribution in tropical oceans around the world, and is currently classified as near threatened. However, conservation efforts for this species have so far been hampered by limited knowledge of its population structure, due to incongruent results of previous investigations. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing in concert with a draft genome assembly to decipher the global population structure of the yellowfin tuna, and to investigate its demographic history. We detect significant differentiation of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific yellowfin tuna populations as well as the possibility of a third diverged yellowfin tuna group in the Arabian Sea. We further observe evidence for past population expansion as well as asymmetric gene flow from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  17. Use of habitats as surrogates of biodiversity for efficient coral reef conservation planning in Pacific Ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleau, Mayeul; Andréfouët, Serge; Wabnitz, Colette C C; Payri, Claude; Wantiez, Laurent; Pichon, Michel; Friedman, Kim; Vigliola, Laurent; Benzoni, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been highlighted as a means toward effective conservation of coral reefs. New strategies are required to more effectively select MPA locations and increase the pace of their implementation. Many criteria exist to design MPA networks, but generally, it is recommended that networks conserve a diversity of species selected for, among other attributes, their representativeness, rarity, or endemicity. Because knowledge of species' spatial distribution remains scarce, efficient surrogates are urgently needed. We used five different levels of habitat maps and six spatial scales of analysis to identify under which circumstances habitat data used to design MPA networks for Wallis Island provided better representation of species than random choice alone. Protected-area site selections were derived from a rarity-complementarity algorithm. Habitat surrogacy was tested for commercial fish species, all fish species, commercially harvested invertebrates, corals, and algae species. Efficiency of habitat surrogacy varied by species group, type of habitat map, and spatial scale of analysis. Maps with the highest habitat thematic complexity provided better surrogates than simpler maps and were more robust to changes in spatial scales. Surrogates were most efficient for commercial fishes, corals, and algae but not for commercial invertebrates. Conversely, other measurements of species-habitat associations, such as richness congruence and composition similarities provided weak results. We provide, in part, a habitat-mapping methodology for designation of MPAs for Pacific Ocean islands that are characterized by habitat zonations similar to Wallis. Given the increasing availability and affordability of space-borne imagery to map habitats, our approach could appreciably facilitate and improve current approaches to coral reef conservation and enhance MPA implementation.

  18. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cahill

    Full Text Available Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus and brown bears (U. arctos remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus, plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  19. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics of arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Moore; Wallace M. Meyer; Jeffrey A. Eble; Kimberly Franklin; John F. Wiens; Richard C. Brusca

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically...

  20. Genetics, geography, and culture: the population of S. Pietro Island (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, G; Calò, C M; Lucia, G; Mameli, G E; Succa, V; Esteban, E; Moral, P

    1996-08-01

    An interesting aspect of the island of Sardinia (Italy) is the wide range of genetic variability within the island itself. The variability is widened by the presence of some populations of different ethnic origin who speak a language other than Sardinian. This work deals with the study of the genetic structure of the Carloforte population which inhabits the tiny island of S. Pietro 4 km off the southwest coast of Sardinia. S. Pietro was first populated in 1738 by emigrants coming from the island of Tabarka (Tunisia) who spoke an archaic form of the Ligurian dialect. Data on genetic polymorphisms in the Carloforte population are presented and discussed in relation to some Sardinian and Italian populations. Data on demographic and matrimonial structure are also presented. The genetic analyses show the Carloforte population as being clearly separated from both Sardinians and continental Italians. The isolation of Carloforte, highlighted by language diversity, endogamy, and consanguinity levels and marriage area, supports the idea of genetic diversity linked to cultural peculiarity.