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Sample records for p1 n1 p2

  1. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  2. On the non-existence of orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Farnik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove that there do not exist orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1} . In order to demonstrate this fact, we propose a new way of representing the invariant, introduced by L. Costa and G. Ottaviani, related to a rank 2n instanton bundle on P^{2n+1}.

  3. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and

  4. The amino terminal end determines the stability and assembling capacity of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins P1 and P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Hendricka; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Abia, David; Briceño, Verónica; Remacha, Miguel; Ballesta, Juan P G

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal proteins P1 and P2 bind to protein P0 through their N-terminal domain to form the essential ribosomal stalk. A mutational analysis points to amino acids at positions 2 and 3 as determinants for the drastic difference of Saccharomyces cerevisiae P1 and P2 half-life, and suggest different degradation mechanisms for each protein type. Moreover, the capacity to form P1/P2 heterodimers is drastically affected by mutations in the P2β four initial amino acids, while these mutations have no effect on P1β. Binding of P2β and, to a lesser extent, P1β to the ribosome is also seriously affected showing the high relevance of the amino acids in the first turn of the NTD α-helix 1 for the stalk assembly. The negative effect of some mutations on ribosome binding can be reversed by the presence of the second P1/P2 couple in the ribosome, indicating a stabilizing structural influence between the two heterodimers. Unexpectedly, some mutations totally abolish heterodimer formation but allow significant ribosome binding and, therefore, a previous P1 and P2 association seems not to be an absolute requirement for stalk assembly. Homology modeling of the protein complexes suggests that the mutated residues can affect the overall protein conformation. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M.; Howard Berg, R.; Sue Loesch-Fries, L.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  6. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  7. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  8. Closed expressions for $\\int_{0}^{1} t^{-1} log^{n-1}t log^{p}(1 - t) dt$

    CERN Document Server

    Kölbig, Kurt Siegfried

    1982-01-01

    Closed expressions for the integral integral /sub 0//sup 1/ t/sup -1/ log/sup n-1/t log/sup p/(1-t)dt, whose general form is given elsewhere, are listed for n=1(1)9, p=1(1)9. A formula is derived which allows an easy evaluation of these expressions by formula manipulation on a computer. The majority of the above expressions are given in a microfiche supplement to the paper.

  9. Effects of background noise on inter-trial phase coherence and auditory N1-P2 responses to speech stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Tess K; Zhang, Yang

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a speech-babble background noise on inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC, also referred to as phase locking value (PLV)) and auditory event-related responses (AERP) to speech sounds. Specifically, we analyzed EEG data from 11 normal hearing subjects to examine whether ITPC can predict noise-induced variations in the obligatory N1-P2 complex response. N1-P2 amplitude and latency data were obtained for the /bu/syllable in quiet and noise listening conditions. ITPC data in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands were calculated for the N1-P2 responses in the two passive listening conditions. Consistent with previous studies, background noise produced significant amplitude reduction and latency increase in N1 and P2, which were accompanied by significant ITPC decreases in all the three frequency bands. Correlation analyses further revealed that variations in ITPC were able to predict the amplitude and latency variations in N1-P2. The results suggest that trial-by-trial analysis of cortical neural synchrony is a valuable tool in understanding the modulatory effects of background noise on AERP measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luis P S; Teixeira, Cícero S; Tirapelle, Evandro F; Donatti, Lucélia; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio; Chubatsu, Leda S; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  11. Backup expression of the PhaP2 phasin compensates for phaP1 deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, maintaining fitness and PHB accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Silveira Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phasins are important proteins controlling PHB granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈ 50 % in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was 6-fold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  12. Expression analysis of the speech-related genes FoxP1 and FoxP2 and their relation to singing behavior in two songbird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Heston, Jonathan B.; Burkett, Zachary D.; White, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and songbirds are among the rare animal groups that exhibit socially learned vocalizations: speech and song, respectively. These vocal-learning capacities share a reliance on audition and cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, as well as neurogenetic mechanisms. Notably, the transcription factors Forkhead box proteins 1 and 2 (FoxP1, FoxP2) exhibit similar expression patterns in the cortex and basal ganglia of humans and the zebra finch species of songbird, among other brain regions. Mutations in either gene are associated with language disorders in humans. Experimental knock-down of FoxP2 in the basal ganglia song control region Area X during song development leads to imprecise copying of tutor songs. Moreover, FoxP2 levels decrease naturally within Area X when zebra finches sing. Here, we examined neural expression patterns of FoxP1 and FoxP2 mRNA in adult Bengalese finches, a songbird species whose songs exhibit greater sequence complexity and increased reliance on audition for maintaining their quality. We found that FoxP1 and FoxP2 expression in Bengalese finches is similar to that in zebra finches, including strong mRNA signals for both factors in multiple song control nuclei and enhancement of FoxP1 in these regions relative to surrounding brain tissue. As with zebra finches, when Bengalese finches sing, FoxP2 is behaviorally downregulated within basal ganglia Area X over a similar time course, and expression negatively correlates with the amount of singing. This study confirms that in multiple songbird species, FoxP1 expression highlights song control regions, and regulation of FoxP2 is associated with motor control of song. PMID:24006346

  13. Evaluation of the Role of IgE Responses to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in Chinese House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hui-Ying; Gao, Zhong-Shan; Zhou, Xiang; Dai, Yu; Yao, Wo; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Zhao-Wei; Wu, Shan-Dong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Yang, Xu-Yan; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The role of specific IgE (sIgE) against Der p 1 and Der p 2 in Chinese patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy has not yet been well investigated. One hundred patients were enrolled, based on sensitization and doctor-diagnosed allergy to HDM. Questionnaires were administered to document

  14. The deexcitation of the Ar (3P2, 3p1 and 1P1) states as measured by absorption both in pure argon and in the presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutuit, Odile

    1974-01-01

    The de-excitation of the 3 P 2 , 3 p 1 and 1 P 1 states of argon was studied in pure argon between 10 and 200 torr and in Ar + CO and Ar + H 2 mixtures. These states are populated after excitation of the gas by a short (20 ns) pulse of 500 keV electrons (FEBETRON). Under our experimental conditions, the relation between the measured optical density of the lines studied and the concentration of absorbing species was found to be: DO = log I 0 /I ∝ (lC) n with n = 0,4. The three body rate constants k 2 were measured for the two resonant states 3 p 1 (k 2 = (1,65 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (k 2 = (1,0 ± 0,2) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ); they had not been considered in previous low pressure studies. For the metastable state 3 P 2 , the measured value of k 2 ((1,6 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) is in good agreement with those found in the literature. However, our two body rate constant k 1 is about ten times higher than that found in measurements at low pressure. This difference could be due to a collision-induced emission process at high pressure. The rate constants for the quenching by CO and H 2 were measured for the metastable state 3 P 2 (1,85 and 10,5 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and for the resonant states 3 P 1 (4,5 and 20 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (8,5 and 33 X 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ). Comparison of the de-excitation cross sections of resonant and metastable states should lead to a better understanding of energy transfer processes from these latter. (author) [fr

  15. Crossed molecular beam-tunable laser determination of velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing: K(4p2P1/2)+He →K(4p2P3/2)+He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Goddard, T.P.; Parravano, C.; Warner, J.

    1976-01-01

    The velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing, K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 ) +He→K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 )+He, has been measured over the relative velocity range v=1.3--3.4 km/sec. The cross section appears to fit a linear function Q (v) =A (v-v 0 ), where a=6.3 x 10 -4 A 2 and v 0 = 7.9 x 10 4 cm/sec. The value of A is obtained by normalization to the literature thermal average cross section. The intramultiplet mixing theory of Nikitin is modified to yield Q (v) for the process. The modified theory correctly exhibits detailed balancing, and it is normalized to provide a very good fit to the observed Q (v). The magnitude of the normalization factor, however, is larger than that predicted from recent pseudopotential calculations of the excited state potentials. The temperature dependence of intramultiplet mixing is predicted. The use of laser polarization to determine the m/subj/ dependence of the process K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 +He→K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 )+He and other collision processes of excited 2 P 3 / 2 states is examined

  16. PENERAPAN METODE RETAD UNTUK MENGURANGI WAKTU SET UP PADA MESIN MILLING P1 DAN P2 DEPARTEMEN MACHINING PT. KUBOTA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyanto Sriyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengurangan waktu produksi dalam suatu proses produksi dapat dilakukan dengan meminimalkan waktu setup pada proses produksi tersebut. Untuk mengurangi waktu setup diperlukan suatu cara untuk membantu operator dalam melaksanakan proses milling sehingga dapat meminimalkan waktu setup serta dapat menghilangkan elemen kerja yang tidak produktif tersebut. Metode RETAD (Rapid Exchange of Tooling and Dies merupakan pengembangan dari metode SMED (Single Minuite Exchange of Dies yang bertujuan mengurangi waktu setup, menghapus scrap dan rework. Dari hasil pengolahan data dan analisis untuk proses milling pada mesin Milling Vertikal P1, waktu elemen kerja membersihkan jig dari geram dapat dikurangi dari 5.53 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 1.54 detik setelah perbaikan dan untuk mesin Milling Vertikal P2, waktu elemen kerja membersihkan jig dari geram dapat  dikurangi dari 5.15 detik menjadi 1.54 detik. Dari hasil di atas maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi perbaikan waktu setup pada proses milling pada Mesin Milling Vertikal P1 dan P2 di Cylinder Head Line, perbandingan waktu standar proses milling dari 258.505 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 254.518 detik setelah perbaikan pada mesin Milling Vertikal P1 dan 256.002 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 252.392 detik setelah perbaikan pada mesin Milling Vertikal P2 Untuk penelitian ini hasil tersebut merupakan hasil maksimal yang dapat dicapai, namun dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut pada mesin-mesin produksi lainnya. Kata kunci           : RETAD, waktu setup, elemen kerja

  17. A hierarchical coarse-grained (all-atom to all residue) approach to peptides (P1, P2) binding with a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ras; Kuang, Zhifeng; Farmer, Barry; Kim, Sang; Naik, Rajesh

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Kim et al. [1] have found that peptides P1: HSSYWYAFNNKT and P2: EPLQLKM bind selectively to graphene surfaces and edges respectively which are critical in modulating both the mechanical as well as electronic transport properties of graphene. Such distinctions in binding sites (edge versus surface) observed in electron micrographs were verified by computer simulation by an all-atomic model that captures the pi-pi bonding. We propose a hierarchical approach that involves input from the all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) study (with atomistic detail) into a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation to extend this study further to a larger scale. The binding energy of a free amino acid with the graphene sheet from all-atom simulation is used in the interaction parameter for the coarse-grained approach. Peptide chain executes its stochastic motion with the Metropolis algorithm. We investigate a number of local and global physical quantities and find that peptide P1 is likely to bind more strongly to graphene sheet than P2 and that it is anchored by three residues ^4Y^5W^6Y. [1] S.N. Kim et al J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 14480 (2011).

  18. Design, synthesis, X-ray studies, and biological evaluation of novel macrocyclic HIV-1 protease inhibitors involving the P1'-P2' ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Sean Fyvie, W.; Brindisi, Margherita; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing diverse flexible macrocyclic P1'-P2' tethers are reported. Inhibitor 5a with a pyrrolidinone-derived macrocycle exhibited favorable enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity (Ki = 13.2 nM, IC50 = 22 nM). Further incorporation of heteroatoms in the macrocyclic skeleton provided macrocyclic inhibitors 5m and 5o. These compounds showed excellent HIV-1 protease inhibitory (Ki = 62 pM and 14 pM, respectively) and antiviral activity (IC50 = 5.3 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively). Inhibitor 5o also remained highly potent against a DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant.

  19. Lassomycin, a ribosomally synthesized cyclic peptide, kills mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting the ATP-dependent protease ClpC1P1P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, Ekaterina; Sit, Clarissa S; Cao, Shugeng; Kandror, Olga; Spoering, Amy; Peoples, Aaron; Ling, Losee; Fetterman, Ashley; Hughes, Dallas; Bissell, Anthony; Torrey, Heather; Akopian, Tatos; Mueller, Andreas; Epstein, Slava; Goldberg, Alfred; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2014-04-24

    Languishing antibiotic discovery and flourishing antibiotic resistance have prompted the development of alternative untapped sources for antibiotic discovery, including previously uncultured bacteria. Here, we screen extracts from uncultured species against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and identify lassomycin, an antibiotic that exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both growing and dormant mycobacteria, including drug-resistant forms of M. tuberculosis, but little activity against other bacteria or mammalian cells. Lassomycin is a highly basic, ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide with an unusual structural fold that only partially resembles that of other lasso peptides. We show that lassomycin binds to a highly acidic region of the ClpC1 ATPase complex and markedly stimulates its ATPase activity without stimulating ClpP1P2-catalyzed protein breakdown, which is essential for viability of mycobacteria. This mechanism, uncoupling ATPase from proteolytic activity, accounts for the bactericidal activity of lassomycin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrational Fingerprints of Low-Lying PtnP2n (n = 1–5) Cluster Structures from Global Optimization Based on Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem

    2015-11-13

    Vibrational fingerprints of small PtnP2n (n = 1–5) clusters were computed from their low-lying structures located from a global exploration of their DFT potential energy surfaces with the GSAM code. Five DFT methods were assessed from the CCSD(T) wavenumbers of PtP2 species and CCSD relative energies of Pt2P4 structures. The eight first PtnP2n isomers found are reported. The vibrational computations reveal (i) the absence of clear signatures made by overtone or combination bands due to very weak mechanical and electrical anharmonicities and (ii) some significant and recurrent vibrational fingerprints in correlation with the different PP bonding situations in the PtnP2n structures.

  1. Vibrational Fingerprints of Low-Lying PtnP2n (n = 1–5) Cluster Structures from Global Optimization Based on Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem; Li, Rui; Fornasiero, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi; Carbonniere, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational fingerprints of small PtnP2n (n = 1–5) clusters were computed from their low-lying structures located from a global exploration of their DFT potential energy surfaces with the GSAM code. Five DFT methods were assessed from the CCSD(T) wavenumbers of PtP2 species and CCSD relative energies of Pt2P4 structures. The eight first PtnP2n isomers found are reported. The vibrational computations reveal (i) the absence of clear signatures made by overtone or combination bands due to very weak mechanical and electrical anharmonicities and (ii) some significant and recurrent vibrational fingerprints in correlation with the different PP bonding situations in the PtnP2n structures.

  2. Enhancement of the response to purinergic agonists in P2Y1 transfected 1321N1 cells by antagonists suramin and PPADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Charlton, S J; Boarder, M R

    1997-03-01

    1. We have previously shown that both suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4' disulphonic acid (PPADS) act as antagonists at transfected P2Y1 receptors. Here we show that under certain experimental conditions these two P2 antagonists can enhance the response to agonists acting at these receptors. 2. The expression of either P2Y1 or P2Y2 receptors in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells results, on a change of medium, in an elevation of basal (no added agonist) accumulation of [3H]-inositol(poly)phosphates([3H]-InsPx) compared to cells not expressing these receptors. This elevation is much greater in P2Y1 transfectants than in P2Y, transfectants. 3. Both PPADS and suramin reduced this basal level of [3H]-InsPx accumulation in the P2Y1 expressing cells. 4. When a protocol was used which required changing the culture medium, antagonists were added at a concentration which reduced the basal accumulation by about 50%, there was a significant stimulation in response to increasing concentrations of 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2MeSATP), in the absence of antagonists there was no significant effect of the agonist. 5. However, when 2MeSATP was added in the absence of a change of medium and with no antagonist present, there was a several fold increase in [3H]-InsPx accumulation. These results show that a release of endogenous agonist activity (possibly ATP/ADP) from the P2Y1 expressing cells can create conditions in which a response to an agonist such as 2MeSATP can only be seen in the presence of a competitive antagonist.

  3. Excitation of the (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; McGuire, J.H.; Schipakov, V.S.; Crowe, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report full second Born calculations with inclusion of post-collision interactions for excitation of the (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact. The calculations are compared to (e, 2e) measurements of McDonald and Crowe (McDonald D G and Crowe A 1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 2887-97) and Lower and Weigold (Lower J and Weigold E 1990 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23 2819-45). It is shown that post-collision interactions or Coulomb interactions in the final state between the scattered particle, the ejected electron and the recoil ion have a strong influence on both the direct ionization and resonance profiles around the binary lobe. The second-order terms in the amplitude of double electron excitation also play an observable role under these kinematic conditions. Reasonable agreement is found between the full-scale calculations and the experimental data. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  4. The three youngest Plinian eruptions of Mt Pelée, Martinique (P1, P2 and P3): Constraining the eruptive conditions from field and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Uhlig, Joan; Carazzo, Guillaume; Kaminski, Edouard; Perugini, Diego; Tait, Steve; Clouard, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Mt Pelée on Martinique, French Lesser Indies, is infamous for the last big Pelean (i.e., dome forming) eruption in 1902 AD that destroyed agricultural land and the city of Saint Pierre by pyroclastic density currents. Beside such mostly valley-confined deposits, the geological record shows thick fall deposits of at least three Plinian eruptions during the past 2000 years. In an attempt to describe and understand systematic eruptive behaviours as well as the associated variability of eruptive scenarios of Plinian eruptions in Martinique, we have investigated approx. 50 outcrops belonging to the P1 (1315 AD), P2 (345 AD) and P3 (4 AD) eruptions (Traineau et al., JVGR 1989) and collected bulk samples as well as >100 mm pumiceous clasts. All samples are andesitic, contain plagioclase and pyroxene in a glassy matrix and range in porosity between 55 and 69 vol.% with individual bubbles rarely larger than 1 mm. Our approach was two-fold: 1) Loose bulk samples have been subject to dry mechanical sieving in order to quantively describe the grain-size distribution and the fractal dimension. 2) From large clasts, 60*25 mm cylinders have been drilled for fragmentation experiments following the sudden decompression of gas in the sample's pore space. The used experimental set-up allowed for precisely controllable and repeatable conditions (5, 10 and 15 MPa, 25 °C) and the complete sampling of the generated pyroclasts. These experimentally generated clasts were analysed for their grain-size distribution and fractal dimension. For both natural samples and experimental populations, we find we find that the grain-size distribution follows a power-law, with an exponent between 2,5 and 3,7. Deciphering eruption conditions from deposits alone is challenging because of the complex interplay of dynamic volcanic processes and transport-related sorting. We use the quantified values of fractal dimension for a comparison of the power law exponents among the three eruptions and the

  5. Modulation of the TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by P1 and P2 purine receptors in MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Giuliani, Patricia; Buccella, Silvana; Di Liberto, Valentina; Mudò, Giuseppa; Belluardo, Natale; Carluccio, Marzia; Rossini, Margherita; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo; Rathbone, Michel Piers; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata; Di Iorio, Patrizia

    2017-12-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during embryogenesis or under pathological conditions such as hypoxia, injury, chronic inflammation, or tissue fibrosis. In renal tubular epithelial cells (MDCK), TGF-β1 induces EMT by reducing or increasing epithelial or mesenchymal marker expression, respectively. In this study, we confirmed that the cAMP analogues, 8-CPT-cAMP or N6-Ph-cAMP, inhibited the TGF-β1-driven overexpression of the mesenchymal markers ZEB-1, Slug, Fibronectin, and α-SMA. Furthermore, we showed that A1, A2A, P2Y1, P2Y11, and P2X7 purine receptor agonists modulated the TGF-β1-induced EMT through the involvement of PKA and/or MAPK/ERK signaling. The stimulation of A2A receptor reduced the overexpression of the EMT-related markers, mainly through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway, as confirmed by cell pre-treatment with Myr-PKI. Both A1 and P2Y1 receptor stimulation exacerbated the TGF-β1-driven effects, which were reduced by cell pre-treatment with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059, according to the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon receptor activation. The effects induced by P2Y11 receptor activation were oppositely modulated by PKA or MAPK inhibition, in line with the dual nature of the Gs- and Gq-coupled receptor. Differently, P2X7 receptor induced, per se, similar and not additive effects compared to TGF-β1, after prolonged cell exposure to BzATP. These results suggest a putative role of purine receptors as target for anti-fibrotic agents.

  6. Synthesis of P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate for the investigation of biosynthesis of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli O104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgov, Vladimir; Danilov, Leonid; Utkina, Natalia; Veselovsky, Vladimir; Brockhausen, Inka

    2017-12-01

    Two new phenoxyundecyl diphosphate sugars were synthesized for the first time: P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 - (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 -(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate to study the third step of biosynthesis of the repeating units of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E.coli O104 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unexpectedly large difference of the electron density at the nucleus in the 4p ^2{P}_{{1}/{2},{3}/{2}} fine-structure doublet of Ca^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C.; Gebert, F.; Gorges, C.; Kaufmann, S.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Sahoo, B. K.; Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Berengut, J. C.; Wolf, F.; Heip, J. C.; Schmidt, P. O.

    2017-01-01

    We measured the isotope shift in the ^2{S}_{{1}/{2}} → ^2{P}_{{3}/{2}} (D2) transition in singly ionized calcium ions using photon recoil spectroscopy. The high accuracy of the technique enables us to compare the difference between the isotope shifts of this transition to the previously measured isotopic shifts of the ^2{S}_{{1}/{2}} → ^2{P}_{{1}/{2}} (D1) line. This so-called splitting isotope shift is extracted and exhibits a clear signature of field shift contributions. From the data, we were able to extract the small difference of the field shift coefficient and mass shifts between the two transitions with high accuracy. This J-dependence is of relativistic origin and can be used to benchmark atomic structure calculations. As a first step, we use several ab initio atomic structure calculation methods to provide more accurate values for the field shift constants and their ratio. Remarkably, the high-accuracy value for the ratio of the field shift constants extracted from the experimental data is larger than all available theoretical predictions.

  8. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  9. Vibrational Fingerprints of Low-Lying Pt(n)P(2n) (n = 1-5) Cluster Structures from Global Optimization Based on Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Abdesslem; Li, Rui; Fornasiero, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi; Carbonniere, Philippe

    2015-12-03

    Vibrational fingerprints of small Pt(n)P(2n) (n = 1-5) clusters were computed from their low-lying structures located from a global exploration of their DFT potential energy surfaces with the GSAM code. Five DFT methods were assessed from the CCSD(T) wavenumbers of PtP2 species and CCSD relative energies of Pt2P4 structures. The eight first Pt(n)P(2n) isomers found are reported. The vibrational computations reveal (i) the absence of clear signatures made by overtone or combination bands due to very weak mechanical and electrical anharmonicities and (ii) some significant and recurrent vibrational fingerprints in correlation with the different PP bonding situations in the Pt(n)P(2n) structures.

  10. Electron-impact excitation of multiply-charged ions using energy loss in merged beams: e + Si3+(3s2S1/2) → e + Si3+(3p2P1/2,3/2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlin, E.K.; Thompson, J.S.; Dunn, G.H.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Gregory, D.C.; Smith, A.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of a multiply-charged ion have been measured using an electron-energy-loss technique. Measurements were made near threshold for the process e + Si 3+ (3s 2 S 1/2 ) → e + Si 3+ (3p 2 P 1/2 , 3/2 ) -- 8.88 eV. The 10 -15 cm 2 measured cross section agrees with results of 7-state close coupling calculations to better than the ±20% (90% CL) total uncertainty of the measurements. Convoluting the theoretical curve with a Gaussian energy distribution indicates an energy width of 0.15 approx-lt ΔE approx-lt 0.20 eV. 12 refs., 2 figs

  11. Femtosecond induced transparency and absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by coherent coupling of the He 2s2p (1Po) and 2p2 (1Se) double excitation states with 800 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Z.-H.; Greene, C.H.; Leone, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy is used to observe electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior as well as induced absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by laser dressing of the He 2s2p ( 1 P 0 ) and 2p 2 ( 1 S e ) double excitation states with an intense 800 nm field. Probing in the vicinity of the 1s 2 → 2s2p transition at 60.15 eV reveals the formation of an Autler-Townes doublet due to coherent coupling of the double excitation states. Qualitative agreement with the experimental spectra is obtained only when optical field ionization of both double excitation states into the N = 2 continuum is included in the theoretical model. Because the Fano q-parameter of the unperturbed probe transition is finite, the laser-dressed He atom exhibits both enhanced transparency and absorption at negative and positive probe energy detunings, respectively

  12. Electron impact excitation-autoionisation of the (2s2)1S, (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionising states of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzic, O.; Hurn, J.A.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The electron impact excitation of the (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionising states of helium and their subsequent radiationless decay was studied by observation of the ejected electrons. The present work was carried out at an incident energy of 94.6 eV and for ejected electron scattering angles in the range 25-135 deg C. The lineshapes observed in the present ejected electron spectra are analysed using the Shore-Balashov parametrisation. As part of the analysis procedure, numerically rigorous confidence limits were determined for the derived parameters. No previous experimental or theoretical work has been undertaken at the incident energy of the present investigation but, where possible, the resulting parameters are qualitatively compared against the 80 eV results of other experiments and theory. 37 refs., 4 figs

  13. Detection of radiation transitions between 4d9(D5/3,3/2)5s2nl and 4d105p(2P1/2,3/20)nl of self-ionized states of cadmium atom at electron-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonaj, A.N.; Imre, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation transitions between 4d 9 ( 2 D 5/2,3/2 )5s 2 nl and 4d 10 5p( 2 P 1/2,3/2 0 )nl self-ionized states of Cd atom being dielectron satellites of λ325.0 nm (4d 9 5s 22 D 3/2 →4d 10 5p 2 P 1/2 0 ) and λ353.6 nm (4d 9 5s 22 D 3/2 → 4d 10 5p 2 P 3/2 0 ) laser lines of Cd + ion were detected for the first time at electron-ion collisions. One studied energy dependences of the effective cross sections of electron excitation of the satellite lines within 7-10 eV energy range. The effective cross sections of excitation of dielectron satellites constitutes ∼ 10 -17 cm 2 that is comparable with the efficiency of excitation of the laser lines [ru

  14. PPADS and suramin as antagonists at cloned P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, S J; Brown, C A; Weisman, G A; Turner, J T; Erb, L; Boarder, M R

    1996-06-01

    1. The effect of suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on the stimulation of phospholipase C in 1321N1 cells transfected with the human P2U-purinoceptor (h-P2U-1321N1 cells) or with the turkey P2Y-purinoceptor (t-P2Y-1321N1 cells) was investigated. 2-Methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) was used as the agonist at t-P2Y-1321N1 cells and uridine triphosphate (UTP) at h-P2U-1321N1 cells. 2. Suramin caused a parallel shift to the right of the concentration-response curves for 2MeSATP in the t-P2Y-1321N1 cells, yielding a Schild plot with a slope of 1.16 +/- 0.08 and a pA2 value of 5.77 +/- 0.11. 3. Suramin also caused a shift to the right of concentration-response curves for UTP in the h-P2U-1321N1 cells, and on Schild plots gave a slope different from unity (1.57 +/- 0.19) and an apparent pA2 value of 4.32 +/- 0.13. Suramin was therefore a less potent antagonist at the P2U-purinoceptor than the P2Y-purinoceptor. 4. In the presence of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor, ARL 67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-beta,gamma-dibromomethylene-D-ATP) there was no significant difference in the EC50 or shapes of curves with either cell type, and no difference in pA2 values for suramin. 5. PPADS caused an increase in the EC50 for 2MeSATP in the t-P2Y-1321N1 cells. The Schild plot had a slope different from unity (0.55 +/- 0.15) and an X-intercept corresponding to an apparent pA2 of 5.98 +/- 0.65. 6. PPADS up to 30 microM had no effect on the concentration-response curve for UTP with the h-P2U-1321N1 cells. 7. In conclusion, suramin and PPADS show clear differences in their action at the 2 receptor types, in each case being substantially more effective as an antagonist at the P2Y-purinoceptor than at the P2U-purinoceptor. Ectonucleotidase breakdown had little influence on the nature of the responses at the two receptor types, or in their differential sensitivity to suramin.

  15. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to an extract from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis latex and recombinant pollen allergens (Phl P 1, Phl P 2, Phl P 5, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 in the sera of Italian atopic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato E. Rossi

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study may support the concept that a high proportion of sera containing IgE to rBet v 2, rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5 simultaneously contain antilatex IgE. Therefore, patients with specific IgE to these recombinant allergens with no history of current latex exposure may need additional evaluation.

  16. Antiviral T cell competence and restriction specificity of mixed allogeneic (P1 + P2----P1) irradiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueedi, E.S.; Sykes, M.; Ildstad, S.T.; Chester, C.H.; Althage, A.; Hengartner, H.; Sachs, D.H.; Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed irradiation bone marrow chimeras were prepared by reconstituting lethally irradiated C57BL/10 (B10) or B10.D2 mice with T cell-depleted bone marrow cells of B10 plus B10.D2 origin. These chimeras were healthy and survived well under conventional housing conditions and after experimental laboratory infections. Of a total of 17 chimeras tested, 2 died spontaneously or from the injected virus. Twelve of fifteen chimeras mounted a measurable cytotoxic T cell response to virus. Despite approximately equal percentages of B10 and B10.D2 lymphocytes in chimeras, cytotoxic T cell responses to vaccinia virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus were mediated variably by either syngeneic or allogeneic donor lymphocytes; thus the H-2 type of effector T cells frequently did not correspond to the 50:50 distribution of spleen or peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cytotoxic responses were restricted exclusively to recipient H-2 type. All mixed chimeras examined were able to mount a good IgG response to vesicular stomatitis virus. These results confirm previous data suggesting that such mixed chimeras are healthy and immunocompetent and demonstrate strict recipient-determined restriction specificity of effector T cells; they also suggest that if T help is necessary for induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, it does not require host-restricted interactions between helper T cells and precursor cytotoxic T cells

  17. Nonlocal N=1 supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Noumi, Toshifumi [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-10-05

    We construct N=1 supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of Kähler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  18. Hydrogen binding effect on charged P2n (n = 1–7) clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion technology and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, pure phosphorus clusters ... in a helium beam.2 Laser ablation of pure red phospho- rus leads to formation of ... n (up to n = 91) had been synthesized in the gas phase by laser ablation of ...

  19. Autoionization spectra of He excited by fast (MeV) H+, He+, and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.; Arcuni, P.; Bruch, P.; Stoeffler, W.

    1983-01-01

    Autoionization spectra of He following excitation by 1 to 3 MeV H + , He + , and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) have been measured as a function of observation angle. The (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P resonances have been examined and a strong dependence on projectile velocities, charge state and observation angle was found

  20. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTremblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP, as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What’s more, these effects were retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training, exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre

  1. Cytochrome P2A13 and P1A1 gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Bettendorf, H; Denschlag, D; Keck, C; Pietrowski, D

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the association between the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma and two SNPs of the CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 genes. Prospective case control study with 132 women with clinically and surgically diagnosed uterine leiomyoma and 260 controls. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification of CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Comparing women with uterine leiomyoma and controls, we demonstrate statistical significant differences of allele frequency and genotype distribution for the CYP 1A1 polymorphism (P = 0.025 and P = 0.046, respectively). Furthermore, for the CYP 2A13 polymorphism we found a significant difference concerning allele frequency (P = 0.033). However, for the genotype distribution, only borderline significance was observed (P = 0.064). The CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 SNPs are associated with uterine leiomyoma in a Caucasian population and may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of uterine leiomyoma.

  2. User's manual for THYDE-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro

    1982-04-01

    THYDE-P1 is a computer code applicable to LWR (light water reactor) plant dynamics in response to various disturbances. This work is the user's mannual of THYDE-P1 (version SV02L03). The input requirements, steady state adjustment, execution of runs and output specifications are described. (author)

  3. Towards P2P XML Database Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo ease the development of data-intensive P2P applications, we envision a P2P XML Database Management System (P2P XDBMS) that acts as a database middle-ware, providing a uniform database abstraction on top of a dynamic set of distributed data sources. In this PhD work, we research which

  4. SU(N,1) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  5. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...

  6. N =1 supergravitational heterotic galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-11-01

    Heterotic M -theory consists of a five-dimensional manifold of the form S 1 / Z 2 × M 4. It has been shown that one of the two orbifold planes, the "observable" sector, can have a low energy particle spectrum which is precisely the N = 1 super-symmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrino chiral supermultiplets. The other orbifold plane constitutes a "hidden" sector which, since its communication with the observable sector is suppressed, will be ignored in this paper. However, the finite fifth-dimension allows for the existence of three-brane solitons which, in order to render the vacuum anomaly free, must appear. That is, heterotic M -theory provides a natural framework for brane-world cosmological scenarios coupled to realistic particle physics. The complete worldvolume action of such three-branes is unknown. Here, treating these solitons as probe branes, we construct their scalar worldvolume Lagrangian as a derivative expansion of the heterotic DBI action. In analogy with similar calculations in the M 5 and AdS 5 context, this leads to the construction of "heterotic Galileons". However, realistic vacua of heterotic M -theory are necessarily N = 1 supersymmetric in four dimensions. Hence, we proceed to supersymmetrize the three-brane worldvolume action, first in flat superspace and then extend the results to N = 1 supergravity. Such a worldvolume action may lead to interesting cosmology, such as "bouncing" universe models, by allowing for the violation of the Null Energy Condition (NEC).

  7. Only Acyl Carrier Protein 1 (AcpP1 Functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS, only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P. aeruginosa cell free extracts in vitro, and only acpP1 gene could restore growth in the Escherichia coliacpP mutant strain CY1877. And P. aeruginosaacpP1 could not be deleted, while disruption of acpP2 or acpP3 in the P. aeruginosa genome allowed mutant strains to grow as well as the wild type strain. These findings confirmed that only P. aeruginosa AcpP1 functions in fatty acid biosynthesis, and that acpP2 and acpP3 do not play roles in the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Moreover, disruption of acpP2 and acpP3 did not affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL, but replacement of P. aeruginosaacpP1 with E. coliacpP caused P. aeruginosa to reduce the production of AHL molecules, which indicated that neither P. aeruginosa AcpP2 nor AcpP3 can act as a substrate for synthesis of AHL molecules in vivo. Furthermore, replacement of acpP1 with E. coliacpP reduced the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce some exo-products and abolished swarming motility in P. aeruginosa.

  8. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  9. Big Data hvor N=1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2017-01-01

    Forskningen vedrørende anvendelsen af ’big data’ indenfor sundhed er kun lige begyndt, og kan på sigt blive en stor hjælp i forhold til at tilrettelægge en mere personlig og helhedsorienteret sundhedsindsats for multisyge. Personlig sundhedsteknologi, som kort præsenteres i dette kapital, rummer et...... stor potentiale for at gennemføre ’big data’ analyser for den enkelte person, det vil sige hvor N=1. Der er store teknologiske udfordringer i at få lavet teknologier og metoder til at indsamle og håndtere personlige data, som kan deles, på tværs på en standardiseret, forsvarlig, robust, sikker og ikke...

  10. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  11. Co-Higgs bundles on P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Co-Higgs bundles are Higgs bundles in the sense of Simpson, but with Higgs fields that take values in the tangent bundle instead of the cotangent bundle. Given a vector bundle on P^1, we find necessary and sufficient conditions on its Grothendieck splitting for it to admit a stable Higgs field. We characterize the rank-2, odd-degree moduli space as a universal elliptic curve with a globally-defined equation. For ranks r=2,3,4, we explicitly verify the conjectural Betti numbers emerging from t...

  12. Thermoelastic properties of Zn3P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J. Staun; Waśkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The bulk modulus and thermal expansion of Zn3P2 has been investigated at pressures up to 21GPa and temperatures down to 100K. The experimental zero-pressure bulk modulus is 80.7 ± 1.8GPa, in accordance with the bulk modulus scaling and lattice properties of the related compound Cd3P2. A tetragonal...... to orthorhombic phase transformation occurs above 11GPa with a relative volume change of-7.1%. Values for the thermal expansion coefficient are reported at 293, 200 and 100K....

  13. P2X Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pankratov, Y.; Lalo, U.; Krishtal, A.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2009), s. 137-148 ISSN 0306-4522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ATP * P2X receptors * synaptic plasticity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2009

  14. Medicinal chemistry of adenosine, P2Y and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological tool compounds are now available to define action at the adenosine (ARs), P2Y and P2X receptors. We present a selection of the most commonly used agents to study purines in the nervous system. Some of these compounds, including A1 and A3 AR agonists, P2Y1R and P2Y12R antagonists, and P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 antagonists, are potentially of clinical use in treatment of disorders of the nervous system, such as chronic pain, neurodegeneration and brain injury. Agonists of the A2AAR and P2Y2R are already used clinically, P2Y12R antagonists are widely used antithrombotics and an antagonist of the A2AAR is approved in Japan for treating Parkinson's disease. The selectivity defined for some of the previously introduced compounds has been revised with updated pharmacological characterization, for example, various AR agonists and antagonists were deemed A1AR or A3AR selective based on human data, but species differences indicated a reduction in selectivity ratios in other species. Also, many of the P2R ligands still lack bioavailability due to charged groups or hydrolytic (either enzymatic or chemical) instability. X-ray crystallographic structures of AR and P2YRs have shifted the mode of ligand discovery to structure-based approaches rather than previous empirical approaches. The X-ray structures can be utilized either for in silico screening of chemically diverse libraries for the discovery of novel ligands or for enhancement of the properties of known ligands by chemical modification. Although X-ray structures of the zebrafish P2X4R have been reported, there is scant structural information about ligand recognition in these trimeric ion channels. In summary, there are definitive, selective agonists and antagonists for all of the ARs and some of the P2YRs; while the pharmacochemistry of P2XRs is still in nascent stages. The therapeutic potential of selectively modulating these receptors is continuing to gain interest in such fields as cancer, inflammation, pain

  15. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.

  16. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  17. Microglia P2Y13 Receptors Prevent Astrocyte Proliferation Mediated by P2Y1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Quintas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog. In astrocyte cultures, ADPβS increased cell proliferation through activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, an effect abolished in co-cultures (of astrocytes with ∼12.5% microglia. The possibility that the loss of the ADPβS-mediated effect could have been caused by a microglia-induced degradation of ADPβS or by a preferential microglial localization of P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors was excluded. Since ADPβS also activates P2Y13 receptors, the contribution of microglial P2Y13 receptors to prevent the proliferative effect of ADPβS in co-cultures was investigated. The results obtained indicate that P2Y13 receptors are low expressed in astrocytes and mainly expressed in microglia. Furthermore, in co-cultures, ADPβS induced astroglial proliferation in the presence of the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS 2211 (3 μM and of the selective P2Y12 antagonist AR-C66096 (0.1 μM, suggesting that activation of microglial P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors may induce the release of messengers that inhibit astroglial proliferation mediated by P2Y1,12 receptors. In this microglia-astrocyte paracrine communication, P2Y12 receptors exert opposite effects in astroglial proliferation as a result of its cellular localization: cooperating in astrocytes with P2Y1 receptors to directly stimulate proliferation and in

  18. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2015-01-01

    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  19. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  20. Track reconstruction for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyukin, Alexey [JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the future MESA accelerator in Mainz will measure elastically scattered electrons from a hydrogen or lead target in order to determine the parity violating asymmetry for different beam polarisations, which is created due to the weak charge of the target. The asymmetry can provide access to the Weinberg angle and the neutron skin of heavy nuclei. These quantities depend heavily on the momentum transfer Q{sup 2}, thus a reconstruction of single electron tracks in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is necessary. For this, the P2 detector will have four tracking planes of thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). The scattered electrons propagate through a magnetic field and hit all four planes. In order to fit the hit positions the General Broken Lines method is used. As a fast propagator, a variation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied, which solves the equation of motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field numerically, such that the final state momentum and scattering angle can be reconstructed. The initial momentum and incident angle can vary strongly due to the thickness of the target, limiting the reconstruction quality. The average single track Q{sup 2} value of 0.006 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} can be reconstructed with about 4 % uncertainty in a first analysis of the Geant4 simulation, leading to a high total precision due to large electron numbers in the experiment.

  1. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P(2) triggers hepatic wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serriere-Lanneau, Valerie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima; Li, Liying; Schippers, Marlies; de Wries, Willie; Julien, Boris; Tran-Van-Nhieu, Jeanne; Manin, Sylvie; Poelstra, Klaas; Chun, Jerold; Carpentier, Stephane; Levade, Thierry; Mallat, Ariane; Lotersztajn, Sophie

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and 2). We previously showed that S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(2), and S1P(3)) are expressed in hepatic myofibroblasts (hMF), a population of cells that triggers matrix remodeling during liver injury. Here

  2. Equations for effective nuclear fields taking account of 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Equations taking into account 1p1h and 2p2h configurations were obta+ned by means of effective fields in the nucleus. The consideration is restricted by the even-even Fermi system only with particle-hole interaction and by the first order with respect to an external field, which corresponds to the case of an even-even nucleus without pairing in a weak external field. The principal results of the investigation are as follows: a set of equations for effective fields V 2 and V 4 is obtained by the Green function method; the solutxon of the set makes it possible to consider 1p1h and 2p2h configurations consecutively and dispense with the Hartree-Fock self-consistence. The equations for V 2 and V 4 can be used to obtain quantum equations taking into account 2p2h configurations and their effect on 1p1h states. Allowance for integration regions far removed from the Fermi surface results in the appearance of the V 4 0 seed portion in the V 4 effective field. Taking into account 2p2h configurations at V 4 0 not equal to 0 changes the form of the seed multipole operator of a nucleus; a new term appears in the expression for transition probability. As a rule, the V 4 0 value was neglected in investigations dealing with the 2p2h configuration

  3. Analysis of a microscopic model of taking into account 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    The Green's-function method has been used to obtain a general equation for the effective field in a nucleus, taking into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations. This equation has been used as the starting point for derivation of a previously developed microscopic model of taking 1p1h+phonon configurations into account in magic nuclei. The equation for the density matrix is analyzed in this model. It is shown that the number of quasiparticles is conserved. An equation is obtained for the effective field in the coordinate representation, which provides a formulation of the problem in the 1p1h+2p2h+continuum approximation. The equation is derived and quantitatively analyzed in the space of one-phonon states

  4. Identification of 6H1 as a P2Y purinoceptor: P2Y5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, T E; Kaplan, M G; Barnard, E A

    1996-02-06

    We have determined the identity of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor cDNA, 6H1, present in activated chicken T cells, as a subtype of P2Y purinoceptor. This identification is based on first on the degree of sequence identity shared with recently cloned members of the P2Y receptor family and second on the pharmacological profile. Upon transient expression in COS-7 cells the 6H1 receptor bound the radiolabel [35S]dATP alpha S specifically and with high affinity (Kd, 10 nM). This specific binding could be competitively displaced by a range of ligands active at P2 purinoceptors, with ATP being the most active (K (i)), 116 nM). Such competition studies have established the following rank order of activity: ATP ADP 2-methylthioATP alpha, beta-methylene ATP, UTP, thus confirming 6H1 as a member of the growing family of P2Y purinoceptors. As the fifth receptor of this type to be identified we suggest that it be named P2Y5.

  5. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.  Created: 5/27/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  6. Functional and molecular evidence for heteromeric association of P2Y1 receptor with P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in mouse granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio Carlos; Buri, Marcus Vinicius; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Dreyfuss, Juliana Luporini; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Craveiro, Rogério Bastos; Pesquero, João Bosco; Miranda, Antonio; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

    2016-07-07

    All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown. Pharmacological characteristics of P2 receptors were evaluated by Ca(2+) measurements using Fura-2 fluorophore. P2 receptors expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. P2 interaction were shown by coimmunoprecipitation, western blotting and FRET. Granulocytes were responsive to P2Y agonists, whereas P2X agonists were ineffective. Ca(2+) increase, elicited by ADP and UTP was dependent on intracellular stocks and sensitive to G-coupled receptor inhibition. Moreover, MRS2179, a specific antagonist of the P2Y1 receptor, abolished ADP response. Interestingly, ADP and UTP exhibited full heterologous desensitization, suggesting that these agonists interact with the same receptor. The heteromeric association between P2Y1 receptor and the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors was shown by immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. Clear evidence of heteromeric association of P2Y receptors was found during the evaluation of P2 receptors present in mice granulocytes, which could impact in the classical pharmacology of P2Y receptors in granulocytes.

  7. Hunt for the 11P1 bound state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.C.

    1982-02-01

    Using the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR, we have looked for evidence of the isospin-violating decay psi' → π 01 P 1 , where 1 P 1 is the predicted spin-singlet p-wave bound state of charmonium. For a 1 P 1 state at the predicted mass (approx. 3520 MeV), we obtain the 95% confidence level limits: BR(psi' → π 01 P 1 ) 01 P 1 )BR( 1 P 1 → γn/sub c/ < 0.14%. These limits are compared with simple theoretical predictions

  8. The ILC P2 Marx and Application of the Marx Topology to Future Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Hugyik, J.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    The SLAC P2 Marx is under development as the linac klystron modulator for the ILC. This modulator builds upon the success of the P1 Marx, which is currently undergoing lifetime evaluation. While the SLAC P2 Marx's (henceforth, 'P2 Marx') target application is the ILC, characteristics of the Marx topology make it equally well-suited for operation at different parameter ranges; for example, increased pulse repetition frequency, increased output current, longer pulse width, etc. Marx parameters such as the number of cells, cell capacitance, and component selection can be optimized for the application. This paper provides an overview of the P2 Marx development. In addition, the scalability of the Marx topology to other long-pulse parameter ranges is discussed.

  9. Characterization of P1 promoter activity of the β-galactoside α2,6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... The level of β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) mRNA, encoded by the gene siat1, is increased in malignant tissues. Expression is regulated by different promoters – P1, P2 and P3 – generating three mRNA isoforms. H, X and YZ. In cervical cancer tissue the mRNA isoform H, which results ...

  10. Genome wide analysis of narcolepsy in China implicates novel immune loci and reveals changes in association prior to versus after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in narcolepsy, an autoimmune disorder affecting hypocretin (orexin neurons and recently associated with H1N1 influenza, have demonstrated significant associations with five loci. Using a well-characterized Chinese cohort, we refined known associations in TRA@ and P2RY11-DNMT1 and identified new associations in the TCR beta (TRB@; rs9648789 max P = 3.7 × 10(-9 OR 0.77, ZNF365 (rs10995245 max P = 1.2 × 10(-11 OR 1.23, and IL10RB-IFNAR1 loci (rs2252931 max P = 2.2 × 10(-9 OR 0.75. Variants in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA- DQ region were associated with age of onset (rs7744020 P = 7.9×10(-9 beta -1.9 years and varied significantly among cases with onset after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic compared to previous years (rs9271117 P = 7.8 × 10(-10 OR 0.57. These reflected an association of DQB1*03:01 with earlier onset and decreased DQB1*06:02 homozygosity following 2009. Our results illustrate how genetic association can change in the presence of new environmental challenges and suggest that the monitoring of genetic architecture over time may help reveal the appearance of novel triggers for autoimmune diseases.

  11. Managing P2P services via the IMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Lin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The key aim of our work was to illustrate the benefits and means to deploy P2P services via the IMS. Having demonstrated the technical viability of P2P-IMS we have also found a way to add a new management dimension to existing P2P systems. P2P-IMS comes with a natural "data management" mechanism,

  12. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    The action of extracellular nucleotides is mediated by ionotropic P2X receptors and G-protein coupled P2Y receptors. The human genome contains 7 P2X and 8 P2Y receptor genes. Knockout mice strains are available for most of them. As their phenotypic analysis is progressing, bone abnormalities have...... been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  13. Variational derivation of the simplified P2 equations with boundary and interface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasevic, D.I.; Larsen, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified P 2 (SP 2 ) approximation to the transport equation is derived using a variational principle. The variational analysis yields the SP 2 equations, together with interface and Marshak-like boundary conditions. Numerical calculations show that for problems in which the P 1 solution is a reasonably accurate approximation to the transport solution, the corresponding SP 2 Solution is generally more accurate than the P 1 solution, for calculating integral quantities and detailed flux distributions, except in the close vicinity of material interfaces, where the SP 2 solution is discontinuous

  14. N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.

    1988-01-01

    We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)

  15. Microscopic model accounting of 2p2p configurations in magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A model for account of the 2p2h configurations in magic nuclei is described in the framework of the Green function formalism. The model is formulated in the lowest order in the phonon production amplitude, so that the series are expansions not over pure 2p2h configurations, but over con figurations of the type ''1p1h+phonon''. Equations are obtained for the vertex and the density matrix, as well as an expression for the transition probabilities, that are extensions of the corresponding results of the theory of finite Fermi systems, or of the random-phase approximation to the case where the ''1p1h+phonon'' configurations are taken into account. Corrections to the one-particle phenomenological basis which arise with account for complicated configurations are obtained. Comparison with other approaches, using phonons, has shown that they are particular cases of the described model

  16. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  17. Frequency metrology on the 4s(2)S(1/2)-4p(2)P(1/2) transition in Ca-40(+) for a comparison with quasar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, A.L.; van den Berg, S.A.; Gohle, C.; Salumbides, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    High accuracy frequency metrology on the 4s S 12 2 -4p P 12 2 transition in calcium ions is performed using laser cooled and crystallized ions in a linear Paul trap. Calibration is performed with a frequency comb laser, resulting in a transition frequency of f=755 222 766.2 (1.7) MHz. The accuracy

  18. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  19. Structural and Molecular Modeling Features of P2X Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Anastacio Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is recognized as the extracellular messenger that acts through P2 receptors. P2 receptors are divided into two subtypes: P2Y metabotropic receptors and P2X ionotropic receptors, both of which are found in virtually all mammalian cell types studied. Due to the difficulty in studying membrane protein structures by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques, there is little information about these structures available in the literature. Two structures of the P2X4 receptor in truncated form have been solved by crystallography. Molecular modeling has proven to be an excellent tool for studying ionotropic receptors. Recently, modeling studies carried out on P2X receptors have advanced our knowledge of the P2X receptor structure-function relationships. This review presents a brief history of ion channel structural studies and shows how modeling approaches can be used to address relevant questions about P2X receptors.

  20. On matter couplings in N=1 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ogievskiy, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible version of N=1 supergravity is proposed. It contains 28+28 fields and is an extension of the new minimal supergravity version. Matter couplings in various N=1 supergravity versions are discussed. The chiral densities are constructed for non-minimal and flexible versions. Therefore these versions admit a general R-non-invariant matter coupling as the minimal supergravity does. A modified Fayet-Iliopoulos type mechanism is conjectured which apparently can work in the non-minimal and flexible versions without R-symmetry of the superpotential unlike the minimal and new minimal ones

  1. Neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human submucous plexus: Involvement of P2X₁, P2X₂, P2X₃ channels, P2Y and A₃ metabotropic receptors in neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A; Wunderlich, J E; Enneking, J T; Tso, D R; Grants, I; Williams, K C; Otey, A; Michel, K; Schemann, M; Needleman, B; Harzman, A; Christofi, F L

    2015-08-01

    The role of purinergic signaling in human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. LSCM-Fluo-4/(Ca(2+))-imaging of postsynaptic Ca(2+) transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of synaptic transmission evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons (identified by HuC/D-immunoreactivity) in 235 ganglia from 107 patients; P2XR-immunoreactivity was evaluated in 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging tested effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines: Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50 = 25 µM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50 = 111 nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPbS responses (EC50 = 960 nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca(2+) transients or Ca(2+) oscillations (ATP,EC50 = 400 mM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20 nM) or high (5 µM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-immunoreactivity follow the order P2X2 > P2X1 > P2X3; P2X1 + P2X2 and P2X3 + P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7, P2Y1,2,12-14R. Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in human ENS. Purinergic signaling involves P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 channels, P2X1 + P2X2 co-localization and inhibitory P2Y or A3 receptors. These are

  2. P2Y6 receptor potentiates pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and exhibits differential roles in atherosclerotic lesion development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: P2Y(6, a purinergic receptor for UDP, is enriched in atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in pro-inflammatory responses of key vascular cell types and macrophages. Evidence for its involvement in atherogenesis, however, has been lacking. Here we use cell-based studies and three murine models of atherogenesis to evaluate the impact of P2Y(6 deficiency on atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell-based studies in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, which lack functional P2Y(6 receptors, showed that exogenous expression of P2Y(6 induces a robust, receptor- and agonist-dependent secretion of inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1 and GRO1. P2Y(6-mediated inflammatory responses were also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in macrophages endogenously expressing P2Y(6 and in acute peritonitis models of inflammation. To evaluate the role of P2Y(6 in atherosclerotic lesion development, we used P2Y(6-deficient mice in three mouse models of atherosclerosis. A 43% reduction in aortic arch plaque was observed in high fat-fed LDLR knockout mice lacking P2Y(6 receptors in bone marrow-derived cells. In contrast, no effect on lesion development was observed in fat-fed whole body P2Y(6xLDLR double knockout mice. Interestingly, in a model of enhanced vascular inflammation using angiotensin II, P2Y(6 deficiency enhanced formation of aneurysms and exhibited a trend towards increased atherosclerosis in the aorta of LDLR knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS: P2Y(6 receptor augments pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and exhibits a pro-atherogenic role in hematopoietic cells. However, the overall impact of whole body P2Y(6 deficiency on atherosclerosis appears to be modest and could reflect additional roles of P2Y(6 in vascular disease pathophysiologies, such as aneurysm formation.

  3. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  4. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  5. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  6. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  7. Risk Management of P2P Internet Financing Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalei, Li

    2017-09-01

    Since 2005, the world’s first P2P Internet financing service platform Zopa in UK was introduced, in the development of “Internet +” trend, P2P Internet financing service platform has been developed rapidly. In 2007, China’s first P2P platform “filming loan” was established, marking the P2P Internet financing service platform to enter China and the rapid development. At the same time, China’s P2P Internet financing service platform also appeared in different forms of risk. This paper focuses on the analysis of the causes of risk of P2P Internet financing service platform and the performance of risk management process. It provides a solution to the Internet risk management plan, and explains the risk management system of the whole P2P Internet financing service platform and the future development direction.

  8. P2X4: A fast and sensitive purinergic receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Suurväli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular nucleotides have been recognized as important mediators of activation, triggering multiple responses via plasma membrane receptors known as P2 receptors. P2 receptors comprise P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are expressed in many tissues, where they are involved in a number of functions including synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, inflammation, macrophage activation, differentiation and proliferation, neuropathic and inflammatory pain. P2X4 is one of the most sensitive purinergic receptors (at nanomolar ATP concentrations, about one thousand times more than the archetypal P2X7. P2X4 is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, in microglia, and also found in various epithelial tissues and endothelial cells. It localizes on the plasma membrane, but also in intracellular compartments. P2X4 is preferentially localized in lysosomes, where it is protected from proteolysis by its glycosylation. High ATP concentration in the lysosomes does not activate P2X4 at low pH; P2X4 gets activated by intra-lysosomal ATP only in its fully dissociated tetra-anionic form, when the pH increases to 7.4. Thus, P2X4 is functioning as a Ca2+-channel after the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. P2X4 modulates major neurotransmitter systems and regulates alcohol-induced responses in microglia. P2X4 is one of the key receptors mediating neuropathic pain. However, injury-induced upregulation of P2X4 expression is gender dependent and plays a key role in pain difference between males and females. P2X4 is also involved in inflammation. Extracellular ATP being a pro-inflammatory molecule, P2X4 can trigger inflammation in response to high ATP release. It is therefore involved in multiple pathologies, like post-ischemic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, airways inflammation in asthma, neurodegenerative diseases and even metabolic syndrome. Although P2X4 remains poorly

  9. P2X1 receptors and the endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Harrington

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, a, b methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.

  10. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2002-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P 1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  11. Antidepressants inhibit P2X4 receptor function: a possible involvement in neuropathic pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozaki-Saitoh Hidetoshi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is characterized by pain hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli (tactile allodynia that is nearly always resistant to known treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or even opioids. It has been reported that some antidepressants are effective for treating neuropathic pain. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that blocking P2X4 receptors in the spinal cord reverses tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury in rats, implying that P2X4 receptors are a key molecule in neuropathic pain. We investigated a possible role of antidepressants as inhibitors of P2X4 receptors and analysed their analgesic mechanism using an animal model of neuropathic pain. Results Antidepressants strongly inhibited ATP-mediated Ca2+ responses in P2X4 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells, which are known to have no endogenous ATP receptors. Paroxetine exhibited the most powerful inhibition of calcium influx via rat and human P2X4 receptors, with IC50 values of 2.45 μM and 1.87 μM, respectively. Intrathecal administration of paroxetine produced a striking antiallodynic effect in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Co-administration of WAY100635, ketanserin or ondansetron with paroxetine induced no significant change in the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine. Furthermore, the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine was observed even in rats that had received intrathecal pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which dramatically depletes spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine. Conclusion These results suggest that paroxetine acts as a potent analgesic in the spinal cord via a mechanism independent of its inhibitory effect on serotonin transporters. Powerful inhibition on P2X4 receptors may underlie the analgesic effect of paroxetine, and it is possible that some antidepressants clinically used in patients with neuropathic pain show antiallodynic effects, at least in part

  12. Geometries inherent to N=1 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.S.; Ogievetsky, V.I.; Sokatchev, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of the talk is devoted to a consideration of linearized N=1 supergravities. The second main part deals with complex geometries inherent to different N=1 supergravities. A special attention is paid to a new version with local symmetry. It is connected to the special nonminimal case (n=0) having a remarkable property of supervolume preservation in Csup(4.4) superspace. Therefore the superdeterminant of change of variables from left to right-handed Rsup(4.4) parametrization is a dimensionless scalar. This geometric invariant has to be constrained to obtain an action. Solving such a constraint on vector and spinor prepotentials in Wess-Zumino gauge one obtains the new supergravity with 12+12 fields and local symmetry. A possible relaxation of this constraint is briefly considered (16+16 fields version) [ru

  13. Finite N=1 SUSY gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors give a detailed description of the method to construct finite N=1 SUSY gauge field theories in the framework of N=1 superfields within dimensional regularization. The finiteness of all Green functions is based on supersymmetry and gauge invariance and is achieved by a proper choice of matter content of the theory and Yukawa couplings in the form Y i =f i (ε)g, where g is the gauge coupling, and the function f i (ε) is regular at ε=0 and is calculated in perturbation theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finiteness are determined already in the one-loop approximation. The correspondence with an earlier proposed approach to construct finite theories based on aigenvalue solutions of renormalization-group equations is established

  14. Conformal potential in N dimensions (N>1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucchi, G [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto di Fisica Matematica dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))

    1977-07-21

    The conformal invariant model of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan is studied in the case of potential V(Q) = g/2Q/sup 2/(Q/sup 2/ = ..sigma..sub(i=1)sup(N) Qsub(i)sup(2), N>1). By means of the invariance under projective transformations and the rotation symmetry of the system in configuration space, explicit solutions are obtained.

  15. (p,2p) experiments at the University of Maryland cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.G.

    1976-11-01

    Some of the (p,2p) work which has been carried out at the Maryland Cyclotron is discussed. A brief introduction to the (p,2p) reaction is presented, and the types of experimental techniques utilized in (p,2p) studies are discussed. A brief introduction is given to the various theoretical treatments presently available to analyze (p,2p) reaction data. Secondly, experimental and theoretical studies of (p,2p) on d, 3 He, and 4 He carried out by the Maryland group are presented. Thirdly, (p,2p) results are discussed for 6 Li, 7 Li, and 12 C at 100 MeV. Fourthly, the effects of distortion on the experimental data are considered by presenting theoretical calculations for 12 C and 40 Ca at various bombarding energies

  16. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of platelet P2Y(12) receptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-02-01

    Platelets are critical for haemostasis, however inappropriate activation can lead to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke. ADP is a key platelet agonist that exerts its actions via stimulation of two surface GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). Similar to most GPCRs, P2Y receptor activity is tightly regulated by a number of complex mechanisms including receptor desensitization, internalization and recycling. In the present article, we review the molecular mechanisms that underlie P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor regulation, with particular emphasis on the structural motifs within the P2Y(12) receptor, which are required to maintain regulatory protein interaction. The implications of these findings for platelet responsiveness are also discussed.

  18. Supporting Collaboration and Creativity Through Mobile P2P Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Datta, Anwitaman; Żaczek, Łukasz; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Among many potential applications of mobile P2P systems, collaboration applications are among the most prominent. Examples of applications such as Groove (although not intended for mobile networks), collaboration tools for disaster recovery (the WORKPAD project), and Skype's collaboration extensions, all demonstrate the potential of P2P collaborative applications. Yet, the development of such applications for mobile P2P systems is still difficult because of the lack of middleware.

  19. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  20. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  1. P1 promoter-driven HNF4α isoforms are specifically repressed by β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeu, Jean-Philippe; Jones, Christine; Geha, Sameh; Carrier, Julie C; Boudreau, François

    2018-06-13

    HNF4α is a key nuclear receptor for regulating gene expression in the gut. While both P1 and P2 isoform classes of HNF4α are expressed in colonic epithelium, specific inhibition of P1 isoforms is commonly found in colorectal cancer. Previous studies have suggested that P1 and P2 isoforms may regulate different cellular functions. Despite these advances, it remains unclear whether these isoform classes are functionally divergent in the context of human biology. Here, the consequences of specific inhibition of P1 or P2 isoform expression was measured in a human colorectal cancer cell transcriptome. Results indicate that P1 isoforms were specifically associated with the control of cell metabolism while P2 isoforms globally supported aberrant oncogenic signalization, promoting cancer cell survival and progression. P1 promoter-driven isoform expression was found to be repressed by β-catenin, one of the earliest oncogenic pathways to be activated during colon tumorigenesis. These findings identify a novel cascade by which the expression of P1 isoforms are rapidly shut down in the early stages of colon tumorigenesis, allowing a change in HNF4α-dependent transcriptome thereby promoting colorectal cancer progression. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. ZrCu2P2 and HfCu2P2 phosphides and their crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitskaya, Ya.F.

    1986-01-01

    Isostructural ZrCu 2 P 2 and HfCu 2 P 2 compounds are prepared for the first time. X-ray diffraction analysis (of powder, DRON-2.0 diffractometer, FeKsub(α) radiation) was used to study crystal structure of HfCu 2 P 2 phosphide belonging to the CaAl 2 Si 2 structural type (sp. group P anti 3 m 1, R=0.095). Lattice parameters the compounds are as follows: for ZrCu 2 P 2 a=0.3810(1), c=0.6184(5); for HfCu 2 P 2 a=0.3799(1), c=0.6160(2) (nm). Atomic parameters in the HfCu 2 P 2 structure and interatomic distances are determined

  3. Neuropharmacology of Purinergic Receptors in Human Submucous Plexus: Involvement of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 Channels, P2Y and A3 Metabotropic Receptors in Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A.; Wunderlich, JE.; Enneking, JT.; Tso, DR.; Grants, I.; Williams, KC.; Otey, A.; Michel, K.; Schemann, M.; Needleman, B.; Harzman, A.; Christofi, FL.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The role of purinergic signaling in the human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. Experimental Approach LSCM-Fluo-4-(Ca2+)-imaging of postsynaptic Ca2+ transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of neural activity. Synaptic transmission was evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons from 234 separate ganglia 107 patients; immunochemical labeling for P2XRs of neurons in ganglia from 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging was used to test effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Results Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines. Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50=25μM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50=111nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPβS responses (EC50=960nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca2+ transients or Ca2+ oscillations (EC50=400μM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20nM) or high (5μM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-ir follow the order P2X2>P2X1≫P2X3; P2X1+ P2X2 and P2X3+P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7,P2Y1,2,12-14R. Responsive neurons were also identified by HuC/D-ir. Conclusions Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in the human enteric nervous system. Purinergic signaling involves

  4. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  5. Some aspects of N = 1 SYM renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanyantz Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the BRST invariant version of the higher covariant derivative regularization, we demonstrate that in N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories the three-point vertices with two ghost legs and a single leg of the quantum gauge superfield are finite in all orders. This theorem is proved by the help of the Slavnov–Taylor identities and the supergraph technique. Its correctness is verified by explicit one-loop calculation. Using finiteness of the considered vertices we express the NSVZ relation in terms of the anomalous dimensions of the gauge superfield, of the Faddeev–Popov ghosts, and of the matter superfields.

  6. Resource trade-off in P2P streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhaisoni, M.; Liotta, A.; Ghanbari, M.

    2009-01-01

    P2P TV has emerged as a powerful alternative solution for multimedia streaming over the traditional client-server paradigm. It has proven to be a valid substitute for online applications which offer video-on-demand and real-time video. This is mainly due to the scalability and resiliency that P2P

  7. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  8. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Thomas

    Full Text Available An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure.We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens.3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1 and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1.Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05.These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection

  9. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors regulate pancreatic Ca²+-activated K+ channels differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Susanne Edeling Hede; Amstrup, Jan; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is an important regulator of transepithelial transport in a number of tissues. In pancreatic ducts, we have shown that ATP modulates epithelial K+ channels via purinergic receptors, most likely the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, but the identity of the involved K+ channels was not cle...

  10. Purinergní P2X rodina a specifické vlastnosti P2X7 podtypu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2013), s. 40-46 ISSN 1210-6313 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/12/P371 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : extracellular ATP * purinergic P2X family * P2X7 receptor * cell proliferation and apoptosis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  11. Boro-norleucine as a P1 residue for the design of selective and potent DPP7 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreder, Kevin R; Wong, Melissa S; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Winn, David T; Wu, Min; Hu, Yi; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Kozarich, John W

    2005-10-01

    Dipeptide-based inhibitors with C-substituted (alkyl or aminoalkyl) alpha-amino acids in the P2 position and boro-norleucine (boro-Nle) in the P1 position were synthesized. Relative to boro-proline, boro-Nle as a P1 residue was shown able to significantly dial out DPP4, FAP, DPP8, and DPP9 activity. Dab-boro-Nle (4g) proved to be the most selective and potent DPP7 inhibitor with a DPP7 IC50 value of 480 pM.

  12. O artesanato da suspeita: o ensaio como tradição críticadoi:10.5007/1807-1384.2011v8n1p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Forster

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio pretende ser uma defesa da importância acadêmica do ensaio. Na vida acadêmica atual, vigora sobretudo o pragmatismo da produtividade funcional e da eficiência, expresso, através de um inglês comercial, sobretudo pelo paper. Esse esvaziamento das palavras convida-nos a enfatizar a importância do ensaio. De Montaigne a Steiner, passando por Adorno,  o ensaio, gênero da modernidade, torna-se, assim, sobretudo num tempo de crise das grandes narrativas,  o modo de captar o eterno naquilo que vivemos e percebemos como destinado a perecer. Constitui-se como  escritura do sujeito moderno, e manifestação de suas  extraordinárias inquietudes e de suas solidões. O ensaio como artesanato da suspeita, ao invés de ser visto como vitória do amadorismo na vida acadêmica, é o caminho com que  se revelarão os limites de toda pretensão universalista e do produtivismo acadêmico hoje imperante.

  13. Synergistic action between inhibition of P2Y12/P2Y1 and P2Y12/thrombin in ADP- and thrombin-induced human platelet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Sven; Mattsson, Christer; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a synergistic effect of a combination of P2Y12 and P2Y1 inhibition and P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition, on ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation, respectively. The rationale being that these combinations will cause a concurrent inhibition of both Gαq and Gαi signalling.Blood from healthy volunteers was preincubated with AR-C69931MX, a reversible P2Y12 antagonist; MRS2179, a reversible P2Y1 antagonist; or melagatran, a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor; alone or in various combinations prior to activation with ADP or thrombin. Platelet function in whole blood was assessed by flow cytometry using the antibody PAC-1 to estimate the expression of active αIIbβ3 (the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa). A synergistic effect was evaluated by comparing the concentrations in the different combinations with those of corresponding equipotent concentrations of each single inhibitor alone. The equipotent single concentrations were experimentally obtained from concentration response curves performed in parallel.A synergistic effect regarding inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation (10 μM) was obtained with different combinations of AR-C69931MX and MRS2179.Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation (2 nM) with combinations of AR-C69931MX and the thrombin inhibitor melagatran did also result in a strong synergistic effect.To our knowledge, this is the first time that data supporting a synergistic effect has been published for the inhibitor combinations described.Whether this synergistic effect in vitro also results in an improved antithrombotic effect in vivo with or without an increased risk of bleeding remains to be studied in well-conducted clinical studies. PMID:15265806

  14. PPADS: an antagonist at endothelial P2Y-purinoceptors but not P2U-purinoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C; Tanna, B; Boarder, M R

    1995-11-01

    1. Bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells contain two co-existing receptors for extracellular ATP, the P2Y and P2U-purinoceptors. Here we have determined whether the proposed P2X-purinoceptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) could distinguish between these two receptor subtypes. 2. Cells labelled with myo-[2-3H]-inositol were stimulated with increasing concentrations of either the P2Y-agonist, 2MeSATP, or the P2U-agonist, UTP in the absence or presence of 30 microM PPADS. The accumulation of total [3H]-inositol (poly)phosphates mediated by 2MeSATP was markedly attenuated by PPADS, whereas the response to UTP was not significantly affected. 3. Stimulation of BAE cells with increasing concentrations of ATP showed a reduced response in the presence of 10 microM PPADS, but this effect of the antagonist was not significant. By contrast, inhibition of the response to ADP was profound and highly significant. 4. These observations show that PPADS is not a selective P2X-purinoceptor antagonist, but is able to distinguish between P2Y- and P2YU-purinoceptors in BAE cells, and indicate that this compound may provide a useful tool in the study of multiple subtypes of P2-purinoceptors. Furthermore the results are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP interacts with both receptor subtypes, but that the action of ADP is primarily at the P2Y-purinoceptor in these endothelial cells.

  15. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    receptors regulate bone metabolism and especially for the P2X7 receptor an impressive amount of evidence has now documented its expression in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes as well as important functional roles in proliferation, differentiation, and function of the cells of bone. Key evidence has...... come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very...

  16. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Fournier; Thibault Cholez; Matthieu Latapy; Isabelle Chrisment; Clémence Magnien; Olivier Festor; Ivan Daniloff

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and ...

  17. Critical N = (1, 1) general massive supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Nihat Sadik; Moutsopoulos, George; Rosseel, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the supermultiplet structure of N = (1, 1) General Massive Supergravity at non-critical and critical points of its parameter space. To do this, we first linearize the theory around its maximally supersymmetric AdS3 vacuum and obtain the full linearized Lagrangian including fermionic terms. At generic values, linearized modes can be organized as two massless and 2 massive multiplets where supersymmetry relates them in the standard way. At critical points logarithmic modes appear and we find that in three of such points some of the supersymmetry transformations are non-invertible in logarithmic multiplets. However, in the fourth critical point, there is a massive logarithmic multiplet with invertible supersymmetry transformations.

  18. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. P2X receptors, sensory neurons and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Tanja; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain represents a very large social and clinical problem since the current treatment provides insufficient pain relief. Plasticity of pain receptors together with sensitisation of sensory neurons, and the role of soluble mediators released from non-neuronal cells render difficult to understand the spatial and temporal scale of pain development, neuronal responses and disease progression. In pathological conditions, ATP is one of the most powerful mediators that activates P2X receptors that behave as sensitive ATP-detectors, such as neuronal P2X3 receptor subtypes and P2X4 and P2X7 receptors expressed on non-neuronal cells. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms occurring in sensory neurons and in accessory cells allows to design appropriate tissue- and cell- targeted approaches to treat chronic pain.

  20. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down; Solucao das equacoes P1 adjuntas para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P{sub 1} equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  1. Tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Marusic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified.......A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified....

  2. Meeting of the ITER SWG-P2 in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.; Kishimoto, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Special Working Group established under Protocol 2 to the ITER IDA Agreement (SWG-P2) met at the IAEA in Vienna in 6-9 December 1999. This report contains excerpts from the report of the ITER SWG-P2 to the ITER Council on the Joint Implementation of ITER, detailing benefits, contributions, the legal framework, siting, licensing and decommissioning as well as procurement, staffing and intellectual property rights

  3. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a highly dynamic organ, being constantly modeled and remodeled in order to adapt to the changing need throughout life. Bone turnover involves the coordinated actions of bone formation and bone degradation. Over the past decade great effort has been put into the examination of how P2X receptors regulate bone metabolism and especially for the P2X7 receptor an impressive amount of evidence has now documented its expression in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes as well as important functional roles in proliferation, differentiation, and function of the cells of bone. Key evidence has come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very recently a report from a genetic study in multiple myeloma demonstrated that decreased P2X7 receptor function was associated with increased risk of developing multiple myeloma. In contrast, the risk of developing myeloma bone disease and subsequent vertebral fractures was increased in subjects carrying P2X7 receptor gain-of-function alleles as compared to subjects only carrying loss-of-function or normal functioning alleles. It is evident that P2X receptors are important in regulating bone turnover and maintaining bone mass, and thereby holding great potential as novel drug targets for treatment of bone diseases. However, further research is needed before we fully understand the roles and effects of P2X receptors in bone.

  4. Data Sharing in DHT Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia; Del Pilar Villamil, María; Labbé, Cyril; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia

    The evolution of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems triggered the building of large scale distributed applications. The main application domain is data sharing across a very large number of highly autonomous participants. Building such data sharing systems is particularly challenging because of the “extreme” characteristics of P2P infrastructures: massive distribution, high churn rate, no global control, potentially untrusted participants... This article focuses on declarative querying support, query optimization and data privacy on a major class of P2P systems, that based on Distributed Hash Table (P2P DHT). The usual approaches and the algorithms used by classic distributed systems and databases for providing data privacy and querying services are not well suited to P2P DHT systems. A considerable amount of work was required to adapt them for the new challenges such systems present. This paper describes the most important solutions found. It also identifies important future research trends in data management in P2P DHT systems.

  5. P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Sahar Sayeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented

  6. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  7. Observation of the 1P1 state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Bettoni, D.; Bharadwaj, V.; Biino, C.; Borreani, G.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Church, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dibenedetto, R.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Fabbri, M.G.; Fast, J.; Gianoli, A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gollwitzer, K.; Hahn, A.; Hasan, M.; Hsueh, S.; Lewis, R.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Majewska, A.M.; Mandelkern, M.; Marchetto, F.; Marinelli, M.; Marques, J.; Marsh, W.; Martini, M.; Masuzawa, M.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pallavicini, M.; Pastrone, N.; Patrignani, C.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pesando, L.; Petrucci, F.; Pia, M.G.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.; Ray, R.; Reid, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Roccuzzo, B.; Rosen, J.; Santroni, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Savrie, M.; Scalisi, A.; Schultz, J.; Seth, K.K.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.A.; Sozzi, M.; Trokenheim, S.; Weber, M.F.; Werkema, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zioulas, G.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a search for the 1 P 1 state of charmonium resonantly formed in bar pp annihilations, close to the center of gravity of the 3 P J states. We report results from the study of the J/ψ+π 0 and J/ψ+2π final states. We have observed a statistically significant enhancement in the bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 cross section at √s congruent 3526.2 MeV. This enhancement has the characteristics of a narrow resonance of mass, total width, and production cross section consistent with what is expected for the 1 P 1 state. In our search we have found no candidates for the reactions bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 +π 0 and bar p+p→J/ψ+π + +π -

  8. The P1approximation in the transport of beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.

    1994-01-01

    A validation test for the p1 approximation to the linear transport of electrons in planar geometry has been performed. The p1 approximation is shown to be a good option for the description of the transport of beta rays with endpoint energies between 400kev and 3.5Mev through aluminium foils . This approximation together with the use of only elastic interactions of electrons with atoms has found good agreement with experimental results . A calculation has been made of the fraction of transmitted electrons through foils, solving the transport equation for planar geometry in the p1 approximation and assuming that only elastic scattering processes take place. The boundary condition at the entrance of the foil was a collimated beta source, while at the end of the foil has been adopted a vaccum boundary condition.Sources considered are those for which experimental and calculated spectrum shapes are known to agree. The calculated fractional transmission through different absorber thicknesses is found to have an exponential shape . Besides this fact the attenuation coefficients found ,when compared with those empirically obtained, agree to within 5%. 1 fig.; 4 refs. (author)

  9. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  10. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  11. Probing the parameters of the HAT-P-2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Naoz, Smadar; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The HAT-P-2 system contributes an exceptional set of parameters to the exoplanetary inventory. HAT-P-2b weighs in at approximately 9 Jupiter masses, residing on one of the most eccentric, close-in orbits of any hot Jupiter (e~0.5, a~0.07). The identification of an RV trend points to the existence of an additional, long-period companion, which may have facilitated Kozai-Lidov cycles in the system over its multi-Gyr history. The well-constrained parameters of HAT-P-2b present an opportunity to predict the parameters of the perturber, and furthermore, to assess the tidal dissipation involved in the system's evolution. In this work, we employ an octupole-level secular model to account for the interaction of the two massive planets, thus classifying the system's deviations away from purely quadrupolar dynamics.

  12. Mobile P2P Web Services Using SIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gehlen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication networks and the Internet are growing together. Peer-to-Peer (P2P services which are originally offered by network providers, like telephony and messaging, are provided through VoIP and Instant Messaging (IM by Internet service providers, too. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is the answer of the telecommunication industry to this trend and aims at providing Internet P2P and multimedia services controlled by the network operators. The IMS provides mobility and session management as well as message routing, security, and billing.

  13. The P2 of Wheat yellow mosaic virus rearranges the endoplasmic reticulum and recruits other viral proteins into replication-associated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Shen, Jiangfeng; Yang, Di; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Viruses commonly modify host endomembranes to facilitate biological processes in the viral life cycle. Infection by viruses belonging to the genus Bymovirus (family Potyviridae) has long been known to induce the formation of large membranous inclusion bodies in host cells, but their assembly and biological roles are still unclear. Immunoelectron microscopy of cells infected with the bymovirus Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) showed that P1, P2 and P3 are the major viral protein constituents of the membranous inclusions, whereas NIa-Pro (nuclear inclusion-a protease) and VPg (viral protein genome-linked) are probable minor components. P1, P2 and P3 associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but only P2 was able to rearrange ER and form large aggregate structures. Bioinformatic analyses and chemical experiments showed that P2 is an integral membrane protein and depends on the active secretory pathway to form aggregates of ER membranes. In planta and in vitro assays demonstrated that P2 interacts with P1, P3, NIa-Pro or VPg and recruits these proteins into the aggregates. In vivo RNA labelling using WYMV-infected wheat protoplasts showed that the synthesis of viral RNAs occurs in the P2-associated inclusions. Our results suggest that P2 plays a major role in the formation of membranous compartments that house the genomic replication of WYMV. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  15. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. The P2P approach to interorganizational workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Weske, M.H.; Dittrich, K.R.; Geppert, A.; Norrie, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes in an informal way the Public-To-Private (P2P) approach to interorganizational workflows, which is based on a notion of inheritance. The approach consists of three steps: (1) create a common understanding of the interorganizational workflow by specifying a shared public

  17. Measurement and Analysis of P2P IPTV Program Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  18. Measurement and analysis of P2P IPTV program resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Xingshu; Wang, Haizhou; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  19. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fournier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and with different anonymity levels. We monitor two eDonkey servers and the KAD network during several days and record hundreds of thousands of keyword-based queries. We detect pedophile-related queries with a previously validated tool and we propose, for the first time, a large-scale comparison of pedophile activity in two different P2P systems. We conclude that there are significantly fewer pedophile queries in KAD than in eDonkey (approximately 0.09% vs. 0.25%.

  20. P2X(3) receptor gating near normal body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmyhz, V.; Maximyuk, O.; Teslenko, V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 12 (2008), s. 339-347 ISSN 0031-6768 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : P2X3 receptors * Temperature-sensitivity * Gating Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.526, year: 2008

  1. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User's Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system

  2. Evidence for requirement of tyrosine phosphorylation in endothelial P2Y- and P2U- purinoceptor stimulation of prostacyclin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, A.; Patel, V.; Brown, C.; Boarder, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. The release of prostacyclin (PGI2) from vascular endothelial cells is stimulated by ATP acting at G protein-coupled P2-purinoceptors. Here we investigate the hypothesis that tyrosine protein phosphorylations are involved in this response. 2. The use of Western blots with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies showed that 30 microM 2MeSATP (selective for P2Y-purinoceptors), 300 microM UTP (selective for P2U-purinoceptors) and 300 microM ATP (effective at both these purinoceptors), each stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells. Each of these agonists also stimulates 6-keto PGF1 alpha accumulation in the medium (an index of PGI2 release) in these cells in the same period. 3. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, inhibits the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response with the same concentration-dependency (1-100 microM) as the tyrosine phosphorylation response. 4. Tyrphostin, a structurally and functionally distinct tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is also a potent inhibitor (0.1-10 microM) of the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response. 5. Neither tyrphostin nor genistein inhibit the phospholipase C response to P2-purinoceptor stimulation. Furthermore, these inhibitors do not affect the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response to ionomycin. 6. These results show that the regulation of vascular endothelial cells by ATP acting at both P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors involves the stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation, and suggest that this is a necessary event for the purinoceptor-mediated stimulation of PGI2 production. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:8590971

  3. On Positive Solutions for the Rational Difference Equation Systems x n+1 = A/x n y n (2), and y n+1 = By n /x n-1 y n-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Li; Feng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to investigate the behavior of positive solutions for the following systems of rational difference equations: x n+1 = A/x n y n (2), and y n+1 = By n /x n-1 y n-1, n = 0,1,…, where x -1, x 0, y -1, and y 0 are positive real numbers and A and B are positive constants.

  4. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  5. Inverse agonism at the P2Y12 receptor and ENT1 transporter blockade contribute to platelet inhibition by ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Conibear, Alexandra; Butler, Mark; Kelly, Eamonn; Nylander, Sven; Mumford, Andrew; Mundell, Stuart J

    2016-12-08

    Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y 12 receptor (P2Y 12 R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced Ca 2+ release in washed platelets vs other P2Y 12 R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y 12 R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of G s -coupled adenosine A 2A receptors. This contributed to an increase in basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P). In addition, ticagrelor increased platelet cAMP and VASP-P in the absence of ADP in an adenosine receptor-independent manner. We hypothesized that this increase originated from a direct effect on basal agonist-independent P2Y 12 R signaling, and this was validated in 1321N1 cells stably transfected with human P2Y 12 R. In these cells, ticagrelor blocked the constitutive agonist-independent activity of the P2Y 12 R, limiting basal G i -coupled signaling and thereby increasing cAMP levels. These data suggest that ticagrelor has the pharmacological profile of an inverse agonist. Based on our results showing insurmountable inhibition of ADP-induced Ca 2+ release and forskolin-induced cAMP, the mode of antagonism of ticagrelor also appears noncompetitive, at least functionally. In summary, our studies describe 2 novel modes of action of ticagrelor, inhibition of platelet ENT1 and inverse agonism at the P2Y 12 R that contribute to its effective inhibition of platelet activation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  7. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsam Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  8. Energetic band structure of Zn3P2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamov, I. G.; Syrbu, N. N.; Dorogan, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Optical functions n, k, ε1, ε2 and d2ε2/dE2 have been determined from experimental reflection spectra in the region of 1-10 eV. The revealed electronic transitions are localized in the Brillouin zone. The magnitude of valence band splitting caused by the spin-orbital interaction ΔSO is lower than the splitting caused by the crystal field ΔCR in the center of Brillouin zone and L and X points. The switching effects are investigated in Zn3P2 crystals. The characteristics of experimental samples with electric switching, adjustable resistors, and time relays based on Zn3P2 are presented.

  9. Towards secure mobile P2P applications using JXME

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Prieto, Marc; Prieto Blázquez, Josep; Herrera Joancomartí, Jordi; Arnedo Moreno, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous, allowing the integration of new information from a large range of devices. However, the development of new applications requires a powerful framework which simplifies their construction. JXME is the JXTA implementation for mobile devices using J2ME, its main value being its simplicity when creating peer-to-peer (P2P) applications on limited devices. On that regard, an issue that is becoming very important in the recent times is being able to provide ...

  10. 5'Azido-N-1-napthylphthalamic acid, a photolabile analog of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, J.G.; Howley, K.S.; Shumsky, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A photolabile analog of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (Az-NPA), has been synthesized and characterized. This potential photoaffinity label for the plasma membrane NPA binding protein competes with [ 3 H]NPA for binding sites on Curcurbita pepo L. (zucchini) hypocotyl cell membranes with K/sub 0.5/ = 2.8 x 10 -7 molar. The K/sub 0.5/ for NPA under these conditions is 2 x 10 -8 molar, indicating that the affinity of Az-NPA for the membranes is only 14-fold lower than NPA. While the binding of Az-NPA to NPA binding sites is reversible in the dark, exposure of the Az-NPA treated membranes to light results in a 30% loss in [ 3 H]NPA binding ability. Pretreatment of the membranes with NPA protects the membranes against photodestruction of [ 3 H]NPA binding sites by Az-NPA supporting the conclusion that Az-NPA destroys these sites by specific covalent attachment

  11. Thermochemical characteristics of La n+1Ni nO3n+1 oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, D.O.; Safronov, A.P.; Cherepanov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum nickelates: La 2 NiO 4+δ , La 3 Ni 2 O 7-δ , La 4 Ni 3 O 10-δ and LaNiO 3-δ the members of Ruddlesden-Popper series La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 were prepared using citrate route. Dissolution enthalpies of complex oxides as well as a number of subsidiary substances were measured by means of Calvet calorimeter in 1 M solution of hydrochloric acid at 25 deg. C. The dissolution scheme of complex oxides in hydrochloric acid was proposed and enthalpies of formation of the complex oxides from binary oxides were calculated considering oxygen nonstoichiometry of these substances. Enthalpies of step-by-step oxidation were evaluated. Partial enthalpy contribution of LaO layers was calculated endothermic equals to 30.9 J/mol while partial enthalpy contribution of perovskite LaNiO 3 layers was negative equals to -97.0 J/mol. Enthalpy of formation of any complex oxide of Ruddlesden-Popper series fits very well to the linear regression based on these values

  12. Analysis of the microscopic model taking into account of the 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A general equation for the effective field inside the nucleus, which takes into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations, is derived by the Green function method. This equation is used as a starting point to derive the previously developed microscopic model for account of the > configurations in magic nuclei. The equations for the density matrix are analyzed in this model. It is shown that the quasiparticle number conservation law is valid. The equation for the effective field is written in the coordinate representation. As a result, the problem acquires the formulation in the > approximation. The equation in the space of one-phonon states is derived and quantitatively analyzed

  13. Sensitization with vaccinia virus encoding H5N1 hemagglutinin restores immune potential against H5N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Itoh, Yasushi; Ikejiri, Ai; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Munekata, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Nakayama, Misako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-11-28

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection. However, in animals vaccinated with a live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the H5 hemagglutinin, infection with H5N1 HPAI virus induced parafollicular dendritic cell accumulation and efficient antibody production. These results indicate that a recombinant vaccinia encoding H5 hemagglutinin gene does not impair dendritic cell recruitment and can be a useful vaccine candidate.

  14. An unusual methylene aziridine refined in P2(1)/c and the nonstandard setting P2(1)/n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feast, George C; Haestier, James; Page, Lee W; Robertson, Jeremy; Thompson, Amber L; Watkin, David J

    2009-12-01

    The unusual methylene aziridine 6-tert-butyl-3-oxa-2-thia-1-azabicyclo[5.1.0]oct-6-ene 2,2-dioxide, C(9)H(15)NO(3)S, was found to crystallize with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved in both the approximately orthogonal and the oblique settings of space group No. 14, viz. P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively. A comparison of these results clearly displayed an increase in the correlation between coordinates in the ac plane for the oblique cell. The increase in the corresponding covariances makes a significant contribution to the standard uncertainties of derived parameters, e.g. bond lengths. Since there is yet no CIF definition for the full variance-covariance matrix, there are clear advantages to reporting the structure in the nonstandard space-group setting.

  15. Study of TiO2(1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) surface structures by impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Souda, R.

    2000-01-01

    The surface structure of TiO 2 (1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) were studied using impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS). We found that (i) the height of bridging oxygen for the p(1x1) is comparative to that of bulk structure, (ii) the p(1x2) surface has the added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows proposed by Onishi et al. and also the oxygen atoms rows between Ti 2 O 3 unit rows and (iii) the p(1x3) surface is constructed with the same added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows as that in the p(1x2) surface, but the bridging oxygen rows exist between the Ti 2 O 3 unit rows

  16. S-Nitrosation destabilizes glutathione transferase P1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, David; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Dirr, Heini W

    2013-12-23

    Protein S-nitrosation is a post-translational modification that regulates the function of more than 500 human proteins. Despite its apparent physiological significance, S-nitrosation is poorly understood at a molecular level. Here, we investigated the effect of S-nitrosation on the activity, structure, stability, and dynamics of human glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), an important detoxification enzyme ubiquitous in aerobes. S-Nitrosation at Cys47 and Cys101 reduces the activity of the enzyme by 94%. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, acrylamide quenching, and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry experiments indicate that the loss of activity is caused by the introduction of local disorder at the active site of GSTP1-1. Furthermore, the modification destabilizes domain 1 of GSTP1-1 against denaturation, smoothing the unfolding energy landscape of the protein and introducing a refolding defect. In contrast, S-nitrosation at Cys101 alone introduces a refolding defect in domain 1 but compensates by stabilizing the domain kinetically. These data elucidate the physical basis for the regulation of GSTP1-1 by S-nitrosation and provide general insight into the consequences of S-nitrosation on protein stability and dynamics.

  17. Detecting P2P Botnet in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chiuan Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network separates the control plane from network equipment and has great advantage in network management as compared with traditional approaches. With this paradigm, the security issues persist to exist and could become even worse because of the flexibility on handling the packets. In this paper we propose an effective framework by integrating SDN and machine learning to detect and categorize P2P network traffics. This work provides experimental evidence showing that our approach can automatically analyze network traffic and flexibly change flow entries in OpenFlow switches through the SDN controller. This can effectively help the network administrators manage related security problems.

  18. The structure of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, M.A.; Mokhtari, S.

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superspace is presented. The authors solve up to all orders the N = 2 supergravity constraints in terms of unconstrained N = 1 superfields. The structure of the N = 2 action in N = 1 superspace is examined. The proposed action coincides in the quadratic limit of the spin (3/2,1) matter fields with the action given by previous workers. (author)

  19. Structure of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awada, M.A.; Mokhtari, S. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superspace is presented. The authors solve up to all orders the N = 2 supergravity constraints in terms of unconstrained N = 1 superfields. The structure of the N = 2 action in N = 1 superspace is examined. The proposed action coincides in the quadratic limit of the spin (3/2,1) matter fields with the action given by previous workers.

  20. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  1. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2017-08-01

    The P2 experiment in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle θW at low momentum transfer by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry of elastic electronproton scattering. In order to achieve the intended precision of Δ(sin2 θW)/sin2θW = 0:13% within the planned 10 000 hours of running the experiment has to operate at the rate of 1011 detected electrons per second. Although it is not required to measure the kinematic parameters of each individual electron, every attempt is made to achieve the highest possible throughput in the track reconstruction chain. In the present work a parameterization-based track reconstruction method is described. It is a variation of track following, where the results of the computation-heavy steps, namely the propagation of a track to the further detector plane, and the fitting, are pre-calculated, and expressed in terms of parametric analytic functions. This makes the algorithm extremely fast, and well-suited for an implementation on an FPGA. The method also takes implicitly into account the actual phase space distribution of the tracks already at the stage of candidate construction. Compared to a simple algorithm, that does not use such information, this allows reducing the combinatorial background by many orders of magnitude, down to O(1) background candidate per one signal track. The method is developed specifically for the P2 experiment in Mainz, and the presented implementation is tightly coupled to the experimental conditions.

  2. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii [Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the new MESA accelerator in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. To achieve an unprecedented precision an order of 10{sup 11} scattered electrons per second have to be acquired. %within the acceptance. Whereas the tracking system is not required to operate at such high rates, every attempt is made to achieve as high rate capability as possible. The P2 tracking system will consist of four planes of high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). With the present preliminary design one expects about 150 signal electron tracks and 20000 background hits (from bremsstrahlung photons) per plane in every 50 ns readout frame at the full rate. In order to cope with this extreme combinatorial background in on-line mode, a parameterization-based tracking is considered as a possible solution. The idea is to transform the hit positions into a set of weakly correlated quantities, and to find simple (e.g. polynomial) functions of these quantities, that would give the required characteristics of the track (e.g. momentum). The parameters of the functions are determined from a sample of high-quality tracks, taken either from a simulation, or reconstructed in a conventional way from a sample of low-rate data.

  3. Fundamental absorption edge of CdP2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', G.I.; Koval', V.S.; Kurik, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental absorption edge of tetragonal CdP 2 crystals is investigated within the temperature range of 4.2-293 K. The crystals are grown by the Bridgman methods and resublimation methods and possess different degree of perfection and purity. In perfect CdP 2 crystals with small concentration of impurities in the region of K > 20 cm -1 the shape of the absorption edge spectrum is described by the Urbach rule. The Urbach rule parameters are defined. The electron-phonon interaction is shown to be the determinant at K > 20 cm -1 and the direct vertical transition is observed. A slight additional absorption with maximum at 2.163 eV within the range of K -1 and at T ≤ 50 is associated with transition from shallow acceptor level to the conduction zone. The impurity leads to the shift of the fundamental absorption edge to the long-wavelength side and diffusion of electrons on impurities is resulted

  4. XANES study on Ruddlesdan-Popper phase, Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and ∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kuk; Byeon, Song-Hu; Kim, Don

    2001-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper phase, La n+1 Ni n O 3n+ 1 (n = 1, 2, and ∞) compounds were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. We revealed the origin of the variation of the electrical conductivities in La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 (n= 1, 2, and ∞) using resistivity measurements, Rietveld analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. According to the XANES spectra, it is found that the degree of 4pπ - 4pσ energy splitting between 8345 eV and 8350 eV is qualitatively proportional to the elongation of the out-of-plane Ni-O bond length. With the decrease of 4pπ-4pσ splitting, the strong hybridization of the σ-bonding between Ni-3d and O-2p orbitals creates narrow antibonding σ bands, which finally results in the lower electrical resistivity. (au)

  5. Targeted quantification of N-1-(carboxymethyl) valine and N-1-(carboxyethyl) valine peptides of ?-hemoglobin for better diagnostics in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Batkulwar, Kedar B.; Meshram, Nishita N.; Tiwari, Shalbha; Korwar, Arvind M.; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2016-01-01

    Background N-1-(Deoxyfructosyl) valine (DFV) ?-hemoglobin (?-Hb), commonly referred as HbA1c, is widely used diagnostic marker in diabetes, believed to provide glycemic status of preceding 90?120?days. However, the turnover of hemoglobin is about 120?days, the DFV-?-Hb, an early and reversible glycation product eventually may undergo irreversible advanced glycation modifications such as carboxymethylation or carboxyethylation. Hence quantification of N-1-(carboxymethyl) valine (CMV) and N-1-(...

  6. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  7. Deletion of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits does not alter motility of the mouse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DeVries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2X receptors contribute to neurotransmission in the gut. P2X receptors are ligand-gated cation channels that mediate synaptic excitation in subsets of enteric neurons. The present study evaluated colonic motility in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit knockout (KO mice. The muscarinic receptor agonist, bethanechol (0.3-3 micromolar, caused similar contractions of the longitudinal muscle in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine (1-300 micromolar, acting at neuronal nicotinic receptors, caused similar longitudinal muscle relaxations in colonic segments from WT and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine-induced relaxations were inhibited by nitro-L-arginine (NLA, 100 micromolar and apamin (0.1 micromolar which block inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. ATP (1-1000 micromolar caused contractions only in the presence of NLA and apamin. ATP-induced contractions were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. The mouse colon generates spontaneous migrating motor complexes (MMCs in vitro. The MMC frequency was higher in P2X2 KO compared to WT tissues; other parameters of the MMC were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. 5-Hydroxytryptophan-induced fecal output was similar in WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. These data indicate that nicotinic receptors are located predominately on inhibitory motor neurons supplying the longitudinal muscle in the mouse colon. P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors are not localized to motorneurons supplying the longitudinal muscle. Synaptic transmission mediated by P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors is not required for propulsive motility in the mouse colon.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  9. Construction of the superalgebras for N=1 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Niederle, J.

    1984-11-01

    It is shown that the infinite parameter gauge superalgebras of the conformal and of the N=1 Einstein supergravities can be obtained as the closures of various two finite-parameter superalgebras. In the conformal case the standard, minimal and Einsteinian closures are studied. In the case of the N=1 Einstein supergravities the minimal and non-minimal closures are discussed. (author)

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  11. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  12. Analisa Kemampuan Saluran Berdasarkan Metode Contingency N-1 Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Syukriyadin,; Susanti, Rahmi

    2010-01-01

    Sistem transmisi memegang peranan yang sangatpenting dalam proses penyaluran daya. Oleh karena itupengamanan pada saluran transmisi perlu mendapatperhatian yang serius dalam perencanaannya. Analisakemampuan saluran merupakan aplikasi untuk mempelajarikestabilan sistem. Analisa kemampuan saluran dalampenelitian ini menggunakan metode contingency N-1 analysis.Contingency N-1 analysis merupakan sebuah program untukmemperhitungkan berbagi kondisi yang mungkin terjadidalam sistem dimasa yang akan ...

  13. (H1N1) Influenza in Saurashtra, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mexico in April, 2009,[1] and then in United States (US).[2,3]. This was originally ... duration of hospital stay of such patients was 2‑32 days. All admitted A (H1N1) .... Because of limited resources, only 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus was tested ...

  14. Partial breaking of N = 1, D = 10 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper is described the spontaneous partial breaking of N =1, D =10 supersymmetry to N = (1, 0), d = 6 and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of nonlinear realizations. The basic Goldstone superfield is N = (1, 0), d = 6 hyper multiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hyper multiplet constraint. It is here interpreted the generalized constraint as the manifestly world volume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the type 1 super 5-brane in D 10. The related issues here addressed are a possible existence of brane extension of off-shell hyper multiplet actions, the possibility to utilize vector N = (1, 0), d =6 supermultiplet as the Goldstone one, and the description of 1/4 breaking of N =1, D = 11 supersymmetry

  15. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P 1 -selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P 1 -selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P 1 ) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P 1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P 1 -selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P 1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  16. On the equivalence of N=1 brane worlds and geometric singularities with flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, Peter; Partouche, Herve

    2004-01-01

    We consider Kaluza Klein reductions of M-theory on the Z N orbifold of the spin bundle over S 3 along two different U(1) isometries. The first one gives rise to the familiar 'large-N duality' of the N=1 SU(N) gauge theory in which the UV is realized as the world-volume theory of N D6-branes wrapped on S 3 , whereas the IR involves N units of RR flux through an S 2 . The second reduction gives an equivalent version of this duality in which the UV is realized geometrically in terms of a P 1 of A N-1 singularities, with one unit of RR flux through the P 1 . The IR is reached via a geometric transition and involves a single D6 brane on a lens space S 3 /Z N or, alternatively, a singular background (S 2 xR 4 )/Z N , with one unit of RR flux through S 2 and, localized at the singularities, an action of their stabilizer group in the U(1) RR gauge bundle, so that no massless twisted states occur. We also consider linear s-model descriptions of these backgrounds. (author)

  17. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. C/2013 P2 Pan STARRS - The Manx Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Keane, Jacqueline; Hainaut, Olivier; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Bauer, James; Wainscoat, Richard; Veres, Peter

    2014-11-01

    On Aug 4, 2013 an apparently asteroidal object was discovered by the Pan STARRS1 (PS1) survey telescope on Haleakala at magnitude 20.4 (corresponding to a nucleus radius between 1.4-2.9 km for albedos between 0.25-0.04). PS1 pre-recovery images taken on July 26 and on Aug. 3 allowed a good orbit to be determined. The orbit looks like that of a long-period comet with a semi major axis of 2720 AU and an eccentricity of 0.999. Shortly following the discovery, reports from small telescopes came in that there was low level activity associated with this object (at r = 3.45 AU), and the object was designated P/2013 P2 (Pan STARRS). The activity was not seen in images obtained with PS1, the Faulkes N telescope or the CFHT 3.6m, however the object was passing through a region of significant nebulosity. Deep images obtained on the CFHT on Aug. 8 and follow up images obtained with the Gemini North 8m telescope on Sep. 9 showed a very faint tail extending a few arcsec to PA=45 deg (inconsistent with the earlier reports). The object was observed using several facilities up until solar conjunction, and again after perihelion (Feb. 17, 2014) in March, with little increase in activity. A search of the NEOWISE archives show no detection during the cryogenic and immediate pos-cryogenic phases, so we can only place an upper limit on the nucleus size from these data. An object on a long-period comet orbit at this heliocentric distance typically should be very active, and our team hypothesized that this could either be a nearly-extinct comet or possibly inner solar system material ejected to the outer solar system during planet migration as predicted by various dynamical models. To distinguish between these scenarios, we obtained both optical and near-IR spectra of P/2013 P2 on 2014 May 7 and 21, when the object was at r=2.97 and 2.99 AU, respectively. Initial reductions show no emission lines. We will report on our spectra and imaging data, and discuss the implications for the origin

  19. The interaction of diadenosine polyphosphates with P2X-receptors in the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens

    OpenAIRE

    Westfall, T D; McIntyre, C A; Obeid, S; Bowes, J; Kennedy, C; Sneddon, P

    1997-01-01

    The site(s) at which diadenosine 5′,5′′′-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AP4A) and diadenosine 5′, 5′′′-P1,P5-pentaphosphate (AP5A) act to evoke contraction of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens was studied by use of a series of P2-receptor antagonists and the ecto-ATPase inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP (ARL 67156).Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS) (300 nM–30 μM), suramin (3–100 μM) and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (P-5-P) (3–1000 μM) inhibited contractions evo...

  20. N-1: Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Tour Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Group N-1 develops and provides training on nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies intended for nuclear material accounting and control to fulfill both international and domestic obligations. The N-1 group is located at Technical Area (TA)-35 in Buildings 2 and 27. Visitors to the area can observe developed and fielded NDA technologies, as well as the latest research efforts to develop the next generation of NDA technologies. Several areas are used for NDA training. The N-1 School House area typically is used for basic training on neutron- and gamma-ray-based NDA techniques. This area contains an assortment of gamma-ray detector systems, including sodium iodide and high-purity germanium and the associated measurement components. Many types of neutron assay systems are located here, including both standard coincidence and multiplicity counters. The N-1 School House area is also used for holdup training; located here are the mock holdup assemblies and associated holdup measurement tools. Other laboratory areas in the N-1 space are used for specialized training, such as waste NDA, calorimetry, and advanced gamma-ray NDA. Also, many research laboratories in the N-1 space are used to develop new NDA technologies. The calorimetry laboratory is used to develop and evaluate new technologies and techniques that measure the heat signature from nuclear material to determine mass. The micro calorimetry laboratory is being used to develop advanced technologies that can measure gamma rays with extremely high resolution. This technique has been proven in the laboratory setting, and the team is now working to cultivate a field-capable system. The N-1 group also develops remote and unattended systems for the tracking and control of nuclear material. A demonstration of this technology is located within one of the laboratory spaces. The source tracker software was developed by N-1 to monitor the locations and quantities of nuclear materials. This software is currently used to track

  1. Microscopic theory taking into account 2p2h configurations in the magic nuclei. General comparison with other aprroaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the given review are as follows: 1) brief description of subsequent method for accoUntancy of 2p2h-configurations of the nucleus in the second order by quasiparticle-phonon interaction; the method uses Green functions and it represents specification of microscopic model of 2p2h-configuration accountancy; 2) obtaining the basic results of already existing approaches from the obtained analytical expressions. Accountancy of 2p2h-configurations of magic nuclei is necessary for improvement of microscopic description of multipole giant resonances (MGR). An equation for the effective field in a nucleus induced by an external field is obtained. An expression for polarization operator determining probabilities of nucleus transitions from the ground state to the excited one is obtained graphically. Derivation of the described equation for apex of the effective field and expressions for polarization operator which besides 1p1h-configurations account for 2p2h-configurations are the basic results of the paper

  2. Influenza A (H1N1) organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrego, Alfons; Pajares, Virginia; Mola, Anna; Lerma, Enrique; Franquet, Tomás

    2010-04-27

    In November 2009, countries around the world reported confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1, including over 6000 deaths. No peak in activity has been seen. The most common causes of death are pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with organising pneumonia associated with influenza A (H1N1) infection confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Organising pneumonia should also be considered as a possible complication of influenza A (H1N1) infection, given that these patients can benefit from early diagnosis and appropriate specific management.

  3. Building a tracking detector for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Marco [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 Experiment aims to measure the weak mixing angle at low Q{sup 2} via the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering. It will be located at the new Mainz Energy Recovery Superconducting Accelerator (MESA), which will provide a 150 μA beam of alternatingly polarized 150 MeV electrons. While the main asymmetry measurement is performed with integrating Cherenkov detectors, the tracking system is developed in order to determine the average momentum transfer of the electron and to reconstruct individual electron tracks for systematic studies. It will be built using the new technology of High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS) made of silicon thinned to 50 μm. The main challenge for the tracking system are very high expected particle rates. The expected rate of electrons that are scattered in the liquid hydrogen target and hit the tracking system is of the order 10{sup 5}mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and is overwhelmed by more than 10{sup 7} mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} bremsstrahlung photons. Each of the tracking layers is envisaged to have a disc-like geometry. They are arranged as two double layers. Since only limited sensor area is affordable, each layer is divided into four segments with about 15 degree azimutal coverage. This layout is presented and motivated by investigations on the expected hit rates and the sensor response.

  4. Improved Degree Search Algorithms in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guole Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and retrieving the demanded correct information is one important problem in networks; especially, designing an efficient search algorithm is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P networks. Breadth-first search (BFS and depth-first search (DFS are the current two typical search methods. BFS-based algorithms show the perfect performance in the aspect of search success rate of network resources, while bringing the huge search messages. On the contrary, DFS-based algorithms reduce the search message quantity and also cause the dropping of search success ratio. To address the problem that only one of performances is excellent, we propose two memory function degree search algorithms: memory function maximum degree algorithm (MD and memory function preference degree algorithm (PD. We study their performance including the search success rate and the search message quantity in different networks, which are scale-free networks, random graph networks, and small-world networks. Simulations show that the two performances are both excellent at the same time, and the performances are improved at least 10 times.

  5. Peripheral nerve P2 basic protein and the Guillain-Barre syndrome : In vitro demonstration of P2-specific antibody-secreting cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, J.A.F.M.; Jong, W.A.C. de; Demel, R.A.; Heijnen, C.J.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    An immune response to the peripheral nerve basic protein P2 may be operative in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). A method is described for the purification of P2 of human origin. Purified P2 was used to investigate whether lymphocytes derived from peripheral blood of GBS

  6. Jacobson generators, Fock representations and statistics of sl(n + 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2000-10-01

    The properties of A-statistics, related to the class of simple Lie algebras sl(n + 1), n is an element of Z + (Palev, T.D.: Preprint JINR E17-10550 (1977); hep-th/9705032), are further investigated. The description of each sl(n + 1) is carried out via generators and their relations (see eq. (2.5)), first introduced by Jacobson. The related Fock spaces W p , p is an element of N, are finite-dimensional irreducible sl(n + 1)-modules. The Pauli principle of the underlying statistics is formulated. In addition the paper contains the following new results: (a) the A-statistics are interpreted as exclusion statistics; (b) within each W p operators B(p) 1 ± ,...,B(p) n ± , proportional to the Jacobson generators, are introduced. It is proved that in an appropriate topology (Definition 2) lim p→∞ B(p) i ± = B i ± , where B i ± are Bose creation and annihilation operators; (c) it is shown that the local statistics of the degenerated hard-core Bose models and of the related Heisenberg spin models is p = I A-statistics. (author)

  7. Barber. Symphony N 1, Op. 9 / Michael Oliver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oliver, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber. Symphony N 1, Op. 9. The School for Scandal Overture, Op. 5 Beach. Symphony in E minor, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  8. Recurrence relations for toric N = 1 superconformal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2012-09-01

    General 1-point toric blocks in all sectors of N = 1 superconformal field theories are analyzed. The recurrence relations for blocks coefficients are derived by calculating their residues and large Δ asymptotics.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric extension of the baby Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Queiruga, J. M.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a method to supersymmetrize higher kinetic terms and apply it to the baby Skyrme model. We find that there exist N=1 supersymmetric extensions for baby Skyrme models with arbitrary potential.

  10. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  11. Properties of general classical CPsup(n-1) solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    The general classical solutions with finite action of the CPsup(n-1) model are displayed. Various properties of the solutions such as topological charge, action, Baecklund like transformations and stability are discussed

  12. Sugawara construction for affine SL(N,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, M.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the sl(N,1) superalgebras, their affine extensions and their representations. This is used to perform a Sugawara construction of the Virasoro algebra. The allowed values of the conformal anomaly and the conformal dimension are computed. (orig.)

  13. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  14. Some comments on N=1 gauge theories from wrapped branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, R.; Bigazzi, F.; Petrini, M.; Cotrone, A.L.; Zaffaroni, A.

    2001-12-01

    We discuss various aspects of gauge theories realized on the world-volume of wrapped branes. In particular we analyze the coupling of SYM operators to space-time fields both in N=1 and N=2 models and give a description of the gluino condensate in the Maldacena-Nunez N=1 solution. We also explore the seven dimensional BPS equations relevant for these solutions and their generalizations. (author)

  15. String Loop Threshold Corrections for N=1 Generalized Coxeter Orbifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kokorelis, Christos

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the calculation of threshold corrections to gauge coupling constants for the, only, non-decomposable class of abelian (2, 2) symmetric N=1 four dimensional heterotic orbifold models, where the internal twist is realized as a generalized Coxeter automorphism. The latter orbifold was singled out in earlier work as the only N=1 heterotic $Z_N$ orbifold that satisfy the phenomenological criteria of correct minimal gauge coupling unification and cancellation of target space modular anom...

  16. Generalized Hitchin system, spectral curve and N=1 dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Dan; Yonekura, Kazuya [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    A generalized Hitchin equation was proposed as the BPS equation for a large class of four dimensional N=1 theories engineered using M5 branes. In this paper, we show how to write down the spectral curve for the moduli space of generalized Hitchin equations, and extract interesting N=1 dynamics out of it, such as deformed modui space, chiral ring relation, SUSY breaking, etc. Holomorphy plays a crucial role in our construction.

  17. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  18. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  19. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  20. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  1. The composite N1 component to gaps in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2005-11-01

    To indicate whether the double peaked N(1) to gaps in continuous white noise is a composite of onset and offset responses to transients or whether it reflects higher processing such as change or mismatch detection and to assess the role of attention in this process. Evoked potentials were recorded to two binaural stimulus types: (1) gaps of different durations randomly distributed in continuous white noise; and (2) click pairs at intervals identical to those between gap onsets and offsets in the continuous noise stimulus. Potentials to these stimuli were recorded while subjects read a text and while detecting gaps in noise or click pairs. Potentials were detected to all click pairs and to gaps of 5 ms or longer, corresponding to the subjects' psychoacoustic gap detection threshold. With long gap durations of 200-800 ms, distinct potentials to gap onset and gap offset were observed. The waveforms to all click pairs and to offsets of long gaps were similar and single-peaked, while potentials to gaps of 10 ms and longer, and potentials to onsets of long gaps were double-peaked, consisting of two N(1) negativities, 60 ms apart, irrespective of gap duration. The first (N(1a)), was more frontal in its distribution and similar to that of clicks. The second (N(1b)) peak's distribution was more central/temporal and its source locations and time course of activity were distinct. No effects of attention on any of the varieties and constituents of N(1) were observed. Comparing potentials to gap onsets, to click pairs and to gap offsets, suggests that potentials to gap onsets involve not only sound onset/offset responses (N(1), N(1a)) but also the subsequent pre-attentive perception of the cessation of an ongoing sound (N(1b)). We propose that N(1b) is distinct from change or mismatch detection and is associated with termination of an ongoing continuous stimulus. We propose to call it the N(egation)-process. A constituent of the N(1) complex is shown to be associated with the

  2. Roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in malignant behavior of glioma cells. Differential effects of S1P2 on cell migration and invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P 1-5 . S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P 1 , S1P 2 and S1P 3 all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P 1 being the major contributor. Stimulation of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P 5 blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P 1 and S1P 3 enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P 2 inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P 2 also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P 2 -stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P 2 decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix

  3. Internal (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) resistive modes in the toroidal Tokomak with circular cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the Tokomak with circular cross sections. One includes the resistive and diamagnetic effects in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, one obtains a system of two coupled equations for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1, the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain: the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption; the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and [de

  4. Treatment and Prevention of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath; Rewar, Prahlad

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory infection common to pigs worldwide caused by type A influenza viruses, principally subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza viruses also can cause moderate to severe illness in humans and affect persons of all age groups. People in close contact with swine are at especially high risk. Until recently, epidemiological study of influenza was limited to resource-rich countries. The World Health Organization declared an H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30,000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015, incidence of swine influenza increased substantially to reach a 5-year high. In India in 2015, 10,000 cases of swine influenza were reported with 774 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend real-time polymerase chain reaction as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Antiviral drugs are the mainstay of clinical treatment of swine influenza and can make the illness milder and enable the patient to feel better faster. Antiviral drugs are most effective when they are started within the first 48 hours after the clinical signs begin, although they also may be used in severe or high-risk cases first seen after this time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Genentech) or zanamivir (Relenza, GlaxoSmithKline). Prevention of swine influenza has 3 components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. Because of limited treatment options, high risk for secondary infection, and frequent need for intensive care of individuals with H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high-risk populations and public education are critical to control of swine influenza out breaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction in Pr(n+2)(n+1)Nin(n-1)+2Sin(n+1) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiles, D.C.; Song, S.H.; Snyder, J.E.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Lograsso, T.A.; Wu, D.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Mudryk, Ya.; Dennis, K.W.; McCallum, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of members of a homologous series of compounds based on the alloy series Pr (n+2)(n+1) Ni n(n-1)+2 Si n(n+1) have been measured. The crystal structures of these compounds are closely interrelated because they form trigonal prismatic columns in which the number of trigonal prisms that form the base of the trigonal columns is determined by the value of n in the chemical formula. Two compositions were investigated, Pr 5 Ni 2 Si 3 and Pr 15 Ni 7 Si 10 , corresponding to n=3 and n=4, respectively. The results were analyzed and used to determine the location of magnetic phase transitions by calculating the magnetic contribution to thermal expansion using the Gruneisen-Debye theory. This allowed more precise determination of the magnetic transition temperatures than could be achieved using the total thermal expansion. The results show two phase transitions in each material, one corresponding to the Curie temperature and the other at a lower temperature exhibiting characteristics of a spin reorientation transition

  6. Visual form predictions facilitate auditory processing at the N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2017-02-20

    Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  8. H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quiver tails and N=1 SCFTs from M5-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bah, Ibrahima [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California,Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Maruyoshi, Kazunobu [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We study a class of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories obtained by wrapping M5-branes on a Riemann surface with punctures. We identify four-dimensional UV descriptions of the SCFTs corresponding to curves with a class of punctures. The quiver tails appearing in these UV descriptions differ significantly from their N=2 counterpart. We find a new type of object that we call the ‘Fan’. We show how to construct new N=1 superconformal theories using the Fan. Various dual descriptions for these SCFTs can be identified with different colored pair-of-pants decompositions. For example, we find an N=1 analog of Argyres-Seiberg duality for the SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors. We also compute anomaly coefficients and superconformal indices for these theories and show that they are invariant under dualities.

  10. N=1 Mirror Symmetry and Open/Closed String Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We show that the exact N=1 superpotential of a class of 4d string compactifications is computed by the closed topological string compactified to two dimensions. A relation to the open topological string is used to define a special geometry for N=1 mirror symmetry. Flat coordinates, an N=1 mirror map for chiral multiplets and the exact instanton corrected superpotential are obtained from the periods of a system of differential equations. The result points to a new class of open/closed string dualities which map individual string world-sheets with boundary to ones without. It predicts an mathematically unexpected coincidence of the closed string Gromov-Witten invariants of one Calabi-Yau geometry with the open string invariants of the dual Calabi-Yau.

  11. The calculation of oscillator strengths for the 5s21S0→5s5p1,3P1 transitions in Cd-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyuan

    1998-01-01

    The screened hydrogenic model is employed to calculate the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 1 P 1 resonance transition in Cd-like ions (Z = 48 -74). The expression for the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 3 P1 is given, with the introduction of the correctional coefficient K and the mixing angle in jj-coupling. The results are compared with that of other authors, and some discussions are also given

  12. Gene-by-environment effect of house dust mite on purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2RY12) and lung function in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, S; Boyce, J A; Raby, B A; Weiss, S T

    2012-02-01

    Distinct receptors likely exist for leukotriene (LT)E(4), a potent mediator of airway inflammation. Purinergic receptor P2Y12 is needed for LTE(4)-induced airways inflammation, and P2Y12 antagonism attenuates house dust mite-induced pulmonary eosinophilia in mice. Although experimental data support a role for P2Y12 in airway inflammation, its role in human asthma has never been studied. To test for association between variants in the P2Y12 gene (P2RY12) and lung function in human subjects with asthma, and to examine for gene-by-environment interaction with house dust mite exposure. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P2RY12 were genotyped in 422 children with asthma and their parents (n = 1266). Using family based methods, we tested for associations between these SNPs and five lung function measures. We performed haplotype association analyses and tested for gene-by-environment interactions using house dust mite exposure. We used the false discovery rate to account for multiple comparisons. Five SNPs in P2RY12 were associated with multiple lung function measures (P-values 0.006–0.025). Haplotypes in P2RY12 were also associated with lung function (P-values 0.0055–0.046). House dust mite exposure modulated associations between P2RY12 and lung function, with minor allele homozygotes exposed to house dust mite demonstrating worse lung function than those unexposed (significant interaction P-values 0.0028–0.040). The P2RY12 variants were associated with lung function in a large family-based asthma cohort. House dust mite exposure caused significant gene-by-environment effects. Our findings add the first human evidence to experimental data supporting a role for P2Y12 in lung function. P2Y12 could represent a novel target for asthma treatment.

  13. N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Stefano

    2015-04-08

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) relates two classes of particles of our universe, bosons and fermions. SUSY is considered nowadays a fundamental development to explain many open questions about high energy physics. The N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is a SUSY model that describes the interaction between gluons and their fermion superpartners called ''gluinos''. Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice are a powerful tool to explore the non-perturbative dynamics of this theory and to understand how supersymmetry emerges at low energy. This thesis presents new results and new simulations about the properties of N=1 SYM, in particular about the phase diagram at finite temperature.

  14. Narcolepsy: Association with H1N1 Infection and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between H1N1 influenza infection and vaccinations. This article reviews the various studies, and suggests the biological mechanisms explaining why and how H1N1 influenza infection or vaccine stimulates the autoimmune response, thereby resulting in narcolepsy. Among the vaccines, the effect of Pandemrix was scrutinized more than other vaccines, due to its higher association with an increase of narcolepsy onset. The consequences of using other vaccines which contain same or different adjuvants as Pandemrix, were also analyzed.

  15. Black-Hole Attractors in N=1 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, Sergio; Trigiante, M; Andrianopoli, Laura; Auria, Riccardo D'; Ferrara, Sergio; Trigiante, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We study the attractor mechanism for N=1 supergravity coupled to vector and chiral multiplets and compute the attractor equations of these theories. These equations may have solutions depending on the choice of the holomorphic symmetric matrix f_{\\Lambda\\Sigma} which appears in the kinetic lagrangian of the vector sector. Models with non trivial electric-magnetic duality group which have or have not attractor behavior are exhibited. For a particular class of models, based on an N=1 reduction of homogeneous special geometries, the attractor equations are related to the theory of pure spinors.

  16. Tools and drugs for uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Muhammad; Müller, Christa E

    2018-04-13

    P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y 1 , P2Y 2 , P2Y 4 , P2Y 6 , P2Y 11 , P2Y 12 , P2Y 13 , and P2Y 14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y 2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y 4 (UTP), P2Y 6 (UDP), and P2Y 14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose). The physiological agonists are metabolically unstable due to their fast hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases. A number of agonists with increased potency, subtype-selectivity and/or enzymatic stability have been developed in recent years. Useful P2Y 2 R agonists include MRS2698 (6-01, highly selective) and PSB-1114 (6-05, increased metabolic stability). A potent and selective P2Y 2 R antagonist is AR-C118925 (10-01). For studies of the P2Y 4 R, MRS4062 (3-15) may be used as a selective agonist, while PSB-16133 (10-06) represents a selective antagonist. Several potent P2Y 6 R agonists have been developed including 5-methoxyuridine 5'-O-((R p )α-boranodiphosphate) (6-12), PSB-0474 (3-11), and MRS2693 (3-26). The isocyanate MRS2578 (10-08) is used as a selective P2Y 6 R antagonist, although its reactivity and low water-solubility are limiting. With MRS2905 (6-08), a potent and metabolically stable P2Y 14 R agonist is available, while PPTN (10-14) represents a potent and selective P2Y 14 R antagonist. The radioligand [ 3 H]UDP can be used to label P2Y 14 Rs. In addition, several fluorescent probes have been developed. Uracil nucleotide-activated P2YRs show great potential as drug targets, especially in inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Isotope shift of 40,42,44,48Ca in the 4s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Blaum, K.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Neugart, R.; Sánchez, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report on improved isotope shift measurements of the isotopes {}{40,42,{44,48}}Ca in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}3/2 (D2) transition using collinear laser spectroscopy. Accurately known isotope shifts in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}1/2(D1) transition were used to calibrate the ion beam energy with an uncertainty of {{Δ }}U≈ +/- 0.25 {{V}}. The accuracy in the D2 transition was improved by a factor of 5-10. A King-plot analysis of the two transitions revealed that the field shift factor in the D2 line is about 1.8(13)% larger than in the D1 transition which is ascribed to relativistic contributions of the 4{{{p}}}1/2 wave function.

  18. Apical P2XR contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling and Isc in mouse renal MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Lynch, I Jeanette; Zheng, Wencui; Cash, Melanie N; Teng, Xueling; Wingo, Charles S; Verlander, Jill W; Xia, Shen-Ling

    2007-08-03

    We examined P2X receptor expression and distribution in the mouse collecting duct (CD) and their functional role in Ca(2+) signaling. Both P2X(1) and P2X(4) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated apical P2X(1) and P2X(4) immunoreactivity in principal cells in the outer medullary CD (OMCD) and inner medullary CD (IMCD). Luminal ATP induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in native medullary CD (MCD) as measured by fluorescence imaging. ATP also induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in MCD cells grown in primary culture but not in the presence of P2XR antagonist PPNDS. Short circuit current (I(sc)) measurement with mouse IMCD cells showed that P2XR agonist BzATP induced a larger I(sc) than did P2YR agonist UTP in the apical membrane. Our data reveal for the first time that P2X(1) and P2X(4) are cell-specific with prominent immunoreactivity in the apical area of MCD cells. The finding that P2XR blockade inhibits ATP-induced Ca(2+) signaling suggests that activation of P2XR is a key step in Ca(2+)-dependent purinergic signaling. The result that activation of P2XR produces large I(sc) indicates the necessity of P2XR in renal CD ion transport.

  19. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  20. Stochastic variables in N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenfeld, O.

    1984-06-01

    The stochastic structure of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is rederived by using a previously developed method for the construction of the (nonlocal) Nicolai map. The stochastic variables correspond to the fixed points of this mapping. The relations are derived in a light cone gauge and in general covariant gauges. (orig.)

  1. N=1 supergravity off-shell in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the N=1 supergravity in six dimensions showns useful characteristics to study the unification of a gauge theory together with the supergravity, via dimensinal reduction, giving a geometrical interpretation for the internal quantum numbers in the reduced theory. (L.C.) [pt

  2. The critical $A_{n-1}^{(1)}$ chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, T.; Yamasita, S.

    2000-01-01

    We study the $A_{n-1}^{(1)}$ spin chain at the critical regime $|q|=1$. We give the free boson realizations of the type-I vertex operators and their duals. Using these free boson realizations, we give the integral representations for the correlation functions.

  3. 1/N expansion in SUSY CPsup(N-1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoshchekov, V.K.; Medvedev, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The 1/N expansion for supersymmetric two-dimensional CPsup(N-1) model has been constructed in the superfield formalism. The subtraction procedure and the way to choose manifestly supersymmetric gauge is formulated to define UV and IR regular Green functions for any given order in 1/N

  4. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.

  5. Gauge and gravitational anomalies in D=4 N=1 orientifolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S Scrucca, C.; Serone, M.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze in detail the cancellation of U(1)-gauge and U(1)-gravitational anomalies in certain D=4 N=1 Type IIB orientifolds, from a string theory point of view. We verify the proposal that these anomalies are cancelled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism involving only twisted RR fields.By factorizing

  6. Morse theory applied to N=1 and 2 superconformal theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzban, C.

    1989-12-01

    Various spaces are singled-out as candidates for the space of all 2-d N=1 and 2 supersymmetric quantum field theories, respectively. This is done by treating the c-function as a Morse-function on these spaces. (author). 10 refs

  7. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  8. N=1 superfield anatomy of the Fayet-Sohnius multiplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.

    1981-01-01

    The constraints on N=2 Fayet-Sohnius superfield are interpreted as analyticity conditions. This N=2 superfield reduces to two chiral N=1 superfields defined in two different complex (4.2) superspaces, both on and off mass shell. The central charge operator is realized bilinearly in spinor derivatives [ru

  9. The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccetti, Valentina [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Livine, Etera R [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Ryan, James P, E-mail: baccetti@neve.fis.uniroma3.i, E-mail: etera.livine@ens-lyon.f, E-mail: james.ryan@aei.mpg.d [MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-21

    We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.

  10. The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Livine, Etera R; Ryan, James P

    2010-01-01

    We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.

  11. The superspace-translation tensor and linearized N = 1 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedding, S.P.; Lang, W.

    1982-01-01

    The recently proposed superspace-translation tensor is considered as the source of supergravities in the context of N = 1 supersymmetry. It is shown how the structure of this tensor leads to a complete evaluation of the linearized supervielbein in terms of unconstrained prepotentials with derived transformation laws. Connection with formulations using torsion constraints is made. (orig.)

  12. Campus Response to Novel Influenza H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been engaged in pandemic planning since 2005 when the threat of H5N1 was brought to the attention of health care providers and organizations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization. Schools developed plans, based on a 1918 scenario, that were centered on evacuation of…

  13. An N=1 superfield action for M2 branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, Andrea; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2008-01-01

    We present an octonionic N=1 superfield action that reproduces in components the action of Bagger and Lambert for M2 branes. By giving an expectation value to one of the scalars we obtain the maximally supersymmetric superfield action for D2 branes

  14. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  15. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  16. Sterylglucoside catabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans with endoglycoceramidase-related protein 2 (EGCrP2), the first steryl-β-glucosidase identified in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Ito, Tomoharu; Goda, Hatsumi M; Ishibashi, Yohei; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2015-01-09

    Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The ceramide structure (methyl-d18:2/h18:0) of C. neoformans glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is characteristic and strongly related to its pathogenicity. We recently identified endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1) as a glucocerebrosidase in C. neoformans and showed that it was involved in the quality control of GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer during the synthesis of GlcCer (Ishibashi, Y., Ikeda, K., Sakaguchi, K., Okino, N., Taguchi, R., and Ito, M. (2012) Quality control of fungus-specific glucosylceramide in Cryptococcus neoformans by endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1). J. Biol. Chem. 287, 368-381). We herein identified and characterized EGCrP2, a homologue of EGCrP1, as the enzyme responsible for sterylglucoside catabolism in C. neoformans. In contrast to EGCrP1, which is specific to GlcCer, EGCrP2 hydrolyzed various β-glucosides, including GlcCer, cholesteryl-β-glucoside, ergosteryl-β-glucoside, sitosteryl-β-glucoside, and para-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside, but not α-glucosides or β-galactosides, under acidic conditions. Disruption of the EGCrP2 gene (egcrp2) resulted in the accumulation of a glycolipid, the structure of which was determined following purification to ergosteryl-3β-glucoside, a major sterylglucoside in fungi, by mass spectrometric and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. This glycolipid accumulated in vacuoles and EGCrP2 was detected in vacuole-enriched fraction. These results indicated that EGCrP2 was involved in the catabolism of ergosteryl-β-glucoside in the vacuoles of C. neoformans. Distinct growth arrest, a dysfunction in cell budding, and an abnormal vacuole morphology were detected in the egcrp2-disrupted mutants, suggesting that EGCrP2 may be a promising target for anti-cryptococcal drugs. EGCrP2, classified into glycohydrolase family 5, is the first steryl

  17. Immunogenicity of influenza H1N1 vaccination in mixed connective tissue disease: effect of disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential acute effects regarding the immunogenicity and safety of non-adjuvanted influenza A H1N1/2009 vaccine in patients with mixed connective tissue disease and healthy controls. METHODS: Sixty-nine mixed connective tissue disease patients that were confirmed by Kasukawa's classification criteria and 69 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study; the participants were vaccinated with the non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 virus-like strain. The percentages of seroprotec-tion, seroconversion, geometric mean titer and factor increase in the geometric mean titer were calculated. The patients were clinically evaluated, and blood samples were collected pre- and 21 days post-vaccination to evaluate C-reactive protein, muscle enzymes and autoantibodies. Anti-H1N1 titers were determined using an influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01151644. RESULTS: Before vaccination, no difference was observed regarding the seroprotection rates (p = 1.0 and geometric mean titer (p = 0.83 between the patients and controls. After vaccination, seroprotection (75.4% vs. 71%, (p = 0.7, seroconversion (68.1% vs. 65.2%, (p = 1.00 and factor increase in the geometric mean titer (10.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.40 were similar in the two groups. Further evaluation of seroconversion in patients with and without current or previous history of muscle disease (p = 0.20, skin ulcers (p = 0.48, lupus-like cutaneous disease (p = 0.74, secondary Sjogren syndrome (p = 0.78, scleroderma-pattern in the nailfold capillaroscopy (p = 1.0, lymphopenia #1000/mm³ on two or more occasions (p = 1.0, hypergammaglobulinemia $1.6 g/d (p = 0.60, pulmonary hypertension (p = 1.0 and pulmonary fibrosis (p = 0.80 revealed comparable rates. Seroconversion rates were also similar in patients with and without immunosuppressants. Disease parameters, such as C-reactive protein (p = 0.94, aldolase (p = 0.73, creatine

  18. Chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, A-317491, transiently attenuates cancer-induced bone pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nasser, Arafat; Falk, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the ......X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1...

  19. House dust mite major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 5 activate human airway-derived epithelial cells by protease-dependent and protease-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman J André B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract House dust mite allergens (HDM cause bronchoconstriction in asthma patients and induce an inflammatory response in the lungs due to the release of cytokines, chemokines and additional mediators. The mechanism how HDM components achieve this is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether HDM components of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus with protease activity (Der p 1 and unknown enzymatic activity (Der p 2, Der p 5 induce biological responses in a human airway-derived epithelial cell line (A549, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s of action. A549 cells were incubated with HDM extract, Der p 1, recombinant Der p 2 and recombinant Der p 5. Cell desquamation was assessed by microscopy. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, were measured by ELISA. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were assessed in A549 cells and in mouse fibroblasts expressing the human protease activated receptor (PAR1, PAR2 or PAR4. HDM extract, Der p 1 and Der p 5 dose-dependently increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. Added simultaneously, Der p 1 and Der p 5 further increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. The action of Der p 1 was blocked by cysteine-protease inhibitors, while that of Der p 5 couldn't be blocked by either serine- or cysteine protease inhibitors. Der p 5 only induced cell shrinking, whereas HDM extract and Der p1 also induced cell desquamation. Der p 2 had no effect on A549 cells. Der p 1's protease activity causes desquamation and induced the release of IL6 and IL-8 by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ mobilisation and PAR activation. Der p 5 exerts a protease-independent activation of A549 that involves Ca2+ mobilisation and also leads to the production of these cytokines. Together, our data indicate that allergens present in HDM extracts can trigger protease-dependent and protease-independent signalling pathways in A549 cells.

  20. Population of the 3P2,1,0 fine-structure states in the 3s and 3p photoionization of atomic chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.; Caldwell, C.D.; Whitfield, S.B.; de Lange, C.A.; van der Meulen, P.

    1993-01-01

    In a high-resolution photoelectron-spectrometry study of the photoionization of chlorine atoms in both the 3s and 3p subshells, we were able to resolve contributions from ionic states with specific J values and measure the relative populations of these fine-structure components. Our photoelectron spectra, recorded at hν=29.2 eV, give ratios of 3 P 2 : 3 P 1 : 3 P 0 =100:40.59.5 for 3p photoionization and 3 P 2 : 3 P 1 =100:31 for 3s photoionization. While the results for 3p ionization are in accord with predictions based on a simple geometric analysis, the contribution of the 3 P 1 state in 3s photoionization is larger than that predicted by this simple model. The geometric predictions are also compared with results from a similar measurement of the population of the 4p -1 ( 3 P J ) states produced in the 4p ionization of Br and with earlier work on the production of 3 D 2,1,0 states in d-shell photoionization of Cu and Ag

  1. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of dig...

  2. A critical look at the function of the P2Y11 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisig, Karin; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The P2Y11 receptor is a member of the purinergic receptor family. It has been overlooked, somewhat due to the lack of a P2ry11 gene orthologue in the murine genome, which prevents the generation of knockout mice, which have been so helpful for defining the roles of other P2Y receptors. Furthermor...

  3. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  4. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  5. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  6. Supersymmetric solutions of N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, N. S.; Nazari, Z.; Sarıoǧlu, Ö.

    2018-05-01

    We construct supersymmetric solutions of three-dimensional N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity (GMG). Solutions with a null Killing vector are, in general, pp-waves. We identify those that appear at critical points of the model, some of which do not exist in N =(1 ,1 ) new massive supergravity (NMG). In the timelike case, we find that many solutions are common with NMG, but there is a new class that is genuine to GMG, two members of which are stationary Lifshitz and timelike squashed AdS spacetimes. We also show that in addition to the fully supersymmetric AdS vacuum, there is a second AdS background with a nonzero vector field that preserves 1 /4 supersymmetry.

  7. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N=1 superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; III, William D. Linch; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N=1 superspace and construct its Chern-Simons-like invariants. When specialized to the case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N=1 superfields.

  8. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N=1 superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; III, William D. Linch; Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-03-09

    With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N=1 superspace and construct its Chern-Simons-like invariants. When specialized to the case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N=1 superfields.

  9. 4d N=1 from 6d (1,0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razamat, Shlomo S. [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zafrir, Gabi [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, the University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2017-04-11

    We study the geometry of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from compactification of 6d (1,0) SCFT’s on a Riemann surface. We show that the conformal manifold of the resulting theory is characterized, in addition to moduli of complex structure of the Riemann surface, by the choice of a connection for a vector bundle on the surface arising from flavor symmetries in 6d. We exemplify this by considering the case of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from M5 branes probing ℤ{sub k} singularity compactified on a Riemann surface. In particular, we study in detail the four dimensional theories arising in the case of two M5 branes on ℤ{sub 2} singularity. We compute the conformal anomalies and indices of such theories in 4d and find that they are consistent with expectations based on anomaly and the moduli structure derived from the 6 dimensional perspective.

  10. N = 1 dual string pairs and their modular superpotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, D.

    1998-01-01

    We review the duality between heterotic and F-theory string vacua with N=1 space-time supersymmetry in eight, six and four dimensions. In particular, we discuss two chains of four-dimensional F-theory/heterotic dual string pairs, where F-theory is compactified on certain elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds, and the dual heterotic vacua are given by compactifications on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds plus the specification of the E 8 x E 8 gauge bundles. We show that the massless spectra of the dual pairs agree by using, for one chain of models, an index formula to count the heterotic bundle moduli and determine the dual F-theory spectra from the Hodge numbers of the fourfolds and of the type IIB base spaces. Moreover as a further check, we demonstrate that for one particular heterotic/F-theory dual pair the N=1 superpotentials are the same. (orig.)

  11. Ageing behaviour of [(n-1)/n] active redundancy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ageing of systems becomes a real concern if intelligent maintenance is required. Determining the ageing behaviour of a system necessitate having a powerful calculating tool and knowing the ageing behaviour of the basic components of the systems. Consequently, time dependent failure rates are required for basic components and need to be determined for systems. As, this is the general problem in reliability analysis, only (n-1)/n active redundancy system will be examined in the paper. Systems with (n-1)/n active redundancy are commonly used in a wide range of engineering fields. This should permit a priori improving the system reliability. Still, a deeper analysis of the ageing behaviour of such systems may reveal some particular aspects. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs

  12. Quasifree (p , 2 p ) Reactions on Oxygen Isotopes: Observation of Isospin Independence of the Reduced Single-Particle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, L.; Paschalis, S.; Barbieri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Holl, M.; Najafi, M. A.; Panin, V.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Cravo, E.; Crespo, R.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Hufnagel, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kahlbow, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec-Gałązka, J.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Nikolskii, E. Y.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Röder, M.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Vandebrouck, M.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G. L.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasifree one-proton knockout reactions have been employed in inverse kinematics for a systematic study of the structure of stable and exotic oxygen isotopes at the R3B /LAND setup with incident beam energies in the range of 300 - 450 MeV /u . The oxygen isotopic chain offers a large variation of separation energies that allows for a quantitative understanding of single-particle strength with changing isospin asymmetry. Quasifree knockout reactions provide a complementary approach to intermediate-energy one-nucleon removal reactions. Inclusive cross sections for quasifree knockout reactions of the type O A (p ,2 p )N-1A have been determined and compared to calculations based on the eikonal reaction theory. The reduction factors for the single-particle strength with respect to the independent-particle model were obtained and compared to state-of-the-art ab initio predictions. The results do not show any significant dependence on proton-neutron asymmetry.

  13. The interaction of diadenosine polyphosphates with P2x-receptors in the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, T D; McIntyre, C A; Obeid, S; Bowes, J; Kennedy, C; Sneddon, P

    1997-05-01

    1. The site(s) at which diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AP4A) and diadenosine 5', 5"'-P1,P5-pentaphosphate (AP5A) act to evoke contraction of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens was studied by use of a series of P2-receptor antagonists and the ecto-ATPase inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-beta,gamma-dibromomethyleneATP (ARL 67156). 2. Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) (300 nM - 30 microM), suramin (3-100 microM) and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P-5-P) (3-1000 microM) inhibited contractions evoked by equi-effective concentrations of AP5A (3 microM), AP4A (30 microM) and alpha,beta-methyleneATP (alpha,beta-meATP) (1 microM), in a concentration-dependent manner and abolished them at the highest concentrations used. 3. PPADS was more potent than suramin, which in turn was more potent than P-5-P. PPADS inhibited AP5A, AP4A and alpha,beta-meATP with similar IC50 values. No significant difference was found between IC50 values for suramin against alpha,beta-meATP and AP5A or alpha,beta-meATP and AP4A, but suramin was more than 2.5 times more potent against AP4A than AP5A. P-5-P showed the same pattern of antagonism. 4. Desensitization of the P2xi-receptor by alpha,beta-meATP abolished contractions evoked by AP5A (3 microM) and AP4A (30 microM), but had no effect on those elicited by noradrenaline (100 microM). 5. ARL 67156 (100 microM) reversibly potentiated contractions evoked by AP4A (30 microM) by 61%, but caused a small, significant decrease in the mean response to AP5A (3 microM). 6. It is concluded that AP4A and AP5A act at the P2xi-receptor, or a site similar to the P2xi-receptor, to evoke contraction of the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens. Furthermore, the potency of AP4A, but not AP5A, appears to be inhibited by an ecto-enzyme which is sensitive to ARL 67156.

  14. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  15. CPsup(N-1) model: a toy model for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cant, R.J.; Davis, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine the CP 2 sup(N-1) models and discuss their relevance as toy models for QCD 4 . Specifically, they study the role of instantons, theta vacua, and confinement in the 1/N expansion. The results, and comparisons with other two-dimensional models, suggest that most of the interesting features of these models are peculiarities of two-dimensional space-time and cannot be expected to reappear in QCD 4 . (Auth.)

  16. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.

  17. Generalized supersymmetric cosmological term in N=1 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino,Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Salgado, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-04

    An alternative way of introducing the supersymmetric cosmological term in a supergravity theory is presented. We show that the AdS-Lorentz superalgebra allows to construct a geometrical formulation of supergravity containing a generalized supersymmetric cosmological constant. The N=1, D=4 supergravity action is built only from the curvatures of the AdS-Lorentz superalgebra and corresponds to a MacDowell-Mansouri like action. The extension to a generalized AdS-Lorentz superalgebra is also analyzed.

  18. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  19. Contextualizing ethics: ventilators, H1N1 and marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Nie, Jason X; Rossiter, Kate; Sahni, Sachin; Upshur, Ross E G

    2010-01-01

    If the H1N1 pandemic worsens, there may not be enough ventilated beds to care for all persons with respiratory failure. To date, researchers who explicitly discuss the ethics of intensive care unit admission and the allocation of ventilators during an influenza pandemic have based criteria predominantly on the principles of utility and efficiency, that is, promoting actions that maximize the greatest good for the greatest number of people. However, haphazardly applying utility and efficiency potentially disadvantages marginalized populations who might be at increased risk of severe reactions to H1N1. In Canada, Aboriginals represent 3% of Canadians, yet 11% of H1N1 cases requiring hospitalization involve Aboriginal persons. Aboriginal persons suffer from high rates of obesity due to socio-economic inequalities. Obesity is also a risk factor for severe H1N1 reactions. Yet, since obesity is found to increase the duration of stay in ventilated beds and a long stay is not considered an optimal use of ventilators, applying the principles of utility and efficiency may magnify existing social inequalities. Although promoting utility and efficiency is important, other ethical principles, such as equity and need, require thoughtful consideration and implementation. Furthermore, since public resources are being used to address a public health hazard, the viewpoints of the public, and specifically stakeholders who will be disproportionately affected, should inform decision-makers. Finally, giving attention to the needs and rights of marginalized populations means that ventilators should not be allocated based on criteria that exacerbate the social injustices faced by these groups of people.

  20. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  1. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  2. N = 1 supercurrents of eleven-dimensional supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Butter, Daniel; Linch, William D.

    2018-05-01

    Eleven-dimensional supergravity can be formulated in superspaces locally of the form X × Y where X is 4D N = 1 conformal superspace and Y is an arbitrary 7-manifold admitting a G 2-structure. The eleven-dimensional 3-form and the stable 3-form on Y define the lowest component of a gauge superfield on X × Y that is chiral as a superfield on X. This chiral field is part of a tensor hierarchy giving rise to a superspace Chern-Simons action and its real field strength defines a lifting of the Hitchin functional on Y to the G 2 superspace X × Y . These terms are those of lowest order in a superspace Noether expansion in seven N = 1 conformal gravitino superfields Ψ. In this paper, we compute the O(Ψ) action to all orders in the remaining fields. The eleven-dimensional origin of the resulting non-linear structures is parameterized by the choice of a complex spinor on Y encoding the off-shell 4D N = 1 subalgebra of the eleven-dimensional super-Poincaré algebra.

  3. Circadian ATP Release in Organotypic Cultures of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Dependent on P2X7 and P2Y Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Irena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Ivetic, Milorad; Bendová, Z.; Zemková, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 6 (2018), č. článku 192. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : suprachiasmatic nucleus * organotypic cultures * astrocytes * P2X7 receptor * P2Y1 receptor * P2Y2 receptor * pannexin-1 hemichannel * ATP release Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  4. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  5. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi

    Full Text Available Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6 in the internalization and function of P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1 or P2Y(12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  6. Anisotropic thermal properties and ferroelectric phase transitions in layered CuInP2S6 and CuInP2Se6 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubachko, V.; Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A.; Pogodin, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been studied for the layered crystals CuInP2S6, CuInP2Se6 from 30 K to 350 K, showing a relevant thermal anisotropy. Heat is much more efficiently transferred within the layers than perpendicular to them. The ferrielectric transition in CuInP2S6 is proven to be clearly first order while the ferroelectric one in CuInP2Se6 has a weak first order character. The behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric phases shows that heat conduction is phonon driven. Disorder in the paraelectric phases due to hopping motions of Cu ions significantly reduces the thermal conductivity to extremely low values.

  7. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  8. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640?bp and five plasmids of 64,864?bp, 59,879?bp, 42,569?bp, 41,417?bp, and 29,506?bp.

  10. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes...... overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole of rP1-II were evaluated in the competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. A reduction in the number of M. pneumoniae microcolonies was seen, which was confirmed for five peptides using a POLARstar OPTIMA reader to measure fluorescence...

  11. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  12. Pulmonary function in patients with pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Koppe

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The influenza A (H1N1 was responsible for the 2009 pandemic, especially with severe pulmonary complications. Objective: To describe characteristics of patients in a university hospital in Curitiba - PR with laboratory diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1 and its post hospital discharge in the 2009 lung function pandemic. Methodology: A retrospective observational study. It was used as a data source the institution Epidemiology Service (SEPIH and spirometry tests of patients who were admitted in 2009, 18 years without lung disease associated and non-pregnant. Descriptive statistics were used and applied Fisher's exact test for relationship between comorbidity and spirometry tests. Results: There were 84 confirmed cases, of these 11 were eligible for the study with a mean age of 44.27 years (± 9.63 and 63.63% males. 54.54% of the 11 patients had comorbidities associated with systemic arterial hypertension (54.54%, diabetes (18.18% and late postoperative period of kidney transplantation (18.18% were the most frequent. Most patients (81.81% had BMI ≥ 25kg / m². The Spirometry test was performed approximately 40.09 (± 15.27 days after discharge, of these, 5 had restrictive pattern and all had abnormal chest radiograph results. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of Spirometry and comorbidities (p=0.24. Conclusions: The group evaluated in this research did not show a direct relationship between Spirometry and comorbidities, but changes in Spirometry in some patients after hospital discharge stood out, suggesting changes in lung function due to influenza A (H1N1.

  13. N + 1 redundancy on ATCA instrumentation for Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, António P.; Batista, António J.N.; Combo, Álvaro; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Gonçalves, Bruno [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA standard features desirable redundancy features for Fusion instrumentation. ► The developed control and data acquisition hardware modules support additional redundancy schemes. ► Implementation of N + 1 redundancy of host processor and I/O data modules. -- Abstract: The role of redundancy on control and data acquisition systems has gained a significant importance in the case of Nuclear Fusion, as demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. IPFN's control and data acquisition system hardware is based on an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) set of I/O (DAC/ADC endpoints) and data/timing switch modules, which handle data and timing from all I/O endpoints. Modules communicate through Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), established over the ATCA backplane and controlled by one or more external hosts. The developed hardware modules were designed to take advantage of ATCA specification's redundancy features, namely at the hardware management level, including support of: (i) multiple host operation with N + 1 redundancy – in which a designated failover host takes over data previously assigned to a suddenly malfunctioning host and (ii) N + 1 redundancy of I/O and data/timing switch modules. This paper briefly describes IPFN's control and data acquisition system, which is being developed for ITER fast plant system controller (FPSC), and analyses the hardware implementation of its supported redundancy features.

  14. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  15. N =1 Lagrangians for generalized Argyres-Douglas theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Prarit; Sciarappa, Antonio; Song, Jaewon

    2017-10-01

    We find N = 1 Lagrangian gauge theories that flow to generalized ArgyresDouglas theories with N = 2 supersymmetry. We find that certain SU quiver gauge theories flow to generalized Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A k-1 , A mk-1) and ( I m,km , S). We also find quiver gauge theories of SO/Sp gauge groups flowing to the ( A 2 m-1 , D 2 mk+1), ( A 2 m , D 2 m( k-1)+ k ) and D m(2 k + 2) m(2 k + 2) [ m] theories.

  16. N=1 field theory duality from M theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, M.; Sundrum, R.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate Seiberg close-quote s N=1 field theory duality for four-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with the M-theory 5-brane. We find that the M-theory configuration for the magnetic dual theory arises via a smooth deformation of the M-theory configuration for the electric theory. The creation of Dirichlet 4-branes as Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes are passed through each other in type IIA string theory is given an elegant derivation from M theory. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Supersymmetric couplings and trajectories in N = 1 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.; Umerez, N.; Domenech, G.; Levinas, M.

    1989-01-01

    The present work deals with the classical behaviour of matter represented by chiral multiplets in a background of N = 1 supergravity. The WKB method is used. It is shown that supersymmetric coupling leads, at the lowest order, to a non-geodesic motion law for spin-1/2 matter. This result permits us to establish physical differences with respect to gravitational theories with minimal coupled matter Lagrangians. Deviations from the Newton law are found, allowing us to speculate about low-energy effects for testing supergravity. (author)

  18. Of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories and localization

    OpenAIRE

    Wens, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we study certain non-perturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories. We show how to compute the expectation values of chiral operators (i.e. those that preserve the anti-chiral supercharges) exactly from a first-principle approach based on the path integral over the microscopic fields. The text is divided into two parts. The first one consists of an original introduction to the tools that underlie the researches and results obtained during this thesis. After a general introduction...

  19. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  20. Exploring the minimal 4D N=1 SCFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Stergiou, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2015-12-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap constraints for 4D N=1 superconformal field theories containing a chiral operator ϕ and the chiral ring relation ϕ{sup 2}=0. Hints for a minimal interacting SCFT in this class have appeared in previous numerical bootstrap studies. We perform a detailed study of the properties of this conjectured theory, establishing that the corresponding solution to the bootstrap constraints contains a U(1){sub R} current multiplet and estimating the central charge and low-lying operator spectrum of this theory.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors Incorporating Flexible P2 Quinoxalines Target Drug Resistant Viral Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Ashley N; Zephyr, Jacqueto; Hill, Caitlin J; Jahangir, Muhammad; Newton, Alicia; Petropoulos, Christos J; Huang, Wei; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A; Ali, Akbar

    2017-07-13

    A substrate envelope-guided design strategy is reported for improving the resistance profile of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Analogues of 5172-mcP1P3 were designed by incorporating diverse quinoxalines at the P2 position that predominantly interact with the invariant catalytic triad of the protease. Exploration of structure-activity relationships showed that inhibitors with small hydrophobic substituents at the 3-position of P2 quinoxaline maintain better potency against drug resistant variants, likely due to reduced interactions with residues in the S2 subsite. In contrast, inhibitors with larger groups at this position were highly susceptible to mutations at Arg155, Ala156, and Asp168. Excitingly, several inhibitors exhibited exceptional potency profiles with EC 50 values ≤5 nM against major drug resistant HCV variants. These findings support that inhibitors designed to interact with evolutionarily constrained regions of the protease, while avoiding interactions with residues not essential for substrate recognition, are less likely to be susceptible to drug resistance.

  2. Functional immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between Pas n 1 of Bahia grass pollen and other group 1 grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Dang, T D; Voskamp, A; Drew, A C; Biondo, M; Phung, M; Upham, J W; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2011-02-01

    Grass pollens are major triggers of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the immunological relationships between pollen allergens of the subtropical Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, and temperate grasses are unresolved. To assess serum IgE cross-reactivity between subtropical P. notatum and temperate Lolium perenne (Ryegrass) pollen allergens. Serum IgE reactivities of grass pollen-allergic patients with P. notatum, L. perenne and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen extracts and their respective purified group 1 allergens, Pas n 1, Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1, were compared by immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation. In a cohort of 51 patients from a temperate region, a high frequency of IgE reactivity with each grass pollen was detected, but reactivity with L. perenne pollen was substantially greater than with P. notatum and C. dactylon pollen. Similarly, serum IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was greater than with Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. For seven of eight sera studied in detail, asymmetric serum IgE cross-reactivity was observed; L. perenne pollen inhibited IgE reactivity with P. notatum pollen but not the converse, and IgE reactivity with Pas n 1 was inhibited by Lol p 1 but IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was not inhibited by Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. Importantly, P. notatum pollen and Pas n 1 activated basophils in grass pollen-allergic patients from a temperate region, although stimulation was greater by pollen of L. perenne than P. notatum or C. dactylon, and by Lol p 1 than Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. In contrast, a cohort of 47 patients from a subtropical region showed similar IgE reactivity with P. notatum and L. perenne pollen, and reciprocal cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity between L. perenne and P. notatum. Pollen allergens of the subtropical P. notatum, including Pas n 1, show clinically relevant IgE cross-reactivity with pollen allergens of L. perenne but also species-specific IgE reactivity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Energy-Crossing and Its Effect on Lifetime of the 4s24p 2P3/2 Level for Highly Charged Ga-Like Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jian-Zhong; Zhang Deng-Hong; Chang Zhi-Wei; Shi Ying-Long; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac—Fock method is employed to calculate the energy levels and transition probabilities for the electric dipole allowed (E1) and forbidden (M1, E2) lines for the 4s 2 4p, 4s4p 2 and 4s 2 4d configurations of highly charged Ga-like ions from Z = 68–95. The lifetimes of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 level of the ground configuration are also derived. Based on our calculations, it is found that the energy level of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 is higher than that of the 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 for the high-Z Ga-like ions with Z ≥ 74, so as to generate an energy crossing at Z = 74. The effect of the energy crossing is important to the calculation of the 4s 2 4p 2 P 3/2 level lifetime for Ga-like ions with Z ≥ 74. (atomic and molecular physics)

  4. Characterization of a Ca2+ response to both UTP and ATP at human P2Y11 receptors: evidence for agonist-specific signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J; Webb, Tania E; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-06-01

    Previous reports on heterologously-expressed human P2Y11 receptors have indicated that ATP, but not UTP, is an agonist stimulating both phosphoinositidase C and adenylyl cyclase. Consistent with these findings, we report that in 1321N1 cells expressing human P2Y11 receptors, UTP stimulation did not lead to accumulation of inositol(poly)phosphates under conditions in which ATP gave a robust, concentration-dependent effect. Unexpectedly, however, both UTP and ATP stimulated increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), with both nucleotides achieving similar EC50 and maximal responses. The responses to maximally effective concentrations of ATP and UTP were not additive. The [Ca2+]c increase in response to UTP was less dependent on extracellular Ca2+ than was the response to ATP. AR-C67085 (2-propylthio-beta,gamma-difluoromethylene-d-ATP, a P2Y11-selective agonist), adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), and benzoyl ATP were all full agonists with potencies similar to those of ATP and UTP. In desensitization experiments, exposure to ATP resulted in loss of the UTP response; this response was more sensitive to desensitization than that of ATP. Pertussis toxin pretreatment attenuated the response to UTP but left the ATP response unaffected. The presence of 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate differentially affected the responses of ATP and UTP. No mRNA transcripts for P2Y2 or P2Y4 were detectable in the P2Y11-expressing cells. We conclude that UTP is a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist at P2Y11 receptors and that ATP and UTP acting at the same receptor recruit distinct signaling pathways. This example of agonist-specific signaling is discussed in terms of agonist trafficking and differential signal strength.

  5. Synthesis of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glasses with high P2O5 content by evaporation induced self assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Li, Yanbao; Li, Dongxu

    2011-02-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5) system containing relatively high P(2)O(5) contents (10-30 mol%) were prepared from a sol-gel. An evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique was used with poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (EO(20)-PO(70)-EO(20), P123) acting as a template. The structural, morphological and textural properties of MBGs were investigated by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a N(2) sorption/desorption technique. SAXRD and TEM results display the reduced long-range ordering of mesopores with increasing P(2)O(5) content. N(2) sorption/desorption analysis shows that all three samples exhibit a type IV isotherm with type H1 hysteresis loops, characteristic of independent cylindrical slim pore channels and this material has a Barret-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model pore size of ~4 nm and BET specific surface area ~430 m(2)/g. NMR results indicate a more condensed framework for samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) than samples with 10 mol% P(2)O(5). For in vitro bioactivity tests where samples were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF), samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) showed higher crystallinity than those with lower P(2)O(5) contents Silicon concentration increased in SBF solution during the soaking period, which indicates MBGs can be degradable in SBF solution.

  6. ADP stimulation of inositol phosphates in hepatocytes: role of conversion to ATP and stimulation of P2Y2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C Jane; Hall, John F; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    1 Accumulation of inositol (poly)phosphates (InsP(x)) has been studied in rat hepatocytes labelled with [(3)H]inositol. Stimulation with ADP resulted in a significant increase in total [(3)H]InsP(x), whereas 2-MeSADP had only a small effect and ADPbetaS was ineffective. UTP and ITP also stimulated substantial increases in [(3)H]InsP(x). 2 The dose-response curve to ADP was largely unaltered by the presence of the P2Y(1) antagonist, adenosine-3'-phosphate-5'-phosphate (A3P5P). Similarly, inclusion of MRS 2179, a more selective P2Y(1) antagonist, had no effect on the dose-response curve to ADP. 3 The inclusion of hexokinase in the assay reduced, but did not abolish, the response to ADP. 4 HPLC analysis revealed that ADP in the medium was rapidly converted to AMP and ATP. The inclusion of hexokinase removed ATP, but exacerbated the decline in ADP concentration, leading to increased levels of AMP. 2-MeSADP was stable in the medium and ATP was largely unaffected. 5 The addition of the adenylate kinase inhibitor, diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A) significantly reduced the ADP response. HPLC analysis conducted in parallel demonstrated that this treatment inhibited conversion of ADP to ATP and AMP. 6 Inclusion of the P1 antagonist CGS 15943 had no effect on the dose-response curve to ADP. 7 These observations indicate that hepatocytes respond to ADP with an increase in inositol (poly)phosphates following conversion to ATP. P2Y(1) activation in hepatocytes does not appear to be coupled to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)) production.

  7. Role of P2 Receptors as Modulators of Rat Eosinophil Recruitment in Allergic Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anael Viana Pinto Alberto

    Full Text Available ATP and other nucleotides are released from cells through regulated pathways or following the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Once outside the cell, these compounds can activate P2 receptors: P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Eosinophils represent major effector cells in the allergic inflammatory response and they are, in fact, associated with several physiological and pathological processes. Here we investigate the expression of P2 receptors and roles of those receptors in murine eosinophils. In this context, our first step was to investigate the expression and functionality of the P2X receptors by patch clamping, our results showed a potency ranking order of ATP>ATPγS> 2meSATP> ADP> αβmeATP> βγmeATP>BzATP> UTP> UDP>cAMP. This data suggest the presence of P2X1, P2X2 and P2X7. Next we evaluate by microfluorimetry the expression of P2Y receptors, our results based in the ranking order of potency (UTP>ATPγS> ATP > UDP> ADP >2meSATP > αβmeATP suggests the presence of P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6 and P2Y11. Moreover, we confirmed our findings by immunofluorescence assays. We also did chemotaxis assays to verify whether nucleotides could induce migration. After 1 or 2 hours of incubation, ATP increased migration of eosinophils, as well as ATPγS, a less hydrolysable analogue of ATP, while suramin a P2 blocker abolished migration. In keeping with this idea, we tested whether these receptors are implicated in the migration of eosinophils to an inflammation site in vivo, using a model of rat allergic pleurisy. In fact, migration of eosinophils has increased when ATP or ATPγS were applied in the pleural cavity, and once more suramin blocked this effect. We have demonstrated that rat eosinophils express P2X and P2Y receptors. In addition, the activation of P2 receptors can increase migration of eosinophils in vitro and in vivo, an effect blocked by suramin.

  8. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric yang-mills theory in Ito Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito

    2003-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method is applied to N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, in particular in 4 and 10 dimensions. In the 4 dimensional case, based on Ito calculus, the Langevin equation is formulated in terms of the superfield formalism. The stochastic process manifestly preserves both the global N = 1 supersymmetry and the local gauge symmetry. The expectation values of the local gauge invariant observables in SYM 4 are reproduced in the equilibrium limit. In the superfield formalism, it is impossible in SQM to choose the so-called Wess-Zumino gauge in such a way to gauge away the auxiliary component fields in the vector multiplet, while it is shown that the time development of the auxiliary component fields is determined by the Langevin equations for the physical component fields of the vector multiplet in an ''almost Wess-Zumino gauge''. The physical component expressions of the superfield Langevin equation are naturally extended to the 10 dimensional case, where the spinor field is Majorana-Weyl. By taking a naive zero volume limit of the SYM 10 , the IIB matrix model is studied in this context. (author)

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  11. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    of PDAC. In the in vitro studies we show that human PDAC cells with luciferase gene (PancTu-1 Luc cells) express high levels of P2X7R protein. Allosteric P2X7R antagonist AZ10606120 inhibited cell proliferation in basal conditions, indicating that P2X7R was tonically active. Extracellular ATP and Bz......ATP, to which the P2X7R is more sensitive, further affected cell survival and confirmed complex functionality of P2X7R. PancTu-1 Luc migration and invasion was reduced by AZ10606120, and it was stimulated by PSCs, but not by PSCs from P2X7(-/-) animals. PancTu-1 Luc cells were orthotopically transplanted...

  12. In Vitro Binding of [³H]PSB-0413 to P2Y₁₂ Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Arnaud; Heim, Véronique; Ohlmann, Philippe; Gachet, Christian

    2015-12-08

    The P2Y₁₂/ADP receptor plays a central role in platelet activation. Characterization of this receptor is mandatory for studying disorders associated with a P2Y₁₂ receptor defect and for evaluating P2Y₁₂ receptor agonists and antagonists. In the absence of suitable anti-P2Y₁₂ antibodies, radioligand binding assays are the only way to conduct such studies. While various radioligands were employed in the past for this purpose, none were found to be suitable for routine use. Described in this unit are protocols for quantitatively and qualitatively assessing P2Y₁₂ receptors with [³H]PSB-0413, a selective antagonist for this site. The saturation and competition assays described herein make possible the determination of P2Y₁₂ receptor density on cells, as well as the potencies and affinities of test agents at this site. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Protein kinase C isoforms in bovine aortic endothelial cells: role in regulation of P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptor-stimulated prostacyclin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V; Brown, C; Boarder, M R

    1996-05-01

    1. Enhanced synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2) and inositol polyphosphates in bovine aortic endothelial cells in response to ATP and ADP is mediated by co-existing P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors. Here we examine the regulation of these responses by isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). 2. Immunoblots with antisera specific for 8 different PKC isoforms revealed the presence of alpha, epsilon and zeta, while no immunoreactivity was found for beta, gamma, delta, eta and theta isoforms. PKC-alpha was largely cytosolic in unstimulated cells and almost all translocated to the membrane (Triton X-100 soluble) after a 1 min treatment with the PKC activating phorbol myristate acetate (PMA); PKC-epsilon was always in a Triton X-100 insoluble membrane fraction, while PKC-zeta was found in both soluble and membrane bound (Triton X-100 soluble) forms in the unstimulated cells and was unaffected by PMA. 3. Treatment with PMA for 6 h led to a 90% downregulation of PKC-alpha, while the immunoreactivity to the epsilon and zeta isoforms remained largely unchanged. 4. After either 10 min or 6 h exposure to PMA the PGI2 response to activation of both receptors was enhanced, while the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate response to P2Y-purinoceptor activation was substantially attenuated and the P2U-purinoceptor response was unchanged. Thus the PGI2 response to PMA under conditions when 90% of the PKC-alpha was lost resembles that seen on acute stimulation of PKC by PMA, and the PGI2 response does not correlate with phospholipase C response. 5. Inhibition of PKC with the isoform non-selective inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and Go 6850 abolished the PGI2 response to both P2U- and P2Y-purinoceptor stimulation. However, Go 6976, which preferentially inhibits Ca2+ sensitive isoforms (such as PKC-alpha) and not Ca2+ insensitive isoforms (such as PKC-epsilon), had no effect on the PGI2 response. 6. The results show that there is a requirement for PKC in the stimulation of PGI2 production by endothelial P2Y- and P2U

  14. Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0 - 4p1P1 x-ray laser line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Nilsen, J.; Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Ryabtsev, A.; Churilov, S.

    1998-01-01

    We measure the wavelengths of the Ni-like 3d 9 4d 1 S 0 - 3d 9 4p 1 P 1 x-ray laser line in several low-Z Ni-like ions ranging from Y (Z=39) to Cd (Z=48). These wavelengths are compared with optimized level calculations using a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock code. With the help of these results, we identify this line to very high accuracy in nonlasing plasmas from As (Z=33) to Mo (Z=42). Accurate values of these wavelengths are essential for performing plasma imaging and interferometry experiments with multilayer optics that use the x-ray laser to backlight other plasmas. These results also provide important atomic data that are currently missing about the energy of the 4d 1 S 0 level in the NiI sequence. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Alignment creation in atomic ensembles by elastic electron scattering; the case of 138Ba(...6s6p 1P1) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.A.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.; Csanak, G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of our results from a joint experimental and theoretical program concerning elastic electron scattering by 138 Ba(...6s6p 1 P 1 ) atoms. From the experimental results, we derived various scattering parameters and magnetic sublevel specific differential elastic scattering cross sections at impact energy (E 0 ) of 20.0 eV and at scattering angles (θ) of 10deg, 15deg, and 20deg. The same parameters and cross sections were calculated by the convergent close coupling (CCC) approximation and compared to the experimental results. An excellent agreement, found for the two sets of data, gave us confidence in the CCC method and allowed us to extend the angular and energy ranges for the purpose of generating integral elastic scattering cross sections needed for the deduction of the alignment creation cross sections. (J.P.N.)

  16. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  17. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    and does not represent a recent acquirement of the phage. The P1 and E. coli SSB proteins are fully functionally interchangeable. SSB-P1 is nonessential for phage growth in an exponentially growing E. coli host, and it is sufficient to promote bacterial growth in the absence of the E. coli SSB protein....... Expression studies showed that the P1 ssb gene is transcribed only, in an rpoS-independent fashion, during stationary-phase growth in E. coli. Mixed infection experiments demonstrated that a wild-type phage has a selective advantage over an ssb-null mutant when exposed to a bacterial host in the stationary...

  18. P2Y6 Receptor Activation Promotes Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tobias; Fay, Susanne; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Cicko, Sanja; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Zissel, Gernot; Goldmann, Torsten; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Davide; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Idzko, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a poor prognosis and very few available treatment options. The involvement of the purinergic receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2X7 in fibrotic lung disease has been demonstrated recently. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y6 receptors in the pathogenesis of IPF in humans and in the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. P2Y6R expression was upregulated in lung structural cells but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells derived from IPF patients as well as in animals following bleomycin administration. Furthermore, BAL fluid levels of the P2Y6R agonist uridine-5′-diphosphate were elevated in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis following bleomycin administration were reduced in P2Y6R-deficient compared to wild-type animals confirming the pathophysiological relevance of P2Y6R subtypes for fibrotic lung diseases. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed the importance of P2Y6R expression on lung structural cells for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar effects were obtained when animals were treated with the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578. In vitro studies demonstrated that proliferation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-6 by lung fibroblasts are P2Y6R-mediated processes. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of P2Y6R subtypes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, blocking pulmonary P2Y6 receptors might be a new target for the treatment of IPF. PMID:28878780

  19. P2Y6 Receptor Activation Promotes Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a disease with a poor prognosis and very few available treatment options. The involvement of the purinergic receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2X7 in fibrotic lung disease has been demonstrated recently. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y6 receptors in the pathogenesis of IPF in humans and in the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. P2Y6R expression was upregulated in lung structural cells but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells derived from IPF patients as well as in animals following bleomycin administration. Furthermore, BAL fluid levels of the P2Y6R agonist uridine-5′-diphosphate were elevated in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis following bleomycin administration were reduced in P2Y6R-deficient compared to wild-type animals confirming the pathophysiological relevance of P2Y6R subtypes for fibrotic lung diseases. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed the importance of P2Y6R expression on lung structural cells for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar effects were obtained when animals were treated with the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578. In vitro studies demonstrated that proliferation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-6 by lung fibroblasts are P2Y6R-mediated processes. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of P2Y6R subtypes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, blocking pulmonary P2Y6 receptors might be a new target for the treatment of IPF.

  20. Research of using mobile agents for information discovery in P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yan; Yao Qing

    2003-01-01

    The technology of P2P is a new network-computing model that has great value of commerce and technology. After analyzing the current information discovery technology in P2P network, a new solution that is based on mobile agent is proposed. The mobile agent solution can reduce the need of bandwidth, be adapt to the dynamic of P2P network, and be asynchronous and be very fault tolerant. (authors)

  1. Novel protective role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4 receptors in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Liang, Bruce T

    2014-05-01

    Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction-induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. The roles of P2Y2 purinergic receptors in osteoblasts and mechanotransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghui Xing

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated, using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, that P2Y2 purinergic receptors are involved in osteoblast mechanotransduction. In this study, our objective was to further investigate, using a knockout mouse model, the roles of P2Y2 receptors in bone mechanobiology. We first examined bone structure with micro-CT and measured bone mechanical properties with three point bending experiments in both wild type mice and P2Y2 knockout mice. We found that bones from P2Y2 knockout mice have significantly decreased bone volume, bone thickness, bone stiffness and bone ultimate breaking force at 17 week old age. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which P2Y2 receptors contribute to bone biology, we examined differentiation and mineralization of bone marrow cells from wild type and P2Y2 knockout mice. We found that P2Y2 receptor deficiency reduces the differentiation and mineralization of bone marrow cells. Next, we compared the response of primary osteoblasts, from both wild type and P2Y2 knockout mice, to ATP and mechanical stimulation (oscillatory fluid flow, and found that osteoblasts from wild type mice have a stronger response, in terms of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to both ATP and fluid flow, relative to P2Y2 knockout mice. However, we did not detect any difference in ATP release in response to fluid flow between wild type and P2Y2 knock out osteoblasts. Our findings suggest that P2Y2 receptors play important roles in bone marrow cell differentiation and mineralization as well as in bone cell mechanotransduction, leading to an osteopenic phenotype in P2Y2 knockout mice.

  3. Potential Involvement of P2 Receptors in the Pathological Processes of Hyperthyroidism: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wu; Li, Guodong; Nie, Yijun; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Liang, Shangdong

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest mainly as changes in the nervous and metabolic systems. Whether P2X receptors (ionotropic ATP purinergic receptors, including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) are involved in the alterations of these disorders still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association of hyperthyroidism with the expression of P2X3 and P2X7 receptors and the concentrations of ATP in blood leukocytes and catecholamine. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were recruited. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had been detected by chemiluminescence method. Meanwhile, the catecholamine levels (including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) in plasma, ATP level and P2X receptors (including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) in peripheral blood had been detected by high performance liquid chromatography, bioluminescence method, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group compared with the control group. The concentration of ATP in the hyperthyroidism group was significantly higher than its in the control group. The expression of P2X3 mRNA and P2X7 mRNA in hyperthyroidism group were significantly increased compared with those in control group. In a conclusion, there is a relationship between the elevated expression of P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood leukocytes and high serum epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in hyperthyroidism patients. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  4. Determination of the effective radiative lifetimes of the 6 3P1 atomic mercury level in low-pressure mercury discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Weijer, P.; Cremers, R.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described in which low-pressure mercury, mercury-argon and mercury-krypton discharges were irradiated with a dye laser pulse at 365.5 nm, thus exciting mercury atoms from the metastable 6 3 P 2 level to the 6 3 D 2 level. The 6 3 D 2 level decays radiatively to the 6 P levels. By recording the time dependence of the overpopulation in the 6 3 P 1 and the 6 1 P 1 level at the fluorescence signals at 254 nm and 185 nm, respectively, the effective radiative lifetime of these levels were determined. The effective radiative lifetime of the 6 3 P 1 level was measured in the k 0 R regime 0.1-500. The 6 1 P 1 lifetime was determined for the following discharge conditions: tube diameter 10-36 mm, mercury density 7.10 18 -2.10 21 m -3 , and noble gas pressure 0, 130, 400 Pa

  5. Cleavage sites in the polypeptide precursors of poliovirus protein P2-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, B.L.; Hanecak, R.; Anderson, C.W.; Wimmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis has been performed on the three major polypeptide products (P2-3b, P2-5b, and P2-X) from the central region (P2) of the poliovirus polyprotein, and this analysis precisely locates the amino termini of these products with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus RNA genome. Like most of the products of the replicase region (P3), the amino termini of P2-5b and P2-X are generated by cleavage between glutamine and glycine residues. Thus, P2-5b and P2-X are probably both produced by the action of a singly (virus-encoded.) proteinase. The amino terminus of P2-3b, on the other hand, is produced by a cleavage between the carboxy-terminal tyrosine of VP1 and the glycine encoded by nucleotides 3381-3383. This result may suggest that more than one proteolytic activity is required for the complete processing of the poliovirus polyprotein

  6. Transformation of Astrocytes to a Neuroprotective Phenotype by Microglia via P2Y1 Receptor Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Shinozaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury. This change in astrocyte phenotype resulted from P2Y1 receptor downregulation, mediated by microglia-derived cytokines. In mice, astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor overexpression (Astro-P2Y1OE counteracted scar formation, while astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor knockdown (Astro-P2Y1KD facilitated scar formation, suggesting critical roles of P2Y1 receptors in the transformation. Astro-P2Y1OE and Astro-P2Y1KD mice showed increased and reduced neuronal damage, respectively. Altogether, our findings indicate that microglia-astrocyte interaction, involving a purinergic signal, is essential for the formation of neuroprotective astrocytes.

  7. Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2008-09-14

    PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination.

  8. Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G; Chessell, I P; Michel, A D; Collo, G; Salazzo, M; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Grahames, C; Kaur, R; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Humphrey, P P

    1998-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human P2X7 receptor was generated in mice. As assessed by flow cytometry, the MoAb labeled human blood-derived macrophage cells natively expressing P2X7 receptors and cells transfected with human P2X7 but not other P2X receptor types. The MoAb was used to immunoprecipitate the human P2X7 receptor protein, and in immunohistochemical studies on human lymphoid tissue, P2X7 receptor labeling was observed within discrete areas of the marginal zone of human tonsil sections. The antibody also acted as a selective antagonist of human P2X7 receptors in several functional studies. Thus, whole cell currents, elicited by the brief application of 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl-ATP in cells expressing human P2X7, were reduced in amplitude by the presence of the MoAb. Furthermore, preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with the MoAb antagonized the ability of P2X7 agonists to induce the release of interleukin-1beta.

  9. Microglia P2Y6 receptor is related to Parkinson’s disease through neuroinflammatory process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia in the central nervous system (CNS were reported to play crucial role in neurodegeneration. Previous studies showed that P2Y6 receptor (P2Y6R mainly contributed to microglia activation and phagocytosis in CNS. However, the level of P2Y6R in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we measured the level of P2Y6R in PD patients and speculated whether it could be a potential biomarker for PD. Given on the basis that P2Y6R was higher in PD patients, we further explored the mechanisms underlying P2Y6R in the pathogenesis of PD. Methods We tested the expression level of P2Y6R in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs among 145 PD patients, 170 healthy controls, and 30 multiple system atrophy (MSA patients. We also used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell culture model to investigate (i the effects of LPS on P2Y6R expression with western blot and RT-PCR, (ii the effects of LPS on UDP expression using HPLC, (iii the effects of UDP/P2Y6R signaling on cytokine expression using western blot, RT-PCR, and ELISA, and (iv the signaling pathways activated by the P2Y6R involved in the neuroinflammation. Results Expression levels of P2Y6R in PD patients were higher than healthy controls and MSA patients. P2Y6R could be a good biomarker of PD. P2Y6R was also upregulated in LPS-treated BV-2 cells and involved in proinflammatory cytokine release through an autocrine loop based on LPS-triggered UDP secretion and accelerated neuroinflammatory responses through the ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, blocking UDP/P2Y6R signaling could reverse these pathological processes. Conclusions P2Y6R may be a potential clinical biomarker of PD. Blocking P2Y6R may be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of PD patients through inhibition of microglia-activated neuroinflammation.

  10. Validation of antibodies for neuroanatomical localization of the P2Y receptor in macaque brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisig, Karin; Degn, Matilda; Sund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons that pro......Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons...

  11. Expression of Two N1 Clones with Single Amino Acid Dissimilarity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISZA HARTAWAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two clones of N1 gene derived from isolate A/Dk/Tangerang/Bbalitvet-ACIAR-TE11/2007 (H5N1 exhibit single mismatch of amino acid sequence at position 242 that is threonine and methionine for the clone #3 and #5, respectively. In order to evaluate the effect of the amino acid substitution, these clones were inserted into two different expression vectors that are pEGFP-C1 and pcDNA-3.3 TOPO® TA cloning. Subsequently, the respective recombinant clones were transfected into eukaryotic cells, including CEF, RK13 and VERO using Lipofectamine ‘plus’ reagent. As a result, the clone #3 retaining atypical sequence showed lower expression level rather than the clone #15 in both vectors and all type of cells. The 3D conformational modelling revealed that the mutation occurs in the inner part of glycoprotein embedded within envelope or matrix. Therefore, the missense mutation seems has no effect on the antigenic properties of neuraminidase but this substitution by any means causes lethal mutagenesis in the individual gene expression by reducing level of protein transcript.

  12. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  13. Suppression of Zeeman relaxation in cold collisions of 2P1/2 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Dalgarno, A.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of 2 P atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga( 2 P 1/2 ) and In( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms in cold 4 He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in 2 P 3/2 states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in collisions of atoms in 2 P 1/2 electronic states occur via couplings to the 2 P 3/2 state induced by the anisotropy of the interaction potential. Our results suggest the feasibility of sympathetic cooling and magnetic trapping of 2 P 1/2 -state atoms, such as halogens, thereby opening up exciting areas of research in precision spectroscopy and cold-controlled chemistry.

  14. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple P2Y receptors couple to calcium-dependent, chloride channels in smooth muscle cells of the rat pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurney Alison M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP act via P2Y receptors to evoke contraction of rat pulmonary arteries, whilst adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP acts via P2X and P2Y receptors. Pharmacological characterisation of these receptors in intact arteries is complicated by release and extracellular metabolism of nucleotides, so the aim of this study was to characterise the P2Y receptors under conditions that minimise these problems. Methods The perforated-patch clamp technique was used to record the Ca2+-dependent, Cl- current (ICl,Ca activated by P2Y receptor agonists in acutely dissociated smooth muscle cells of rat small (SPA and large (LPA intrapulmonary arteries, held at -50 mV. Contractions to ATP were measured in isolated muscle rings. Data were compared by Student's t test or one way ANOVA. Results ATP, UTP and UDP (10-4M evoked oscillating, inward currents (peak = 13–727 pA in 71–93% of cells. The first current was usually the largest and in the SPA the response to ATP was significantly greater than those to UTP or UDP (P -1 and changed little during agonist application. The non-selective P2 receptor antagonist suramin (10-4M abolished currents evoked by ATP in SPA (n = 4 and LPA (n = 4, but pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS (10-4M, also a non-selective P2 antagonist, had no effect (n = 4, 5 respectively. Currents elicited by UTP (n = 37 or UDP (n = 14 were unaffected by either antagonist. Contractions of SPA evoked by ATP were partially inhibited by PPADS (n = 4 and abolished by suramin (n = 5. Both antagonists abolished the contractions in LPA. Conclusion At least two P2Y subtypes couple to ICl,Ca in smooth muscle cells of rat SPA and LPA, with no apparent regional variation in their distribution. The suramin-sensitive, PPADS-resistant site activated by ATP most resembles the P2Y11 receptor. However, the suramin- and PPADS-insensitive receptor activated by UTP and UDP

  16. N=1 superstring in 2+2 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khviengia, Z.; Lu, H.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.; Wang, X.J.; Xu, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we construct a (2,2) dimensional string theory with manifest N=1 spacetime supersymmetry. We use Berkovits' approach of augmenting the spacetime supercoordinates by the conjugate momenta for the fermionic variables. The worldsheet symmetry algebra is a twisted and truncated ''small'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The realisation of the symmetry algebra is reducible with an infinite order of reducibility. We study the physical states of the theory by two different methods. In one of them, we identify a subset of irreducible constraints, which is by itself critical. We construct the BRST operator for the irreducible constraints, and study the cohomology and interactions. This method breaks the SO(2,2) spacetime symmetry of the original reducible theory. In another approach, we study the theory in a fully covariant manner, which involves the introduction of infinitely many ghosts for ghosts. ((orig.))

  17. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  18. H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    SaskPower's H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan was designed to prepare SaskPower employees for elevated levels of absenteeism during a potential pandemic. Emergency management and business continuity will be facilitated if critical duties and essential services are maintained without interruption. A layered approach was used to develop a range of response measures designed to meet a range of possible pandemic threats. The plan identified essential activities, tasks and functions and outlined methods of mitigating supply disruptions and possible shortages. Methods of minimizing illness in employees were discussed, as well as methods of maintaining a safe and secure work environment. The measures were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) 6 phases of pandemic alert. The plan was also designed to be read by SaskPower's key suppliers in order to ensure their pandemic readiness. 5 tabs.

  19. Generalized N=1 orientifold compactifications and the Hitchin functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmachiche, I.; Hamburg Univ.; Grimm, T.W.

    2006-02-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 supergravity theories arising in compactifications of type IIA and type IIB on generalized orientifold backgrounds with background fluxes are discussed. The Kaehler potentials are derived for reductions on SU(3) structure orientifolds and shown to consist of the logarithm of the two Hitchin functionals. These are functions of even and odd forms parameterizing the geometry of the internal manifold, the B-field and the dilaton. The superpotentials induced by background fluxes and the non-Calabi-Yau geometry are determined by a reduction of the type IIA and type IIB fermionic actions on SU(3) and generalized SU(3) x SU(3) manifolds. Mirror spaces of Calabi-Yau orientifolds with electric and part of the magnetic NS-NS fluxes are conjectured to be certain SU(3) x SU(3) structure manifolds. Evidence for this identification is provided by comparing the generalized type IIA and type IIB superpotentials. (orig.)

  20. Generalized N=1 orientifold compactifications and the Hitchin functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmachiche, Iman; Grimm, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 supergravity theories arising in compactifications of type IIA and type IIB on generalized orientifold backgrounds with background fluxes are discussed. The Kahler potentials are derived for reductions on SU(3) structure orientifolds and shown to consist of the logarithm of the two Hitchin functionals. These are functions of even and odd forms parameterizing the geometry of the internal manifold, the B-field and the dilaton. The superpotentials induced by background fluxes and the non-Calabi-Yau geometry are determined by a reduction of the type IIA and type IIB fermionic actions on SU(3) and generalized SU(3)xSU(3) manifolds. Mirror spaces of Calabi-Yau orientifolds with electric and part of the magnetic NS-NS fluxes are conjectured to be certain SU(3)xSU(3) structure manifolds. Evidence for this identification is provided by comparing the generalized type IIA and type IIB superpotentials

  1. Quantum moduli spaces of N=1 string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.; Dine, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generically, string models with N=1 supersymmetry are not expected to have moduli beyond perturbation theory; stringy nonperturbative effects as well as low energy field-theoretic phenomena such as gluino condensation will lift any flat directions. In this work, we describe models where some subspace of the moduli space survives nonperturbatively. Discrete R symmetries forbid any inherently stringy effects, and dynamical considerations control the field-theoretic effects. The surviving subspace is a space of high symmetry; the system is attracted to this subspace by a potential which we compute. Models of this type may be useful for considerations of duality and raise troubling cosmological questions about string theory. Our considerations also suggest a mechanism for fixing the expectation value of the dilaton. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-06-16

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. Copyright © 2016 Morohoshi and Ikeda.

  3. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruibiao; Montoya, Alana; Bond, Amanda; Walton, Jenna; Kinnamon, John C

    2012-05-23

    Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3). P2X2/P2X3(Dbl-/-) mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP(3)R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, "atypical" mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis that ATP may be a key neurotransmitter in taste transduction

  4. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruibiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3. P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. Results P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP3R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, “atypical” mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Conclusions Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis

  5. Non-nucleotide Agonists Triggering P2X7 Receptor Activation and Pore Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Virgilio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD+ covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation. Other structurally unrelated agents have been reported to activate the P2X7R via a poorly understood mechanism of action: (a the antibiotic polymyxin B, possibly a positive allosteric P2X7R modulator, (b the bactericidal peptide LL-37, (c the amyloidogenic β peptide, and (d serum amyloid A. Some agents, such as Alu-RNA, have been suggested to activate the P2X7R acting on the intracellular N- or C-terminal domains. Mode of P2X7R activation by these non-nucleotide ligands is as yet unknown; however, these observations raise the intriguing question of how these different non-nucleotide ligands may co-operate with ATP at inflammatory or tumor sites. New information obtained from the cloning and characterization of the P2X7R from exotic mammalian species (e.g., giant panda and data from recent patch-clamp studies are strongly accelerating our understanding of P2X7R mode of operation, and may provide hints to the mechanism of activation of P2X7R by non-nucleotide ligands.

  6. Purine receptor P2Y_6 mediates cellular response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shunta; Nishimaki, Naoko; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that nucleotide P2 receptor agonists such as ATP and UTP amplify γ-ray-induced focus formation of phosphorylated histone H2A variant H2AX (γH2AX), which is considered to be an indicator of DNA damage so far, by activating purine P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that these P2 receptors play a role in inducing the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. In the present study, we tested this idea by using human lung cancer A549 cells. First, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that P2Y_6 receptor is highly expressed in A549 cells, but P2Y_1_2 receptor is only weakly expressed. Next, colony formation assay revealed that P2Y_6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 markedly reduced the survival rate of γ-ray-exposed A549 cells. The survival rate was also significantly reduced in P2Y_6-knock-down cells, compared with scramble siRNA-transfected cells. Since it has reported that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 after activation of EGFR via P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors is involved in the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage, we next examined whether γ-ray-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also inhibited by MRS2578 in A549 cells. We found that it was. Taken together, these findings indicate that purinergic signaling through P2Y_6 receptor, followed by ERK1/2 activation, promotes the cellular repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. (author)

  7. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A.; Stone, Leslie M.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C.; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (P2X2 and P2X3 double knockout, or “DKO” mice). The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca2+ in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we employed reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion. PMID:21940456

  8. P2X purinoceptors as a link between hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation in status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, David C; Engel, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    There remains a need for more efficacious treatments for status epilepticus. Prolonged seizures result in the release of ATP from cells which activates the P2 class of ionotropic and metabotropic purinoceptors. The P2X receptors gate depolarizing sodium and calcium entry and are expressed by both neurons and glia throughout the brain, and a number of subtypes are upregulated after status epilepticus. Recent studies have explored the in vivo effects of targeting ATP-gated P2X receptors in preclinical models of status epilepticus, with particular focus on the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R mediates microglial activation and the release of the proepileptogenic inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β. The receptor may also directly modulate neurotransmission and gliotransmission and promote the recruitment of immune cells into brain parenchyma. Data from our group and collaborators show that status epilepticus produced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid increases P2X7R expression in the hippocampus and neocortex of mice. Antagonism of the P2X7R in the model reduced seizure severity, microglial activation and interleukin 1β release, and neuronal injury. Coadministration of a P2X7R antagonist with a benzodiazepine also provided seizure suppression in a model of drug-refractory status epilepticus when either treatment alone was minimally effective. More recently, we showed that status epilepticus in immature rats is also reduced by P2X7R antagonism. Together, these findings suggest that P2X receptors may be novel targets for seizure control and interruption of neuroinflammation after status epilepticus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of P2Y1 receptor traffic by sorting Nexin 1 is retromer independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista; Kelly, Eamonn; Cullen, Pete J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2010-04-01

    The activity and traffic of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is tightly controlled. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) responsiveness is rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets and that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying P2Y receptor traffic. Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) has been shown to regulate the endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors either to lysosomes where they are downregulated or back to the cell surface. These functions may in part be due to interactions of SNX1 with the mammalian retromer complex. In this study, we investigated the role of SNX1 in P2Y receptor trafficking. We show that P2Y(1) receptors recycle via a slow recycling pathway that is regulated by SNX1, whereas P2Y(12) receptors return to the cell surface via a rapid route that is SNX1 independent. SNX1 inhibition caused a dramatic increase in the rate of P2Y(1) receptor recycling, whereas inhibition of Vps26 and Vps35 known to be present in retromer had no effect, indicating that SNX1 regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling is retromer independent. In addition, inhibition of SNX4, 6 and 17 proteins did not affect P2Y(1) receptor recycling. SNX1 has also been implicated in GPCR degradation; however, we provide evidence that P2Y receptor degradation is SNX1 independent. These data describe a novel function of SNX1 in the regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling and suggest that SNX1 plays multiple roles in endocytic trafficking of GPCRs.

  10. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Stone, Leslie M; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-09-21

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors [P2X2 and P2X3 double knock-out (DKO) mice]. The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca(2+) in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild-type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we used reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion.

  11. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Evaluating Application-Layer Traffic Optimization Cost Metrics for P2P Multimedia Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    To help users of P2P communication systems perform better-than-random selection of communication peers, Internet Engineering Task Force standardized the Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) protocol. The ALTO provided data-routing cost metric, can be used to rank peers in P2P communicati...

  13. P2P XQuery and the StreetTiVo application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the AmbientDB project, we are building MonetDB/XQuery, an open-source XML DBMS (XDBMS) with support for distributed querying and P2P services. Our work is motivated by the hypothesis that P2P is a disruptive paradigm that should change the nature of database technology. Most of the

  14. Rare missense mutations in P2RY11 in narcolepsy with cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Dauvilliers, Yves; Dreisig, Karin

    2017-01-01

    these are single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2RY11-EIF3G locus. It is unknown how these genetic variants affect narcolepsy pathogenesis and whether the effect is directly related to P2Y11 signalling or EIF3G function. Exome sequencing in 18 families with at least two affected narcolepsy with cataplexy...

  15. P2X7 on mouse T cells: one channel, many functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eRissiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated cation channel that is expressed by several cells of the immune system. P2X7 is best known for its proinflammatory role in promoting inflammasome formation and release of mature IL-1β by innate immune cells. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 is also an important regulatory receptor of murine and human T cell functions. Murine T cells express a sensitive splice variant of P2X7 that can be activated either by non-covalent binding of ATP or, in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, by its covalent ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2. Prolonged activation of P2X7 by either one of these pathways triggers the induction of T cell death. Conversely, lower concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 to enhance T cell proliferation and production of IL-2. In this review we will highlight the molecular and cellular consequences of P2X7 activation on mouse T cells and its versatile role in T cell homeostasis and activation. Further, we will discuss important differences in the function of P2X7 on human and murine T cells.

  16. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  17. Analytical Model for Mesh-based P2PVoD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Mol, J.D.D.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in academic and commercial environments for Video-on-Demand (VoD) using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. Unlike centralized solutions for VoD services, P2P technology lets the clients distribute video content among themselves. In this paper, we propose an

  18. Characterization of fatty acid binding by the P2 myelin protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudaitis, P.G.; Weise, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, significant sequence homology has been found between the P2 protein of peripheral myelin and intracellular retinoid- and fatty acid-binding proteins. They have found that salt extracts of bovine intradural nerve roots contain the P2 basic protein in association with free fatty acid. Preliminary results from quantitative analyses showed a ratio of 0.4-1.1 fatty acid (mainly oleate and palmitate) per P2 molecule. P2/ligand interactions were partially characterized using ( 3 H)-oleate in gel permeation assays and binding studies using lipidex to separated bound and free fatty acid. Methyloleate was found to displace ( 3 H)-oleate from P2, indicating that ligand binding interactions are predominantly hydrophobic in nature. On the other hand, myristic acid and retinol did not inhibit the binding of oleate to the protein, results consistent with a decided affinity for long chain fatty acids but not for the retinoids. The binding between P2 and oleic acid showed an apparent Kd in the micromolar range, a value comparable to those found for other fatty acid-binding proteins. From these results they conclude that P2 shares not only structural homology with certain fatty acid binding proteins but also an ability to bind long chain fatty acids. Although the significance of these similarities is not yet clear, they may, by analogy, expect P2 to have a role in PNS lipid metabolism

  19. Bone turnover is altered in transgenic rats overexpressing the P2Y2 purinergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Agca, Cansu; Petersen, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces. Both...

  20. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  1. Purinergic P2Y12 Receptor Activation in Eosinophils and the Schistosomal Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Valdirene S; Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Benjamim, Claudia F; Mata-Santos, Hilton A; Pyrrho, Alexandre S; Strauch, Marcelo A; Melo, Paulo A; Vicentino, Amanda R R; Silva-Paiva, Juliana; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Identifying new target molecules through which eosinophils secrete their stored proteins may reveal new therapeutic approaches for the control of eosinophilic disorders such as host immune responses to parasites. We have recently reported the expression of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) in human eosinophils; however, its functional role in this cell type and its involvement in eosinophilic inflammation remain unknown. Here, we investigated functional roles of P2Y12R in isolated human eosinophils and in a murine model of eosinophilic inflammation induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection. We found that adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced human eosinophils to secrete eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in a P2Y12R dependent manner. However, ADP did not interfere with human eosinophil apoptosis or chemotaxis in vitro. In vivo, C57Bl/6 mice were infected with cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of S. mansoni. Analyses performed 55 days post infection revealed that P2Y12R blockade reduced the granulomatous hepatic area and the eosinophilic infiltrate, collagen deposition and IL-13/IL-4 production in the liver without affecting the parasite oviposition. As found for humans, murine eosinophils also express the P2Y12R. P2Y12R inhibition increased blood eosinophilia, whereas it decreased the bone marrow eosinophil count. Our results suggest that P2Y12R has an important role in eosinophil EPO secretion and in establishing the inflammatory response in the course of a S. mansoni infection.

  2. Assignment of two new host range types to the P2 family of temperate coliphages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, A P; Dhillon, T S

    1986-04-01

    Six non-inducible coliphages which grow on Escherichia coli C but not on K12 (C-specific) were shown to be antigenically related to P2. All six were shown to be P4 helpers and some of them could also recombine with P2.

  3. Cn(1), Dn(1) and A2n-1(2) reflection K-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-Santos, A.; Malara, R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possible regular solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation for the vertex models associated with the C n (1) , D n (1) and A 2n-1 (2) affine Lie algebras. We find three types of solutions with n, n-1 and 1 free parameters, respectively. Special cases and all diagonal solutions are presented separately

  4. Localization of P2X receptor subtypes 2, 3 and 7 in human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennersten, Karl; Hallén-Grufman, Katarina; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Poljakovic, Mirjana

    2015-08-08

    Voiding dysfunctions are a common problem that has a severe negative impact on the quality of life. Today there is a need for new drug targets for these conditions. The role of ATP receptors in bladder physiology has been studied for some time, primarily in animal models. The aim of this work is to investigate the localization of the ATP receptors P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 and their colocalization with vimentin and actin in the human urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on full-thickness bladder tissues from fundus and trigonum collected from 15 patients undergoing open radical cystectomy due to chronic cystitis, bladder cancer or locally advanced prostate cancer. Colocalization analyses were performed between the three different P2X subtypes and the structural proteins vimentin and actin. Specimens were examined using epifluorescence microscopy and correlation coefficients were calculated for each costaining as well as the mean distance from the laminin positive basal side of the urothelium to the vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. P2X2 was expressed in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Less distinct labelling of P2X2 was also observed in actin positive smooth muscle cells and in the urothelium. P2X3 was expressed in vimentin positive cells surrounding the smooth muscle, and in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Weaker P2X3 labelling was seen in the urothelium. P2X7 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells and the urothelium. In the suburothelium, cells double positive for P2X2 and vimentin where located closer to the urothelium while cells double positive for P2X3 and vimentin where located further from the urothelium. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the expression of the purinergic P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 receptors in the different histological layers of the human urinary bladder.

  5. Excitation functions of the (pn) and (p,2n) reactions on Cd isotopes. [(pn) and (p,2n) reactions on the sup(110-114,116)Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skakun, E A; Klyucharev, A P; Rakivnenko, Yu N; Romanij, I A [AN Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Excitation functions of (pn)- and (p,2n)-reactions on /sup 110/-/sup 114/,/sup 116/Cd nuclei are measured in a range of incident proton energy up to 20 MeV. Experimental results are compared to calculated ones.

  6. Convergence of Internet and TV: The Commercial Viability of P2P Content Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn

    The popularity of (illegal) P2P (peer-to-peer) file sharing has a disruptive impact on Internet traffic and business models of content providers. In addition, several studies have found an increasing demand for bandwidth consuming content, such as video, on the Internet. Although P2P systems have been put forward as a scalable and inexpensive model to deliver such content, there has been relatively little economic analysis of the potentials and obstacles of P2P systems as a legal and commercial content distribution model. Many content providers encounter uncertainties regarding the adoption or rejection of P2P networks to spread content over the Internet. The recent launch of several commercial, legal P2P content distribution platforms increases the importance of an integrated analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).

  7. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Stenkjær, L

    2013-01-01

    variant allele, which has been associated with increased receptor function in monocytes, was associated with increased total hip BMD in women. With the exception of His155Tyr for which we found conflicting results in men and women, our results are consistent with the phenotype of the knockout mouse......UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three...... of these polymorphisms were associated with BMD and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. P2X(7) receptor knockout mice have reduced total bone mineral content, and because several functional polymorphisms have been identified in the human P2X(7) receptor gene, we wanted...

  8. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  9. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  10. La influenza A (H1N1: estado actual del conocimiento Influenza A (H1N1 virus: current information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita González Valdés

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la bibliografía actualizada sobre el tema a partir de los principales buscadores, y reuniones internacionales realizadas sobre la pandemia de la influenza A (H1N1. Se tratan los aspectos relacionados con la historia, la aparición de la pandemia, la biología de la enfermedad, la epidemiología, el cuadro clínico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico y la prevención. La gripe A (H1N1 es una pandemia causada por una variante nueva del virus de la Influenza A que ha sufrido cambios antigénicos en la hemaglutinina y la neuraminidasa. Esto hace que la población sea altamente vulnerable a la infección y produce una sobrecarga temporal enorme a los servicios de salud. El virus se trasmite como otros virus Influenza. Su letalidad es similar a la de la influenza estacional, pero puede incrementarse en personas con factores de riesgo y en adultos jóvenes sanos. El asma y el embarazo parecen ser condiciones de base importantes para incrementar la severidad de la infección. Puede existir cierta protección por inmunidad cruzada con cepas que circularon en el pasado. El espectro clínico va desde personas asintomáticas hasta las formas graves que requieren internación en cuidados intensivos, con rápido deterioro hasta llegar a la insuficiencia respiratoria en un plazo de 24 horas. La vacunación durante la pandemia no parece ser suficientemente efectiva. Son necesarios antivirales (oseltamivir y zanamivir, y las medidas preventivas higiénico-sanitarias son muy eficaces.An updated review using the main search motors and international meetings already celebrated related to Influenza A H1N1 pandemics. Items related to the history, the appearance of the pandemics, the biology of the disease, its epidemiology, clinics, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Grippe A H1N1 is a pandemic caused by a new variant of the Influenza A virus that has suffered antigenic changes in haemaglutinin and neuraminidase. This turns populations more susceptible to

  11. Differential endosomal sorting of a novel P2Y12 purinoreceptor mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Cooke, Alexandra E; Emery, Elizabeth D; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    P2Y12 receptor internalization and recycling play an essential role in ADP-induced platelet activation. Recently, we identified a patient with a mild bleeding disorder carrying a heterozygous mutation of P2Y12 (P341A) whose P2Y12 receptor recycling was significantly compromised. Using human cell line models, we identified key proteins regulating wild-type (WT) P2Y12 recycling and investigated P2Y12 -P341A receptor traffic. Treatment with ADP resulted in delayed Rab5-dependent internalization of P341A when compared with WT P2Y12 . While WT P2Y12 rapidly recycled back to the membrane via Rab4 and Rab11 recycling pathways, limited P341A recycling was observed, which relied upon Rab11 activity. Although minimal receptor degradation was evident, P341A was localized in Rab7-positive endosomes with considerable agonist-dependent accumulation in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Rab7 activity is known to facilitate recruitment of retromer complex proteins to endosomes to transport cargo to the TGN. Here, we identified that P341A colocalized with Vps26; depletion of which blocked limited recycling and promoted receptor degradation. This study has identified key points of divergence in the endocytic traffic of P341A versus WT-P2Y12 . Given that these pathways are retained in human platelets, this research helps define the molecular mechanisms regulating P2Y12 receptor traffic and explain the compromised receptor function in the platelets of the P2Y12 -P341A-expressing patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. P2X receptors as targets for the treatment of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, David C.; Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Miras-Portugal, M. Teresa; Engel, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged seizures are amongst the most common neurological emergencies. Status epilepticus is a state of continuous seizures that is life-threatening and prompt termination of status epilepticus is critical to protect the brain from permanent damage. Frontline treatment comprises parenteral administration of anticonvulsants such as lorazepam that facilitate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission. Because status epilepticus can become refractory to anticonvulsants in a significant proportion of patients, drugs which act on different neurotransmitter systems may represent potential adjunctive treatments. P2X receptors are a class of ligand-gated ion channel activated by ATP that contributes to neuro- and glio-transmission. P2X receptors are expressed by both neurons and glia in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. Electrophysiology, pharmacology and genetic studies suggest certain P2X receptors are activated during pathologic brain activity. Expression of several members of the family including P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors has been reported to be altered in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. Recent studies have shown that ligands of the P2X7 receptor can have potent effects on seizure severity during status epilepticus and mice lacking this receptor display altered seizures in response to chemoconvulsants. Antagonists of the P2X7 receptor also modulate neuronal death, microglial responses and neuroinflammatory signaling. Recent work also found altered neuronal injury and inflammation after status epilepticus in mice lacking the P2X4 receptor. In summary, members of the P2X receptor family may serve important roles in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus and represent novel targets for seizure control and neuroprotection. PMID:24324404

  13. Effective role of CaO/P2O5 ratio on SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kiran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the CaO/P2O5 ratio on the composition of sol-gel synthesized 58SiO2-(19 − xP2O5–(23 + xCaO (x = 0, 5, 10 and 15 mol% glass samples was studied. Further, the effect of NBO/BO ratio on hydroxy carbonated apatite layer (HCA forming ability based on dissolution behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF solution was also investigated. CaO/P2O5 ratios of synthesized glass samples were 1.2, 2, 3.6, and 9.5, respectively. NBO/BO ratios were obtained using Raman spectroscopic analysis as 0.58, 1.20, 1.46, and 1.78, respectively. All samples were soaked in the SBF solution for 7 days. The calculated weight losses of these samples were 58%, 64%, 83%, and 89% for corresponding NBO/BO ratios. The increase in CaO/P2O5 ratio increases the NBO/BO ratios. However, the increase in NBO/BO ratio increases HCA forming ability of SBF treated samples. The HCA crystalline layer formation was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. Higher CaO/P2O5 ratio favors the increase in HCA formation for SBF treated calcium phospho silicate glasses.

  14. Protection against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys by an Inactivated H5N1 Whole Particle Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Misako; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Pham, Van Loi; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Le, Quynh Mai; Ito, Mutsumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3. PMID:24376571

  15. Protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian and pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys by an inactivated H5N1 whole particle vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Nakayama

    Full Text Available H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3, in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.

  16. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinle, Liang; Qian, Shou; Hong, Zhang; Min, Chen [Department of Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Xuan, Liu [Beihai Institute of Environmental Science, Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    2009-08-15

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6 (nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  17. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Shou Qian; Zhang Hong; Chen Min; Liu Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with 60 Co γ-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6( nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  18. Skeletal-muscle mass of São Paulo city elderly – SABE: Survey: Health, Well-being and Aging. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Lebrão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of skeletal muscle mass (SM, either total (TSM or appendicular (ASM mass, in the elderly, is important, in order to monitor this component along aging, and these values are more associated with disability when adjusted for height, thus enabling the analysis of total (TSMI and appendicular muscle mass indexes (ASMI. The purpose of this study was to present standard mean and percentile values of TSM, ASM, TSMI and ASMI, from elderly of São Paulo city, according to gender and age groups. The sample consisted of 1203 elderly, men and women, from the 2006 cohort of the SABE Study: Health, Well-being and Aging, held in São Paulo, Brazil. Variables TSM and ASM were identified by predictive equations, while the respective indexes, by the ratio between the values of SM and height to the squared (in kg.m-2. The mean values and standard deviation of TSM, of women and men, younger and older than 80 years old, were, in kg, 17.7±3.6, 14.4±3.2, 26.9±3.8 and 24.1±2.9, respectively, while the values for ASM were 14.4±2.1, 13.0±2.0, 21.0±2.8 and 19.4±2.3, respectively. When adjusted by height to the square, the values of TSMI were, in kg.m-2, 7.6±1.4, 6.3±1.2, 9.8±1.1 and 8.9±0.9, and the values of ASMI were 6.1±0.7, 5.7±0.7, 7.6±0.8 and 7.2±0.7, respectively. All the variables were correlated among themselves (r>0,84. Men and younger elderly presented higher values, with statistical significance, in relation to their peers, and the differences between age groups were higher among women.

  19. Massa muscular de idosos do município de São Paulo – Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Gobbo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise da massa muscular (MM em idosos, seja total (MMT ou apendicular (MMA, é importante para o acompanhamento deste componente ao longo do envelhecimento, sendo que estes valores são mais associados à incapacidade funcional quando ajustados pela estatura, possibilitando, assim, a análise dos índices de massa muscular total (IMMT e apendicular (IMMA. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar valores normativos, expressos em médias e percentis, de MMT, MMA, IMMT e IMMA, de idosos do município de São Paulo, segundo sexo e grupos etários. A amostra foi composta por 1203 idosos de ambos os sexos, da coorte de 2006 do Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento, realizado no município de São Paulo, Brasil. As variáveis MMT e MMA foram identificadas a partir de equações preditivas, enquanto os respectivos índices, pela razão entre os valores de MM e altura, ao quadrado (em kg.m-2. Os valores médios e os desvios-padrão de MMT, de mulheres e homens, com menos de 80 e 80 anos e mais, foram, em kg, 17,7±3,6, 14,4±3,2, 26,9±3,8 e 24,1±2,9, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de MMA foram 14,4±2,1, 13,0±2,0, 21,0±2,8 e 19,4±2,3, respectivamente. Quando ajustados pela altura, os valores de IMMT foram, em kg.m-2, 7,6±1,4, 6,3±1,2, 9,8±1,1 e 8,9±0,9, e os valores de IMMA foram, 6,1±0,7, 5,7±0,7, 7,6±0,8 e 7,2±0,7, respectivamente. Todas as variáveis apresentaram alta correlação entre si (r>0,84. Homens e idosos mais jovens apresentaram maiores valores, com significância estatística, em relação aos seus pares e as diferenças entre os grupos etários são maiores entre as mulheres.

  20. Avian influenza H5N1 transmission in households, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y Aditama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared cases (n = 177 and contacts (n = 496 in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human

  1. Homoleptic diphosphacyclobutadiene complexes [M(η(4)-P2C2R2)2]x- (M = Fe, Co; x = 0, 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Robert; Ehlers, Andreas W; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Hartl, František; de Bruin, Bas; Long, Gary J; Grandjean, Fernande; Schappacher, Falko M; Pöttgen, Rainer; Slootweg, J Chris; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Lammertsma, Koop

    2010-12-27

    The preparation and comprehensive characterization of a series of homoleptic sandwich complexes containing diphosphacyclobutadiene ligands are reported. Compounds [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Fe(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K1), [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Co(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (K2), and [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][Co(η(4)-P(2)C(2)Ad(2))(2)] (K3, Ad = adamantyl) were obtained from reactions of [K([18]crown-6)(thf)(2)][M(η(4)-C(14)H(10))(2)] (M = Fe, Co) with tBuC[triple bond]P (1, 2), or with AdC[triple bond]P (3). Neutral sandwiches [M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] (4: M = Fe 5: M = Co) were obtained by oxidizing 1 and 2 with [Cp(2)Fe]PF(6). Cyclic voltammetry and spectro-electrochemistry indicate that the two [M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)](-)/[M(η(4)-P(2)C(2)tBu(2))(2)] moieties can be reversibly interconverted by one electron oxidation and reduction, respectively. Complexes 1-5 were characterized by multinuclear NMR, EPR (1 and 5), UV/Vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopies (1 and 4), mass spectrometry (4 and 5), and microanalysis (1-3). The molecular structures of 1-5 were determined by using X-ray crystallography. Essentially D(2d)-symmetric structures were found for all five complexes, which show the two 1,3-diphosphacyclobutadiene rings in a staggered orientation. Density functional theory calculations revealed the importance of covalent metal-ligand π bonding in 1-5. Possible oxidation state assignments for the metal ions are discussed.

  2. A mixed iron-manganese based pyrophosphate cathode, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana A; Park, Chan Sun; Raja, Arsalan A; Shin, Jaeho; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2016-02-07

    The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs.

  3. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  4. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  6. H5N1-SeroDetect EIA and rapid test: a novel differential diagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of H5N1 infections and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Sasono, Pretty; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Le, Quynh Mai; Pham, Quang Thai; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Horby, Peter; Golding, Hana

    2011-12-01

    Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.

  7. The master space of N = 1 gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; He Yanghui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The full moduli space M of a class of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied. For gauge theories living on a stack of D3-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities X, M is a combination of the mesonic and baryonic branches. In consonance with the mathematical literature, the single brane moduli space is called the master space F b . Illustrating with a host of explicit examples, we exhibit many algebro-geometric properties of the master space such as when F b is toric Calabi-Yau, behaviour of its Hilbert series, its irreducible components and its symmetries. In conjunction with the plethystic programme, we investigate the counting of BPS gauge invariants, baryonic and mesonic, using the geometry of F b and show how its refined Hilbert series not only engenders the generating functions for the counting but also beautifully encode 'hidden' global symmetries of the gauge theory which manifest themselves as symmetries of the complete moduli space M for N number of branes.

  8. Off shell N=1 supergravity theory in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The off shell N=1 supergravity theory in six dimensions shows beneath the extreme simplicity of theories in higher dimensions useful properties for the study of a unification of normal gauge theories with the supergravity theory via dimensional reduction and yields a geometrical interpretation for the quantum numbers of internal symmtries of the reduced theory. Furthermore this theory permits a better understanding of ultraviolet divergences than a theory in four dimensions. This six-dimensional supergravity theory is constructed here in the corresponding superspace the importance of which was clained otherwise because a precisely defined mathematical formalism for this exists: Differential geometry in the superspace. We establish constraining conditions for the torsion components and give a complete solution of the Bianchi identities. In the formulation of the conditions for the torsions exists a certain freedom, because different conditions lead to the same solution. Therefore only the analysis of the Bianchi identities will show wether the conditions are too restrictive or not. Furthermore the dimensional reduction of D=6 to the four-dimensional space-time is performed. We show here that the reduced theory yields the conformal N=2 supergravity theory. In the last part of this thesis a Langrangian is presented by which the supergravity is coupled to a matter multiplet. In the analysis of the supersymmetry transformations of the component fields we see that the matter multiplet cannot be consistently brought to vanish. That means that a pure supergravity theory cannot be written manifestly Lorentz covariant. (orig.) [de

  9. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density “snake” located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q≳1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to ñ. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of ñ/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small ñ and ∇p(tilde sign)≃∇(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q≃1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where ñ aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q≲1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  10. Holomorphic D7-branes and flavored N=1 gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We consider D7-branes in the gauge theory/string theory correspondence, using a probe approximation. The D7-branes have four directions embedded holomorphically in a non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-fold (which for specificity we take to be the conifold) and their remaining four directions are parallel to a stack of D3-branes transverse to the Calabi-Yau space. The dual gauge theory, which has N=1 supersymmetry, contains quarks which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, and we identify the interactions of these quarks in terms of a superpotential. By activating three-form fluxes in the gravity background, we obtain a dual gauge theory with a cascade of Seiberg dualities. We find a supersymmetric supergravity solution for the leading backreaction effects of the D7-branes, valid for large radius. The cascading theory with flavors exhibits the interesting phenomenon that the rate of the cascade slows and can stop as the theory flows to the infrared

  11. Well-posedness of (N = 1) classical supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, D.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Isenberg, J.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether classical (N = 1) supergravity has a well-posed locally causal Cauchy problem. We define well-posedness to mean that any choice of initial data (from an appropriate function space) which satisfies the supergravity constraint equations and a set of gauge conditions can be continuously developed into a space-time solution of the supergravity field equations around the initial surface. Local causality means that the domains of dependence of the evolution equations coincide with those determined by the light cones. We show that when the fields of classical supergravity are treated as formal objects, the field equations are (under certain gauge conditions) equivalent to a coupled system of quasilinear nondiagonal second-order partial differential equations which is formally nonstrictly hyperbolic (in the sense of Leray--Ohya). Hence, if the fields were numerical valued, there would be an applicable existence theorem leading to well-posedness. We shall observe that well-posedness is assured if the fields are taken to be Grassmann (i.e., exterior algebra) valued, for then the second-order system decouples into the vacuum Einstein equation and a sequence of numerical valued linear diagonal strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations which can be solved successively

  12. The N=1 effective action of F-theory compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 effective action of F-theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau fourfold is studied by lifting a three-dimensional M-theory compactification. The lift is performed by using T-duality realized via a Legendre transform on the level of the effective action, and the application of vector-scalar duality in three dimensions. The leading order Kaehler potential and gauge-kinetic coupling functions are determined. In these compactifications two sources of gauge theories are present. Space-time filling non-Abelian seven-branes arise at the singularities of the elliptic fibration of the fourfold. Their couplings are included by resolving the singular fourfold. Generically a U(1) r gauge theory arises from the R-R bulk sector if the base of the elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold supports 2r harmonic three-forms. The gauge coupling functions depend holomorphically on the complex structure moduli of the fourfold, comprising closed and open string degrees of freedom. The four-dimensional electro-magnetic duality is studied in the three-dimensional effective theory obtained after M-theory compactification. A discussion of matter couplings transforming in the adjoint of the seven-brane gauge group is included.

  13. Scalar potential from higher derivative N=1 superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciupke, David

    2016-05-01

    The supersymmetric completion of higher-derivative operators often requires introducing corrections to the scalar potential. In this paper we study these corrections systematically in the context of theories with N=1 global and local supersymmetry in D=4 focusing on ungauged chiral multiplets. In globally supersymmetric theories the most general off-shell effective scalar potential can be captured by a dependence of the Kaehler potential on additional chiral superfields. For supergravity we find a much richer structure of possible corrections. In this context we classify the leading order and next-to-leading order superspace derivative operators and determine the component forms of a subclass thereof. Moreover, we present an algorithm that simplifies the computation of the respective on-shell action. As particular applications we study the structure of the supersymmetric vacua for these theories and comment on the form of the corrections to shift-symmetric no-scale models. These results are relevant for the computation of effective actions for string compactifications and, in turn, for moduli stabilization and string inflation.

  14. Non-Abelian vortices in N=1* gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, V.; Marshakov, A.; Yung, A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the N=1* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory and demonstrate that the Z2 vortices in this theory acquire orientational zero modes, associated with the rotation of magnetic flux inside SU(2) group, and turn into the non-Abelian strings, when the masses of all chiral fields become equal. These non-Abelian strings are not BPS-saturated. We study the effective theory on the string world sheet and show that it is given by two-dimensional non-supersymmetric O(3) sigma model. The confined 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole is seen as a junction of the Z2-string and anti-string, and as a kink in the effective world sheet sigma model. We calculate its mass and show that besides the four-dimensional confinement of monopoles, they are also confined in the two-dimensional theory: the monopoles stick to anti-monopoles to form the meson-like configurations on the strings they are attached to

  15. The P2X7 ATP receptor modulates renal cyst development in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Kate A.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Johnson, Tanya M.; Wade, Angela; Unwin, Robert J.; Winyard, Paul J.D.

    2004-01-01

    P2X 7 , a piercing receptor, is expressed in renal collecting ducts as they undergo fulminant cysto genesis in the cpk/cpk mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Dissociated cpk/cpk kidneys generate cysts from cell aggregates within 24 h of suspension culture and we demonstrate that BzATP, a P2X 7 agonist, reduces cystogenesis. This effect is P2X 7 -specific, because: (i) equimolar concentrations of other purinergic agonists, ATP and UTP, had lesser effects and (ii) the P2X 7 inhibitor, oxidized ATP, abrogated the BzATP-mediated reduction in cystogenesis. BzATP did not significantly affect total cell number, proliferation, LDH release or caspase 3 activity, and zVAD-fmk, a caspase blocker, failed to modulate BzATP effects. In addition, this P2X 7 agonist did not significantly alter cyst size, probably excluding altered vectorial transport. In vivo, ATP was detected in cyst fluid from cpk/cpk kidneys; moreover, P2X 7 protein was also upregulated in human fetal ARPKD epithelia versus normal fetal collecting ducts. Thus, ATP may inhibit pathological renal cyst growth through P2X 7 signaling

  16. Lack of the purinergic receptor P2X7 results in resistance to contact hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Felix C.; Esser, Philipp R.; Müller, Tobias; Ganesan, Jayanthi; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Simon, Markus M.; Zeiser, Robert; Idzko, Marco; Jakob, Thilo

    2010-01-01

    Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X7 are resistant to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). P2X7-deficient dendritic cells fail to induce sensitization to contact allergens and do not release IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP. These defects are restored by pretreatment with LPS and alum in an NLRP3- and ASC-dependent manner. Whereas pretreatment of wild-type mice with P2X7 antagonists, the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase or IL-1 receptor antagonist, prevents CHS, IL-1β injection restores CHS in P2X7-deficient mice. Thus, P2X7 is a crucial receptor for extracellular ATP released in skin in response to contact allergens. The lack of P2X7 triggering prevents IL-1β release, which is an essential step in the sensitization process. Interference with P2X7 signaling may be a promising strategy for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21059855

  17. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-05-10

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  18. Rab5 regulates internalisation of P2X4 receptors and potentiation by ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leanne

    2013-03-01

    The P2X4 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed in neurons, endothelia and immune cells. Plasma membrane expression of P2X4 is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis, and this study identifies a Rab5-dependent pathway of receptor internalisation. Expression of Rab5 constructs altered the distribution of P2X4 in HEK-293 cells, and both constitutive internalisation and agonist-induced desensitisation of P2X4 were increased by co-expression of wild-type Rab5 or constitutively active Rab5 (Q79L). Expression of inactive dynamin K44A and Rab5 S34N constructs abolished agonist-induced desensitisation, suggesting internalisation as the underlying mechanism. Blocking P2X4 internalisation in this way also abolished potentiation of ATP-induced currents by the allosteric modulator ivermectin. This suggests that the dynamin-Rab5 internalisation pathway is essential for the ivermectin potentiation effect. In agreement with this hypothesis, the co-expression of wild-type dynamin, wild-type Rab5 or active Rab5 (Q79L) could increase the potentiation of the ATP-induced P2X4 response by ivermectin. These findings highlight Rab5 GTPase as a key regulator of P2X4 receptor cell surface expression and internalisation.

  19. Hyperglycemia-induced Renal P2X7 Receptor Activation Enhances Diabetes-related Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a leading cause of renal disease. Glomerular mesangial expansion and fibrosis are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy and this is thought to be promoted by infiltration of circulating macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 has been shown to attract macrophages in kidney diseases. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R are highly expressed on macrophages and are essential components of pro-inflammatory signaling in multiple tissues. Here we show that in diabetic patients, renal P2X7R expression is associated with severe mesangial expansion, impaired glomerular filtration (≤40 ml/min/1.73 sq. m., and increased interstitial fibrosis. P2X7R activation enhanced the release of MCP-1 in human mesangial cells cultured under high glucose conditions. In mice, P2X7R-deficiency prevented glomerular macrophage attraction and collagen IV deposition; however, the more severe interstitial inflammation and fibrosis often seen in human diabetic kidney diseases was not modelled. Finally, we demonstrate that a P2X7R inhibitor (AZ11657312 can reduce renal macrophage accrual following the establishment of hyperglycemia in a model of diabetic nephropathy. Collectively these data suggest that P2X7R activation may contribute to the high prevalence of kidney disease found in diabetics.

  20. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  1. Bandwidth Reduction via Localized Peer-to-Peer (P2P Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kerpez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent research into P2P distribution of video that can be highly localized, preferably sharing content among users on the same access network and Central Office (CO. Models of video demand and localized P2P serving areas are presented. Detailed simulations of passive optical networks (PON are run, and these generate statistics of P2P video localization. Next-Generation PON (NG-PON is shown to fully enable P2P video localization, but the lower rates of Gigabit-PON (GPON restrict performance. Results here show that nearly all of the traffic volume of unicast video could be delivered via localized P2P. Strong growth in video delivery via localized P2P could lower overall future aggregation and core network bandwidth of IP video traffic by 58.2%, and total consumer Internet traffic by 43.5%. This assumes aggressive adoption of technologies and business practices that enable highly localized P2P video.

  2. Orientation of Zn3P2 films via phosphidation of Zn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Ryoji; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2017-02-01

    Orientation of solar absorber is an important factor to achieve high efficiency of thin film solar cells. In the case of Zn3P2 which is a promising absorber of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells, (110)/(001) orientation was only reported in previous studies. We have successfully prepared (101)-oriented Zn3P2 films by phosphidation of (0001)-oriented Zn films at 350 °C. The phosphidation mechanism of Zn is discussed through STEM observations on the partially-reacted sample and the consideration of the relationship between the crystal structures of Zn and Zn3P2 . We revealed that (0001)-oriented Zn led to nucleation of (101)-oriented Zn3P2 due to the similarity in atomic arrangement between Zn and Zn3P2 . The electrical resistivity of the (101)-oriented Zn3P2 film was lower than those of (110)/(001)-oriented films, which is an advantage of the phosphidation technique to the growth processes in previous works. The results in this study demonstrated that well-conductive Zn3P2 films could be obtained by controlling orientations of crystal grains, and provide a guiding principle for microstructure control in absorber materials.

  3. Impaired P2X signalling pathways in renal microvascular myocytes in genetic hypertension

    KAUST Repository

    Gordienko, Dmitri V.; Povstyan, Oleksandr V.; Sukhanova, Khrystyna Yu; Raphaë l, Maylis; Harhun, Maksym I.; Dyskina, Yulia; Lehen'Kyi, V'Yacheslav; Jama, Abdirahman Mahmoud; Lu, Zhiliang; Skryma, Roman N.; Prevarskaya, Natalia B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury.

  4. P2X7 Receptors Drive Spine Synapse Plasticity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrokocsi, Lilla; Kittel, Ágnes; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments; however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet. Effects of genetic deletion of P2rx7s on depressive-like behavior and spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus were investigated using the learned helplessness mouse model of depression. We demonstrate that in wild-type animals, inescapable footshocks lead to learned helplessness behavior reflected in increased latency and number of escape failures to subsequent escapable footshocks. This behavior is accompanied with downregulation of mRNA encoding P2rx7 and decrease of spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus as determined by electron microscopic stereology. In addition, a decrease in synaptopodin but not in PSD95 and NR2B/GluN2B protein level was also observed under these conditions. Whereas the absence of P2rx7 was characterized by escape deficit, no learned helpless behavior is observed in these animals. Likewise, no decrease in spine synapse number and synaptopodin protein levels was detected in response to inescapable footshocks in P2rx7-deficient animals. Our findings suggest the endogenous activation of P2rx7s in the learned helplessness model of depression and decreased plasticity of spine synapses in P2rx7-deficient mice might explain the resistance of these animals to repeated stressful stimuli. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Interaction of GABAA receptors with purinergic P2X2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, A.

    2010-01-01

    GABA A Rs in the spinal cord are evolving as an important target for drug development against pain. Purinergic P2X 2 Rs are also expressed in spinal cord neurons and are known to cross-talk with GABA A Rs. Here we investigated a possible 'dynamic' interaction between GABA A Rs and P2X 2 Rs using co-immunoprecipitation and FRET studies in HEK cells along with co-localization and single particle tracking studies in spinal cord neurons. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of P2X 2 Rs forms a transient complex with GABA A Rs inside the cell, thus stabilizing these receptors and using them for co-trafficking to the cell surface. P2X 2 Rs and GABA A Rs are then co-inserted into the cell membrane and are primarily located extra-synaptically. Furthermore, agonist induced activation of P2X 2 Rs results in disassembly of the receptor complex and destabilization of GABA A Rs whereas P2X 2 Rs are stabilized and form larger clusters. Antagonist-induced blocking of P2XRs results in co-stabilization of this receptor complex at the cell surface. These results suggest a novel mechanism where association of P2XRs with other receptors could be used for specific targeting to the neuronal membrane, thus providing an extrasynaptic receptor reserve that could regulate the excitability of neurons. We further conclude that blocking the excitatory activity of excessively released ATP under diseased state by P2XR antagonists could simultaneously enhance synaptic inhibition mediated by GABA A Rs.(author) (author) [de

  6. Impaired P2X signalling pathways in renal microvascular myocytes in genetic hypertension

    KAUST Repository

    Gordienko, Dmitri V.

    2014-12-16

    Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury.

  7. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  8. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  9. Nature of the fundamental band gap in GaNxP1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K. M.; Wu, J.; Ager, J. W. III; Haller, E. E.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    The optical properties of GaN x P 1-x alloys (0.007≤x≤0.031) grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy have been studied. An absorption edge appears in GaN x P 1-x at energy below the indirect Γ V -X C transition in GaP, and the absorption edge shifts to lower energy with increasing N concentration. Strong photomodulation signals associated with the absorption edges in GaN x P 1-x indicate that a direct fundamental optical transition is taking place, revealing that the fundamental band gap has changed from indirect to direct. This N-induced transformation from indirect to direct band gap is explained in terms of an interaction between the highly localized nitrogen states and the extended states at the Γ conduction-band minimum. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE RECYCLER RING TO P1 LINE AT FERMILAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Adams, P. [Fermilab; Morris, D. [Fermilab; Yang, M. J. [Fermilab; Hazewood, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-03

    The transfer line for beam extraction from the Recycler ring to P1 line provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. It was designed in 2012. The kicker magnets at RR520 and the lambertson magnet at RR522 in the RR were installed in 2014 Summer Shutdown, the elements of RR to P1 Stub (permanent quads, trim quads, correctors, BPMs, the toroid at 703 and vertical bending dipole at V703 (ADCW) were installed in 2015 Summer Shutdown. On Tuesday, June 21, 2016, beam line from the Recycler Ring to P1 line was commissioned. The detailed results will be presented in this report.

  11. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS. PMID:28845311

  12. A Simple FSPN Model of P2P Live Video Streaming System

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece

    2011-01-01

    Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...

  13. Apical membrane P2Y4 purinergic receptor controls K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scofield Margaret A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously shown that K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium is under the control of G-protein coupled receptors of the P2Y family in the apical membrane. Receptor activation by uracil nucleotides (P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6 leads to a decrease in the electrogenic K+ secretion. The present study was conducted to determine the subtype of the functional purinergic receptor in gerbil stria vascularis, to test if receptor activation leads to elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] and to test if the response to these receptors undergoes desensitization. Results The transepithelial short circuit current (Isc represents electrogenic K+ secretion and was found to be decreased by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A but not uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP at the apical membrane of marginal cells of the gerbil stria vascularis. The potencies of these agonists were consistent with rodent P2Y4 and P2Y2 but not P2Y6 receptors. Activation caused a biphasic increase in intracellular [Ca2+] that could be partially blocked by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate (2-APB, an inhibitor of the IP3 receptor and store-operated channels. Suramin (100 μM did not inhibit the effect of UTP (1 μM. The ineffectiveness of suramin at the concentration used was consistent with P2Y4 but not P2Y2. Transcripts for both P2Y2 and P2Y4 were found in the stria vascularis. Sustained exposure to ATP or UTP for 15 min caused a depression of Isc that appeared to have two components but with apparently no chronic desensitization. Conclusion The results support the conclusion that regulation of K+ secretion across strial marginal cell epithelium occurs by P2Y4 receptors at the apical membrane. The apparent lack of desensitization of the response is consistent with two processes: a rapid-onset phosphorylation of KCNE1 channel subunit and a slower-onset of regulation by depletion of plasma membrane PIP2.

  14. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Boué-Grabot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS.

  15. Fourier analysis of a new P1 synthetic acceleration for Sn transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcksin, B.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, is derived a new P1 synthetic acceleration scheme (P1SA) for the S N transport equation and analyze its convergence properties through the means of a Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis is carried out for both continuous (i.e., not spatially discretized) S N equations and linear discontinuous Fem discretization. We show, thanks to the continuous analysis, that the scheme is unstable when the anisotropy is important (μ - >0.5). However, the discrete analysis shows that when cells are large in comparison to the mean free path, the spectral radius decreases and the acceleration scheme becomes effective, even for highly anisotropic scattering. In charged particles transport, scattering is highly anisotropic and mean free paths are very small and, thus, this scheme could be of interest. To use the P1SA when cells are small and anisotropy is important, the scheme is modified by altering the update of the accelerated flux or by using either K transport sweeps before the application of P1SA. The update scheme performs well as long as μ - - ≥0.9, the modified update scheme is unstable. The multiple transport sweeps scheme is convergent with an arbitrary μ - but the spectral radius increases when scattering is isotropic. When anisotropic increases, the frequency of use of the acceleration scheme needs to be decreased. Even if the P1SA is used less often, the spectral radius is significantly smaller when compared with a method that does not use it for high anisotropy (μ - ≥0.5). It is interesting to notice that using P1SA every two iterations gives the same spectral radius than the update method when μ - ≥0.5 but it is much less efficient when μ - <0.5. (Author)

  16. Oceanographic Observations North Pacific Ocean Station VICTOR Standard Section P1 Terminal Report 1964-1972,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    temperature (*C) for occupation of P1-15, USCG4C MINNETONKA, 27-30 March 1971. 31 34. 8 STATION 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * ~󈧦 7: 400 3: 27001 3a...Profile of sigma-t (g cm-2 ) for occupation of P1-16, USCGC TANEY, 16-21 April 1971. 36 142*W 144’ 146* 1480 ISO * 152’ 154* 1560 158’ 1600 162’ 164

  17. Impact of mass media on public behavior and physicians: an ecological study of the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Lena; Dreiher, Jacob; Barski, Leonid; Jotkowitz, Alan; Zeller, Lior; Novack, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The mass media plays an important role in public health behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of mass media coverage of the H1N1 pandemic on the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission rates. An ecological study of ED visits to 8 general Israeli hospitals due to influenza-like illness during the period June-October 2009 was performed. Data on the number of visits per day for children and adults and daily hospitalization rates were analyzed. Associations with the estimated value of H1N1-related publications and weekly reports from nationwide sentinel clinics were assessed. The analysis was performed in 2012-2013. There were 55,070 ED visits due to influenza-like illness during the study period. The overall number of media reports was 1,812 (14.3% radio broadcasts, 9.8% television broadcasts, 27.5% newspaper articles, and 48.5% major website reports). The overall estimated value of advertising of publications was $16,399,000, excluding the Internet. While H1N1 incidence recorded by Israeli sentinel clinics showed no association with mass media publications, peaks of media reports were followed by an increase in the number of ED visits, usually with a delay of 3 days (P = .005). This association was noted in children (P .1), with a corresponding decrease in hospital admission rates. Publications' framing had no association with ED visits. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Israel, an increase in mass media coverage was associated with an increase in pediatric ED visits.

  18. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  19. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Linda E. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density 'snake' located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to n. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of n/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small n and {nabla}p(tilde sign) Asymptotically-Equal-To {nabla}(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q Asymptotically-Equal-To 1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where n aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  20. Editorial L&E, v.7, n.1, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rede Conpadre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Editorial L&E, v.7, n.1, 2013 L’architettura, in quanto bene d’uso, è da considerarsi come un’opera aperta, destinata a venire, nel corso della sua esistenza, modificata, trasformata, integrata per poter continuare ad essere utilizzata e fruita. Le architetture che sono state oggetto di dismissione, a seguito del venir meno delle motivazioni (funzioni per le quali esse erano state realizzate, sono, più di altre, destinate a subire tali trasformazioni. Sono, infatti, architetture ormai deboli e fragili, nella maggior parte dei casi considerate prive di valore o quasi, che proprio in virtù di queste considerazioni vengono abbandonate e/o distrutte, decretandone irrimediabilmente la scomparsa. Il patrimonio industriale dismesso rientra a pieno titolo in tale categoria di manufatti architettonici e, purtroppo, nel corso del tempo, è stato sottoposto a qualsivoglia tipo di manomissione, ivi compresa la demolizione. Si tratta però di un patrimonio che, a ben guardare, risulta ancora ricco di qualità e di potenzialità che potrebbe/dovrebbe essere adeguatamente valorizzato attraverso lo studio e la messa a punto di soluzioni che consentano di massimizzare la permanenza, pur prestando attenzione al problema della sostenibilità degli interventi sia in fase di realizzazione degli stessi, sia in fase di utilizzo dei beni sottoposti ai necessari e appropriati interventi di rifunzionalizzazione. Solo in questo modo tale patrimonio può cessare di rappresentare un “problema” per i proprietari, pubblici o privati che siano, per divenire una risorsa – architettonica, culturale e, perché no, anche materiale – garantendone la permanenza nel tempo – magari trasformata, sicuramente arricchita da nuove tracce – e la trasmissione alle future generazioni. Manuela Mattone

  1. Synthesis and characterization of [3H]-5'azido-N-1-naphthylphthlamic acid, a photolabile N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, J.G.; Dodge, B.; Harris, K.; Jacobs, M.; Larkin, L.; Bader, S.; Schnitzler, G.; Sutherland, J.

    1990-01-01

    The NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) receptor is an important protein involved in the regulation of transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In our attempt to isolate and characterize this protein we have previously synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5'-azido-NPA (Az-NPA) and shown it to be a competitor of NPA for binding sites on the NPA receptor as well as an inhibitor of auxin transport. We have now synthesized and characterized [ 3 H]-Az-NPA. The precursor, 2,3,4,5-Br-5'-amino-NPA was dehydrohalogenated with tritium gas by Research Products International. The amino group was converted to an azido group and the product purified by HPLC. [ 3 H]-Az-NPA was found to be photolabile and to co-chromatograph with our synthetic unlabeled Az-NPA. Furthermore, the tritiated material was found to bind to zucchini hypocotyl cell membranes in a manner competitive with NPA as well as unlabeled Az-NPA. Photolysis of zucchini phase-partitioned plasma membranes in the presence of [ 3 H]-Az-NPA resulted in covalent association of tritium with the membranes. Much of this covalent association could be prevented by prior treatment of the membranes with excess NPA

  2. A Local Scalable Distributed EM Algorithm for Large P2P Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — his paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  3. P2P-Based Data System for the EAST Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yantai; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Weifeng; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Jiarong

    2006-06-01

    A peer-to-peer (P2P)-based EAST Data System is being designed to provide data acquisition and analysis support for the EAST superconducting tokamak. Instead of transferring data to the servers, all collected data are stored in the data acquisition subsystems locally and the PC clients can access the raw data directly using the P2P architecture. Both online and offline systems are based on Napster-like P2P architecture. This allows the peer (PC) to act both as a client and as a server. A simulation-based method and a steady-state operational analysis technique are used for performance evaluation. These analyses show that the P2P technique can significantly reduce the completion time of raw data display and real-time processing on the online system, and raise the workload capacity and reduce the delay on the offline system.

  4. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang; Karam, George

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity

  6. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Xiao-ping; Jiang, Tao; Li, Yong-qiang; Lin, Fang; Liu, Hong; Chang, Guo-hui; Zhu, Qing-yu; Qin, E-de; Qin, Cheng-feng; Yang, Yin-hui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus, which is suitable for early diagnosis of influenza-like patients and for epidemiological surveillance. The sensitivity of this duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was 0.02 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) for H5N1 and 0.2 TCID50 for the pandemic H1N1, which was the same a...

  7. Expression, tissue localization and serodiagnostic potential of Taenia multiceps acidic ribosomal protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Yang, Yingdong; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Yu; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-12-01

    The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, also known as coenurus, is the causative agent of coenurosis, which results in severe health problems in sheep, goats, cattle and other animals that negatively impact on animal husbandry. There is no reliable method to identify coenurus infected goats in the early period of infection. We identified a full-length cDNA that encodes acidic ribosomal protein P2 from the transcriptome of T. multiceps (TmP2). Following cloning, sequencing and structural analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. Recombinant TmP2 (rTmP2) was prokaryotically expressed and then used to test immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in immunoblotting assays. The native proteins in adult stage and coenurus were located via immunofluorescence assays, while the potential of rTmP2 for indirect ELISA-based serodiagnostics was assessed using native goat sera. In addition, 20 goats were randomly divided into a drug treatment group and a control group. Each goat was orally given mature, viable T. multiceps eggs. The drug treatment group was given 10% praziquantel by intramuscular injection 45 days post-infection (p.i), and all goats were screened for anti-TmP2 antibodies with the indirect ELISA method established here, once a week for 17 weeks p.i. The open reading frame (366 bp) of the target gene encodes a 12.62 kDa protein, which showed high homology to that from Taenia solium (93% identity) and lacked a signal peptide. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TmP2 was highly localized to the parenchymatous zone of both the adult parasite and the coenurus; besides, it was widely distributed in cystic wall of coenurus. Building on good immunogenic properties, rTmP2-based ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 96.3% (26/27) in detecting anti-P2 antibodies in the sera of naturally infected goats and sheep. In goats experimentally infected with T. multiceps, anti-TmP2 antibody was detectable in the control group from 3 to 10 weeks

  8. Corneal epithelium expresses a variant of P2X(7 receptor in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Mankus

    Full Text Available Improper wound repair of the corneal epithelium can alter refraction of light resulting in impaired vision. We have shown that ATP is released after injury, activates purinergic receptor signaling pathways and plays a major role in wound closure. In many cells or tissues, ATP activates P2X(7 receptors leading to cation fluxes and cytotoxicity. The corneal epithelium is an excellent model to study the expression of both the full-length P2X(7 form (defined as the canonical receptor and its truncated forms. When Ca(2+ mobilization is induced by BzATP, a P2X(7 agonist, it is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Mg(2+ or Zn(2+, negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+, and inhibited by the competitive P2X7 receptor inhibitor, A438079. BzATP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. Together these responses indicate the presence of a canonical or full-length P2X(7 receptor. In addition BzATP enhanced epithelial cell migration, and transfection with siRNA to the P2X(7 receptor reduced cell migration. Furthermore, sustained activation did not induce dye uptake indicating the presence of truncated or variant forms that lack the ability to form large pores. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed a P2X(7 splice variant. Western blots identified a full-length and truncated form, and the expression pattern changed as cultures progressed from monolayer to stratified. Cross-linking gels demonstrated the presence of homo- and heterotrimers. We examined epithelium from age matched diabetic and non-diabetic corneas patients and detected a 4-fold increase in P2X(7 mRNA from diabetic corneal epithelium compared to non-diabetic controls and an increased trend in expression of P2X(7variant mRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that corneal epithelial cells express full-length and truncated forms of P2X(7, which ultimately allows P2X(7 to function as a multifaceted receptor that can mediate cell proliferation and

  9. DESENSITIZATION PROPERTIES OF P2X3 RECEPTORS SHAPING PAIN SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid eGiniatullin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-gated P2X3 receptors are mostly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons and participate in transduction of pain signals. P2X3 receptors show a combination of fast desensitization onset and slow recovery. Moreover, even low nanomolar agonist concentrations unable to evoke a response, can induce desensitization via a phenomenon called ‘high affinity desensitization’. We have also observed that recovery from desensitization is agonist-specific and can range from seconds to minutes. The recovery process displays unusually high temperature dependence. Likewise, recycling of P2X3 receptors in peri-membrane regions shows unexpectedly large temperature sensitivity. By applying kinetic modeling, we have previously shown that desensitization characteristics of P2X3 receptor are best explained with a cyclic model of receptor operation involving three agonist molecules binding a single receptor and that desensitization is primarily developing from the open receptor state. Mutagenesis experiments suggested that desensitization depends on a certain conformation of the ATP binding pocket and on the structure of the transmembrane domains forming the ion pore. Further molecular determinants of desensitization have been identified by mutating the intracellular N- and C-termini of P2X3 receptor. Unlike other P2X receptors, the P2X3 subtype is facilitated by extracellular calcium that acts via specific sites in the ectodomain neighboring the ATP binding pocket. Thus, substitution of serine275 in this region (called ‘left flipper’ converts the natural facilitation induced by extracellular calcium to receptor inhibition. Given such their strategic location in nociceptive neurons and unique desensitization properties, P2X3 receptors represent an attractive target for development of new analgesic drugs via promotion of desensitization aimed at suppressing chronic pain.

  10. Data transport and management in P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, S.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented. (author)

  11. Luminescence in Eu2+ and Ce3+ doped SrCaP2O7 phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Shinde

    Full Text Available Eu2+ and Ce3+ doped SrCaP2O7 has been achieved by modified solid state diffusion in reducing atmosphere. The prepared phosphor powders have been identified by their characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. The mixed phases of α-Sr2P2O7 type with orthorhombic and α-Ca2P2O7 type with monoclinic form were investigated. Its excitation wavelength ranging from 250 to 430 nm fits well with the characteristic emission of UV light-emitting diode (LED. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that these phosphors can be effectively excited by the near-UV light, and emits blue (visible range due to 4f7 → 4f65d1 transition of Eu2+ particularly, SrCaP2O7: Eu2+ whereas, photoluminescence excitation spectrum measurements of Ce3+ activated SrCaP2O7 shows that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV–Vis light from 280 to 310 nm to realize emission in the near visible range due to the 5d–4f transition of Ce3+ ions which is applicable for scintillation purpose. The impacts of doping of divalent europium and trivalent cerium on photoluminescence properties on SrCaP2O7 pyrophosphate phosphors were investigated and I propose a feasible interpretation. Keywords: Phosphor, Luminescence, XRD, LED, FTIR

  12. Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto, Gustavo; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-12-06

    This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1 x 10(-12) Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.

  13. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  14. A distributed incentive compatible pricing mechanism for P2P networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Zheng; Xiong, Xiao; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems are currently receiving considerable interest. However, as experience with P2P networks shows, the selfish behaviors of peers may lead to serious problems of P2P network, such as free-riding and white-washing. In order to solve these problems, there are increasing considerations on reputation system design in the study of P2P networks. Most of the existing works is concerning probabilistic estimation or social networks to evaluate the trustworthiness for a peer to others. However, these models can not be efficient all the time. In this paper, our aim is to provide a general mechanism that can maximize P2P networks social welfare in a way of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves family, while assuming every peer in P2P networks is rational and selfish, which means they only concern about their own outcome. This mechanism has some desirable properties using an O(n) algorithm: (1) incentive compatibility, every peer truly report its connection type; (2) individually rationality; and (3) fully decentralized, we design a multiple-principal multiple-agent model, concerning about the service provider and service requester individually.

  15. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  16. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three methods for genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates were applied to 2 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates. By a modified restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products of the M. pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene, 5 subtypes were discriminated among 13

  17. Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    In this note we investigate the generating series of the Euler characteristics of Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1). We link the appearing combinatorics to p-fountains, a generalization of the notion of fountain of coins. We obtain a representation of the generating series as coefficient of a two variable generating series.

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  19. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  20. Radiative E1-decay of charmonium 1P1 level within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of radiative decay of 1 P 1 → 1 S 0 + γ charmonium within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics was conducted. The sum rule, taking account of gluon exponential correction, was obtained, and width of Χ → η c + γ decay was calculated

  1. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Heterogeneity of Human Neutrophil CD177 Expression Results from CD177P1 Pseudogene Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuopeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most humans harbor both CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophils but 1-10% of people are CD177null, placing them at risk for formation of anti-neutrophil antibodies that can cause transfusion-related acute lung injury and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. By deep sequencing the CD177 locus, we catalogued CD177 single nucleotide variants and identified a novel stop codon in CD177null individuals arising from a single base substitution in exon 7. This is not a mutation in CD177 itself, rather the CD177null phenotype arises when exon 7 of CD177 is supplied entirely by the CD177 pseudogene (CD177P1, which appears to have resulted from allelic gene conversion. In CD177 expressing individuals the CD177 locus contains both CD177P1 and CD177 sequences. The proportion of CD177hi neutrophils in the blood is a heritable trait. Abundance of CD177hi neutrophils correlates with homozygosity for CD177 reference allele, while heterozygosity for ectopic CD177P1 gene conversion correlates with increased CD177neg neutrophils, in which both CD177P1 partially incorporated allele and paired intact CD177 allele are transcribed. Human neutrophil heterogeneity for CD177 expression arises by ectopic allelic conversion. Resolution of the genetic basis of CD177null phenotype identifies a method for screening for individuals at risk of CD177 isoimmunisation.

  3. 1P1 heavy quarkonia production in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanakyan, R.A.; Dul'yan, L.S.; Grigoryan, S.G.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The production of 1 P 1 -quarkonia (charmonium, bottomonium and toponium) with large transverse momenta is studied in collisions of ultrahigh-energy pp and pp-bar beams. The analysis was carried out in the framework of gluon-gluon fusion mechanism and nonrelativistic quarkonium model

  4. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  5. Mechanical response of FFTF reference and P1 cladding tubes under transient heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngahl, C.A.; Ariman, T.; Lepacek, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Burst tests of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tube samples subjected to increasing temperature and relatively constant internal pressure were conducted to assist in the pretest analysis of the P1 experiment performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. This paper reports and analyzes the burst test results and those of subsequent transient heating work. The use of a modified extensometer in obtaining mechanical response data for stainless steel in the high temperature range is illustrated, some of such data is provided, and the potential of further experiments and analysis is indicated. Tubing of the same design as Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) cladding (20% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 15 mil wall) was tested as-received and after annealing or electrolytic thinning. P1 tubing (38% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 10 mil wall) was tested before and after aging under conditions anticipated in the P1 reactor experiment. The P1 cladding was designed to simulate FFTF tubing that had experienced irradiation embrittlement and attack by cesium oxide and sodium impurities

  6. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  7. P2P-based botnets: structural analysis, monitoring, and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ha, Duc T [UNIV AT BUFFALO; Ngo, Hung Q [UNIV AT BUFFALO

    2008-01-01

    Botnets, which are networks of compromised machines that are controlled by one or a group of attackers, have emerged as one of the most serious security threats on the Internet. With an army of bots at the scale of tens of thousands of hosts or even as large as 1.5 million PCs, the computational power of botnets can be leveraged to launch large-scale DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks, sending spamming emails, stealing identities and financial information, etc. As detection and mitigation techniques against botnets have been stepped up in recent years, attackers are also constantly improving their strategies to operate these botnets. The first generation of botnets typically employ IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels as their command and control (C&C) centers. Though simple and easy to deploy, the centralized C&C mechanism of such botnets has made them prone to being detected and disabled. Against this backdrop, peer-to-peer (P2P) based botnets have emerged as a new generation of botnets which can conceal their C&C communication. Recently, P2P networks have emerged as a covert communication platform for malicious programs known as bots. As popular distributed systems, they allow bots to communicate easily while protecting the botmaster from being discovered. Existing work on P2P-based hotnets mainly focuses on measurement of botnet sizes. In this work, through simulation, we study extensively the structure of P2P networks running Kademlia, one of a few widely used P2P protocols in practice. Our simulation testbed incorporates the actual code of a real Kademlia client software to achieve great realism, and distributed event-driven simulation techniques to achieve high scalability. Using this testbed, we analyze the scaling, reachability, clustering, and centrality properties of P2P-based botnets from a graph-theoretical perspective. We further demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that monitoring bot activities in a P2P network is difficult

  8. The finite - dimensional star and grade star irreducible representation of SU(n/1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qi-zhi.

    1981-01-01

    We derive the conditions of star and grade star representations of SU(n/1) and give some examples of them. We also give a brief review of the finite - dimensional irreducible representations of SU(n/1). (author)

  9. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and ... Key words: Avian influenza virus, H5N1, fluorescent antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ..... poultry and is potentially zoonotic.

  10. Evaluation of twenty rapid antigen tests for the detection of human influenza A H5N1, H3N2, H1N1, and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janette; McPhie, Kenneth; Druce, Julian; Birch, Chris; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2009-11-01

    Twenty rapid antigen assays were compared for their ability to detect influenza using dilutions of virus culture supernatants from human isolates of influenza A H5N1 (clade 1 and 2 strains), H3N2 and H1N1 viruses, and influenza B. There was variation amongst the rapid antigen assays in their ability to detect different influenza viruses. Six of the 12 assays labeled as distinguishing between influenza A and B had comparable analytical sensitivities for detecting both influenza A H5N1 strains, although their ability to detect influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 strains varied. The two assays claiming H5 specificity did not detect either influenza A H5N1 strains, and the two avian influenza-specific assays detected influenza A H5N1, but missed some influenza A H3N2 virus supernatants. Clinical trials of rapid antigen tests for influenza A H5N1 are limited. For use in a pandemic where novel influenza strains are circulating (such as the current novel influenza A H1N1 09 virus), rapid antigen tests should ideally have comparable sensitivity and specificity for the new strains as for co-circulating seasonal influenza strains.

  11. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    1999-12-01

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue U q [sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 with 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes demonstrated increased replication and transmission in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), A/Iraq/775/06, and a reassortant virus comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/775/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1, A/N...

  13. Global behavior of the difference equation $x_{n+1}=\\frac{Ax_{n-1}} {B-Cx_{n}x_{n-2}}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abo-Zeid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the global stability, periodic nature, oscillation and the boundedness of all admissible solutions of the difference equation $x_{n+1}=\\frac{Ax_{n-1}} {B-Cx_{n}x_{n-2}}$, n=0,1,2,... where A, B, C are positive real numbers.

  14. DA-6034-induced mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Ji Yeon; Yang, Yu-Mi; Shin, Dong Min; Kang, Kyung Koo; Kim, Tae-im

    2014-09-11

    We evaluated whether DA-6034 is involved in mucin secretion via P2Y receptor activation and/or intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) change. Also, we investigated the effect of P2Y receptor inhibitors or Ca2+ chelators on the DA-6034-induced mucin secretion and [Ca2+]i increases. Effects of DA-6034 on mucin expression in primary, cultured, conjunctival epithelial cells was studied using RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining. To evaluate thin film layer thickness generated by mucin and fluid secretion, cells were incubated in DA-6034 with/without P2Y antagonists or extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators, and were imaged with confocal microscope using Texas Red-dextran dye. In addition, DA-6034-induced Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels opening was evaluated using perforated patch clamp. Fluo-4/AM was used to measure changes in [Ca2+]i induced by DA-6034 in Ca2+-free or Ca2+-containing buffered condition, as well as P2Y antagonists. DA-6034 induced the expression of mucin genes, production of mucin protein, and increase of number of mucin-secreting cells. P2Y antagonists inhibited DA-6034-induced mucin and fluid secretion, which was also affected by extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators. DA-6034 stimulated Cl- channel opening and [Ca2+]i elevation. Further, [Ca2+]i increases induced by DA-6034 were lacking in either P2Y antagonists or Ca2+-free buffered condition, and diminished when endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ was depleted by cyclopiazonic acid in Ca2+-free buffered condition. This study demonstrated that DA-6034 has a potential to induce mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptors in multilayer, cultured, human conjunctival epithelial cells. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Interaction of medullary P2 and glutamate receptors mediates the vasodilation in the hindlimb of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korim, Willian Seiji; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Pilowsky, Paul M; Cravo, Sergio L

    2012-12-01

    In the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats, blockade of extracellular ATP breakdown to adenosine reduces arterial blood pressure (AP) increases that follow stimulation of the hypothalamic defense area (HDA). The effects of ATP on NTS P2 receptors, during stimulation of the HDA, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of P2 receptors in the NTS mediates cardiovascular responses to HDA stimulation. Further investigation was taken to establish if changes in hindlimb vascular conductance (HVC) elicited by electrical stimulation of the HDA, or activation of P2 receptors in the NTS, are relayed in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM); and if those responses depend on glutamate release by ATP acting on presynaptic terminals. In anesthetized and paralyzed rats, electrical stimulation of the HDA increased AP and HVC. Blockade of P2 or glutamate receptors in the NTS, with bilateral microinjections of suramin (10 mM) or kynurenate (50 mM) reduced only the evoked increase in HVC by 75 % or more. Similar results were obtained with the blockade combining both antagonists. Blockade of P2 and glutamate receptors in the RVLM also reduced the increases in HVC to stimulation of the HDA by up to 75 %. Bilateral microinjections of kynurenate in the RVLM abolished changes in AP and HVC to injections of the P2 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (20 mM) into the NTS. The findings suggest that HDA-NTS-RVLM pathways in control of HVC are mediated by activation of P2 and glutamate receptors in the brainstem in alerting-defense reactions.

  16. An Improved Method for P2X7R Antagonist Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo José Soares-Bezerra

    Full Text Available ATP physiologically activates the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R, a member of the P2X ionotropic receptor family. When activated by high concentrations of ATP (i.e., at inflammation sites, this receptor is capable of forming a pore that allows molecules of up to 900 Da to pass through. This receptor is upregulated in several diseases, particularly leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. A selective antagonist of this receptor could be useful in the treatment of P2X7R activation-related diseases. In the present study, we have evaluated several parameters using in vitro protocols to validate a high-throughput screening (HTS method to identify P2X7R antagonists. We generated dose-response curves to determine the EC50 value of the known agonist ATP and the ICs50 values for the known antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG and oxidized ATP (OATP. The values obtained were consistent with those found in the literature (0.7 ± 0.07 mM, 1.3-2.6 μM and 173-285 μM for ATP, BBG and OATP, respectively [corrected].The Z-factor, an important statistical tool that can be used to validate the robustness and suitability of an HTS assay, was 0.635 for PI uptake and 0.867 for LY uptake. No inter-operator variation was observed, and the results obtained using our improved method were reproducible. Our data indicate that our assay is suitable for the selective and reliable evaluation of P2X7 activity in multiwell plates using spectrophotometry-based methodology. This method might improve the high-throughput screening of conventional chemical or natural product libraries for possible candidate P2X7R antagonist or agonist.

  17. Platelets Express Activated P2Y12 Receptor in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Shenghui; Qi, Zhiyong; Yan, Hongmei; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Si; Wang, Yiping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Ye, Hongying; Ding, Zhongren

    2017-08-29

    Platelets from patients with diabetes mellitus are hyperactive. Hyperactivated platelets may contribute to cardiovascular complications and inadequate responses to antiplatelet agents in the setting of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism of hyperactivated platelets is not completely understood. We measured P2Y 12 expression on platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on platelets from rats with diabetes mellitus. We also assayed platelet P2Y 12 activation by measuring cAMP and VASP phosphorylation. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of AR-C78511 and cangrelor were compared in rats. Finally, we explored the role of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in regulating P2Y 12 receptor expression in megakaryocytes. Platelet P2Y 12 levels are 4-fold higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects. P2Y 12 expression correlates with ADP-induced platelet aggregation (r=0.89, P diabetes mellitus is constitutively activated. Although both AR-C78511, a potent P2Y 12 inverse agonist, and cangrelor have similar antiplatelet efficacy on platelets from healthy subjects, AR-C78511 exhibits more powerful antiplatelet effects on diabetic platelets than cangrelor (aggregation ratio 36±3% versus 49±5%, respectively, P diabetes mellitus than cangrelor (thrombus weight 4.9±0.3 mg versus 8.3±0.4 mg, respectively, P diabetes mellitus. Platelet P2Y 12 receptor expression is significantly increased and the receptor is constitutively activated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contributes to platelet hyperactivity and limits antiplatelet drug efficacy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  19. Internal (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) resistive modes in the toroidal tokamak with circular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the tokamak with circular cross-section. The resistive and diamagnetic effects are included in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, a system of two coupled equations is obtained for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1 the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain (a) the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption, and (b) the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) before the main disruption. (author)

  20. Synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of novel Roddlesden-Popper homologous series Srn+1ConO3n+1 (n=1,2,3,4, and ∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roddlesden-Popper homologous series Sr n+1 Co n O 3n+1 (n=1,2,3,4, and ∞) compounds were successfully synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature technique. Structure refinement revealed that these compounds crystallize in tetragonal structures, while the compound n=∞ is cubic. These compounds are ferromagnetic with the Curie temperature decreasing from 255 K for n=1 to about 200 K for n=2-4 and down to 175 K for SrCoO 3 . Co 4+ ions present as intermediate spin states for n=1-4, but in the low spin state in SrCoO 3 . Negative magnetoresistance was observed for Sr 2 CoO 4 and found to be larger than that for SrCoO 3

  1. 40 CFR 721.3821 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Substances § 721.3821 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)- (PMN P...

  2. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  3. Thermodynamics and long-range order of nitrogen in gamma'-Fe4N1-x

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, BJ; Somers, MAJ; Mittemeijer, EJ

    Models are given for the description of the chemical potential of nitrogen in gamma'-Fe4N1-x. In previous work, gamma'-Fe4N1-x was treated as a (sub)regular solution, thereby assuming that the N atoms are distributed randomly on the sites of their own sublattice. However, in gamma'-Fe4N1-x,

  4. EFEKTIVITAS METODE P2R UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN EFEKTIF MEMBACA (KEM MAHASISWA CALON GURU BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of language skill which is not less important compared with others language skill such as scrutinizing, speaking, and writing. In this era which technology is flaring and developing rapidly, the students are prefer to play facebook, twitter, chatting, and many more than read a journal or articles. This phenomenon shows that the interest to read among students is needed to be increased. One of the way that can be taken is by having skills to read quickly or is known by scanning with P2R method. The P2R method itself is one of method or strategy that can be used to increase reading skill. The P2R method consists of stages pra-peninjauan, membaca, dan meninjau that commonly used by the most of quick reader / scanner and efficient. This research is done to obtain data about the effective reading speed of student as Indonesian language teacher candidate and the effort of its increasing through the P2R method. The population of this research is all students on program of study Indonesian language and literature education and also area of Almuslim University as much 149 students. The sample of this research is 30% of the total population or as much 45 strudents of Indonesia Language teacher candidate of Almuslim University who are taken randomly. The type of research is experimental research (true experimental and quantitative approach with the model of research is pretest-post test control group model. The result of research shows that the P2R method is effective to be implemented to increase the effective reading speed of students as Indonesian language teacher candidate. FKIP is obtained by researcher. The posttest result shows that there was an increasing of KEM learning outcomes meanwhile the observation result was seems that in the learning with P2R model, the students were very enthusiasm, more active, also more motivated in attending the learning. Besides that, the result of questionnaires also shows that the P2R method obtained

  5. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Improving Management Performance of P2PSIP for Mobile Sensing in Wireless Overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Pousada-Carballo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP. The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services that may be possibly overcome by advanced peer-to-peer (P2P technologies initially developed for the Internet. In the context of mobile sensing, P2PSIP protocols facilitate decentralized and fast communications with sensor-enabled terminals. Nevertheless, in order to make P2PSIP protocols feasible in mobile sensing networks, it is necessary to minimize overhead transmissions for signaling purposes, which reduces the battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a solution to improve the management of wireless overlay networks by defining an adaptive algorithm for the calculation of refresh time. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it takes into account new parameters, such as the delay between nodes, and provides satisfactory performance and reliability levels at a much lower management overhead than previous approaches. The proposed solution can be applied to many structured P2P overlays or P2PSIP protocols. We evaluate it with Kademlia-based distributed hash tables (DHT and dSIP.

  7. Improving management performance of P2PSIP for mobile sensing in wireless overlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendín-Raña, Pablo; González-Castaño, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Cuba, Felipe; Asorey-Cacheda, Rafael; Pousada-Carballo, José María

    2013-11-08

    Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP) design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP). The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services that may be possibly overcome by advanced peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies initially developed for the Internet. In the context of mobile sensing, P2PSIP protocols facilitate decentralized and fast communications with sensor-enabled terminals. Nevertheless, in order to make P2PSIP protocols feasible in mobile sensing networks, it is necessary to minimize overhead transmissions for signaling purposes, which reduces the battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a solution to improve the management of wireless overlay networks by defining an adaptive algorithm for the calculation of refresh time. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it takes into account new parameters, such as the delay between nodes, and provides satisfactory performance and reliability levels at a much lower management overhead than previous approaches. The proposed solution can be applied to many structured P2P overlays or P2PSIP protocols. We evaluate it with Kademlia-based distributed hash tables (DHT) and dSIP.

  8. Cross Layer Analysis of P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF Network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-tomultipoint (P2MP) network that uses a number of freespace optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes of the network. A common backup radio frequency (RF) link can be used by the central node for data transmission to any remote node in case any one of the FSO links fails. Each remote node is assigned a transmit buffer at the central node. Considering the transmission link from the central node to a tagged remote node, we study various performance metrics. Specifically,we study the throughput from the central node to the tagged node, the average transmit buffer size, the symbol queuing delay in the transmit buffer, the efficiency of the queuing system, the symbol loss probability, and the RF link utilization. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network with that of a P2MP FSO-only network and show that the P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network achieves considerable performance improvement over the P2MP FSO-only network.

  9. Results of FE65-P2 Pixel Readout Test Chip for High Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)394193

    2016-01-01

    A pixel readout test chip called FE65-P2 has been fabricated on 65 nm CMOS technology. FE65-P2 contains a matrix of 64 x 64 pixels on 50 micron by 50 micron pitch, designed to read out a bump bonded sensor. The goals of FE65-P2 are to demonstrate excellent analog performance isolated from digital activity well enough to achieve 500 electron stable threshold, be radiation hard to at least 500 Mrad, and prove the novel concept of isolated analog front ends embedded in a flat digital design, dubbed “analog islands in a digital sea”. Experience from FE65-P2 and hybrid assemblies will be applied to the design for a large format readout chip, called RD53A, to be produced in a wafer run in early 2017 by the RD53 collaboration. We review the case for 65 nm technology and report on threshold stability test results for the FE65-P2.

  10. P2X7 Receptor Function in Bone-Related Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adinolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tumor microenvironment by different mediators is central in determining neoplastic formation and progression. Among these molecules extracellular ATP is emerging as a good candidate in promoting cell growth, neovascularization, tumor-host interactions, and metastatization. This paper summarizes recent findings on expression and function of P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP in primary and metastatic bone cancers. Search of mRNA expression microchip databases and literature analysis demonstrate a high expression of P2X7 in primary bone tumors as well as in other malignancies such as multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, breast, and prostate cancer. Evidence that P2X7 triggers NFATc1, PI3K/Akt, ROCK, and VEGF pathways in osteoblasts promoting either primary tumor development or osteoblastic lesions is also reported. Moreover, P2X7 receptor is involved in osteoclast differentiation, RANKL expression, matrix metalloproteases and cathepsin secretion thus promoting bone resorption and osteolytic lesions. Taken together these data point to a pivotal role for the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer biology.

  11. Arrestin scaffolds NHERF1 to the P2Y12 receptor to regulate receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista P; Cunningham, Margaret; Saxena, Kunal; Pope, Robert J; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-07-13

    We have recently shown in a patient with mild bleeding that the PDZ-binding motif of the platelet G protein-coupled P2Y(12) receptor (P2Y(12)R) is required for effective receptor traffic in human platelets. In this study we show for the first time that the PDZ motif-binding protein NHERF1 exerts a major role in potentiating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization. NHERF1 interacts with the C-tail of the P2Y(12)R and unlike many other GPCRs, NHERF1 interaction is required for effective P2Y(12)R internalization. In vitro and prior to agonist stimulation P2Y(12)R/NHERF1 interaction requires the intact PDZ binding motif of this receptor. Interestingly on receptor stimulation NHERF1 no longer interacts directly with the receptor but instead binds to the receptor via the endocytic scaffolding protein arrestin. These findings suggest a novel model by which arrestin can serve as an adaptor to promote NHERF1 interaction with a GPCR to facilitate effective NHERF1-dependent receptor internalization.

  12. THYDE-P2 code: RCS (reactor-coolant system) analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi; Sato, Kazuo

    1986-12-01

    THYDE-P2, being characterized by the new thermal-hydraulic network model, is applicable to analysis of RCS behaviors in response to various disturbances including LB (large break)-LOCA(loss-of-coolant accident). In LB-LOCA analysis, THYDE-P2 is capable of through calculation from its initiation to complete reflooding of the core without an artificial change in the methods and models. The first half of the report is the description of the methods and models for use in the THYDE-P2 code, i.e., (1) the thermal-hydraulic network model, (2) the various RCS components models, (3) the heat sources in fuel, (4) the heat transfer correlations, (5) the mechanical behavior of clad and fuel, and (6) the steady state adjustment. The second half of the report is the user's mannual for the THYDE-P2 code (version SV04L08A) containing items; (1) the program control (2) the input requirements, (3) the execution of THYDE-P2 job, (4) the output specifications and (5) the sample problem to demonstrate capability of the thermal-hydraulic network model, among other things. (author)

  13. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  14. Product Plan of New Generation System Camera "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo

    "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1", which is new generation system camera, is the first product of Olympus which is new standard "Micro Four-thirds System" for high-resolution mirror-less cameras. It continues good sales by the concept of "small and stylish design, easy operation and SLR image quality" since release on July 3, 2009. On the other hand, the half-size film camera "OLYMPUS PEN" was popular by the concept "small and stylish design and original mechanism" since the first product in 1959 and recorded sale number more than 17 million with 17 models. By the 50th anniversary topic and emotional value of the Olympus pen, Olympus pen E-P1 became big sales. I would like to explain the way of thinking of the product plan that included not only the simple functional value but also emotional value on planning the first product of "Micro Four-thirds System".

  15. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  16. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  17. Complexity and diversity of the NKR-P1:Clr (Klrb1:Clec2 recognition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Kirkham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The NKR-P1 receptors were identified as prototypical natural killer (NK cell surface antigens and later shown to be conserved from rodents to humans on NK cells and subsets of T cells. C-type lectin-like in nature, they were originally shown to be capable of activating NK cell function and to recognize ligands on tumour cells. However, certain family members have subsequently been shown to be capable of inhibiting NK cell activity, and to recognize proteins encoded by a family of genetically linked C-type lectin-related (Clr ligands. Some of these ligands are expressed by normal, healthy cells, and modulated during transformation, infection, and cellular stress, while other ligands are upregulated during the immune response and during pathological circumstances. Here, we discuss historical and recent developments in NKR-P1 biology that demonstrate this NK receptor-ligand system to be far more complex and diverse than originally anticipated.

  18. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Margaret A.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; Earnest, Thomas N.; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 3 10 -helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  19. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermumcu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclear components containing fissionable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method, in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  20. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermuncu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  1. Calculations of Edwards' pipe blowdown tests using the code TRAC P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, R.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes the results obtained using the non-thermal equilibrium LOCA code TRAC-P1 for two of a series of Pipe Blowdown Tests. Comparisons are made with the experimental values and RELAP-UK Mark IV predictions. Some discrepancies between prediction and experiment are observed, and certain aspects of the model are considered to warrant possible further attention. (U.K.)

  2. Electron-impact coherence parameters for 41 P 1 excitation of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwiński, Mariusz; Kłosowski, Łukasz; Chwirot, Stanisław; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Das, Tapasi; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    We present electron-impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron-impact excitation of 41 P 1 state of zinc atoms for collision energies 40 eV and 60 eV. The experimental results are presented together with convergent close-coupling and relativistic distorted-wave approximation theoretical predictions. The results are compared and discussed with EICP data for collision energies 80 eV and 100 eV.

  3. Influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication and innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells are influenced by the state of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee W Y Chan

    Full Text Available Influenza H5N1 virus continues to be enzootic in poultry and transmits zoonotically to humans. Although a swine-origin H1N1 virus has emerged to become pandemic, its virulence for humans remains modest in comparison to that seen in zoonotic H5N1 disease. As human respiratory epithelium is the primary target cells for influenza viruses, elucidating the viral tropism and host innate immune responses of influenza H5N1 virus in human bronchial epithelium may help to understand the pathogenesis. Here we established primary culture of undifferentiated and well differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells and infected with highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/3046/2004 and a seasonal influenza H1N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/54/1998, the viral replication kinetics and cytokine and chemokine responses were compared by qPCR and ELISA. We found that the in vitro culture of the well differentiated NHBE cells acquired the physiological properties of normal human bronchi tissue which express high level of alpha2-6-linked sialic acid receptors and human airway trypsin-like (HAT protease, in contrast to the low expression in the non-differentiated NHBE cells. When compared to H1N1 virus, the H5N1 virus replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger type I interferon response in the undifferentiated NHBE cells. In contrast, in well differentiated cultures, H5N1 virus replication was less efficient and elicited a lower interferon-beta response in comparison with H1N1 virus. Our data suggest that the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells has a major influence in cells' permissiveness to human H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses and the host innate immune responses. The reduced virus replication efficiency partially accounts for the lower interferon-beta responses in influenza H5N1 virus infected well differentiated NHBE cells. Since influenza infection in the bronchial epithelium will lead to tissue damage and associate with the

  4. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-08-26

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target.

  5. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  6. Sim@P1: Using Cloudscheduler for offline processing on the ATLAS HLT farm

    CERN Document Server

    Berghaus, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project was built in 2013 to take advantage of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition High Level Trigger (HLT) farm. The HLT farm provides more than 2,000 compute nodes, which are critical to ATLAS during data taking. When ATLAS is not recording data, this large compute resource is used to generate and process simulation data for the experiment. The Sim@P1 system uses virtual machines, deployed by OpenStack, in order to isolate the resources from the ATLAS technical and control network. During the upcoming long shutdown in 2019 (LS2), the HLT farm including the Sim@P1 infrastructure will be upgraded. A previous paper on the project emphasized the need for “simple, reliable, and efficient tools” to quickly switch between data acquisition operation and offline processing.In this contribution we assess various options for updating and simplifying the provisional tools. Cloudscheduler is a tool for provisioning cloud resources for batch computing that has been managing cloud ...

  7. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... versions of the receptor. In culture, the proliferation rate of the KO PSCs was significantly lower. Inclusion of apyrase reduced the proliferation rate in both WT and KO PSCs, indicating importance of endogenous ATP. Exogenous ATP had a two-sided effect. Proliferation of both WT and KO cells...... inhibitor az10606120. The P2X7 receptor-pore inhibitor A438079 partially prevented cell death induced by millimolar ATP concentrations. This study shows that ATP and P2X7 receptors are important regulators of PSC proliferation and death, and therefore might be potential targets for treatments of pancreatic...

  8. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  9. 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barolli, Leonard; Amato, Flora

    2017-01-01

    P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing technologies have been very fast established as breakthrough paradigms for solving complex problems by enabling aggregation and sharing of an increasing variety of distributed computational resources at large scale. The aim of this volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing as well as to reveal synergies among such large scale computing paradigms. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud And Internet Computing (3PGCIC-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea.

  10. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laulumaa Saara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  11. PbS/Cd3P2 quantum heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hefeng; Xu, Songman; Liu, Huan; Liu, Zeke; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Peng, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Hu, Long; Luo, Miao; Tang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrated the quantum heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells employing the PbS CQDs/Cd 3 P 2 CQDs architecture in which both the p-type PbS and n-type Cd 3 P 2 CQD layers are quantum-tunable and solution-processed light absorbers. We synthesized well-crystallized and nearly monodispersed tetragonal Cd 3 P 2 CQDs and then engineered their energy band alignment with the p-type PbS by tuning the dot size and hence the bandgap to achieve efficient light absorbing and charge separation. We further optimized the device through the Ag-doping strategy of PbS CQDs that may leverage an expanded depletion region in the n-layer, which greatly enhances the photocurrent. The resulting devices showed an efficiency of 1.5%. (paper)

  12. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  13. The effect of purinergic P2 receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia in miniature swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; McAllister, R M; Yang, H T

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: ATP could play an important role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation via purinergic P2 receptors. This study investigated the role of P2 receptors in exercise hyperemia in miniature swine. METHODS: We measured regional blood flow with radiolabeled......-microsphere technique and systemic hemodynamics before and after arterial infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist reactive blue 2 during treadmill exercise (5.2 km/h, ~60 % VO2max) and arterial ATP infusion in female Yucatan miniature swine (~29 kg). RESULTS: Mean blood flow during exercise from the 16 sampled skeletal...... muscle tissues was 138 ± 18 mL/min/100 g (mean ± SEM), and it was reduced in 11 (~25 %) of the 16 sampled skeletal muscles after RB2 was infused. RB2 also lowered diaphragm blood flow and kidney blood flow, whereas lung tissue blood flow was increased (all P

  14. Peer-to-peer I/O (P2PIO) protocol specification Version 0.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Gunter, Dan; Hoschek, Wolfgang

    2004-04-21

    Today's distributed systems require simple and powerful resource discovery queries in a dynamic environment consisting of a large number of resources spanning many autonomous administrative domains. The distributed search problem is hard due to the variety of query types, the number of resources and their autonomous, partitioned and dynamic nature. We propose a generalized resource discovery framework that is built around an application level messaging protocol called Peer-to-Peer I/O (P2PIO). P2PIO addresses a number of scalability problems in a general way. It provides flexible and uniform transport-independent resource discovery mechanisms to reduce both the client and network burden in multi-hop P2P systems.

  15. P2P Lending Risk Contagion Analysis Based on a Complex Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two major channels of P2P lending risk contagion in China—direct risk contagion between platforms and indirect risk contagion with other financial organizations as the contagion medium. Based on this analysis, the current study constructs a complex network model of P2P lending risk contagion in China and performs dynamics analogue simulations in order to analyze general characteristics of direct risk contagion among China’s online P2P lending platforms. The assumed conditions are that other financial organizations act as the contagion medium, with variations in the risk contagion characteristics set under the condition of significant information asymmetry in Internet lending. It is indicated that, compared to direct risk contagion among platforms, both financial organizations acting as the contagion medium and information asymmetry magnify the effect of risk contagion. It is also found that the superposition of media effects and information asymmetry is more likely to magnify the risk contagion effect.

  16. Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dao, Trong Tuan; Tung, Bui Thanh

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1/09 virus) was identified and considered a strong candidate for a novel influenza pandemic. As part of an ongoing anti-influenza screening programme on natural products, eight oligostilbenes were isolated as active principles from the methanol extract...... of Vitis amurensis. This manuscript reports the isolation, structural elucidation, and anti-viral activities of eight compounds on various neuraminidases from influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed in 293T cells...

  17. Purinergic control of inflammation and thrombosis: Role of P2X1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Oury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis. On platelets, P2X1 receptors act to amplify platelet activation and aggregation induced by other platelet agonists. These receptors critically contribute to thrombus stability in small arteries. Besides platelets, studies by our group indicate that these receptors are expressed by neutrophils. They promote neutrophil chemotaxis, both in vitro and in vivo. In a laser-induced injury mouse model of thrombosis, it appears that neutrophils are required to initiate thrombus formation and coagulation activation on inflamed arteriolar endothelia. In this model, by using P2X1−/− mice, we recently showed that P2X1 receptors, expressed on platelets and neutrophils, play a key role in thrombus growth and fibrin generation. Intriguingly, in a model of endotoxemia, P2X1−/− mice exhibited aggravated oxidative tissue damage, along with exacerbated thrombocytopenia and increased activation of coagulation, which translated into higher susceptibility to septic shock. Thus, besides its ability to recruit neutrophils and platelets on inflamed endothelia, the P2X1 receptor also contributes to limit the activation of circulating neutrophils under systemic inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these data suggest that P2X1 receptors are involved in the interplay between platelets, neutrophils and thrombosis. We propose that activation of these receptors by ATP on neutrophils and platelets represents a new mechanism that regulates thrombo-inflammation.

  18. LPS-induced systemic inflammation is more severe in P2Y12 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Elisabetta; Rico, Mario C; Yaratha, Laxmikausthubha; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2014-02-01

    Thienopyridines are a class of antiplatelet drugs that are metabolized in the liver to several metabolites, of which only one active metabolite can irreversibly antagonize the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Possible effects of these drugs and the role of activated platelets in inflammatory responses have also been investigated in a variety of animal models, demonstrating that thienopyridines could alter inflammation. However, it is not clear whether it is caused only by the P2Y12 antagonism or whether off-target effects of other metabolites also intervene. To address this question, we investigated P2Y12 KO mice during a LPS-induced model of systemic inflammation, and we treated these KO mice with a thienopyridine drug (clopidogrel). Contrary to the reported effects of clopidogrel, numbers of circulating WBCs and plasma levels of cytokines were increased in LPS-exposed KO mice compared with WT in this inflammation model. Moreover, both spleen and bone marrow show an increase in cell content, suggesting a role for P2Y12 in regulation of bone marrow and spleen cellular composition. Finally, the injury was more severe in the lungs of KO mice compared with WT. Interestingly, clopidogrel treatments also exerted protective effects in KO mice, suggesting off-target effects for this drug. In conclusion, the P2Y12 receptor plays an important role during LPS-induced inflammation, and this signaling pathway may be involved in regulating cell content in spleen and bone marrow during LPS systemic inflammation. Furthermore, clopidogrel may have effects that are independent of P2Y12 receptor blockade.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonolignans on the P2Y12 Pathway in Blood Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Michal; Szelenberger, Rafal; Dziedzic, Angela; Saluk-Bijak, Joanna

    2018-02-10

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin. For this reason, the aim of the current work was to verify the effects of silybin, silychristin, and silydianin on ADP-induced physiological platelets responses, as well as mechanisms of P2Y12-dependent intracellular signal transduction. We evaluated the effect of tested flavonolignans on ADP-induced blood platelets' aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (using light transmission aggregometry), adhesion to fibrinogen (using the static method), and the secretion of PF-4 (using the ELISA method). Additionally, using the double labeled flow cytometry method, we estimated platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. We demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of blood platelets' ability to perform ADP-induced aggregation, adhere to fibrinogen, and secrete PF-4 in samples treated with flavonolignans. Additionally, we observed that all of the tested flavonolignans were able to increase VASP phosphorylation in blood platelets samples, which is correlated with P2Y12 receptor inhibition. All of these analyses show that silychristin and silybin have the strongest inhibitory effect on blood platelet activation by ADP, while silydianin also inhibits the ADP pathway, but to a lesser extent. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that silybin, silychristin, and silydianin have inhibitory properties against the P2Y12 receptor and block ADP-induced blood platelet

  20. The therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism at P2X3 receptors in respiratory & urological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eFord

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates & sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X & P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways & participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs, linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice & knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity & visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory & visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action & are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral & central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral hollow organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation & pain (symptoms as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs, & how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary & airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional & sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs & symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists.

  1. Electronic structure and X-ray spectroscopic properties of YbNi_2P_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherba, I.D.; Bekenov, L.V.; Antonov, V.N.; Noga, H.; Uskokovic, D.; Zhak, O.; Kovalska, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present new experimental and theoretical data for YbNi_2P_2. • The presence of divalent and trivalent Yb ion found in YbNi_2P_2. • The calculation show good agreement with the experimental measurements. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectrum at the Yb L_3 edge and X-ray emission spectra of Ni and P at the K and L_2_,_3 edges have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the mixed valent compound YbNi_2P_2 with ThCr_2Si_2 type crystal structure. The electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is investigated using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) band-structure method. The effect of the spin–orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U on the electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is examined in the frame of the LSDA + SO + U method. The core-hole effect in the final states as well as the effect of the electric quadrupole E_2 transitions have been investigated. A good agreement between the theory and the experiment was found. Both the trivalent and the divalent Yb ions in YbNi_2P_2 are reflected in the experimentally measured Yb L_3 X-ray absorption spectrum simultaneously. We found that the best agreement between the experimental spectrum and sum of the theoretically calculated Yb"2"+ and Yb"3"+ spectra is achieved with 73% ytterbium ions in 2+ state and 27% ions in 3+ state.

  2. Pemetaan Pusat Pelayanan Terpadu Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Anak (P2TP2A Provinsi Sumatera Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallen Abu Bakar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Center of Integrated Service for Women and Children Empowerment (P2TP2A is established by the government based community in order to eliminate the violence towards women and children. It also aims to empower the position of women and children. The purpose of the study is to describe comprehensively the existance of P2TP2A in sub-district, district, city, and province in West Sumatra. Descriptive qualitative research was used where the data taken from questionnaire and in-deepthinterview. The study found that the Center of Integrated Service for Women and Children Empowerment was established by following certain procedure, legality and personnel structure. It also found that the majority of P2TP2A in West Sumatra has insufficient infrastructures. Meanwhile, it is only P2TP2A Limpapeh Rumah Nan Gadang of West Sumatera, and P2TP2A Luhak Nan Tuo Batusangkar has sufficient infrastructures. Many of them were located at the corner of Community Empowerment and Women and Family Planning office (BPMPKB. Every P2TP2A in those district and city have made their programs, but they faced some difficulties in realize them doe to financial problems. The human resources were recruited from SKPD, academician, professional, society figures, LSM who concern on gender meanstreaming. They play the role more on providing the service than giving information and empowerment. The last finding of the study showed that the involvement of local government, Health offices, social services, police, ministry of religion, prosecutors and social services have been effective.

  3. Editorial L&E, v.8, n.1, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rede Conpadre

    2014-02-01

    objetivo dos setores da sociedade comprometidos em gerar o mínimo impacto sobre o ambiente. Profissionais do setor da construção civil, de onde advém grande parte dos resíduos sólidos, repensam suas decisões projetuais acerca do uso de materiais convencionais, avaliando caso a caso o custo e o benefício de suas escolhas (ROMANO; DE PARIS; NEUENFELDT, 2014. Ainda no Brasil encerramos em Vitória o tour proporcionado pela Revista L&E, v.8, n.1, 2014 — no Espírito Santo. Vamos conhecer algo da contribuição que os estudos sobre Alta Qualidade Ambiental proporcionam à Legislação brasileira a partir de uma análise do desempenho ambiental de edificações residenciais multifamiliares localizadas na cidade de Vitória [ES], enfocando a iluminação natural. Desejamos a todos uma excelente leitura.

  4. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-09-01

    HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF

  5. Testing a Cloud Provider Network for Hybrid P2P and Cloud Streaming Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño Arriba, Javier; Rodríguez, Pedro; Trajkovska, Irena; Mozo Velasco, Alberto; Salvachúa Rodríguez, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    The number of online real-time streaming services deployed over network topologies like P2P or centralized ones has remarkably increased in the recent years. This has revealed the lack of networks that are well prepared to respond to this kind of traffic. A hybrid distribution network can be an efficient solution for real-time streaming services. This paper contains the experimental results of streaming distribution in a hybrid architecture that consist of mixed connections among P2P and Clou...

  6. Electronic structure and magnetism of titanium substituted Cd3P2: An ab-initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiganesh, G.; Jaya, S. Mathi

    2018-05-01

    Using the ab-initio computations that are based on the density functional theory, we have investigated the magnetism and electronic properties of one and two Ti atom substituted Cd3P2 compound. The magnetic stability of the substituted compounds was obtained by analyzing the minimum total energies in nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. Our results indicated the formation of magnetic order in one and two Ti atom substituted Cd3P2 as well as metallic characteristics in these systems. A significant value of the magnetic moment of Ti atom is observed from our calculations. We further find that the neighboring Cd and P atoms too acquire a small magnetic moment.

  7. [Factorial division of the visual N1 wave and functional significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Ruata, J; Caro-Martinez, E

    2011-05-16

    It has been argued if the frontal, N1a, is the early part of the occipito-temporal, N1b, or there are two different waves. It is also not clear whether the N1 of distractor is equivalent to the target N1, neither to distinguish these four waves has some functional value. We performed a principal component analysis of latencies and amplitudes of N1 derived from an oddball visual paradigm in a sample of 82 persons with intellectual disability, and factor scores were correlated with measures of intellectual performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. There is not significant dependency between N1a and N1b waves. The N1 from the target stimulus is functionally different to the N1 from the distractor. The N1a 'target' is related to the perceptual reasoning while the N1a 'distractor' is related to the working memory. The correlation between latencies and amplitudes of the target stimuli in posterior locations suggests that, similar to as observed in auditory areas, there is a visual synchronization with the prefrontal cortex; its dysfunction may explain some of the perceptual problems of people with intellectual disabilities.

  8. Understanding the cross-resistance of oseltamivir to H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A neuraminidase mutations using multidimensional computational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashona Singh, Mahmoud E Soliman School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South Africa Abstract: This study embarks on a comprehensive description of the conformational contributions to resistance of neuraminidase (N1 in H1N1 and H5N1 to oseltamivir, using comparative multiple molecular dynamic simulations. The available data with regard to elucidation of the mechanism of resistance as a result of mutations in H1N1 and H5N1 neuraminidases is not well established. Enhanced post-dynamic analysis, such as principal component analysis, solvent accessible surface area, free binding energy calculations, and radius of gyration were performed to gain a precise insight into the binding mode and origin of resistance of oseltamivir in H1N1 and H5N1 mutants. Three significant features reflecting resistance in the presence of mutations H274Y and I222K, of the protein complexed with the inhibitor are: reduced flexibility of the a-carbon backbone; an improved ΔEele of ~15 (kcal/mol for H1N1 coupled with an increase in ΔGsol­ (~13 kcal/mol from wild-type to mutation; a low binding affinity in comparison with the wild-type of ~2 (kcal/mol and ~7 (kcal/mol with respect to each mutation for the H5N1 systems; and reduced hydrophobicity of the overall surface structure due to an impaired hydrogen bonding network. We believe the results of this study will ultimately provide a useful insight into the structural landscape of neuraminidase-associated binding of oseltamivir. Furthermore, the results can be used in the design and development of potent inhibitors of neuraminidases. Keywords: neuraminidase, molecular dynamics, resistance, mutation, binding free energy

  9. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of avian antibodies against influenza virus H5N1 and H1N1 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan H Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic influenza poses a serious threat to global health and the world economy. While vaccines are currently under development, passive immunization could offer an alternative strategy to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. Attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been made. However, passive immunization based on mAbs may require a cocktail of mAbs with broader specificity in order to provide full protection since mAbs are generally specific for single epitopes. Chicken immunoglobulins (IgY found in egg yolk have been used mainly for treatment of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Because the recent epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV strain H5N1 has resulted in serious economic losses to the poultry industry, many countries including Vietnam have introduced mass vaccination of poultry with H5N1 virus vaccines. We reasoned that IgY from consumable eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam could provide protection against infections with HPAIV H5N1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that H5N1-specific IgY that are prepared from eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam by a rapid and simple water dilution method cross-protect against infections with HPAIV H5N1 and related H5N2 strains in mice. When administered intranasally before or after lethal infection, the IgY prevent the infection or significantly reduce viral replication resulting in complete recovery from the disease, respectively. We further generated H1N1 virus-specific IgY by immunization of hens with inactivated H1N1 A/PR/8/34 as a model virus for the current pandemic H1N1/09 and found that such H1N1-specific IgY protect mice from lethal influenza virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that readily available H5N1-specific IgY offer an enormous source of valuable biological material to combat a potential H5N1 pandemic. In addition, our study provides a proof-of-concept for the approach using virus

  10. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Su Dongju; Zhang Jifeng; Xia Xudong; Sui Hong; Zhao Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p 2 test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

  11. Transition probabilities for the 3s2 3p(2P0)-3s3p2(4P) intersystem lines of Si II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamai, Anthony G.; Smith, Peter L.; Bergeson, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Intensity ratios of lines of the spin-changing 'intersystem' multiplet of S II (4P yields 2P0) at 234 nm have been used to determine electron densities and temperatures in a variety of astrophysical environments. However, the accuracy of these diagnostic calculations have been limited by uncertainties associated with the available atomic data. We report the first laboratory measurement, using an ion-trapping technique, of the radiative lifetimes of the three metastable levels of the 3s3p2 4P term of Si II. Our results are 104 +/- 16, 406 +/- 33, and 811 +/- 77 micro-s for lifetimes of the J = 1/2, 5/2, and 3/2 levels, respectively. A-values were derived from our lifetimes by use of measured branching fractions. Our A-values, which differ from calculated values by 30 percent or more, should give better agreement between modeled and observed Si II line ratios.

  12. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties Of EuIn2P2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2011-10-25

    The electronic structures and, optical and magneto‐optical properties of a newly found Zintl compound EuIn2P2 have been investigated within the density‐functional theory using the highly precise full‐potential linear‐augmented‐plane‐wave method. Results of detailed investigation of the electronic structure and related properties are reported.

  13. Integrating XQuery and P2P in MonetDB/XQuery*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Arenas (Marcelo); J. Hidders

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMonetDB/XQuery* is a fully functional publicly available XML DBMS that has been extended with distributed and P2P data management functionality. Our (minimal) XQuery language extension XRPC adds the concept of RPC to XQuery, and exploits the set-at-a-time database processing model to

  14. Baryonic 3P2 superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with Δ isobar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, T.; Tamagaki, R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the baryonic 3 P 2 superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with isobar (Δ) degrees of freedom. After a remark on motivations of the present study, the outline of theoretical framework is briefly described, typical results of the superfluid critical temperature are shown, and the possibility of coexistence of the superfluid with charged-pion condensation is discussed. (author)

  15. The "P2P" Educational Model Providing Innovative Learning by Linking Technology, Business and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Paul Gordon

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect and potential of a new educational learning model called Peer to Peer (P2P). The study was focused on Laurea, Hyvinkaa's Finland campus and its response to bridging the gap between traditional educational methods and working reality, where modern technology plays an important role. The study describes and evaluates…

  16. Prostaglandin H synthase-mediated bioactivation of the amino acid pyrolysate product Trp P-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, T.W.; Krauss, R.S.; Eling, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    We report evidence that the mutagen and carcinogen 3-amino-1-methyl-5H pyrido(4,3b)indole (Trp P-2) is a substrate for co-oxidation by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) in ram seminal vesicle (RSV) microsomes. Trp P-2 serves as a reducing cofactor for the hydroperoxidase activity of PHS as shown by the concentration-dependent inhibition of the hydroperoxidase catalyzed incorporation of molecular oxygen into phenylbutazone. Spectral data suggest that this metabolism results in disruption of the double bond conjugation within the nucleus of the molecule. A single metabolite peak which was dependent upon arachidonic acid and substrate concentration was separated from the parent compound by h.p.l.c. following incubation with RSV microsomes. Co-oxidation of Trp P-2 produced reactive intermediates which bound covalently to microsomal protein (9 nmol/mg) and to calf thymus DNA (475 pmol/mg). Binding was inhibited by indomethacin, and supported by substitution of hydrogen peroxide for arachidonic acid. These data suggest a possible role for PHS in the in situ activation of Trp P-2 to its ultimate carcinogenic form in tissues which contain PHS.

  17. Load Balancing Scheme on the Basis of Huffman Coding for P2P Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Hisashi; Takasu, Atsuhiro; Adachi, Jun

    Although a distributed index on a distributed hash table (DHT) enables efficient document query processing in Peer-to-Peer information retrieval (P2P IR), the index costs a lot to construct and it tends to be an unfair management because of the unbalanced term frequency distribution. We devised a new distributed index, named Huffman-DHT, for P2P IR. The new index uses an algorithm similar to Huffman coding with a modification to the DHT structure based on the term distribution. In a Huffman-DHT, a frequent term is assigned to a short ID and allocated a large space in the node ID space in DHT. Throuth ID management, the Huffman-DHT balances the index registration accesses among peers and reduces load concentrations. Huffman-DHT is the first approach to adapt concepts of coding theory and term frequency distribution to load balancing. We evaluated this approach in experiments using a document collection and assessed its load balancing capabilities in P2P IR. The experimental results indicated that it is most effective when the P2P system consists of about 30, 000 nodes and contains many documents. Moreover, we proved that we can construct a Huffman-DHT easily by estimating the probability distribution of the term occurrence from a small number of sample documents.

  18. P2P systems in a regulated environment : challenges and opportunities for the operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    P2P networks, systems, and applications have been the subject of intensive studies in recent years. They have created new business opportunities, providing a low-cost mechanism for communication and for online content distribution. They have also sparked a spate of legal disputes with adverse

  19. Time dependency on the fabrication of H 4 TPPS 4 2- -SnTPyP 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-pyridyl)porphyrin dichloride (SnTPyP2+) porphyrin nanorods were prepared at room temperature by ionic self-assembly of these two oppositely charged porphyrins. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the samples were measured hourly for the ...

  20. Comparing manually-developed and data-driven rules for P2P learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoneme-to-phoneme (P2P) learning provides a mechanism for predicting the pronunciation of a word based on its pronunciation in a different accent, dialect or language. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of manually-developed as well...