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Sample records for oxygen-depleted environments evidence

  1. Loss aversion and hypoxia: less loss aversion in oxygen-depleted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Stefania; Bonini, Nicolao; Savadori, Lucia; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Schena, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia, the deprivation of adequate oxygen supply, constitutes a direct threat to survival by disrupting cardiovascular or respiratory homeostasis and eliciting a respiratory distress. Although hypoxia has been shown to increase brain vulnerability and impair basic cognitive functions, only one study has examined its effect on decision-making. The present study examined the effect of mild hypoxia on individual's loss aversion, that is, the tendency to be more affected by losses than equal sized gains. A sample of 26 participants were asked to either accept or reject a series of mixed gambles once in an oxygen-depleted environment (14.1% oxygen concentration) and once in a normoxic environment (20.9% oxygen concentration). Each gamble involved a 50-50 chance of winning or losing specified amounts of money. Mild hypoxia decreased loss aversion: on average in the normoxic condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 2.4 times as large as the loss, whereas in the oxygen-depleted condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 1.7 times as large as the loss. Mild hypoxia may push individuals to be less cautious in daily decisions that involve a trade-off between a gain and a loss.

  2. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  3. Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and assoc......Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion...... solubility from surface-layer warming accounts for most of the enhanced oxygen depletion in the upper 500 m of the ocean. Possible weakening of ocean overturning and convection lead to further oxygen depletion, also in the deep ocean. We conclude that substantial reductions in fossil-fuel use over the next...

  4. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  5. Macroinvertebrate short-term responses to flow variation and oxygen depletion: A mesocosm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Ana R; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Ferreira, Teresa; Hein, Thomas; Brito, António G; Feio, Maria João

    2017-12-01

    In Mediterranean rivers, water scarcity is a key stressor with direct and indirect effects on other stressors, such as water quality decline and inherent oxygen depletion associated with pollutants inputs. Yet, predicting the responses of macroinvertebrates to these stressors combination is quite challenging due to the reduced available information, especially if biotic and abiotic seasonal variations are taken under consideration. This study focused on the response of macroinvertebrates by drift to single and combined effects of water scarcity and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion over two seasons (winter and spring). A factorial design of two flow velocity levels - regular and low (vL) - with three levels of oxygen depletion - normoxia, medium depletion (dM) and higher depletion (dH) - was carried out in a 5-artificial channels system, in short-term experiments. Results showed that both stressors individually and together had a significant effect on macroinvertebrate drift ratio for both seasons. Single stressor effects showed that macroinvertebrate drift decreased with flow velocity reduction and increased with DO depletion, in both winter and spring experiments. Despite single stressors opposing effects in drift ratio, combined stressors interaction (vL×dM and vL×dH) induced a positive synergistic drift effect for both seasons, but only in winter the drift ratio was different between the levels of DO depletion. Stressors interaction in winter seemed to intensify drift response when reached lower oxygen saturation. Also, drift patterns were different between seasons for all treatments, which may depend on individual's life stage and seasonal behaviour. Water scarcity seems to exacerbate the oxygen depletion conditions resulting into a greater drifting of invertebrates. The potential effects of oxygen depletion should be evaluated when addressing the impacts of water scarcity on river ecosystems, since flow reductions will likely contribute to a higher oxygen

  6. Asphyxiation death caused by oxygen-depleting cargo on a ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundal, Marjana Kjetland; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Barane, Hans; Morild, Inge; Vevelstad, Merete

    2017-10-01

    The extreme danger associated with entering enclosed spaces loaded with oxygen-depleting organic cargo in ships and tanks is obviously underestimated, both among crew and management. We present a case report to highlight this occupational hazard and to increase the knowledge about the imperative precautions, in order to prevent future accidents. An experienced customs officer was found lifeless at the bottom of the unattended cargo hold on a ship loaded with woodchips. The oxygen content in the cargo atmosphere was below 2%, which is incompatible with life. Forensic autopsy revealed injuries related to the fall, and there were no positive toxicological findings in blood, lung or urine. Management and workers must be taught about the extreme rapidity of developing unconsciousness and asphyxiant death when entering enclosed spaces loaded with oxygen-depleting cargo. Even a single inhalation can result in unconsciousness and death. Dozens of annual deaths and severe injuries can easily be prevented if simple precautions are followed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of oxygen-depleted water on the vertical distribution of chaetognaths in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kusum, K.K.; Vineetha, G.; Raveendran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The influence of a thick layer of oxygen-depleted water (<0.2 ml l sup(-1)) on the abundance and distribution of chaetognaths was investigated in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS), a natural oxygen-deficient system in the global ocean. The species...

  8. Dynamics of oxygen depletion in the nearshore of a coastal embayment of the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pitcher, GC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available is characterized by seasonally recurrent hypoxia (<1.42 ml l(sup-1)) associated with a deep pool of oxygen-depleted water and episodic anoxia (<0.02 ml l(sup-1)) driven by the nearshore (<20 m isobath) decay of red tide. Coastal wind forcing influences DO...

  9. Effect of hypolimnetic oxygenation on oxygen depletion rates in two water-supply reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzer, Paul A; Bryant, Lee D; Little, John C

    2009-04-01

    Oxygenation systems, such as bubble-plume diffusers, are used to improve water quality by replenishing dissolved oxygen (DO) in the hypolimnia of water-supply reservoirs. The diffusers induce circulation and mixing, which helps distribute DO throughout the hypolimnion. Mixing, however, has also been observed to increase hypolimnetic oxygen demand (HOD) during system operation, thus accelerating oxygen depletion. Two water-supply reservoirs (Spring Hollow Reservoir (SHR) and Carvins Cove Reservoir (CCR)) that employ linear bubble-plume diffusers were studied to quantify diffuser effects on HOD. A recently validated plume model was used to predict oxygen addition rates. The results were used together with observed oxygen accumulation rates to evaluate HOD over a wide range of applied gas flow rates. Plume-induced mixing correlated well with applied gas flow rate and was observed to increase HOD. Linear relationships between applied gas flow rate and HOD were found for both SHR and CCR. HOD was also observed to be independent of bulk hypolimnion oxygen concentration, indicating that HOD is controlled by induced mixing. Despite transient increases in HOD, oxygenation caused an overall decrease in background HOD, as well as a decrease in induced HOD during diffuser operation, over several years. This suggests that the residual or background oxygen demand decreases from one year to the next. Despite diffuser-induced increases in HOD, hypolimnetic oxygenation remains a viable method for replenishing DO in thermally-stratified water-supply reservoirs such as SHR and CCR.

  10. Experimental and analytical study of oxygen depletion in stirred cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, D.W.; Rauth, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The determination and maintenance of constant low but non-zero levels of oxygen is critical in the study of the radiation chemical interactions of nitroimidazoles in mammalian cells in vitro. As well, many of these chemicals have increased toxicity toward hypoxic compared to aerobic cells, although absolute hypoxia probably is not required. Both of these phenomena must be investigated in systems where significant consumption of oxygen takes place, either through radiation depletion or by cellular metabolism. In this paper an analysis has been made of the form of oxygen depletion in stirred cell suspensions with overlying gas phase, and it has been found to conform to the relationship (C[t] - C/sub infinity/) = (C[0] - C/sub infinity/) exp(-k 1 t), where C/sub infinity/ = C/sub g/ - R/k 1 . Here C[t] is the oxygen tension throughout the solution; C/sub g/, the equivalent level in the overlying gas phase; R (concentration units per sec), the depletion rate; k 1 (sec/sup -1/), a physical constant independent of oxygen concentration and depletion rate; and C/sub infinity/, the oxygen level in solution approached at long times. This relationship has been confirmed in detail using a Clark-type oxygen sensor and a high-stability amplifier design due to Koch. Since oxygen levels down to a few hundred parts per million can be determined with accuracy, it has been possible to measure precisely the oxygen levels present in our experimental systems. Implications of these results for the interpretation of data obtained in stirred cell suspension with overlying gas phase under conditions of consumption are discussed

  11. Biogeochemistry of Recently Discovered Oxygen-Depleted Mesoscale Eddies in the Open Eastern Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, B.; Grundle, D.; Löscher, C. R.; Schütte, F.; Hauss, H.; Karstensen, J.; Silva, P.; Koertzinger, A.

    2016-02-01

    Severely oxygen-depleted mesoscale features in the open eastern tropical North Atlantic, which are formed in the Mauritanian upwelling region, were discovered only recently. So far, few remote surveys conducted with autonomous platforms such as moorings, underwater gliders and profiling floats have provided a very first insight into these mesoscale eddies. Due to their hydrographic properties such water bodies are well isolated from ambient waters and therefore can develop severe near-surface oxygen deficits. In this presentation we show results from the first-ever biogeochemical survey of one of these anticyclonic mode-water eddies conducted in spring 2014 at the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO) off West Africa. Very low oxygen concentrations of 4.5 µmol kg-1 associated with a CO2 partial pressure of 1164 µatm were found close to the core of the eddy (at 100 m depth). Measurements for nitrate and phosphate also show exceptional high values. Findings point to rapid oxygen consumption through remineralization of organic matter along with depressed lateral mixing of this water body. Indeed, rates for oxygen utilization (OUR) were found to be enhanced when compared to known values in the Atlantic. A closer look into the carbonate system inside the eddýs core revealed disadvantageous conditions for calcifying organisms with the pH dropping down to 7.6 and the Aragonite saturation level reaching 1 at the lower boundary of the euphotic zone. Finally, strong indications for a shift in nitrogen cycling in the core of the eddy from nitrification towards denitrification were found based on gene abundance and N2O-isotope analyses. To our knowledge such severe hypoxic and even suboxic near-surface conditions along with active denitrification have never been reported before in the open Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Recent oxygen depletion and benthic faunal change in shallow areas of Sannäs Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Kjell; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Gallagher, Timothy M.; Robijn, Ardo

    2017-09-01

    Sannäs Fjord is a shallow fjord (European Union. Yet, observations during the summers of 2008-2011 show that the shallow inner fjord inlet experiences severe oxygen depletion at 5-12 m water depth. To explore if the oxygen depletion is only a recent phenomenon and to evaluate the potential of fjord sediments to archive such environmental changes, in 2008 and 2009 seven sediment cores were taken along a transect oriented lengthwise in the fjord. The cores were analysed for organic carbon, C/N, benthic foraminifera and lead pollution records (as relative age marker). Carbon content increases in most of the cores since the 1970-80s, while C/N ratio decreases from the core base upward since 1995. Foraminiferal assemblages in most core stratigraphies are dominated by agglutinated species. Calcareous species (mainly elphidiids) have become dominant in the upper part of the records since the late 1990s or 2000 (the inner fjord and the deepest basin) and since the 1950-70s (the outer fjord). In the inner Sannäs Fjord, an increase of agglutinated foraminiferal species (e.g. Eggerelloides scaber) and organic inner linings occurred since the 1970s, suggesting an intensification of taphonomic processes affecting postmortem calcareous shell preservation. A study of living vs. dead foraminiferal assemblages undertaken during June-August 2013 demonstrates that in the shallow inner fjord, strong carbonate dissolution occurs within 1-3 months following the foraminiferal growth. The dissolution is linked to corrosive conditions present within the sediment - bottom water interface, and is likely caused by the organic matter decay, resulting in severe hypoxia to anoxia. Oxygen depletion at < 10 m w.d. develops fast due to the small water volume and limited bottom water exchange caused by a close proximity of pycnocline to the fjord bottom. Sediment cores from the deep fjord basin and the outer fjord are, on the contrary, characterized by good to excellent preservation of

  13. OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D. C. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n H ). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as ∼160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

  14. Studies on oxygen depletion and the toxic effect of sediments; Untersuchungen zur Sauerstoffzehrung und toxischen Wirkung von Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfitzner, S.; Giest, B.; Wotzka, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Depending on their composition and how they were formed, water sediments contain varying amounts of oxygen-depleting substances. Their portion is particularly high in fine sediment and sediments formed in conjunction with exposure to a high level of wastewater. Particularly in current-free areas like old arms, indentations, sluices and outer ports, sediment forms with a high fine grain content and a correspondingly higher potential for depletion. If, for instance, the sediments are moved and stirred up during dredging, this may impair their oxygen content since oxygen consumption is far higher in a suspended sediment than when it is undisturbed on the water bottom. The very rapid spontaneous chemical oxidation and biological oxidation of reduced substances are possible oxygen-consuming processes. (orig.) [German] Gewaessersedimente enthalten in Abhaengigkeit von ihrer Zusammensetzung und der Art ihrer Entstehung unterschiedliche Mengen an Sauerstoff zehrenden Substanzen. Ihr Anteil ist besonders hoch in Feinsedimenten und solchen, die sich unter starkem Abwassereinfluss bilden konnten. Insbesondere in stroemungsberuhigten Gebieten, wie Altarmen, Ausbuchtungen sowie Schleusen und deren Vorhaefen, reichern sich Sedimente mit hohem Feinkornanteil und dementsprechend hoher potenzieller Zehrungsfaehigkeit an. Werden die Sedimente beispielsweise durch Baggermassnahmen bewegt und aufgewirbelt, kann es zur Beeintraechtigung des Sauerstoffhaushaltes kommen, da der Sauerstoffverbrauch eines Sedimentes bei Suspension um ein Vielfaches hoeher als bei ungestoerter Lagerung am Gewaesserboden sein kann. Als Sauerstoff verbrauchende Prozesse kommen die sehr schnell verlaufende spontane chemische Oxidation sowie die biologische Oxidation reduzierter Substanzen in Betracht. (orig.)

  15. A Review of Protist Grazing Below the Photic Zone Emphasizing Studies of Oxygen-Depleted Water Columns and Recent Applications of In situ Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Edgcomb

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is still known of the impacts of protist grazing on bacterioplankton communities in the dark ocean. Furthermore, the accuracy of assessments of in situ microbial activities, including protist grazing, can be affected by sampling artifacts introduced during sample retrieval and downstream manipulations. Potential artifacts may be increased when working with deep-sea samples or samples from chemically unique water columns such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. OMZs are oxygen-depleted regions in the ocean, where oxygen concentrations can drop to <20 μM. These regions are typically located near eastern boundary upwelling systems and currently occur in waters occupying below about 8% of total ocean surface area, representing ~1% of the ocean's volume. OMZs have a profound impact not only on the distribution of marine Metazoa, but also on the composition and activities of microbial communities at the base of marine food webs. Here we present an overview of current knowledge of protist phagotrophy below the photic zone, emphasizing studies of oxygen-depleted waters and presenting results of the first attempt to implement new technology for conducting these incubation studies completely in situ (the Microbial Sampling- Submersible Incubation Device, MS-SID. We performed 24-h incubation experiments in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP OMZ. This preliminary study shows that up to 28% of bacterial biomass may be consumed by protists in waters where oxygen concentrations were down to ~4.8 μM and up to 13% at a station with nitrite accumulation where oxygen concentrations were undetectable. Results also show that shipboard measurements of grazing rates were lower than rates measured from the same water using the MS-SID, suggesting that in situ experiments help to minimize artifacts that may be introduced when conducting incubation studies using waters collected from below the photic zone, particularly from oxygen-depleted regions of the water

  16. Effects of nickel chloride and oxygen depletion on behaviour and vitality of zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cypriniformes) embryos and larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, Cornelia; Koehler, H.-R.; Filser, Juliane; Gerhardt, Almut

    2008-01-01

    We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl 2 .6H 2 O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic exposure: hatching rate, deformations, locomotory activity (at 5, 8 and 11 days) and mortality. In acute exposures nickel chloride (7.5-15 mg Ni/L) caused decreasing locomotory activity. Oxygen depletion (≤2.45 ± 0.16 mg O 2 /L) also resulted in significantly reduced locomotory activity. In the subchronic test, exposure to ≥10 mg Ni/L resulted in delayed hatching at an age of 96 h, in decreased locomotory activity at an age of 5 days, and increased mortality at an age of 11 days (LC 20 = 9.5 mg Ni/L). The observed LOEC for locomotory activity (7.5 mg Ni/L) is in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations. Since locomotory activity was already affected by acute exposure, this parameter is recommended to supplement commonly recorded endpoints of toxicity. - Increasing concentrations of nickel chloride and decreasing concentrations of oxygen lead to reduced vitality and locomotory activity in Danio rerio embryos and larvae

  17. Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…

  18. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.; Behnke, A.; Stoeck, T.

    , Ollivier B, Skiena S, Taghavi S, Zak D & van der Lelie D (2008) Elevated atmospheric CO 2 affects soil microbial diversity associated with trembling aspen. Environ Microbiol 10 : 926–941. López-García P, Vereshchaka A & Moreira D (2007) Eukaryotic...

  19. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica U Meir

    Full Text Available Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2 measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest. This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive, thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types. This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. This approach may be important to optimizing energy expenditure throughout a dive bout or at-sea foraging trip and is well suited to the lifestyle of an elephant seal, which spends > 90% of its time at sea submerged making diving its

  20. Oxygen depletion of bismuth molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, L.K.; Howe, R.F.; Keulks, G.W.; Hall, W.K.

    1978-05-01

    Pure ..cap alpha..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/Mo/sub 3/O/sub 12/), which is known to be weakly active for selective oxidation, and pure ..gamma..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/), which has good activity, were subjected to oxidation-reduction cycles with known amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, at 300/sup 0/-570/sup 0/C and with evacuation steps between treatments. The volume of oxygen consumed during reoxidation was equal to half the hydrogen consumed during the reduction on the ..cap alpha..-phase, which indicated that no hydrogen was retained during reduction. For the ..gamma..-phase, the oxygen consumption was greater than half of the hydrogen consumption and it increased with extent of reduction. The excess oxygen was apparently consumed by filling anion vacancies formed during outgassing subsequent to the reduction step. ESR spectroscopy and temperature-programed oxidation-reduction indicated that lattice oxide ions which bridge between bismuth and molybdenum layers of the koechlinite structure become more labile when the catalyst is in a partially reduced state, and that this effect is greater in the ..gamma..- than the ..cap alpha..-phase. Table and 15 references.

  1. Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mars has been more similar to that of Earth than has the climate of any other planet in our Solar System. But Mars still provides a valuable alternative example of how planetary processes and environments can affect the potential presence of life elsewhere. For example, although Mars also differentiated very early into a core, mantle and crust, it then evolved mostly if not completely without plate tectonics and has lost most of its early atmosphere. The Martian crust has been more stable than that of Earth, thus it has probably preserved a more complete record of its earliest history. Orbital observations determined that near-surface water was once pervasive. Orbiters have identified the following diverse aqueous sedimentary deposits: layered phyllosilicates, phyllosilicates in intracrater fans, plains sediments potentially harboring evaporitic minerals, deep phyllosilicates, carbonate-bearing deposits, intracrater clay-sulfate deposits, Meridiani-type layered deposits, valles-type layered deposits, hydrated silica-bearing deposits, and gypsum plains. These features, together with evidence of more vigorous past geologic activity, indicate that early climates were wetter and perhaps also somewhat warmer. The denser atmosphere that was required for liquid water to be stable on the surface also provided more substantial protection from radiation. Whereas ancient climates might have favored habitable environments at least in some localities, clearly much of the Martian surface for most of its history has been markedly less favorable for life. The combination of dry conditions, oxidizing surface environments and typically low rates of sedimentation are not conducive to the preservation of evidence of ancient environments and any biota. Thus a strategy is required whereby candidate sites are first identified and then characterized for their potential to preserve evidence of past habitable environments. Rovers are then sent to explore the most promising

  2. Evidence Accumulation and Change Rate Inference in Dynamic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radillo, Adrian E; Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Josić, Krešimir; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2017-06-01

    In a constantly changing world, animals must account for environmental volatility when making decisions. To appropriately discount older, irrelevant information, they need to learn the rate at which the environment changes. We develop an ideal observer model capable of inferring the present state of the environment along with its rate of change. Key to this computation is an update of the posterior probability of all possible change point counts. This computation can be challenging, as the number of possibilities grows rapidly with time. However, we show how the computations can be simplified in the continuum limit by a moment closure approximation. The resulting low-dimensional system can be used to infer the environmental state and change rate with accuracy comparable to the ideal observer. The approximate computations can be performed by a neural network model via a rate-correlation-based plasticity rule. We thus show how optimal observers accumulate evidence in changing environments and map this computation to reduced models that perform inference using plausible neural mechanisms.

  3. Evidence for Enhanced Matrix Diffusion in Geological Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Fujimoto, Koichiro; Nakata, Masataka; Shikazono, Naotatsu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diffusion in rock matrix, called as matrix diffusion, has been appreciated as a static process for elemental migration in geological environment that has been acknowledged in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. However, incomprehensible enhancement of matrix diffusion has been reported at a number of field test sites. Here, the matrix diffusion of saline water at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan is highlighted directly probing angstrom-scale pores on a field scale up to 1 km by positron--positronium annihilation spectroscopy. The first application of positron--positronium annihilation spectroscopy to field-scale geophysical research reveals the slight variation of angstrom-scale pores influenced by saline water diffusion with complete accuracy. We found widely interconnected 3 Å pores, which offer the pathway of saline water diffusion with the highly enhanced effective matrix diffusion coefficient of 4× 10-6 cm2 s-1. The present findings provide unambiguous evidence that the angstrom-scale pores enhance effective matrix diffusion on a field scale in geological environment.

  4. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  5. Scanning the Business External Environment for Information: Evidence from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourteli, Liana

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment,…

  6. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  7. College Environment, Student Involvement, and Intellectual Development: Evidence in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xianglan; Liu, Jinlan; Bai, Yin

    2017-01-01

    China's higher education system has been marked by dramatic growth since 1999. In response to calls for quality assurance, substantial efforts have been made to improve collegiate environments and enhance student learning. However, only limited empirical research has been conducted to investigate the effects of the college environment on student…

  8. Life as Thermodynamic Evidence of Algorithmic Structure in Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rosenblueth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In evolutionary biology, attention to the relationship between stochastic organisms and their stochastic environments has leaned towards the adaptability and learning capabilities of the organisms rather than toward the properties of the environment. This article is devoted to the algorithmic aspects of the environment and its interaction with living organisms. We ask whether one may use the fact of the existence of life to establish how far nature is removed from algorithmic randomness. The paper uses a novel approach to behavioral evolutionary questions, using tools drawn from information theory, algorithmic complexity and the thermodynamics of computation to support an intuitive assumption about the near optimal structure of a physical environment that would prove conducive to the evolution and survival of organisms, and sketches the potential of these tools, at present alien to biology, that could be used in the future to address different and deeper questions. We contribute to the discussion of the algorithmic structure of natural environments and provide statistical and computational arguments for the intuitive claim that living systems would not be able to survive in completely unpredictable environments, even if adaptable and equipped with storage and learning capabilities by natural selection (brain memory or DNA.

  9. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  10. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-03-08

    An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment--the neighborhood form and street form--on residents' active travel. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke's ρ², increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions.

  11. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  12. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Teri M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. Methods We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Results Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Conclusions Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.

  13. Dietary inequalities: what is the evidence for the effect of the neighbourhood food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christina; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises the evidence for inequalities in community and consumer nutrition environments from ten previous review articles, and also assesses the evidence for the effect of the community and consumer nutrition environments on dietary intake. There is evidence for inequalities in food access in the US but trends are less apparent in other developed countries. There is a trend for greater access and availability to healthy and less healthy foods relating to better and poorer dietary outcomes respectively. Trends for price show that higher prices of healthy foods are associated with better dietary outcomes. More nuanced measures of the food environment, including multi-dimensional and individualised approaches, would enhance the state of the evidence and help inform future interventions. PMID:24200470

  14. Dietary inequalities: what is the evidence for the effect of the neighbourhood food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christina; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2014-05-01

    This review summarises the evidence for inequalities in community and consumer nutrition environments from ten previous review articles, and also assesses the evidence for the effect of the community and consumer nutrition environments on dietary intake. There is evidence for inequalities in food access in the US but trends are less apparent in other developed countries. There is a trend for greater access and availability to healthy and less healthy foods relating to better and poorer dietary outcomes respectively. Trends for price show that higher prices of healthy foods are associated with better dietary outcomes. More nuanced measures of the food environment, including multidimensional and individualised approaches, would enhance the state of the evidence and help inform future interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. Using evidence-based leadership initiatives to create a healthy nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care.

  16. An Introduction to Computer Forensics: Gathering Evidence in a Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry B. Wolfe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Business has become increasingly dependent on the Internet and computing to operate. It has become apparent that there are issues of evidence gathering in a computing environment, which by their nature are technical and different to other forms of evidence gathering, that must be addressed. This paper offers an introduction to some of the technical issues surrounding this new and specialized field of Computer Forensics. It attempts to identify and describe sources of evidence that can be found on disk data storage devices in the course of an investigation. It also considers sources of copies of email, which can be used in evidence, as well as case building.

  17. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović, M. D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: {it Escherichia coli (E. coli K12}, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0D C ({it Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum} and {it Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii} and 110D C ({it Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri}. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the {it chaperones} known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved {it chaperons} found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique {it chaperone TF55}. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The followinghyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used forthese studies: {it Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii, M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus} and threespecies of {it Pyrococcus}. Common genes were annotated and groupedaccording to their roles in cellular processes where such informationwas available and proteins not previously implicated in theheat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additionalexperimental data are needed in order to learn more about theseproteins. To address non-gene based components of thermaladaptation

  18. Evidence of molecular adaptation to extreme environments and applicability to space environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile: Escherichia coli (E. coli K12, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0ºC (Metarhizium frigidum (M. frigidum and Methanococcoides burtonii (M. burtonii and 110ºC (Methanopyrus kandleri (M. kandleri. Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M. jannaschii, M. kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A. fulgidus and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were

  19. The importance of work environment: evidence-based strategies for enhancing nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Linda

    2005-06-01

    As the nation faces a growing nursing shortage, it is imperative that home care leaders implement evidence-based strategies to improve nurse recruitment and retention. Previous research indicates that characteristics of the work environment that support nursing practice enhance nurses' job satisfaction and reduce turnover. Yet, there is little evidence to assist in prioritizing initiatives to improve the work environment of nurses. In this nationwide survey, home care nurses were asked to rate the importance of specific agency work environment traits, as listed on the Nursing Work Index-Revised, in supporting their home care practice. The 10 agency traits rated as most important are presented, and evidence-based recommendations for creating a culture of nurse retention are discussed.

  20. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 19 June 1985. Natural Environment Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the Natural Environment Research Council, on the management and disposal of radioactive waste, under the headings: introduction; role of NERC in research relating to radioactive waste disposal; current NERC research; disposal of wastes in geological strata on land; disposal of wastes in the deep oceans; general comments on high level wastes; effluents discharged to the Irish Sea (dispersion in the Irish Sea; dispersion from the Irish Sea into other environments); concluding observations. Representatives of NERC were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the Minutes of Evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  1. An Australian Version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched…

  2. Challenges And Lessons Learned From Communities Using Evidence To Adopt Strategies To Improve Healthy Food Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems Van Dijk, Julie A; Catlin, Bridget; Cofsky, Abbey; Carroll, Carrie

    2015-11-01

    Communities across the United States are increasingly tackling the complex task of changing their local environments and cultures to improve access to and consumption of healthy food. Communities that have received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize have deployed numerous evidence-informed strategies to enhance their local food environments. Their experiences can provide lessons for other communities working to improve health. In this article we examine how the prize-winning communities worked in a multidisciplinary collective manner to implement evidence-based strategies, deployed suites of strategies to expand the reach of food-related work, balanced evidence against innovation, and measured their own progress. Most of the communities also faced challenges in using evidence effectively to implement strategies to promote healthy food environments. Policy makers can accelerate the adoption of evidence-informed approaches related to food and health by embedding them in program standards and funding requirements. Establishing opportunities for ongoing training to enhance community practitioners' evaluation skills and collaborative leadership would also improve the effectiveness of community implementation of these strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. The Built Environment and Child Health: An Overview of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization and the shaping of the built environment have provided a number of socioeconomic benefits, but they have also brought unwanted side effects on health. We aimed to review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between the built environment, closely related exposures, and child health. We focused on growth and obesity, neuropsychological development, and respiratory and immune health. We used existing review articles and supplemented these with relevant work published and not included in existing reviews. The present review shows that there is good evidence for an association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction and respiratory health, whereas for other exposure and outcome combinations, further evidence is needed. Future studies should make efforts to integrate the different built environment features and to include the evaluation of environments other than home, as well as accessibility, qualitative and perception assessment of the built environment, and, if possible, with improved and standardized tools to facilitate comparability between studies. Efforts are also needed to conduct longitudinal and intervention studies and to understand potential mechanisms behind the associations observed. Finally, studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed.

  4. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, David Z; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-02-01

    Theories of skilled performance that emphasize training history, such as K. Anders Ericsson and colleagues' deliberate-practice theory, have received a great deal of recent attention in both the scientific literature and the popular press. Twin studies, however, have demonstrated evidence for moderate-to-strong genetic influences on skilled performance. Focusing on musical accomplishment in a sample of over 800 pairs of twins, we found evidence for gene-environment correlation, in the form of a genetic effect on music practice. However, only about one quarter of the genetic effect on music accomplishment was explained by this genetic effect on music practice, suggesting that genetically influenced factors other than practice contribute to individual differences in music accomplishment. We also found evidence for gene-environment interaction, such that genetic effects on music accomplishment were most pronounced among those engaging in music practice, suggesting that genetic potentials for skilled performance are most fully expressed and fostered by practice.

  5. An instrument to characterize the environment for residents' evidence-based medicine learning and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa; Moseley, James L; Green, Michael L

    2012-02-01

    Many residency programs offer training in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, these curricula often fail to achieve optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because they neglect various contextual factors in the learning environment. We developed and validated an instrument to characterize the environment for EBM learning and practice in residency programs. An EBM Environment Scale was developed following scale development principles. A survey was administered to residents across six programs in primary care specialties at four medical centers. Internal consistency reliability was analyzed with Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Validity was assessed by comparing predetermined subscales with the survey's internal structure as assessed via factor analysis. Scores were also compared for subgroups based on residency program affiliation and residency characteristics. Out of 262 eligible residents, 124 completed the survey (response rate 47%). The overall mean score was 3.89 (standard deviation=0.56). The initial reliability analysis of the 48-item scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.94). Factor analysis and further item analysis resulted in a shorter 36-item scale with a satisfactory reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.86). Scores were higher for residents with prior EBM training in medical school (4.14 versus 3.62) and in residency (4.25 versus 3.69). If further testing confirms its properties, the EBM Environment Scale may be used to understand the influence of the learning environment on the effectiveness of EBM training. Additionally, it may detect changes in the EBM learning environment in response to programmatic or institutional interventions.

  6. Fluid Intelligence and Cognitive Reflection in a Strategic Environment: Evidence from Dominance-Solvable Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaki, Nobuyuki; Jacquemet, Nicolas; Luchini, Stéphane; Zylbersztejn, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Dominance solvability is one of the most straightforward solution concepts in game theory. It is based on two principles: dominance (according to which players always use their dominant strategy) and iterated dominance (according to which players always act as if others apply the principle of dominance). However, existing experimental evidence questions the empirical accuracy of dominance solvability. In this study, we study the relationships between the key facets of dominance solvability and two cognitive skills, cognitive reflection, and fluid intelligence. We provide evidence that the behaviors in accordance with dominance and one-step iterated dominance are both predicted by one's fluid intelligence rather than cognitive reflection. Individual cognitive skills, however, only explain a small fraction of the observed failure of dominance solvability. The accuracy of theoretical predictions on strategic decision making thus not only depends on individual cognitive characteristics, but also, perhaps more importantly, on the decision making environment itself.

  7. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  8. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paula; Stokes, Jennifer; Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  9. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia. PMID:27725886

  10. Is economic growth good or bad for the environment? Empirical evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jungho; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    The effects of economic growth on the environment in Korea, for a given level of energy consumption, and fossil fuels and nuclear energy in electricity production, are examined in a dynamic cointegration framework. To that end, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach is used. We find empirical evidence supporting the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Korea; that is, economic growth indeed plays a favorable role in influencing environmental outcomes. It is also found that, in both the short- and long-run, nuclear energy has a beneficial effect on environmental quality, whereas fossil fuels in electricity production and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment. - Highlights: ► We examine the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Korea. ► The model includes the roles of energy consumption and electricity production. ► We find the existence of the EKC hypothesis for Korea. ► Nuclear energy is found to have a beneficial effect on the environment. ► Fossil fuels and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment

  11. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Embodied carbon mitigation and reduction in the built environment - What does the evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponi, Francesco; Moncaster, Alice

    2016-10-01

    Of all industrial sectors, the built environment puts the most pressure on the natural environment, and in spite of significant efforts the International Energy Agency suggests that buildings-related emissions are on track to double by 2050. Whilst operational energy efficiency continues to receive significant attention by researchers, a less well-researched area is the assessment of embodied carbon in the built environment in order to understand where the greatest opportunities for its mitigation and reduction lie. This article approaches the body of academic knowledge on strategies to tackle embodied carbon (EC) and uses a systematic review of the available evidence to answer the following research question: how should we mitigate and reduce EC in the built environment? 102 journal articles have been reviewed systematically in the fields of embodied carbon mitigation and reduction, and life cycle assessment. In total, 17 mitigation strategies have been identified from within the existing literature which have been discussed through a meta-analysis on available data. Results reveal that no single mitigation strategy alone seems able to tackle the problem; rather, a pluralistic approach is necessary. The use of materials with lower EC, better design, an increased reuse of EC-intensive materials, and stronger policy drivers all emerged as key elements for a quicker transition to a low carbon built environment. The meta-analysis on 77 LCAs also shows an extremely incomplete and short-sighted approach to life cycle studies. Most studies only assess the manufacturing stages, often completely overlooking impacts occurring during the occupancy stage and at the end of life of the building. The LCA research community have the responsibility to address such shortcomings and work towards more complete and meaningful assessments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a Virtual Environment to Deliver Evidence-Based Interventions: The Facilitator's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia; Tschannen, Dana; Valladares, Angel; Yaksich, Joseph; Yeagley, Emily; Hawes, Armani

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have the potential to maximize positive impact on communities. However, despite the quantity and quality of EBIs for prevention, the need for formalized training and associated training-related expenses, such as travel costs, program materials, and input of personnel hours, pose implementation challenges for many community-based organizations. In this study, the community of inquiry (CoI) framework was used to develop the virtual learning environment to support the adaptation of the ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself!) Training of Facilitators curriculum (an EBI) to train facilitators from community-based organizations. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of adapting a traditional face-to-face facilitator training program for ¡Cuídate!, a sexual risk reduction EBI for Latino youth, for use in a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). Additionally, two aims of the study were explored: the acceptability of the facilitator training and the level of the facilitators’ knowledge and self-efficacy to implement the training. Methods A total of 35 facilitators were trained in the virtual environment. We evaluated the facilitators' experience in the virtual training environment and determined if the learning environment was acceptable and supported the acquisition of learning outcomes. To this end, the facilitators were surveyed using a modified community of inquiry survey, with questions specific to the Second Life environment and an open-ended questionnaire. In addition, a comparison to face-to-face training was conducted using survey methods. Results Results of the community of inquiry survey demonstrated a subscale mean of 23.11 (SD 4.12) out of a possible 30 on social presence, a subscale mean of 8.74 (SD 1.01) out of a possible 10 on teaching presence, and a subscale mean of 16.69 (SD 1.97) out of a possible 20 on cognitive presence. The comparison to face-to-face training showed no

  14. Evidence for gene-environment interaction in a genome wide study of nonsyndromic cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) is a common birth defect with a complex and heterogeneous etiology involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 550 case-parent trios, ascertained through a CP case collected in an international...... consortium. Family-based association tests of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and three common maternal exposures (maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and multivitamin supplementation) were used in a combined 2 df test for gene (G) and gene-environment (G × E) interaction simultaneously, plus...... multiple SNPs associated with higher risk of CP in the presence of maternal smoking. Additional evidence of reduced risk due to G × E interaction in the presence of multivitamin supplementation was observed for SNPs in BAALC on chr. 8. These results emphasize the need to consider G × E interaction when...

  15. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  16. Income-environment relationship in Sub-Saharan African countries: Further evidence with trade openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Eléazar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between energy consumption, income growth, carbon emissions and trade openness in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test were used to investigate the long-run and short-run properties, respectively. The long-run estimations give evidence against the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in SSA countries. In contrast, the results highlight the significant and monotonically contribution of income growth and energy consumption in explaining carbon emissions in the long-run and short-run in several countries. Furthermore, the results show that trade openness enhances economic growth and is not linked to causing carbon emissions in these countries. Hence, a trade incentive policy may be implemented without harmful effect on the quality of the environment.

  17. Convergent evidence for widespread rock nitrogen sources in Earth's surface environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, B Z; Morford, S L; Dahlgren, R A

    2018-04-06

    Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth's land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. Evidence drawn from the planet's nitrogen balance, geochemical proxies, and our spatial weathering model reveal that ~19 to 31 teragrams of nitrogen are mobilized from near-surface rocks annually. About 11 to 18 teragrams of this nitrogen are chemically weathered in situ, thereby increasing the unmanaged (preindustrial) terrestrial nitrogen balance from 8 to 26%. These findings provide a global perspective to reconcile Earth's nitrogen budget, with implications for nutrient-driven controls over the terrestrial carbon sink. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Convergent evidence for widespread rock nitrogen sources in Earth’s surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Morford, S. L.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth’s land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. Evidence drawn from the planet’s nitrogen balance, geochemical proxies, and our spatial weathering model reveal that ~19 to 31 teragrams of nitrogen are mobilized from near-surface rocks annually. About 11 to 18 teragrams of this nitrogen are chemically weathered in situ, thereby increasing the unmanaged (preindustrial) terrestrial nitrogen balance from 8 to 26%. These findings provide a global perspective to reconcile Earth’s nitrogen budget, with implications for nutrient-driven controls over the terrestrial carbon sink.

  19. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-06-01

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. METEOR: An Enterprise Health Informatics Environment to Support Evidence-Based Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppala, Mamta; He, Tiancheng; Chen, Shenyi; Ogunti, Richard; Yu, Xiaohui; Li, Fuhai; Jackson, Robert; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the design and implementation of next-generation enterprise analytics platform developed at the Houston Methodist Hospital (HMH) system to meet the market and regulatory needs of the healthcare industry. For this goal, we developed an integrated clinical informatics environment, i.e., Methodist environment for translational enhancement and outcomes research (METEOR). The framework of METEOR consists of two components: the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) and a software intelligence and analytics (SIA) layer for enabling a wide range of clinical decision support systems that can be used directly by outcomes researchers and clinical investigators to facilitate data access for the purposes of hypothesis testing, cohort identification, data mining, risk prediction, and clinical research training. Data and usability analysis were performed on METEOR components as a preliminary evaluation, which successfully demonstrated that METEOR addresses significant niches in the clinical informatics area, and provides a powerful means for data integration and efficient access in supporting clinical and translational research. METEOR EDW and informatics applications improved outcomes, enabled coordinated care, and support health analytics and clinical research at HMH. The twin pressures of cost containment in the healthcare market and new federal regulations and policies have led to the prioritization of the meaningful use of electronic health records in the United States. EDW and SIA layers on top of EDW are becoming an essential strategic tool to healthcare institutions and integrated delivery networks in order to support evidence-based medicine at the enterprise level.

  1. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  2. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and genetic influences on alcohol use: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2018-05-07

    Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.

  3. The impact of work environment on mood disorders and suicide: Evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.

  4. Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and typology of choice architecture interventions that have been implemented within small-scale micro-environments and evaluated for their effects on four key sets of health behaviours: diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion We argue that the limitations of the evidence base are due not simply to an absence of evidence, but also to a prior lack of definitional and conceptual clarity concerning applications of choice architecture to public health intervention. This has hampered the potential for systematic assessment of existing evidence. By seeking to address this issue, we demonstrate how our definition and typology have enabled systematic identification and preliminary mapping of a large body of available evidence for the effects of choice architecture interventions. We discuss key implications for further primary research, evidence synthesis and conceptual development to support the design and evaluation of such interventions. Summary This conceptual groundwork provides a foundation for future research to investigate the effectiveness of choice architecture interventions within micro-environments for changing health behaviour. The approach we used may also serve as a template for mapping other under-explored fields of enquiry. PMID:24359583

  5. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  6. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  7. Management of disruptive behaviour within nursing work environments: a comprehensive systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Clark, Catherine; Pearce, Susanne; Cameron, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In an increasingly complex health care environment, where nurses are essential to the health system's capacity to respond to the challenges presented by an ageing population, creating positive work environments is fundamental for nurses, their co-workers, and their patients. Disruptive clinician behaviour, which refers to behaviours such as bullying and physical violence, but also to more subtle behaviours such as withholding vital information or gossiping, can be highly destructive within a work environment. The implications of such behaviours within the nursing workforce specifically, and to the health care system more broadly, are profound. Substantial evidence suggests that the pervasiveness of such behaviours has consequences for recruitment and retention, staff morale, job satisfaction, and staff absenteeism, as well as intra and inter-professional communication and teamwork which can ultimate also affect patient safety. The extent of the problem of disruptive behaviour in the workforce is discussed widely in the literature and nurses as a cohort have been studied extensively, however there has been no systematic review of evidence relating to how to manage these behaviours successfully. The objective of this systematic review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence in relation to interventions which have been successful in managing disruptive clinician behaviour in the nursing work environment. Types of participants - The primary participant group of interest for this systematic review includes nurses working in any health care setting; however any other member of the health care team such as medical practitioners or allied health were also considered.Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest - Any study that explored behavioural, educational, managerial, organisational and personal interventions to manage disruptive behaviours in the health care setting was considered.Types of studies - Studies using quantitative and qualitative

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. An Analysis of the Regulatory Environment Governing Hearsay Electronic Evidence in South Africa: Suggestions for Reform – Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Swales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this two-part article is to examine the regulatory environment governing hearsay electronic evidence in South Africa – with a view to providing clear, practical suggestions for regulatory reform in the context of the South African Law Reform Commission's most recent Discussion Paper on electronic evidence. Technology has become an indispensable part of modern life. In particular, the Internet has facilitated new forms of business enterprise, and shifted basic communication norms. From a legal perspective, technology has presented several novel challenges for courts and legal practitioners to deal with – one of these key challenges relates to electronic evidence and in particular the application of the hearsay rules to the digital environment. The South African Law Reform Commission has identified the application of the hearsay rule as one of the core concerns with regard to electronic evidence, and certain academic analysis has revealed inefficiency in the current legal position which may involve multiple sources of law. Moreover, the Law Society of South Africa has stated that there is some confusion amongst members of the profession in relation to hearsay as it applies to electronic evidence. With the pervasive and burgeoning nature of technology, and with the Internet in mind, it is natural to assume that electronic evidence will be relevant in most forms of legal proceedings in future, and hearsay electronic evidence in particular will play an increasingly important role in years to come. Consequently, part one of this article will consider the key definitional concept in relation to electronic evidence – data messages - and examine whether the definition should be revised. In addition, part one of this article will answer two further critical questions posed by the South African Law Reform Commission in relation to data messages and hearsay evidence, namely: should a data message constitute hearsay? And, how should one

  10. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  11. Does the meta-environment determine firm performance? Theory and evidence from European multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Phan, T. Binh; van Ees, Hans; Phan, T.T.

    We study an underrepresented area in the international business literature: the effect of the meta-environment on multinational enterprise (MNE) performance. A meta-environment is a symbiosis of all country environments where an MNE operates. This conceptualization of a firm's external context is

  12. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  13. Nature, nurture, and capital punishment: How evidence of a genetic-environment interaction, future dangerousness, and deliberation affect sentencing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Natalie; Greene, Edie

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment. The G × E evidence had little mitigating effect on sentencing preferences: participants who received the G × E evidence were no less likely to sentence the defendant to death than those who received evidence of childhood maltreatment or a control group that received neither genetic nor maltreatment evidence. Participants with evidence of a G × E interaction were more likely to sentence the defendant to death when there was a high risk of future dangerousness than when there was a low risk. Sentencing preferences were more lenient after deliberation than before. We discuss limitations and future directions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evidence for Gender-Dependent Genotype by Environment Interaction in Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Middeldorp, Christel M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Ligthart, Lannie; Nivard, Michel G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-10-14

    Depression in adults is heritable with about 40 % of the phenotypic variance due to additive genetic effects and the remaining phenotypic variance due to unique (unshared) environmental effects. Common environmental effects shared by family members are rarely found in adults. One possible explanation for this finding is that there is an interaction between genes and the environment which may mask effects of the common environment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated genotype by environment interaction in a large sample of female and male adult twins aged 18-70 years. The anxious depression subscale of the Adult Self Report from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (Achenbach and Rescorla in Manual for the ASEBA adult: forms and profiles, 2003) was completed by 13,022 twins who participate in longitudinal studies of the Netherlands Twin Register. In a single group analysis, we found genotype by unique environment interaction, but no genotype by common environment interaction. However, when conditioning on gender, we observed genotype by common environment interaction in men, with larger common environmental variance in men who are genetically less at risk to develop depression. Although the effect size of the interaction is characterized by large uncertainty, the results show that there is at least some variance due to the common environment in adult depression in men.

  15. Work environment satisfaction and employee health: panel evidence from Denmark, France and Spain, 1994-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates whether a satisfactory work environment can promote employee health even after controlling for socioeconomic status and life style factors. A dynamic panel model of health is estimated from worker samples from Denmark, France and Spain, employing both self-assessed general health and the presence of a functional limitation. In all three countries and for both types of health measures, a good perceived work environment is found to be a highly significant determinant of worker health even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and minimizing reverse causality. The marginal effect is, however, larger in France and Denmark than in Spain. Several potential explanations for this finding are discussed. Further, a satisfactory working environment is found to be at least as important for employee health as socioeconomic status. Thus, investing in giving workers a satisfying work environment could be a low-cost way of improving employee health.

  16. Evidence of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry movement between fresh water and a brackish environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, I; Rohtla, M; Saks, L; Svirgsden, R; Kesler, M; Matetski, L; Vetemaa, M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports descent of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry from their natal streams to brackish waters of the Baltic Sea and their use of this environment as an alternative rearing habitat before ascending back to freshwater streams. To the authors' knowledge, residency in a brackish environment has not previously been demonstrated in S. salar fry. Recruitment success and evolutionary significance of this alternative life-history strategy are presently not known. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  18. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Hicks, Brian M; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Gene × Environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in childhood and adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a Gene × Environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This Gene × Environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but it was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). The results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of Gene × Environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but it appears to be limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior.

  19. Dual Systems for Spatial Updating in Immediate and Retrieved Environments: Evidence from Bias Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanjun; Xiao, Chengli

    2018-01-01

    The spatial updating and memory systems are employed during updating in both the immediate and retrieved environments. However, these dual systems seem to work differently, as the difference of pointing latency and absolute error between the two systems vary across environments. To verify this issue, the present study employed the bias analysis of signed errors based on the hypothesis that the transformed representation will bias toward the original one. Participants learned a spatial layout and then either stayed in the learning location or were transferred to a neighboring room directly or after being disoriented. After that, they performed spatial judgments from perspectives aligned with the learning direction, aligned with the direction they faced during the test, or a novel direction misaligned with the two above-mentioned directions. The patterns of signed error bias were consistent across environments. Responses for memory aligned perspectives were unbiased, whereas responses for sensorimotor aligned perspectives were biased away from the memory aligned perspective, and responses for misaligned perspectives were biased toward sensorimotor aligned perspectives. These findings indicate that the spatial updating system is consistently independent of the spatial memory system regardless of the environments, but the updating system becomes less accessible as the environment changes from immediate to a retrieved one.

  20. Dual Systems for Spatial Updating in Immediate and Retrieved Environments: Evidence from Bias Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial updating and memory systems are employed during updating in both the immediate and retrieved environments. However, these dual systems seem to work differently, as the difference of pointing latency and absolute error between the two systems vary across environments. To verify this issue, the present study employed the bias analysis of signed errors based on the hypothesis that the transformed representation will bias toward the original one. Participants learned a spatial layout and then either stayed in the learning location or were transferred to a neighboring room directly or after being disoriented. After that, they performed spatial judgments from perspectives aligned with the learning direction, aligned with the direction they faced during the test, or a novel direction misaligned with the two above-mentioned directions. The patterns of signed error bias were consistent across environments. Responses for memory aligned perspectives were unbiased, whereas responses for sensorimotor aligned perspectives were biased away from the memory aligned perspective, and responses for misaligned perspectives were biased toward sensorimotor aligned perspectives. These findings indicate that the spatial updating system is consistently independent of the spatial memory system regardless of the environments, but the updating system becomes less accessible as the environment changes from immediate to a retrieved one.

  1. Does income inequality harm the environment?: Empirical evidence from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jungho; Gweisah, Guankerwon

    2013-01-01

    This study revisits the growth-inequality-environment nexus in the context of country-specific time series data. The short- and long-run effects of income inequality, economic growth and energy consumption on CO 2 emissions in the U.S. are examined using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. We find that more equitable distribution of income in the U.S. results in better environmental quality in the short- and long-run. It is also found that, in both the short- and long-run, economic growth has a beneficial effect on environmental quality, whereas energy consumption has a detrimental effect on the environment. - Highlights: • This study re-examines the growth-inequality-environment nexus in the U.S. • The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach is employed. • Income equality is found to have a beneficial effect on the environment. • Economic growth is also found to enhance environmental quality. • But energy consumption is found to have a detrimental effect on the environment

  2. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders: Evidence for Gene × Environment × Development Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Gene × environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long-lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a gene × environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This gene × environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). Results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of gene × environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but is limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior. PMID:27580681

  3. An Evidence Review of Exclusion from Social Relations: From Genes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burholt, V.; Winter, B.; Aartsen, M.; Constantinou, C.; Dahlberg, E.; de Jong Gierveld, J.; van Regenmortel, S.; Waldegrave, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we synthesise the evidence on the risks for and outcomes of exclusion from social relations, and the connections with other spheres or domains of social exclusion. Drawing on a recent scoping review of social exclusion literature by Walsh, Scharf and Keating (2017) in this article we

  4. Geographic Disparity in Funding for School Nutrition Environments: Evidence from Mississippi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhee; Carithers, Teresa; Leeke, Shannon; Chin, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the federal initiatives on equitable provision of school nutrition programs, geographic disparity in childhood obesity persists. It may be partly because built-in school nutrition environments rely on each school's efficient use of existing operational funds or its ability to obtain expanded financial support. This study…

  5. Metagenomic evidence for the presence of phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes bacteria in diverse environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yonghui; Baumbach, Jan; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira

    2016-01-01

    , biofilms, plant surfaces, intertidal sediment, soils, springs, and wastewater treatment plants, but none from marine waters or sediment. Phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes bacteria make up 0.4∼11.9% of whole phototrophic microbial communities in these habitats. Unexpectedly, an almost complete 37.9 kb long...... widely distributed in the environment and exhibit a higher genetic diversity than previously thought....

  6. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  7. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  8. Behavior and Performance on Long-Duration Spaceflights: Evidence from Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of data collected in Antarctica since 1963 were conducted to identify features of behavior and performance likely to occur during long-duration missions in space.The influence of mission duration and station latitude on POMS mood scores was examined in 450 American men and women who overwintered in Antarctica between 1991 and 1998. The influence of crewmember social characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and station environments on measures of behavior and performance at the end of the austral winter was examined in 657 American men who overwintered between 1963 and 1974. Both data sets were used to examine the influence of crew social structure on individual performance. Results: Seasonal variations in mood appear to be associated with the altered diurnal cycle and psychological segmentation of the mission. Concurrent measures of personality, interpersonal needs, and coping styles are better predictors of depressed mood and peer-supervisor performance evaluations than baseline measures because of the unique features of the station social and physical environments and the absence of resources typically used to cope with stress elsewhere. Individuals in crews with a clique structure report significantly more depression, anxiety, anger, fatigue and confusion than individuals in crews with a core-periphery structure. Depressed mood is inversely associated with severity of station physical environment, supporting the existence of a positive or "salutogenic" effect for individuals seeking challenging experiences in extreme environments.

  9. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  10. Family control, institutional environment and cash dividend policy: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004–2008, this study empirically tests the impact of family control, institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies. Our results indicate that (1 family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms; (2 a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies; and (3 the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem I (the owner–manager conflict rather than Agency Problem II (the controlling shareholder–minority shareholder conflict, and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy. In contrast, a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem I and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  11. The South African legislative environment, in critical need of scientific evidence based alignment for airborne control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fleming, EJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available , in both South Africa and internationally.  The existing legislation will be assembled to determine those regulations that affect the built environment specifically in relation to airborne infection control measures  researching literature nationally... maintained often leads to systems, such as air conditioning, failing. Regulations do not accommodate this reality and air quality becomes compromised as soon as the system fails due often to the design regulations being implemented that only address air...

  12. Are Notions of Fairness Path‐Dependent? Experimental Evidence from an Efficiency‐Wage Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stan Hu; Stuart Mestelman; William Scarth

    2015-01-01

    We extend the study of efficiency‐wage environments via laboratory experiments in three ways. First, we introduce exogenous shocks that increase the opportunity for rejection of the gift‐exchange outcome. These additional tests emerge since we carefully derive a series of theoretical predictions so that support for efficiency wages requires much more than simply observing that wage and effort levels exceed what would emerge with competition. Second, we focus on how the exogenous shocks can af...

  13. Uranium mobility in the natural environment - evidence from sedimentary roll-front deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Roll-front deposits consist of naturally occurring ore-grade uranium in selected sandstone aquifers throughout the world. The geochemical environment of these roll-front deposits is analogous to the environment of a radioactive waste repository containing redox-sensitive elements during its post-thermal period. The ore deposits are formed by a combination of dissolution, complexation, sorption/precipitation, and mineral formation processes. The uranium, leached from the soil by percolating rainwater, complexes with dissolved carbonate and moves in the oxidizing ground water at very low concentration (parts per billion) levels. The uranium is extracted from the leaching solution by the chemical processes, over long periods of time, at the interfaces between oxidized and reduced sediments. The Eh of the ground water associated with the reduced sediments (Eh = -100 mv to +100 mv) is higher than the Eh expected for most waste repository environments (Eh = -100 mv to -300 mv); this suggests that uranium solids will not be very soluble in the repositories. Data from in-situ leach mining and restoration of roll-front uranium deposits also provide information on the potential mobility of the waste if oxidizing ground water should enter the repository. Uranium solids probably will be initially very soluble in carbonate ground water; however, as reducing conditions are re-estblished through water/rock interactions, the uranium will reprecipitate and the amount of uranium in solution will again equilibrate with the reduced uranium minerals

  14. Do Authoritarian Governments Respond to Public Opinion on the Environment? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Given its serious impacts on the public’s health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public’s environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011–2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public’s dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study’s findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits.

  15. Do Authoritarian Governments Respond to Public Opinion on the Environment? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Chen, Weiwei; Wu, Tian

    2018-02-04

    Given its serious impacts on the public's health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public's environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011-2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public's dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study's findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits.

  16. Do Authoritarian Governments Respond to Public Opinion on the Environment? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Chen, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    Given its serious impacts on the public’s health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public’s environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011–2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public’s dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study’s findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits. PMID:29401701

  17. Peer deviance, parental divorce, and genetic risk in the prediction of drug abuse in a nationwide Swedish sample: evidence of environment-environment and gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Peer deviance (PD) strongly predicts externalizing psychopathologic conditions but has not been previously assessable in population cohorts. We sought to develop such an index of PD and to clarify its effects on risk of drug abuse (DA). To examine how strongly PD increases the risk of DA and whether this community-level liability indicator interacts with key DA risk factors at the individual and family levels. Studies of future DA registration in 1,401,698 Swedish probands born from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 1985, and their adolescent peers in approximately 9200 small community areas. Peer deviance was defined as the proportion of individuals born within 5 years of the proband living in the same small community when the proband was 15 years old who eventually were registered for DA. Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Peer deviance was associated with future DA in the proband, with rates of DA in older and male peers more strongly predictive than in younger or female peers. The predictive power of PD was only slightly attenuated by adding measures of community deprivation, collective efficacy, or family socioeconomic status. Probands whose parents were divorced were more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of high PD environments. A robust positive interaction was also seen between genetic risk of DA (indexed by rates of DA in first-, second-, and third-degree relatives) and PD exposure. With sufficient data, PD can be measured in populations and strongly predicts DA. In a nationwide sample, risk factors at the level of the individual (genetic vulnerability), family (parental loss), and community (PD) contribute substantially to risk of DA. Individuals at elevated DA risk because of parental divorce or high genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of PD. Although the effect of our PD measure on DA liability cannot be explained by standard measures of community or family risk, we cannot, with

  18. Evidence for the remobilisation of transuranic elements in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, A S; Livens, F R

    1993-09-01

    The transuranium elements, Np, Pu and Am discharged from the BNFL fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield have accumulated in the local environment. The processes responsible for their dispersal rely both on physical transportation and their chemical reactivity. The transuranics have a complex chemistry, with multiple oxidation states and a strongly polarising character. In the environment, the particle active III/IV and more mobile VNI oxidation state groups are important and govern their geochemical behaviour and subsequent dispersal.Studies of the behaviour of the transuranics, particularly Pu, in the Irish Sea, have shown that the majority of the radionuclides in the liquid effluent discharged from Sellafield, quickly becomes associated with the marine sediments. Their dispersal and distribution in the environment is then governed primarily by the movement of particulate material and for some sites it has been suggested that sediment profiles preserve the historical record of discharges from the plant.In tidally inundated soils, radionuclide levels are greatly enhanced. These soils are water-logged for long periods of the year, are strongly anoxic and accretion rate are very low. The distribution of Np, Pu and Am in the soil suggests that simple sedimentary accumulation mechanism cannot provide an adequate explanation for the profiles observed. From preliminary studies of soil pore water composition and detailed analysis of the variation of isotopic ratios in the soil cores, it is apparent that a small but significant component of the radionuclide inventory is mobile. In addition, it is clear that the mechanisms responsible for this mobility allows differentiation between the transuranium nuclides.

  19. Residential hospice environments: evidence-based architectural and landscape design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The residential hospice care movement is increasingly accepted and supported globally, and yet, unfortunately, the amount of literature on best practices in the planning and design of residential hospice facilities and adjacent outdoor spaces remains relatively small. This paper reports on a compendium of architectural and landscape design considerations that reflect the fundamental dimensions of the residential hospice experience: site and context, arrival spaces, communal and private spaces of the residential milieu, transitional spaces, and nature connectivity. Additionally, key staffing and administrative ramifications of this built-environment compendium are addressed, as are prognostications and challenges for the future.

  20. Book Review: Geoarchaeology: Exploring Terrestrial Archives for Evidence of Human Interaction With the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andy J.

    2015-08-01

    This issue of the journal Zeitchrift für Gemorphologie brings together five papers initially delivered at the European Geoscience Union (EGU) General Assembly in 2012, as contributions to a session entitled 'Late Quaternary environments and societies: progress in geoarchaeology' (GM 4.7). This series of papers and the associated volume builds upon an earlier session of the EGU in 2009 (Ghilardi et al., 2009), as well as forming the foundations for subsequent sessions (e.g. Kluiving et al., 2015), with geoarchaeology now forming a regular disciplinary theme of the EGU General Assembly meetings.

  1. Does energy-price regulation benefit China's economy and environment? Evidence from energy-price distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Keyi; Su, Bin; Zhou, Dequn; Wu, Junmin

    2017-01-01

    China's energy prices have long been regulated due to the critical role energy plays in economic growth and social development, which leads to energy-price distortion to some extent. To figure out whether energy-price regulations will benefit China's economy (measured by GDP growth) and environment (measured by carbon emissions), we conducted an in-depth simulation using path analysis, where five energy products (natural gas, gasoline, fuel oil, steam coal, and coking coal) are selected and three measurements (absolute, relative, and moving) of energy-price distortions are calculated. The results indicate that, with a series of energy pricing policies, the price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed, while the energy pricing system in China is not fully market-oriented yet. Furthermore, China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions, while the absolute distortions of energy prices have negative impacts on economic growth. Finally, with regard to the environment, carbon emissions call for fewer distortions. - Highlights: • Price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed. • Energy pricing system in China is not yet fully market-oriented. • China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions. • Absolute distortions of energy prices have negative effects on economic growth. • Carbon emissions call for less pricing distortions.

  2. Factors Affecting Online Impulse Buying: Evidence from Chinese Social Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Akram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of situational variables, scarcity and serendipity, on online impulse buying (OIB in Chinese social commerce (SC environment. Second, the study further assesses the moderating role of five dimensions of hedonic shopping value. Data were gathered from 671 online shoppers who come from two metropolitan cities of China, Beijing, and Shanghai. Structure equation modeling utilized was generated by AMOS 23 version to test the study hypotheses. The results confirm that situational factors positively influence the online impulse buying among Chinese online shoppers in SC environment. Four dimensions of hedonic shopping value (social shopping, relaxation shopping, adventure shopping and idea shopping positively moderate the relationship between serendipity and OIB; value shopping is insignificant with moderation effect. The finding is helpful to the online retailers and SC web developers by recommending them to take the scarcity and serendipity in their consideration. These factors have the potential to motivate the consumers to initiate the hedonic shopping aptitude to urge to buy impulsively. Unlike the previous work which remained unsuccessful in incorporating all factors into one study, this study has incorporated irrational and unplanned consumption along with rational and planned one in the same research.

  3. Genetic risk for schizophrenia, obstetric complications, and adolescent school outcome: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Jennifer K; Ellman, Lauren M; Tanskanen, Antti; Mustonen, Ulla; Huttunen, Matti O; Suvisaari, Jaana; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and hypoxia are among the environmental factors most reliably associated with schizophrenia; however, the nature of this relationship is unclear and both gene-environment interaction and gene-environment covariation models have been proposed as explanations. High-risk (HR) designs that explore whether obstetric complications differentially predict outcomes in offspring at low risk (LR) vs HR for schizophrenia, while accounting for differences in rates of maternal risk factors, may shed light on this question. This study used prospectively obtained data to examine relationships between LBW and hypoxia on school outcome at age 15-16 years in a Finnish sample of 1070 offspring at LR for schizophrenia and 373 offspring at HR for schizophrenia, based on parental psychiatric history. Controlling for offspring sex, maternal smoking, social support, parity, age, and number of prenatal care visits, HR offspring performed worse than LR offspring across academic, nonacademic, and physical education domains. LBW predicted poorer academic and physical education performance in HR offspring, but not in LR offspring, and this association was similar for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Hypoxia predicted poorer physical education score across risk groups. Rates of LBW and hypoxia were similar for LR and HR offspring and for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Results support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia confers augmented vulnerability of the developing brain to the effects of obstetric complications, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. No evidence for heritability of male mating latency or copulation duration across social environments in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Taylor

    Full Text Available A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance.

  5. Microbial iron management mechanisms in extremely acidic environments: comparative genomics evidence for diversity and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Pamela A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an essential nutrient but can be toxic at high intracellular concentrations and organisms have evolved tightly regulated mechanisms for iron uptake and homeostasis. Information on iron management mechanisms is available for organisms living at circumneutral pH. However, very little is known about how acidophilic bacteria, especially those used for industrial copper bioleaching, cope with environmental iron loads that can be 1018 times the concentration found in pH neutral environments. This study was motivated by the need to fill this lacuna in knowledge. An understanding of how microorganisms thrive in acidic ecosystems with high iron loads requires a comprehensive investigation of the strategies to acquire iron and to coordinate this acquisition with utilization, storage and oxidation of iron through metal responsive regulation. In silico prediction of iron management genes and Fur regulation was carried out for three Acidithiobacilli: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (iron and sulfur oxidizer A. thiooxidans and A. caldus (sulfur oxidizers that can live between pH 1 and pH 5 and for three strict iron oxidizers of the Leptospirillum genus that live at pH 1 or below. Results Acidithiobacilli have predicted FeoB-like Fe(II and Nramp-like Fe(II-Mn(II transporters. They also have 14 different TonB dependent ferri-siderophore transporters of diverse siderophore affinity, although they do not produce classical siderophores. Instead they have predicted novel mechanisms for dicitrate synthesis and possibly also for phosphate-chelation mediated iron uptake. It is hypothesized that the unexpectedly large number and diversity of Fe(III-uptake systems confers versatility to this group of acidophiles, especially in higher pH environments (pH 4–5 where soluble iron may not be abundant. In contrast, Leptospirilla have only a FtrI-Fet3P-like permease and three TonB dependent ferri-dicitrate siderophore systems. This paucity of iron

  6. Laying a Firm Foundation: Embedding Evidence-Based Emergent Literacy Practices Into Early Intervention and Preschool Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Pamela; Watson, Maggie

    2018-04-05

    As part of this clinical forum on curriculum-based intervention, the goal of this tutorial is to share research about the importance of language and literacy foundations in natural environments during emergent literacy skill development, from infancy through preschool. Following an overview of intervention models in schools by Powell (2018), best practices at home, in child care, and in preschool settings are discussed. Speech-language pathologists in these settings will be provided a toolbox of best emergent literacy practices. A review of published literature in speech-language pathology, early intervention, early childhood education, and literacy was completed. Subsequently, an overview of the impact of early home and preschool literacy experiences are described. Research-based implementation of best practice is supported with examples of shared book reading and child-led literacy embedded in play within the coaching model of early intervention. Finally, various aspects of emergent literacy skill development in the preschool years are discussed. These include phonemic awareness, print/alphabet awareness, oral language skills, and embedded/explicit literacy. Research indicates that rich home literacy environments and exposure to rich oral language provide an important foundation for the more structured literacy environments of school. Furthermore, there is a wealth of evidence to support a variety of direct and indirect intervention practices in the home, child care, and preschool contexts to support and enhance all aspects of oral and written literacy. Application of this "toolbox" of strategies should enable speech-language pathologists to address the prevention and intervention of literacy deficits within multiple environments during book and play activities. Additionally, clinicians will have techniques to share with parents, child care providers, and preschool teachers for evidence-based literacy instruction within all settings during typical daily

  7. Characteristics and evidence of nursing scientific production for medication errors at the hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Dopico da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the characteristics of nurses’ publications about medication errors. It was used an Integrative methodology review covering January 2005 to October 2010 with "medication errors" and "nursing" descriptors and it was also collected data from electronic databases via “Capes Portal”. Results show four categories, the conduct of health professionals in medication errors, types and rates of errors, medication system weaknesses, and barriers to error. Discussion of the prevalent practice was not to notify the error. The prevalent error type was administration and error rates which ranged from 14.8 to 56.7%. Ilegible handwriting, communication failures among professionals, and lack of technical knowledge were weaknesses. Among the barriers, the civility from patient, nurses and technology were evident. Advances in researches for testing barriers were found and some gaps were apparent concerning lack of study that address pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic aspects of drugs involved in errors.

  8. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase Grey, Julia N; Kent, Vivien T; Hill, Russell A

    2013-01-01

    Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus) population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  9. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia N Chase Grey

    Full Text Available Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  10. Evidence for the preservation of technogenic tritiated organic compounds in an estuarine sedimentary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Morris, Jenny E

    2012-06-05

    The macrotidal Severn Estuary (southwestern UK) has received a broad range of industrial discharges since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. A more recent anthropogenic input to the estuary has been technogenic tritium (specifically organically bound tritium, OBT). This was derived from a specialized industrial laboratory producing custom radiolabeled compounds for life science research and diagnostic testing from 1980 until 2008. While it was generally acknowledged that the radiological impact of the tritium discharges into the Estuary was small, public concern motivated the company and regulatory agencies to commission several research studies from 1998 to 2005 to better understand their environmental impact. This study examined OBT interaction with estuarine sediment by acquiring a broad range of geochemical and sedimentological data from a suite of sediment cores collected from the northern side of the Estuary. Two important observations are that the OBT compounds are strongly bound to the clay/silt fraction of sediment and that the down-core OBT profiles in intertidal and subtidal sediments are broadly similar to the discharge record. Geochemical and chronometric methods (Cu, Pb and Zn elemental profiles, (210)Pb, (137)Cs) provide important corroboration of the OBT record. A key additional piece of evidence that firmly authenticated the established chronology was the discovery of a previously unreported sedimentary marker layer that was generated by a major storm surge that occurred on December 13, 1981. Although this study has provided clear evidence of systematic accumulation of OBT in sedimentary sinks of the region, an estimation of its depositional inventory shows it represents only a small fraction of the total discharge. This modest retention in the principal sedimentary sinks of the Severn Estuary system reflects the particular dynamics of this highly macrotidal sediment starved estuary.

  11. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EVIDENCE FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA ROMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The significant importance of entrepreneurship for the economic development, job creation and innovation have increased the concerns of researchers and decision makers at different levels for the understanding and investigation of the factors that could have an impact on the level of entrepreneurial activity. Our study aims to empirically investigate the impact of some main macroeconomic and business environment factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity in 18 EU member states in the period from 2002 - 2014. Our research is based on the data provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM and by the World Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. We took into consideration, as dependent variable for an econometric model, three indicators that are used as proxy variables of the level of entrepreneurial activity, namely: Total Entrepreneurial Activity rate, Nascent entrepreneurship rate, and New business ownership rate. We investigated eleven macroeconomic and business environment indicators, as the explanatory variables of our models, that could influence the level of the entrepreneurial activity in European countries: GDP growth, GDP per capita, unemployment, inflation, domestic credit to private sector by banks, fear of failure, entrepreneurial intentions, perceived capabilities, cost of business start-up procedures and time required to start a business. The empirical results highlight the fact that a large part of the explicative variables are significantly affecting the entrepreneurial activity, in agreement with the results of other empirical studies. Thus, the total entrepreneurial activity is influenced by unemployment rate, total tax rate, entrepreneurial intentions, perceived capabilities, cost of business start-up procedures and domestic credit to private sector. The other two dependent variables register some differences, however, overall, our study reveals that the key determinants of the entrepreneurial activity

  13. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2011-01-01

    Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR) (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction)) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR) was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all pMapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  14. Sporulation environment influences spore properties in Bacillus: evidence and insights on underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric

    2018-05-17

    Bacterial spores are resistant to physical and chemical insults, which make them a major concern for public health and for industry. Spores help bacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions that vegetative cells cannot tolerate. Spore resistance and dormancy are important properties for applications in medicine, veterinary health, food safety, crop protection, and other domains. The resistance of bacterial spores results from a protective multilayered structure and from the unique composition of the spore core. The mechanisms of sporulation and germination, the first stage after breaking of dormancy, and organization of spore structure have been extensively studied in Bacillus species. This review aims to illustrate how far the structure, composition and properties of spores are shaped by the environmental conditions in which spores form. We look at the physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning how sporulation media and environment deeply affect spore yield, spore properties like resistance to wet heat and physical and chemical agents, germination, and further growth. For example, spore core water content decreases as sporulation temperature increases, and resistance to wet heat increases. Controlling the fate of Bacillus spores is pivotal to controlling bacterial risks and process efficiencies in, for example, the food industry, and better control hinges on better understanding how sporulation conditions influence spore properties.

  15. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  16. The capacity of local governments to improve business environment: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Janković Milić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to draw attention on the need to strengthen institutional cooperation between local self-governments and the business community. The paper analyses the ability of socio-economic councils in Serbia, as a part of local governments, to improve the business environment and indicators of social status at the local level. In addition to socio-economic councils, this analysis includes the departments, divisions and offices for local economic development and their responsibilities. The results in the paper has been generated using descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, t-test and regression analysis, based on the analysis of primary data collected in empirical research on 55 municipalities in Serbia. The fundamental results obtained using the stated analysis is that socio-economic councils have positive impact on the social and economic development in the survived municipalities. Finally, the basic conclusion from the executed research is that size of the municipality is not a limiting factor for the establishment of the socio-economic councils and their functionality

  17. Lightning under water: Diverse reactive environments and evidence of synergistic effects for material treatment and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Baranov, Oleg; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Nomine, Alexandre; Belmonte, Thierry; Xu, Shuyan

    2018-06-01

    This focused review aims to reveal and illustrate some unique features of processes triggered by high-density energy applied to liquids and gas-liquid interfaces and to highlight a wide spectrum of their technological applications capable of producing various advantageous effects, ranging from nanosynthesis to biological and medical applications. Plasma, electric discharges, laser, and ultrasound power effects were selected as representative examples of high-density energy and liquid interactions, yet the available possibilities are not limited by these quite different types of power and thus the reader could extrapolate the outlined features and effects to other kinds of powerful impacts. The basic physical mechanisms are briefly reviewed with the aim to familiarize the readers with the potential capabilities of high-density energy processes in liquids. These will be of direct interest to researchers tasked with the development, optimization, and characterization of processes and highly reactive environments for highly controlled transformation of matter in abiotic and biological systems. It could also be highly useful for under- and post-graduate students specializing in the related fields and general physical audience involved in various plasma, materials, energy conversion, and other concurrent research activities.

  18. Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.

  19. Impact of environment on mosquito response to pyrethroid insecticides: facts, evidences and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkya, Theresia Estomih; Akhouayri, Idir; Kisinza, William; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    By transmitting major human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health, and pose a significant economic burden for the African continent and developing tropical regions. Most vector control programmes aiming at controlling life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides, mainly belonging to the pyrethroid class. However, resistance of mosquito populations to pyrethroids is increasing at a dramatic rate, threatening the efficacy of control programmes throughout insecticide-treated areas, where mosquito-borne diseases are still prevalent. In the absence of new insecticides and efficient alternative vector control methods, resistance management strategies are therefore critical, but these require a deep understanding of adaptive mechanisms underlying resistance. Although insecticide resistance mechanisms are intensively studied in mosquitoes, such adaptation is often considered as the unique result of the selection pressure caused by insecticides used for vector control. Indeed, additional environmental parameters, such as insecticides/pesticides usage in agriculture, the presence of anthropogenic or natural xenobiotics, and biotic interactions between vectors and other organisms, may affect both the overall mosquito responses to pyrethroids and the selection of resistance mechanisms. In this context, the present work aims at updating current knowledge on pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and compiling available data, often from different research fields, on the impact of the environment on mosquito response to pyrethroids. Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for differences between B. bruxellensis strains originating from an enological environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Renouf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Renouf1,2, Cécile Miot-Sertier2, Marie-Claire Perello2, Gilles de Revel2, Aline Lonvaud-Funel21Laffort, Bordeaux, France; 2UMR Œnologie, INRA-Université Bordeaux, FranceAbstract: The aim of this paper is to study and compare the physiological diversity of different strains of a wine spoilage yeast species: Brettanomyces bruxellensis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of several drugs on different B. bruxellensis strains were scored on solid nutrient media. This revealed variations in resistance among the B. bruxellensis strains. Their capacity to develop in different wine and must environments: pH, ethanol, and SO2 concentrations, were evaluated by measuring the direct incubation survival rate. The results, compared with those obtained for other wine yeast species, confirmed the remarkable resistance of B. bruxellensis strains to various conditions which inhibit the growth of other species. Nevertheless some differences were observed among the B. bruxellensis strains, thus confirming their physiological diversity. A comparison of their volatile phenol production revealed intraspecific heterogeneity among B. bruxellensis strains. B. bruxellensis is one of the microbial species most resistant to environmental constraints in wine. It is the best adapted to growing in wine and spoiling it by volatile phenol production. However, different B. bruxellensis strains exhibit varying characteristics, particularly their capacity to produce volatile phenols. This implies that certain strains are more prejudicial than others. Further studies are required to determine the molecular causes of this intraspecific diversity.Keywords: Brettanomyces bruxellensis, strain diversity, physiology, volatile phenols

  1. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; van Os, Jim; Habets, Petra; Gronenschild, Ed; Marcelis, Machteld

    2017-01-01

    The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'.

  2. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Frissen

    Full Text Available The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT. Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk] and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent.T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions and cortical CT as the dependent variable.CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001, but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31. There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91. Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16, nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77.The negative association between (familial risk for psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban

  3. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  4. Psychometric analysis of two new scales: the evidence-based practice nursing leadership and work environment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryse, Yvette; McDaniel, Anna; Schafer, John

    2014-08-01

    Those in nursing have been charged with practicing to the full extent of their education and training by the Institute of Medicine. Therefore, evidence-based practice (EBP) has never been more important to nursing than in the current healthcare environment. Frequently the burden of EBP is the responsibility of the bedside practitioner, but has been found to be a process that requires leadership and organizational support. A key underlying component of a strong EBP environment includes effective communications and collaboration among staff and nursing leadership. Developing measurement tools that examine the milieu and nursing leadership in which the staff nurse practices is an important component of understanding the factors that support or hinder EBP. The aim of this study is to report on the development and analysis of two new scales designed to explore leadership and organizational support for EBP. The EBP Nursing Leadership Scale (10 items) examines the staff nurses perception of support provided by the nurse manager for EBP, and the EBP Work Environment Scale (8 items) examines organizational support for EBP. Staff nurses who worked at least .5 FTE in direct patient care, from two inner city hospitals (n = 422) completed the scales. The scales were evaluated for internal consistency reliability with the Cronbach alpha technique, content validity using a panel of experts, and construct validity by The content validity index computed from expert rankings was .78 to 1.0 with an average of.96. Cronbach's alpha was .96 (n = 422) for the EBP Nursing Leadership Scale and .86 (n = 422) for the EBP Work Environment Scale. Factor analysis confirmed that each scale measured a unidimensional construct (p organizational influences on EBP. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Designing healthy communities: creating evidence on metrics for built environment features associated with walkable neighbourhood activity centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Lucy Dubrelle; Mavoa, Suzanne; Boulangé, Claire; Hooper, Paula; Kavanagh, Anne; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-04

    Evidence-based metrics are needed to inform urban policy to create healthy walkable communities. Most active living research has developed metrics of the environment around residential addresses, ignoring other important walking locations. Therefore, this study examined: metrics for built environment features surrounding local shopping centres, (known in Melbourne, Australia as neighbourhood activity centres (NACs) which are typically anchored by a supermarket); the association between NACs and transport walking; and, policy compliance for supermarket provision. In this observational study, cluster analysis was used to categorize 534 NACs in Melbourne, Australia by their built environment features. The NACS were linked to eligible Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel Activity 2009-2010 (VISTA) survey participants (n=19,984). Adjusted multilevel logistic regressions estimated associations between each cluster typology and two outcomes of daily walking: any transport walking; and, any 'neighbourhood' transport walking. Distance between residential dwellings and closest NAC was assessed to evaluate compliance with local planning policy on supermarket locations. Metrics for 19 built environment features were estimated and three NAC clusters associated with walkability were identified. NACs with significantly higher street connectivity (mean:161, SD:20), destination diversity (mean:16, SD:0.4); and net residential density (mean:77, SD:65) were interpreted as being 'highly walkable' when compared with 'low walkable' NACs, which had lower street connectivity (mean:57, SD:15); destination diversity (mean:11, SD:3); and net residential density (mean:10, SD:3). The odds of any daily transport walking was 5.85 times higher (95% CI: 4.22, 8.11), and for any 'neighborhood' transport walking 8.66 (95% CI: 5.89, 12.72) times higher, for residents whose closest NAC was highly walkable compared with those living near low walkable NACs. Only highly walkable NACs met the policy

  6. ANTHROPOGENIC POLLEN INDICATORS (API FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AS LOCAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mercuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  7. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2016-07-01

    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, L.; Birkmose, T.

    1997-01-01

    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO 3 per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N 2 O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs

  9. I just ran a thousand analyses: benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera E Heininga

    Full Text Available In psychiatric genetics research, the volume of ambivalent findings on gene-environment interactions (G x E is growing at an accelerating pace. In response to the surging suspicions of systematic distortion, we challenge the notion of chance capitalization as a possible contributor. Beyond qualifying multiple testing as a mere methodological issue that, if uncorrected, leads to chance capitalization, we advance towards illustrating the potential benefits of multiple tests in understanding equivocal evidence in genetics literature.We focused on the interaction between the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR and childhood adversities with regard to depression. After testing 2160 interactions with all relevant measures available within the Dutch population study of adolescents TRAILS, we calculated percentages of significant (p < .05 effects for several subsets of regressions. Using chance capitalization (i.e. overall significance rate of 5% alpha and randomly distributed findings as a competing hypothesis, we expected more significant effects in the subsets of regressions involving: 1 interview-based instead of questionnaire-based measures; 2 abuse instead of milder childhood adversities; and 3 early instead of later adversities. Furthermore, we expected equal significance percentages across 4 male and female subsamples, and 5 various genotypic models of 5-HTTLPR.We found differences in the percentages of significant interactions among the subsets of analyses, including those regarding sex-specific subsamples and genetic modeling, but often in unexpected directions. Overall, the percentage of significant interactions was 7.9% which is only slightly above the 5% that might be expected based on chance.Taken together, multiple testing provides a novel approach to better understand equivocal evidence on G x E, showing that methodological differences across studies are a likely reason for heterogeneity in findings - but chance

  10. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  11. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Guerra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To organize the main findings and list the most frequent recommendations from systematic reviews of interventions developed at the school environment aimed at reducing overweight in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Searches for systematic reviews available until December 31, 2014 were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Manual search for cross-references were also performed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Of the initial 2139 references, 33 systematic reviews adequately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the descriptive summary. In this set, interventions with periods of time greater than six months in duration (nine reviews, and parental involvement in the content and/or planned actions (six reviews were identified as the most frequent and effective recommendations. Additionally, it was observed that boys respond more effectively to structural interventions, whereas girls respond to behavioral interventions. None of the included reviews was able to make inferences about the theoretical basis used in interventions as, apparently, those in charge of the interventions disregarded this component in their preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions.

  13. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; da Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles

    2016-01-01

    To organize the main findings and list the most frequent recommendations from systematic reviews of interventions developed at the school environment aimed at reducing overweight in children and adolescents. Searches for systematic reviews available until December 31, 2014 were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Manual search for cross-references were also performed. Of the initial 2139 references, 33 systematic reviews adequately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the descriptive summary. In this set, interventions with periods of time greater than six months in duration (nine reviews), and parental involvement in the content and/or planned actions (six reviews) were identified as the most frequent and effective recommendations. Additionally, it was observed that boys respond more effectively to structural interventions, whereas girls respond to behavioral interventions. None of the included reviews was able to make inferences about the theoretical basis used in interventions as, apparently, those in charge of the interventions disregarded this component in their preparation. Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR IMF VARIATIONS WITH GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, Marla [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Munoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu, E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Hercules and Leo IV, based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. The Hercules and Leo IV galaxies are extremely low luminosity (M{sub V} = -6.2, -5.5), metal-poor (([Fe/H]) = -2.4, -2.5) systems that have old stellar populations (>11 Gyr). Because they have long relaxation times, we can directly measure the low-mass stellar IMF by counting stars below the main-sequence turnoff without correcting for dynamical evolution. Over the stellar mass range probed by our data, 0.52-0.77 M{sub Sun }, the IMF is best fit by a power-law slope of {alpha}= 1.2{sub -0.5}{sup +0.4} for Hercules and {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.8 for Leo IV. For Hercules, the IMF slope is more shallow than a Salpeter ({alpha} = 2.35) IMF at the 5.8{sigma} level, and a Kroupa ({alpha} = 2.3 above 0.5 M{sub Sun }) IMF slope at 5.4{sigma} level. We simultaneously fit for the binary fraction, f{sub binary}, finding f{sub binary}= 0.47{sup +0.16}{sub -0.14} for Hercules, and 0.47{sup +0.37}{sub -0.17} for Leo IV. The UFD binary fractions are consistent with that inferred for Milky Way stars in the same mass range, despite very different metallicities. In contrast, the IMF slopes in the UFDs are shallower than other galactic environments. In the mass range 0.5-0.8 M{sub Sun }, we see a trend across the handful of galaxies with directly measured IMFs such that the power-law slopes become shallower (more bottom-light) with decreasing galactic velocity dispersion and metallicity. This trend is qualitatively consistent with results in elliptical galaxies inferred via indirect methods and is direct evidence for IMF variations with galactic environment.

  15. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nickels

    Full Text Available Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6 and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4. Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16 in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10 in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37 in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98 in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85 in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5, with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17 in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05 in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  16. Development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool: An Evidence-Based Model for School Garden Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel

    2017-10-01

    Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to

  17. Evidence for gene-environment interaction in a genome wide study of isolated, non-syndromic cleft palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Marazita, Mary L.; Munger, Ronald G.; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Liang, Kung Yee; Wu, Tao; Patel, Poorav J.; Jin, Sheng C.; Zhang, Tian Xiao; Schwender, Holger; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Chong, Samuel S; Cheah, Felicia; Yeow, Vincent; Ye, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong; Huang, Shangzhi; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Shi, Bing; Wilcox, Allen J.; Lie, Rolv T.; Jee, Sun Ha; Christensen, Kaare; Doheny, Kimberley F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Scott, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft palate (CP) is a common birth defect with a complex and heterogeneous etiology involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) using 550 case-parent trios, ascertained through a CP case collected in an international consortium. Family based association tests of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and three common maternal exposures (maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and multivitamin supplementation) were used in a combined 2 df test for gene (G) and gene-environment (G×E) interaction simultaneously, plus a separate 1 df test for G×E interaction alone. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate effects on risk to exposed and unexposed children. While no SNP achieved genome wide significance when considered alone, markers in several genes attained or approached genome wide significance when G×E interaction was included. Among these, MLLT3 and SMC2 on chromosome 9 showed multiple SNPs resulting in increased risk if the mother consumed alcohol during the peri-conceptual period (3 months prior to conception through the first trimester). TBK1 on chr. 12 and ZNF236 on chr. 18 showed multiple SNPs associated with higher risk of CP in the presence of maternal smoking. Additional evidence of reduced risk due to G×E interaction in the presence of multivitamin supplementation was observed for SNPs in BAALC on chr. 8. These results emphasize the need to consider G×E interaction when searching for genes influencing risk to complex and heterogeneous disorders, such as non-syndromic CP. PMID:21618603

  18. Protocol for a systematic review of the effects of schools and school-environment interventions on health: evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Wells, Helene; Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Laurence

    2011-06-09

    Schools may have important effects on students' and staff's health. Rather than treating schools merely as sites for health education, 'school-environment' interventions treat schools as settings which influence health. Evidence concerning the effects of such interventions has not been recently synthesised. Systematic review aiming to map and synthesise evidence on what theories and conceptual frameworks are most commonly used to inform school-environment interventions or explain school-level influences on health; what effects school-environment interventions have on health/health inequalities; how feasible and acceptable are school-environment interventions; what effects other school-level factors have on health; and through what processes school-level influences affect health.We will examine interventions aiming to promote health by modifying schools' physical, social or cultural environment via actions focused on school policies and practices relating to education, pastoral care and other aspects of schools beyond merely providing health education. Participants are staff and students age 4-18 years.We will review published research unrestricted by language, year or source. Searching will involve electronic databases including Embase, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo and Social Science Citation Index using natural-language phrases plus reference/citation checking.Stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and methods. Stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. Evidence will be synthesised narratively and statistically where appropriate (undertaking subgroup analyses and meta-regression and where no significant heterogeneity of effect sizes is found, pooling these to calculate a final effect size). We anticipate: finding a large number of studies missed by previous reviews; that non-intervention studies of school effects examine a greater breadth of determinants than are addressed

  19. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 23 October 1985. Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the Department of the Environment on radioactive waste and reprocessing, under the headings: long-term management of spent fuel; comparison of wastes arising from reprocessing and storage/disposal of spent fuel; the spent fuel assemblies; waste arising from spent-fuel management at reactor sites; reprocessing wastes; long-term storage and direct disposal of spent fuel; liquid and gaseous discharges; CEGB note on the drying-off and subsequent long term storage of spent magnox fuel. The Minister of the Environment and representatives of the Department of the Environment were examined on the subject of the memorandum. The problems of finding sites suitable for radioactive waste storage/disposal and acceptable to public opinion were discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L; Birkmose, T [The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO{sub 3} per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N{sub 2}O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs.

  1. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The drivers of corporate environment inputs: Based on neo-institution theory evidence from Chinese listed biological and other companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Tao, Lan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Lianfang; Wang, Haijun

    2014-09-01

    From corporate internal governance structure and external institutional environment, this study uses a legitimacy perspective of intuitional theory to analyze the main influence factors on corporate environmental protection inputs and propose some hypotheses. With the establishment of empirical models, it analyzes the data of 2004-2009 listed biological and other companies in China to test the hypotheses. The findings are concluded that in internal institutional environment, the nature of the controlling shareholder, the proportion of the first shareholder in the ownership structure, the combination of chairman and general manager in board efficiency and the intensity of environmental laws and regulations of the industry in external institutional environment have an significant impact on the behaviors of corporate environmental protection inputs.

  3. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions.

  4. Evidence-Centered Design for Diagnostic Assessment within Digital Learning Environments: Integrating Modern Psychometrics and Educational Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, André A.; Nugent, Rebecca; Nelson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the educational community has increasingly embraced digital technologies for the purposes of developing alternative learning environments, providing diagnostic feedback, and fostering the development of so-called 21st-century skills. This special issue is dedicated to bridging recent work from the disciplines of educational and…

  5. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cance...

  6. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickels, S.; Truong, T.; Hein, R.; Stevens, K.; Buck, K.; Behrens, S.; Eilber, U.; Schmidt, M.; Haberle, L.; Vrieling, A.; Gaudet, M.; Figueroa, J.; Schoof, N.; Spurdle, A.B.; Rudolph, A.; Fasching, P.A.; Hopper, J.L.; Makalic, E.; Schmidt, D.F.; Southey, M.C.; Beckmann, M.W.; Ekici, A.B.; Fletcher, O.; Gibson, L.; Idos, S. Silva; Peto, J.; Humphreys, M.K.; Wang, J; Cordina-Duverger, E.; Menegaux, F.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Bojesen, S.E.; Lanng, C.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Bernstein, L.; Clarke, C.A.; Brenner, H.; Muller, H.; Arndt, V.; Stegmaier, C.; Brauch, H.; Bruning, T.; Harth, V.; Genica, N.; Mannermaa, A.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V.M.; Hartikainen, J.M.; Lambrechts, D.; Smeets, D.; Neven, P.; Paridaens, R.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Obi, N.; Wang-Gohrke, S.; Couch, F.J.; Olson, J.E.; Vachon, C.M.; Giles, G.G.; Severi, G.; Baglietto, L.; Offit, K.; John, E.M.; Miron, A.; Andrulis, I.L.; Knight, J.A.; Glendon, G.; Mulligan, A.M.; Chanock, S.J.; Lissowska, J.; Liu, J.; Cox, A; Cramp, H.; Connley, D.; Balasubramanian, S.; Dunning, A.M.; Shah, M.; Trentham-Dietz, A.; Newcomb, P.; Titus, L.; Egan, K.; Cahoon, E.K.; Rajaraman, P.; Sigurdson, A.J.; Doody, M.M.; Guenel, P.; Pharoah, P.D.; Schmidt, M.K.; Hall, P.; Easton, D.F.; Garcia-Closas, M.; Milne, R.L.; Chang-Claude, J.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer.

  7. Breeding limits foraging time : Evidence of interrupted foraging response from body mass variation in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima J.; Dietz, Maurine W.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Cresswell, Will

    Birds should store body reserves if starvation risk is anticipated; this is known as an ‘interrupted foraging response’. If foraging remains unrestricted, however, body mass should remain low to limit the predation risk that gaining and carrying body reserves entails. In temperate environments mass

  8. Amphibian populations in the terrestrial environment: Is there evidence of declines of terrestrial forest amphibians in northwestern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Gary M. Fellers; Amy J. Lind

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian declines have been documented worldwide; however the vast majority are species associated with aquatic habitats. Information on the status and trends of terrestrial amphibians is almost entirely lacking. Here we use data collected across a 12-yr period (sampling from 1984–86 and from 1993–95) to address the question of whether evidence exists for declines...

  9. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS

  10. Application of an evidence-based tool to evaluate health impacts of changes to the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jared M; Chapman, James E; Kershaw, Suzanne E; Campbell, Monica; Frank, Lawrence D

    2014-07-11

    To create and apply an empirically based health and greenhouse gas (GHG) impact assessment tool linking detailed measures of walkability and regional accessibility with travel, physical activity, health indicators and GHG emissions. Parcel land use and transportation system characteristics were calculated within a kilometre network buffer around each Toronto postal code. Built environment measures were linked with health and demographic characteristics from the Canadian Community Health Survey and travel behaviour from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey. Results were incorporated into an existing software tool and used to predict health-related indicators and GHG emissions for the Toronto West Don Lands Redevelopment. Walkability, regional accessibility, sidewalks, bike facilities and recreation facility access were positively associated with physical activity and negatively related to body weight, high blood pressure and transportation impacts. When applied to the West Don Lands, the software tool predicted a substantial shift from automobile use to walking, biking and transit. Walking and biking trips more than doubled, and transit trips increased by one third. Per capita automobile trips decreased by half, and vehicle kilometres travelled and GHG emissions decreased by 15% and 29%, respectively. The results presented are novel and among the first to link health outcomes with detailed built environment features in Canada. The resulting tool is the first of its kind in Canada. This tool can help policy-makers, land use and transportation planners, and health practitioners to evaluate built environment influences on health-related indicators and GHG emissions resulting from contrasting land use and transportation policies and actions.

  11. Validation of an instrument to assess evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, access, and confidence in the dental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Rugh, John D; Hatch, John P; Stark, Debra L; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-01

    This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students

  12. Evidence utilisation project: Management of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. The challenges of implementing best practice recommendations in the perioperative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Judy; Hines, Sonia Jane; Chang, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    The prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) remains an important issue in perioperative healthcare. The aims of this project were to: (i) assess current clinical practice in the management of IPH and (ii) promote best practice in the management of IPH in adult operating theatres. This project from August 2010 to March 2012 utilised a system of audit and feedback to implement best practice recommendations. Data were collected via chart audits against criteria developed from best practice recommendations for managing IPH. Evidence-based best practices, such as consistent temperature monitoring and patient warming, were implemented using multifaceted interventions. Perioperative records for 73 patients (baseline) and 72 patients (post-implementation) were audited. Post-implementation audit showed an increase in patients with temperatures >36°C admitted to the post-anaesthetic care unit (PACU) (8%) and discharged from PACU (28%). The percentage of patients receiving preoperative temperature monitoring increased (38%); however, low levels of intraoperative monitoring remained (31% of patients with surgery of 30 min or longer duration). Small increases were found in patient warming of 5% intraoperatively and 8% postoperatively. Preoperative warming was not successfully implemented during this phase of the project. Temperature monitoring, warming and rates of normothermia improved; however, barriers to best practice of IPH management were experienced, which negatively impacted on the project. Further stages of implementation and audit were added to further address IPH management in this department. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2013 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  13. Bioerosion structures in high-salinity marine environments: Evidence from the Al-Khafji coastline, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Alharbi, Talal; Richiano, Sebastián

    2018-05-01

    Salinity is one the major stress factors that controls the biotic activities in marine environments. In general, the mixture with fresh-water has been mention as a great stress factor, but the opposite, i.e. high-salinity conditions, is less developed in the ichnological literature. Along the Al-Khafji coastline, Saudi Arabia, hard substrates (constituted by gastropods, bivalves and coral skeletons) contain diverse and abundant bioerosion traces and associated encrusters. Field and laboratory observations allowed the recognition of eight ichnospecies belong to the ichnogenera Gastrochaenolites, Entobia, Oichnus, Caulostrepsis and Trypanites, which can be attributed to various activities produced by bivalves, sponges, gastropods and annelids. The borings demonstrate two notable ichnological boring assemblages, namely, Entobia-dominated and Gastrochaenolites-dominated assemblages. The highly diversified bioerosion and encrustation in the studied hard organic substrate indicate a long exposition period of organic substrate with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted (high-salinity) marine environment. This bioerosion study shows that high-salinity, at least for the study area, is not an important controlling factor for ichnology.

  14. Elementary Science Instruction: Examining a Virtual Environment for Evidence of Learning, Engagement, and 21st Century Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry K. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the effectiveness of a virtual world curriculum for teaching elementary students complex science concepts and skills. Data were collected using pre- and post-content tests and a student survey of engaged learning, An additional survey collected teacher observations of 21st century competencies conducive to learning. The study involved a five-day intervention of fifteen 4th grade students in a small Midwestern school using a virtual science computer game from Arizona State University. Thirty elementary teachers from Australia, England, and the United States were surveyed on classroom observations of their elementary students working in the virtual world environment. Research questions guiding the virtual learning study were: (1 do pre- and post-content tests show significant learning in the virtual environment; (2 are students academically engaged during the learning process; and (3 are students actively demonstrating relevant 21st century competencies. The study supports prior research in game-based learning showing measureable learning results, highly engaged, motivated students, and observations of student behaviors conducive to learning science in school, namely collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking/inquiry, global awareness, and technology use.

  15. The Use of Videogames, Gamification, and Virtual Environments in the Self-Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theng, Yin-Leng; Lee, Jason W Y; Patinadan, Paul V; Foo, Schubert S B

    2015-10-01

    The use of videogames in healthcare interventions is gaining popularity, but there is still a gap in the understanding on how these types of interventions are used for the management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine published research on the use of videogames for diabetes management. With the increased use of mobile technology, the review was expanded to understand whether games, gamification, and virtual environments can be used for diabetes self-management. Out of the 307 articles identified, only 10 articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The duration of most studies was short, with small sample sizes. All interventions targeted behavioral changes examining risk reduction of diabetes-related risk and promotion of healthy behavior among study participants. Videogames appeared to be helpful tools for education in some interventions, whereas gamification and virtual environments increased extrinsic motivation and provided positive reinforcement. This review concludes by discussing the potential of using videogames and gamification for the self-management of diabetes.

  16. "Championing GIS, Biostatistics, meteo, m-health and e-health approaches for tailored informed evidence-based agricultural, environment and health interventions in Rwanda"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karame, P., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    "GIS-Biostatistics-Meteo for Health (GBMH), A consolidated approach"The environmental vulnerability rate due to human-induced threats and climate change has exceeded the capacity of ecosystems and species to adapt naturally. Drastic changes in seasonal and weather patterns have led to a severely intriguing imbalance ecosystem equilibrium, associated to habitat degradation, environmental pollution, shortage of ecosystem services production and shift in species distribution, food insecurity, invasive species and complex species associations. The consequences are particularly disturbing regarding health and wellbeing of human populations. Especially to Sub-Saharan Africa, informed evidence-based statistics are inappropriately if not at all used for developing and implementing coping measures. This makes a regrettable scenario for Rwanda, a research-driven economic transformation country in which mostly expensive long-term interventions remain meaningless and unknowingly approved effective. More important, no single sector can ultimately afford the most informative approaches providing evidence and guiding policy and decisions, due to limited resources. Rwanda dedicates substantial investment to sustain a conducive, robust and flourishing environment promoting research priorities most likely to deliver improved health outcomes. In this framework, the above mentioned approach supports cross-sectoral analyses to evaluate health care quality improvements through impact assessments, policy analysis and forecasting. This approach "Consolidating GIS, Biostatistics, meteo, mobile and e-health approaches (GBMH)" tailors disaster, disease control and prevention, farming options, effective planning, interventions and communication for safe health in sound environment. Under GBMH models, Integrated Time Series analysis completed in R Studio on health interventions from HMIS and DHS and DHSS systems (on environment and disaster management, farming practices and health sector

  17. "GIS, Biostatistics, meteo, m-health and e-health approaches for tailored informed evidence-based agricultural, environment and health interventions in Rwanda"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karame, P., Sr.; Dushimiyimana, V.

    2016-12-01

    " Championing GIS-Biostatistics-Meteo for Health (GBMH), A consolidated approach"The environmental vulnerability rate due to human-induced threats and climate change has exceeded the capacity of ecosystems and species to adapt naturally. Drastic changes in seasonal and weather patterns have led to a severely intriguing imbalance ecosystem equilibrium, associated to habitat degradation, environmental pollution, shortage of ecosystem services production and shift in species distribution, food insecurity, invasive species and complex species associations. The consequences are particularly disturbing regarding health and wellbeing of human populations. Especially to Sub-Saharan Africa, informed evidence-based statistics are inappropriately if not at all used for developing and implementing coping measures. This makes a regrettable scenario for Rwanda, a research-driven economic transformation country in which mostly expensive long-term interventions remain meaningless and unknowingly approved effective. More important, no single sector can ultimately afford the most informative approaches providing evidence and guiding policy and decisions, due to limited resources. Rwanda dedicates substantial investment to sustain a conducive, robust and flourishing environment promoting research priorities most likely to deliver improved health outcomes. In this framework, the above mentioned approach supports cross-sectoral analyses to evaluate health care quality improvements through impact assessments, policy analysis and forecasting. This approach "Consolidating GIS, Biostatistics, meteo, mobile and e-health approaches (GBMH)" tailors disaster, disease control and prevention, farming options, effective planning, interventions and communication for safe health in sound environment. Under GBMH models, Integrated Time Series analysis completed in R Studio on health interventions from HMIS and DHS and DHSS systems (on environment and disaster management, farming practices and health

  18. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-11-01

    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diets and environments of late Cenozoic mammals in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Deng, Tao; Tseng, Zhijie J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Gangpu; Xu, Yingfeng

    2012-06-01

    The timing history and driving mechanisms of C4 expansion and Tibetan uplift are hotly debated issues. Paleoenvironmental evidence from within the Tibetan Plateau is essential to help resolve these issues. Here we report results of stable C and O isotope analyses of tooth enamel samples from a variety of late Cenozoic mammals, including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant, from the Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The enamel-δ13C values are diets and only a few individuals (besides the exceptional rhino CD0722) may have consumed some C4 plants. Based on geological evidence, however, the Qaidam Basin was probably warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Thus, these δ13C values likely indicate that many individuals had significant dietary intakes of C4 plants, and the Qaidam Basin had more C4 plants in the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Moreover, the Qaidam Basin likely had much denser vegetation at those times in order to support such large mammals as rhinos and elephants. While the δ18O values did not increase monotonously with time, the range of variation seems to have increased considerably since the early Pliocene, indicating increased aridification in the basin. The mean δ18O values of large mammals and those reconstructed for local meteoric waters display a significant negative shift in the late Miocene, consistent with the marine δ18O record which shows a cooling trend in the same period. Taken together, the isotope data suggest a warmer, wetter, and perhaps lower Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Increased aridification after the early Pliocene is likely due to a combined effect of regional tectonism, which resulted in a more effective barrier preventing moisture from the Indian Ocean or Bay of Bengal from reaching the basin, and global cooling.

  20. Evidence-Based Occupational Hearing Screening I: Modeling the Effects of Real-World Noise Environments on the Likelihood of Effective Speech Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Giguère, Christian; Laroche, Chantal; Vaillancourt, Véronique; Dreschler, Wouter A; Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Harkins, Kevin; Ruckstuhl, Mark; Ramulu, Pradeep; Meyers, Lawrence S

    corrections environments. The likelihood of effective speech communication at communication distances of 0.5 and 1 m was often less than 0.50 for normal vocal effort. Likelihood values often increased to 0.80 or more when raised or loud vocal effort was used. Effective speech communication at and beyond 5 m was often unlikely, regardless of vocal effort. ESII modeling of nonstationary real-world noise environments may prove an objective means of characterizing their impact on the likelihood of effective speech communication. The normative reference provided by these measures predicts the extent to which hearing impairments that increase the ESII value required for effective speech communication also decrease the likelihood of effective speech communication. These predictions may provide an objective evidence-based link between the essential hearing-critical job task requirements of public safety and law enforcement personnel and ESII-based hearing assessment of individuals who seek to perform these jobs.

  1. Perception of evidence-based practice and the professional environment of Primary Health Care nurses in the Spanish context: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Torrente Susana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the factors that encourage evidence-based clinical practice, such as structure, environment and professional skills, has contributed to an improvement in quality of care. Nevertheless, most of this research has been carried out in a hospital context, neglecting the area of primary health care. The main aim of this work was to assess the factors that influence an evidence-based clinical practice among nursing professionals in Primary Health Care. Methods A multicentre cross-sectional study was designed, taking the 619 Primary Care staff nurses at the Balearic Islands’ Primary Health Care Service, as the study population. The methodology applied consisted on a self-administered survey using the instruments Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ and Nursing Work Index (NWI. Results Three hundred and seventy seven surveys were received (60.9% response rate. Self-assessment of skills and knowledge, obtained 66.6% of the maximum score. The Knowledge/Skills factor obtained the best scores among the staff with shorter professional experience. There was a significant difference in the Attitude factor (p = 0.008 in favour of nurses with management functions, as opposed to clinical nurses. Multivariate analysis showed a significant positive relationship between NWI and level of evidence-based practice (p  Conclusions Institutions ought to undertake serious reflection on the lack of skills of senior nurses about Evidence-Based Clinical Practice, even when they have more professional experience. Leadership emerge as a key role in the transferral of knowledge into clinical practice.

  2. Enhancing the gene-environment interaction framework through a quasi-experimental research design: evidence from differential responses to September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a gene-environment interaction framework to examine the differential responses to an objective external stressor based on genetic variation in the production of depressive symptoms. This article advances the literature by utilizing a quasi-experimental environmental exposure design, as well as a regression discontinuity design, to control for seasonal trends, which limit the potential for gene-environment correlation and allow stronger causal claims. Replications are attempted for two prominent genes (5-HTT and MAOA), and three additional genes are explored (DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1). This article provides evidence of a main effect of 9/11 on reports of feelings of sadness and fails to replicate a common finding of interaction using 5-HTT but does show support for interaction with MAOA in men. It also provides new evidence that variation in the DRD4 gene modifies an individual's response to the exposure, with individuals with no 7-repeats found to have a muted response.

  3. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Gay, Jill; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Peltz, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. This paper examines the evidence related to six key social and structural drivers of HIV for women: transforming gender norms; addressing violence against women; transforming legal norms to empower women; promoting women's employment, income and livelihood opportunities; advancing education for girls and reducing stigma and discrimination. The paper reviews the evidence for successful and promising social and structural interventions related to each driver. This analysis contains peer-reviewed published research and study reports with clear and transparent data on the effectiveness of interventions. Structural interventions to address these key social and structural drivers have led to increasing HIV-protective behaviours, creating more gender-equitable relationships and decreasing violence, improving services for women, increasing widows' ability to cope with HIV and reducing behaviour that increases HIV risk, particularly among young people.

  4. Selected aspects of the oral environment in cleft palate patients – a problem evidently beyond dentists’ scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna AntoszewskaABCD

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The oral cavity is a specialized ecosystem composed of dentition and mucosa exposed to the effects of saliva and gingival liquid. Its structure provides advantageous conditions for various microorganisms, both aerobic streptococci and anaerobic bacilli. The dynamic balance of the oral cavity ecosystem can be threatened by various factors. Lip and palatal clefts are the most frequent disorders in embryonic facial development. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus and oral cavity hygiene in patients with cleft palate treated orthodontically are significantly different compared with patients without these congenital malformations.Material/Methods:The study group consisted of 200 patients aged 6–21 who were divided into two groups depending on the presence of cleft palate and treatment method. Group C (control consisted of 50 orthodontically untreated patients with occlusal dental defects. The performed studies consisted of 2 parts: the clinical-laboratory part and statistical analysis.Clinical-laboratory partResults:High bacteria levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in saliva of patients were comparably frequent between groups, but there were statistically significant differences in inter-group comparisons.Conclusions:As the orthodontic treatment changes the oral environment, control of proper hygienic behavior is an essential element of health education. Introduction of preventive programs is also very important.

  5. Does the Central Government’s Environmental Policy Work? Evidence from the Provincial-Level Environment Efficiency in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at checking the effectiveness of environmental policy pushed by the Central Government at provincial level since China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO. For this purpose, the industrial system of each province is divided into industrial production sub-system and pollution treatment sub-system, and a novel slack-based measure data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA model with non-cooperative game is proposed to evaluate the environment efficiency of both industrial production sub-system and pollutant treatment sub-system. The results show that the proposed model can describe the environmental efficiency more precisely than the traditional DEA models. During 2003–2012, the efficiencies of industrial production sub-system and pollution treatment sub-system at the provincial level are both relatively low. Specifically, the efficiency of industrial production is not only lower than pollution treatment efficiency, but is falling generally, especially in the Eastern area. However, in the Central and Western area, the efficiency of industrial production remains relatively stable, and pollution treatment efficiency is rising steadily. The technology gap between the Central/Western area and the Eastern area is narrowing, particularly concerning pollution treatment technology. We thus conclude that though the Central Government’s environmental policies fail to solve the inner contradiction between economic and environmental systems, and they indirectly contribute to the expansion of pollutant treatment technology among the Eastern, Central, and Western areas, which is conducive to the coordinated development among different areas.

  6. Does the private sector help or hurt the environment? Evidence from carbon dioxide pollution in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, D.; Meisner, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    How does the nature of enterprise ownership affect the environment in an economy? Conventional wisdom and theoretical conjectures are split on this important question. In this paper we estimate a reduced-form, random-effects model using data from 44 developing countries over nine years (1987-95) to study for any systematic empirical relationship between the relative level of private sector involvement in an economy and the environmental performance of the economy in terms of its emission of industrial carbon dioxide. We control for both observed and unobserved crosscountry heterogeneity along various institutional and structural dimensions such as the scope of financial market, industrial sector composition and level of foreign direct investment. The regression results indicate that the higher the degree of private sector involvement in a developing economy, the lower is its environmental degradation. In addition, its environmental degradation is likely to be further reduced in presence of a well-functioning domestic capital market and through increased participation by developed economies in its private sector development. (author)

  7. The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Ribeiro, Andre L R; Levine, Adam P; Pontikos, Nikolas; Balloux, Francois; Segal, Anthony W; Roberts, Adam P; Smith, Andrew M

    2017-09-12

    The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition. IMPORTANCE Previous research shows that the salivary microbiomes of relatives are more similar than those of nonrelatives, but it remains difficult to distinguish the effects of relatedness and shared household environment. Furthermore, pedigree measures may not accurately measure host genetic similarity. In this study, we include genetic relatedness based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rather than

  8. Experimental and observational evidence reveals that predators in natural environments do not regulate their prey: They are passengers, not drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. C. R.

    2013-11-01

    Among both ecologists and the wider community there is a tacit assumption that predators regulate populations of their prey. But there is evidence from a wide taxonomic and geographic range of studies that predators that are adapted to co-evolved prey generally do not regulate their prey. This is because predators either cannot reproduce as fast as their prey and/or are inefficient hunters unable to catch enough prey to sustain maximum reproduction. The greater capacity of herbivores to breed successfully is, however, normally restricted by a lack of enough food of sufficient quality to support reproduction. But whenever this shortage is alleviated by a large pulse of food, herbivores increase their numbers to outbreak levels. Their predators are unable to contain this increase, but their numbers, too, surge in response to this increase in food. Eventually both their populations will crash once the food supply runs out, first for the herbivores and then for the predators. Then an “over-run” of predators will further depress the already declining prey population, appearing to be controlling its abundance. This latter phenomenon has led many ecologists to conclude that predators are regulating the numbers of their prey. However, it is the same process that is revealed during outbreaks that limits populations of both predator and prey in “normal” times, although this is usually not readily apparent. Nevertheless, as all the diverse cases discussed here attest, the abundance of predators and their co-evolved prey are both limited by their food: the predators are passengers, not drivers.

  9. Dispersion and oviposition of Aedes albopictus in a Brazilian slum: Initial evidence of Asian tiger mosquito domiciliation in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Tania; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Gonçalves, Larissa da Silva; Saito Monteiro de Barros, Fábio; Brasil, Patrícia; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2018-01-01

    vegetation coverage, is present and spread in neglected and densely urbanized areas, being collected at a long distance from the typical encounter areas for this species. Besides, as Ae. albopictus can easily move between sylvatic and urban environment, the entomological monitoring of Ae. albopictus should be an integral part of mosquito surveillance and control. Finally, key-sites, characterized by high human influx and presence of potential Aedes breeding sites, should be included in entomological monitoring.

  10. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  11. Satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and health in older elderly: cross-sectional evidence from the Bambuí cohort study of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87 were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13, difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78, presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95 and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50 were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.

  12. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  13. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  14. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  15. Molecular environment of stable iodine and radioiodine (129I) in natural organic matter: Evidence inferred from NMR and binding experiments at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Yeager, Chris M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2012-11-01

    129I is a major by-product of nuclear fission and had become one of the major radiation risk drivers at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 129I is present at elevated levels in the surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area and was found to be bound predominantly to soil organic matter (SOM). Naturally bound 127I and 129I to sequentially extracted humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids (FAs) and a water extractable colloid (WEC) were measured in a 129I-contaminated wetland surface soil located on the SRS. WEC is a predominantly colloidal organic fraction obtained from soil re-suspension experiments to mimic the fraction that may be released during groundwater exfiltration, storm water or surface runoff events. For the first time, NMR techniques were applied to infer the molecular environment of naturally occurring stable iodine and radioiodine binding to SOM. Iodine uptake partitioning coefficients (Kd) by these SOM samples at ambient iodine concentrations were also measured and related to quantitative structural analyses by 13C DPMAS NMR and solution state 1H NMR on the eight humic acid fractions. By assessing the molecular environment of iodine, it was found that it was closely associated with the aromatic regions containing esterified products of phenolic and formic acids or other aliphatic carboxylic acids, amide functionalities, quinone-like structures activated by electron-donating groups (e.g., NH2), or a hemicellulose-lignin-like complex with phenyl-glycosidic linkages. However, FAs and WEC contained much greater concentrations of 127I or 129I than HAs. The contrasting radioiodine contents among the three different types of SOM (HAs, FAs and WEC) suggest that the iodine binding environment cannot be explained solely by the difference in the amount of their reactive binding sites. Instead, indirect evidence indicates that the macro-molecular conformation, such as the hydrophobic aliphatic periphery hindering the active aromatic cores and the hydrophilic

  16. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tiffany A; Martin, Damali N; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA.

  17. Dokazi o učinkovitosti uporabe robota in navidezne resničnosti v rehabilitaciji: Evidence on efficacy of rehabilitation robotics and virtual environment supported movement in rehabilitation:

    OpenAIRE

    Matjačić, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation robotics and virtual environments are being gradually used in clinical rehabilitation environments as they enable higher number of specific movement (mobility or upper limb) repetitions while at the same time relieving physiotherapists from strenuous labor. However, as rehabilitation robotics require relatively high initial investment evidences on its efficacy are crucial for their further wide-spreading. Methods: We reviewed literature reporting on randomized clini...

  18. The Response of Eastern African Terrestrial Environments to the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition: Paleosol Isotopic Evidence from the Turkana Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R.; Lepre, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Heightened aridity and C4 grass expansion are recorded in Africa during the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition (MPCT, 1.3-0.7 Ma), potentially as consequences of decreasing atmospheric CO2. Whether all of Africa responded to the MPCT in the same manner is unclear. Recent studies of a Malawi Basin lake core and paleosols show abundant C3 flora across the MPCT. African climate change is often suggested as a primary cause of hominin speciation, extinction, and technological innovations. Competing environmental-based evolutionary hypotheses propose increased aridity, humidity pulses, and climatic variability as influences of water availability and vegetation structure in Plio-Pleistocene hominin habitats. The Turkana Basin in northern Kenya preserves a rich fossil record of hominins from 4.3-0.7 Ma and offers high-resolution age control via paleomagnetic stratigraphy, isotopic geochronology, and tephrostratigraphy. Turkana's large paleosol isotopic database demonstrates a gradual increase in C4 grass abundance and aridity from 4-1 Ma. Faunal evidence for increasing abundances of C4 grazers corroborates the spread of C4 grasslands from 2-1 Ma. However, there is a dearth of terrestrial environmental records after 1.5 Ma and through the MPCT at Turkana, during which time eastern Africa witnessed the extinction of Paranthropus and the disperal of genus Homo. Here we report a stable isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) record of paleosol carbonates from the Turkana Basin from 1.4 to 0.7 Ma. Based on our findings and comparisons with comparable datasets from other hominin locales, we suggest that eastern African environments responded to the MPCT in a phased shift from south to north, possibly as a consequence of the compression of the ITCZ during glacial maxima and/or to changes to the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  19. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Paul; Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Hickox, R. C.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Galametz, A.; Norman, D.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Murray, S.; Jones, C.; Brown, M. J. I.

    2013-01-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 10 14 M ☉ ) at 1 A = 3.0 +2.4 -1.4 % for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L X, H ≥ 10 44 erg s –1 . This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M * 3.6 (z) + 1, where M * 3.6 (z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ∼ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ∼ 0.75. AGNs with L X, H ≥ 10 43 erg s –1 exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ∼ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  20. Microsensor and transcriptomic signatures of oxygen depletion in biofilms associated with chronic wounds: Biofilms and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Garth A. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Ge Zhao, Alice [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Usui, Marcia [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Underwood, Robert A. [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Nguyen, Hung [The Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington; Beyenal, Haluk [The Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington; deLancey Pulcini, Elinor [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Agostinho Hunt, Alessandra [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 5180 Biomedical and Physical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan; Bernstein, Hans C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Richland Washington; Fleckman, Philip [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Olerud, John [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Williamson, Kerry S. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Franklin, Michael J. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Stewart, Philip S. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana

    2016-02-16

    Polymicrobial biofilms have been implicated in delayed wound healing, although the mechanisms by which biofilms impair wound healing are poorly understood. Many species of bacteria produce exotoxins and exoenzymes that may inhibit healing. In addition, oxygen consumption by biofilms may impede wound healing. In this study, we used oxygen microsensors to measure oxygen transects through in vitro-cultured biofilms, biofilms formed in vivo in a diabetic (db/db) mouse model, and ex vivo human chronic wound specimens. The results show that oxygen levels within both euthanized and live mouse wounds had steep gradients that reached minima ranging from 19 to 61% oxygen partial pressure, compared to atmospheric oxygen levels. The oxygen gradients in the mouse wounds were similar to those observed for clinical isolates cultured in vitro and for human ex vivo scabs. No oxygen gradients were observed for heat-killed scabs, suggesting that active metabolism by the viable bacteria contributed to the reduced oxygen partial pressure of the wounds. To characterize the metabolic activities of the bacteria in the mouse wounds, we performed transcriptomics analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms associated with the db/db mice wounds using Affymetrix microarrays. The results demonstrated that the bacteria expressed genes for metabolic activities associated with cell growth. Interestingly, the transcriptome results indicated that the bacteria within the wounds also experienced oxygen-limitation stress. Among the bacterial genes that were expressed in vivo were genes associated with the Anr-mediated hypoxia-stress response. Other bacterial stress response genes highly expressed in vivo were genes associated with stationary-phase growth, osmotic stress, and RpoH-mediated heat shock stress. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the metabolic activities of bacteria in biofilms act as oxygen sinks in chronic wounds and that the depletion of oxygen contributes to the detrimental impact of biofilms on wound healing.

  1. High sensitivity of Lobelia dortmanna to sediment oxygen depletion following organic enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Claus Lindskov; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2011-01-01

    • Lobelia dortmanna thrives in oligotrophic, softwater lakes thanks to O(2) and CO(2) exchange across roots and uptake of sediment nutrients. We hypothesize that low gas permeability of leaves constrains Lobelia to pristine habitats because plants go anoxic in the dark if O(2) vanishes from...... sediments. • We added organic matter to sediments and followed O(2) dynamics in plants and sediments using microelectrodes. To investigate plant stress, nutrient content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves were measured. • Small additions of organic matter triggered O(2) depletion and accumulation of NH(4......)(+), Fe(2+) and CO(2) in sediments. O(2) in leaf lacunae fluctuated from above air saturation in the light to anoxia late in the dark in natural sediments, but organic enrichment prolonged anoxia because of higher O(2) consumption and restricted uptake from the water. Leaf N and P dropped below minimum...

  2. From nitrogen enrichment to oxygen depletion: a mechanistic model of coastal marine ecosystems response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from anthropogenic sources may enrich coastal waters and lead to marine eutrophication impacts. Processes describing N-limited primary production (PP), zooplankton grazing, and bacterial respiration of sinking organic carbon, were modelled to quantify the potential dissolved...... oxygen (DO) consumption as a function of N input. Such indicator is the basis for an eXposure Factor (XF) applied in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) to estimate impacts from N enrichment. The Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) biogeographical classification system was adopted to address the spatial...

  3. Upwelling and isolation in oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddies and implications for nitrate cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice

    2017-01-01

    is identified with a horizontal extent of about 70km and bounded by maxima in N2. The upper N2 maximum (3-5 × 10-4s-2) coincides with the mixed layer base and the lower N2 maximum (0.4 × 10-4s-2) is found at about 200m depth in the eddy centre. The eddy core shows a constant slope in temperature/salinity (T...

  4. Nitrate reduction by fungi in marine oxygen-depleted laboratory microcosms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in terrestrial soils (Laughlin et al. 2009). Studies on denitrification in wetlands indicate that both bacteria and fungi contribute significantly to denitrification under reducing conditions. However, fungal denitrification might well be of greater ecological... such as grassland soil (Laughlin and Stevens 2002), fumigated soil (Spokas et al. 2006) and woodland (Castaldi and Smith 1998). Mixed cultures of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and the bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri (Lehmann and Neumann) Sijderius under anaerobic...

  5. Effect of spatiotemporal variation of rainfall on dissolved oxygen depletion in integrated catchment studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Rodenas, A.M.; Cecinati, F.; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the effect of spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall fields on the performance of a simplified integrated catchment model for predicting dissolved oxygen concentrations in a river. For that purpose we propose a procedure to generate rainfall products with increasing spatial

  6. Formation of carbonate chimneys in the Mediterranean Sea linked to deep-water oxygen depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayon, G.; Dupré, S.; Ponzevera, E.; Etoubleau, J.; Chéron, S.; Pierre, C.; Mascle, J.; Boetius, A.; de Lange, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments at ocean margins vent substantial amounts of methane1, 2. Microbial oxidation of the methane released can trigger the precipitation of carbonate within sediments and support a broad diversity of seafloor ecosystems3, 4. The factors controlling microbial activity and carbonate

  7. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, A. [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Norman, D.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, M. J. I., E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M {>=} 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z {approx} 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f{sub A} = 3.0{sup +2.4}{sub -1.4}% for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) + 1, where M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 {mu}m bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3{sigma} upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z {approx} 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z {approx} 0.75. AGNs with L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z {approx} 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  8. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  9. GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPANO-MAASTRICHTIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM FIELD RELATIONSHIP AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Salufu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies within the Anambra Basin and it is made up of Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, and Nsukka Formation. This study aimed at determining the geology and depositional environmental of these formations through field relationship and grain size distribution morphologic studies.The field data shows Enugu Shale as fissile, light grey with extraformational clast which graded into Mamu Formation whichis made up of shale, coal and sandy shale. It passes upward into Ajali Sandstone which is characterized by cross beds, Herringbonestructures and Ophiomorpha burrows. The youngest formation within the basin is Nsukka Formation.The granulometric study of Mamu Formation shows fine to medium grains, coarse, medium to fine grain for Mamu and Ajali Formation respectively. The standard deviation indicates poorly sorted. The kurtosis shows leptokurtic, platykurtic to very leptokurtic for both while the skewness values indicate positive and symmetrical in all except for Ajali Sandstone that is negatively skewed.The bivariate and the multivariate results reveal shallow marine and fluvial deposits for both Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone respectively. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone indicates southwest while the provenance is northeast.The fissility of Enugu Shale suggests that it was deposited in low energy environment, distal to proximal lagoon environment.The presence of extraformatonal clast within Enugu Shale indicates fluvial incursion. However, the textural analysis of Mamu Formation suggests a sediment deposited in a low energy environment which favoured deposition of fine to medium size sediments that is, estuary environment. Textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. While the light grey colour observed in the

  10. Understanding the relationship between food environments, deprivation and childhood overweight and obesity: evidence from a cross sectional England-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Using a large cross sectional English sample, we quantified the association between weight status in children aged 4-5 and 10-11 year, characteristics of the food environment, and area deprivation. We observed a positive association between the density of unhealthy food outlets in a neighbourhood and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. An association in the opposite direction was observed for other types of food outlets, although after adjustment this was only statistically significant for older children. The prevalence of fast food and other unhealthy food outlets explained only a small proportion of the observed associations between weight status and socioeconomic deprivation. Children׳s weight status may be influenced by their local environment, particularly older children, but associations between obesity and deprivation do not appear strongly due to local food environment characteristics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Coaching and Demonstration of Evidence-Based Book-Reading Practices: Effects on Head Start Teachers' Literacy-Related Behaviors and Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Stoiber, Karen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching with versus without demonstrations of evidence-based book-reading practices on teachers' use of strategies during independent book-reading periods. A total of 22 Head Start teachers were randomly assigned to one of two cohorts. One cohort (n = 12) participated in biweekly coaching sessions that included…

  12. Search for the evidence of endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment: Lessons to be learned from joint biological and chemical monitoring in the European Project COMPREHEND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, R.I.L.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Bowmer, C.T.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Gibert, M.; Hylland, K.; Johnson, A.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Nakari, T.; Norrgren, L.; Sumpter, J.P.; Suter, M.J.F.; Svenson, A.; Pickering, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2001, the European Community project COMPREHEND was performed. The overall aim of COMPREHEND was to assess endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment in Europe, consequent to effluent discharge, with emphasis on estrogenic activity. COMPREHEND demonstrated the

  13. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  14. An In-Depth Analysis of Teaching Themes and the Quality of Teaching in Higher Education: Evidence from the Programming Education Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene

    2017-01-01

    Education research in computer science has emphasized the research of web-based learning environments as a result of the latest technological advancement in higher education. Our research aim is to offer new insights on the different teaching strategies in programming education both from a theoretical and empirical point of view as a response to…

  15. The Relationship of Safe and Participatory School Environments and Supportive Attitudes toward Violence: Evidence from the Colombian Saber Test of Citizenship Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Silvia; Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, reducing levels of interpersonal and community violence is a key component of the country's approach to citizenship education. In this study, we use data collected during the 2005 Saber test of Citizenship Competencies to examine the relationship of school environments and individual students' supportive attitudes toward violence…

  16. "EUROPART". Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2003-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers (called EUROPART) by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies...... or number concentrations can be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial buildings and consequently that there is inadequate scientific evidence for establishing limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations....

  17. Post resuscitation management of cardiac arrest patients in the critical care environment: A retrospective audit of compliance with evidence based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milonas, Annabel; Hutchinson, Ana; Charlesworth, David; Doric, Andrea; Green, John; Considine, Julie

    2017-11-01

    There is a clear relationship between evidence-based post resuscitation care and survival and functional status at hospital discharge. The Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) recommends protocol driven care to enhance chance of survival following cardiac arrest. Healthcare providers have an obligation to ensure protocol driven post resuscitation care is timely and evidence based. The aim of this study was to examine adherence to best practice guidelines for post resuscitation care in the first 24h from Return of Spontaneous Circulation for patients admitted to the intensive care unit from the emergency department having suffered out of hospital or emergency department cardiac arrest and survived initial resuscitation. A retrospective audit of medical records of patients who met the criteria for survivors of cardiac arrest was conducted at two health services in Melbourne, Australia. Criteria audited were: primary cardiac arrest characteristics, oxygenation and ventilation management, cardiovascular care, neurological care and patient outcomes. The four major findings were: (i) use of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) of 1.0 and hyperoxia was common during the first 24h of post resuscitation management, (ii) there was variability in cardiac care, with timely 12 lead Electrocardiograph and majority of patients achieving systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 100mmHg, but delays in transfer to cardiac catheterisation laboratory, (iii) neurological care was suboptimal with a high incidence of hyperglycaemia and failure to provide therapeutic hypothermia in almost 50% of patients and (iv) there was an association between in-hospital mortality and specific elements of post resuscitation care during the first 24h of hospital admission. Evidence-based context-specific guidelines for post resuscitation care that span the whole patient journey are needed. Reliance on national guidelines does not necessarily translate to evidence based care at a local level, so

  18. The Defense Messaging System (DMS) in the Navy Regional Enterprise Messaging System (NREMS) environment evidence that size does matter in DoD business process engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Avonna S.

    2007-01-01

    Since the migration of DOD messaging to the DMS has been mandated, implementation has been less than ideal and otherwise unsuccessful. DMS users have reported dissatisfaction with the systems maintenance and security support burdens in the current client-server model. NREMS introduces a networked environment capable of push technology and centralized database and security management which should significantly reduce the DMS shortfalls that have made the system lack appeal to the end user. As ...

  19. Understanding the relationship between food environments, deprivation and childhood overweight and obesity: Evidence from a cross sectional England-wide study

    OpenAIRE

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Using a large cross sectional English sample, we quantified the association between weight status in children aged 4–5 and 10–11 year, characteristics of the food environment, and area deprivation. We observed a positive association between the density of unhealthy food outlets in a neighbourhood and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. An association in the opposite direction was observed for other types of food outlets, although after adjustment this was only statistically ...

  20. Child-evoked maternal negativity from 9 to 27 months: Evidence of gene-environment correlation and its moderation by marital distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ganiban, Jody M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-11-01

    Past research has documented pervasive genetic influences on emotional and behavioral disturbance across the life span and on liability to adult psychiatric disorder. Increasingly, interest is turning to mechanisms of gene-environment interplay in attempting to understand the earliest manifestations of genetic risk. We report findings from a prospective adoption study, which aimed to test the role of evocative gene-environment correlation in early development. Included in the study were 561 infants adopted at birth and studied between 9 and 27 months, along with their adoptive parents and birth mothers. Birth mother psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms scales were used as indicators of genetic influence, and multiple self-report measures were used to index adoptive mother parental negativity. We hypothesized that birth mother psychopathology would be associated with greater adoptive parent negativity and that such evocative effects would be amplified under conditions of high adoptive family adversity. The findings suggested that genetic factors associated with birth mother externalizing psychopathology may evoke negative reactions in adoptive mothers in the first year of life, but only when the adoptive family environment is characterized by marital problems. Maternal negativity mediated the effects of genetic risk on child adjustment at 27 months. The results underscore the importance of genetically influenced evocative processes in early development.

  1. What can we learn from the existing evidence of the business case for investments in nursing care: importance of content, context, and policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Wholey, Douglas; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    Decisions of health care institutions to invest in nursing care are often guided by mixed and conflicting evidence of effects of the investments on organizational function and sustainability. This paper uses new evidence generated through Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI)-funded research and published in peer-reviewed journals, to illustrate where the business case for nursing investments stands and to discuss factors that may limit the existing evidence and its transferability into clinical practice. We conclude that there are 3 limiting factors: (1) the existing business case for nursing investments is likely understated due to the inability of most studies to capture spillover and long-run dynamic effects, thus causing organizations to forfeit potentially viable nursing investments that may improve long-term financial stability; (2) studies rarely devote sufficient attention to describing the content and the organization-specific contextual factors, thus limiting generalizability; and (3) fragmentation of the current health care delivery and payment systems often leads to the financial benefits of investments in nursing care accruing outside of the organization incurring the costs, thus making potentially quality-improving and cost-saving interventions financially unattractive from the organization's perspective. The payment reform, with its emphasis on high-quality affordable patient-centered care, is likely to strengthen the business case for investments in nursing care. Methodologically rigorous approaches that focus on broader societal implications of investments in nursing care, combined with a thorough understanding of potential barriers and facilitators of nursing change, should be an integral part of future research and policy efforts.

  2. Europart - Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies dealing with dermal...... studies, and a longitudinal study among elderly with cardiovascular conditions. Given the limited and inconclusive scientific evidence, the group concluded that indoor particulate mass or number concentrations cannot be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial...

  3. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  4. Community food environments and healthy food access among older adults: A review of the evidence for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dare Wilson, Kellie

    2017-04-01

    Although an array of federal, state, and local programs exist that target food insecurity and the specific nutritional needs of seniors, food insecurity among older adults in the United States remains a persistent problem, particularly in minority and rural populations. Food insecurity is highly predictive of inadequate fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV) consumption in particular. The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) is a community-based program to help seniors purchase FFVs at farmer's markets in their neighborhoods. The SFMNP continues to grow; however, little is known about the effectiveness of the program. The purposes of this article are to (1) highlight the importance of community and neighborhood based food insecurity programs, specifically emphasizing the importance of FFV access for seniors, (2) review the current state of the evidence on the SFMNP, and (3) provide recommendations for researchers and policy-makers wishing to continue to advance the knowledge base in neighborhood-based food security among older adults.

  5. [The new paradigm of the developmental origin of health and diseases (DOHaD)--Epigenetics and environment: evidence and missing links].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junien, Claudine; Panchenko, Polina; Pirola, Luciano; Amarger, Valérie; Kaeffer, Bertrand; Parnet, Patricia; Torrisani, Jérôme; Bolaños Jimenez, Francisco; Jammes, Hélène; Gabory, Anne

    2016-01-01

    According to the new paradigm of the Developpemental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), the environmental factors to which an individual is exposed throughout his life can leave an epigenetic footprint on the genome. A crucial period is the early development, where the epigenome is particularly sensitive to the effects of the environment, and during which the individual builds up his health capital that will enable him to respond more or less well to the vagaries of life. The research challenge is to decipher the modes of action and the epigenetic mechanisms put into play by environmental factors that lead to increased disease susceptibility or resilience. The challenge for health is to translate these scientific discoveries into action through, among others, the establishment of preventive recommendations to slow down the growing incidence of non communicable diseases. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources, migration and transformation of antimony contamination in the water environment of Xikuangshan, China: Evidence from geochemical and stable isotope (S, Sr) signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Bing; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Cunfu; Xie, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The Xikuangshan (XKS) mine in central China is the largest antimony (Sb) mine in the world. The mining activity has seriously contaminated the waters in the area. To determine the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination, 32 samples from groundwater (aquifer water), surface water and mine water were collected for water chemistry, trace element and S_S_O_4 and Sr stable isotope analyses. The results showed that the groundwater and surface water were in an oxidized environment. The S_S_O_4 and Sr isotope compositions in the water indicated that dissolved Sb and SO_4"2 originated from sulfide mineral (Sb_2S_3) oxidation, whereas radiogenic Sr may have been sourced from silicified limestone and stibnite in the Shetianqiao aquifer. Furthermore, a positive correlation between δ"3"4S_S_O_4 and δ"8"7Sr values revealed that the Sr, S and Sb in the waters had a common contamination source, i.e., silicified limestone and stibnite, whereas the Sr, S and Sb in rock and ore were sourced from Proterozoic basement clastics. The analysis also indicated that the isotope composition of dissolved SO_4"2 "− had been influenced by slight bacterial SO_4 reduction in the Magunao aquifer. Mining or rock collapse may have caused Shetianqiao aquifer water to contaminate the Magunao aquifer water via mixing. This study has demonstrated that the stable isotopes of "3"4S_S_O_4 and "8"7Sr, combined with hydrochemical methods, are effective in tracking the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination. - Highlights: • Mining activities at XKS mine have caused serious water contamination. • The characteristics of Sb contamination in water environment are still unclear. • Combine S isotopes of sulfate and Sr isotopes with hydrochemical methods. • Sr, S, and Sb in natural water had a common source: silicified limestone and stibnite. • Shetianqiao aquifer water contaminated the Magunao aquifer water via mixing.

  8. How Helicobacter pylori urease may affect external pH and influence growth and motility in the mucus environment: evidence from in-vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Ramon L; Worku, Mulugeta L; Karim, Q Najma; Dhir, Nirmal K; Baron, J Hugh

    2003-04-01

    Survival of Helicobacter pylori is dependent upon urease in the cytoplasm and at the bacterial surface. We have sought to clarify how alkaline ammonium salts, released from urea by this enzyme, might alter mucus pH and so affect growth and motility of the bacterium in the gastric mucus environment. Experiments were conducted in vitro to determine how the growth and motility of H. pylori are affected by changes in external pH, and how the bacterium, by hydrolysing urea, alters the pH of the bicarbonate buffer that occurs at the gastric mucosal surface. These data were fitted into experimental models that describe how pH varies within the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach. H. pylori was motile between pH 5 and 8, with optimal motility at pH 5. It grew between pH 6 and 8, with optimal growth at pH 6. The bacterium had urease activity between pH 2.7 and 7.4, as evidenced by pH rises in bicarbonate-buffered solutions of urea. Changes in buffer pH were dependent upon initial pH and urea concentration, with the greatest rate of pH change occurring at pH 3. Modelling experiments utilizing these data indicated that (1) in the absence of urease, H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer would be restricted severely by low mucus pH in the acid-secreting stomach, and (2) urease will sometimes inhibit H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer by elevating the pH of the mucus environment above pH 8. Urease is essential to the growth and motility of H. pylori in the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach, but, paradoxically, sometimes it might suppress colonization by raising the mucus pH above 8. This latter effect may protect the bacteria from the adverse consequences of overpopulation.

  9. Sources, migration and transformation of antimony contamination in the water environment of Xikuangshan, China: Evidence from geochemical and stable isotope (S, Sr) signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Bing [Geological Survey, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Zhou, Jianwei, E-mail: jw.zhou@cug.edu.cn [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Cunfu [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xie, Lina [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2016-11-01

    The Xikuangshan (XKS) mine in central China is the largest antimony (Sb) mine in the world. The mining activity has seriously contaminated the waters in the area. To determine the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination, 32 samples from groundwater (aquifer water), surface water and mine water were collected for water chemistry, trace element and S{sub SO4} and Sr stable isotope analyses. The results showed that the groundwater and surface water were in an oxidized environment. The S{sub SO4} and Sr isotope compositions in the water indicated that dissolved Sb and SO{sub 4}{sup 2} originated from sulfide mineral (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) oxidation, whereas radiogenic Sr may have been sourced from silicified limestone and stibnite in the Shetianqiao aquifer. Furthermore, a positive correlation between δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 87}Sr values revealed that the Sr, S and Sb in the waters had a common contamination source, i.e., silicified limestone and stibnite, whereas the Sr, S and Sb in rock and ore were sourced from Proterozoic basement clastics. The analysis also indicated that the isotope composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2} {sup −} had been influenced by slight bacterial SO{sub 4} reduction in the Magunao aquifer. Mining or rock collapse may have caused Shetianqiao aquifer water to contaminate the Magunao aquifer water via mixing. This study has demonstrated that the stable isotopes of {sup 34}S{sub SO4} and {sup 87}Sr, combined with hydrochemical methods, are effective in tracking the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination. - Highlights: • Mining activities at XKS mine have caused serious water contamination. • The characteristics of Sb contamination in water environment are still unclear. • Combine S isotopes of sulfate and Sr isotopes with hydrochemical methods. • Sr, S, and Sb in natural water had a common source: silicified limestone and stibnite. • Shetianqiao aquifer water contaminated the Magunao

  10. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift is known to influence denudation rates. Denudation, including chemical weathering and physical erosion, affects soil production rates and weathering intensities. At topographic steady state, weathering can be transport- or weathering-limited. In the transport-limited regime, low denudation rates should lead to comparatively high weathering intensities, while in the weathering-limited case high denudation rates are associated with lower weathering intensities. Here, we test if this relationship applies to semi-arid environments where chemical weathering is generally slow. Three catchments (EST, FIL and CAB) were studied in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in southeast Spain, spanning a range of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr) from EST to CAB. In each catchment, two ridgetop soil profiles were sampled down to the bedrock. The three catchments have similar vegetation and climatic conditions, with precipitation of 250- 315 mm/yr and mean annual temperature of 15-17 °C. The mineralogy of the bedrock, as determined by XRD, is similar across the three catchments and is characterized by the presence of quartz, muscovite, clinochlore, biotite and plagioclase. This primary mineral assemblage is also found in the catchment soils, indicating that the soils studied derive from the same parent material. The soil clay-size fraction is dominated by kaolinite, vermiculite and illite. However, the proportions of the soil primary and secondary minerals vary between the catchment sites. The abundance of biotite decreases from CAB (14%) to EST (4%), whereas the quartz and clay contents show an opposite tendency (from 30 to 69% and 9.9 to 14.3%, respectively). Further, the abundance of vermiculite increases from CAB to EST. The results are interpreted in terms of increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST by weathering of biotite into vermiculite and enrichment of soils on more weathering resistant

  11. Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (Σ(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries. Rural environments not far from industrial sites suffered from organic and inorganic pollution. In this case, TEQ(DL-PCB) values may reach up to 58 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and the

  12. Structure across the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap, offshore Newfoundland from Erable multichannel seismic reflection profiles: evidence for a transtensional rifting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Srivastava, Shiri P.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results from processing and interpreting nine multichannel seismic reflection lines collected during the 1992 Erable experiment over the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap offshore Newfoundland. These lines, combined into five cross-sections, provide increased seismic coverage over this lightly probed section of the margin and reveal tectonically significant along-strike variations in the degree and compartmentalization of crustal thinning. Similar to the southeastern margins of Flemish Cap and the Grand Banks, a transitional zone of exhumed serpentinized mantle is interpreted between thinned continental and oceanic crust. The 25 km wide transitional zone bears similarities to the 120 km wide transitional zone interpreted as exhumed serpentinized mantle on the conjugate Irish Atlantic margin but the significant width difference is suggestive of an asymmetric conjugate pair. A 40-50 km wide zone of inferred strike-slip shearing is interpreted and observed to extend along most of the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap. Individual shear zones (SZs) may represent extensions of SZs and normal faults within the Orphan Basin providing further evidence for the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap out of Orphan Basin. The asymmetry between the Flemish Cap and Irish conjugate pairs is likely due in large part to the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap which resulted in the Flemish Cap margin displaying features of both a strike-slip margin and an extensional margin.

  13. Evidence to inform education, training and supportive work environments for midwives involved in the care of women with female genital mutilation: a review of global experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela; Turkmani, Sabera; Fray, Shairon; Nanayakkara, Susie; Varol, Nesrin; Homer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    to identify how midwives in low and middle income countries (LMIC) and high income countries (HIC) care for women with female genital mutilation (FGM), their perceived challenges and what professional development and workplace strategies might better support midwives to provide appropriate quality care. an integrative review involving a narrative synthesis of the literature was undertaken to include peer reviewed research literature published between 2004 and 2014. 10 papers were included in the review, two from LMIC and eight from HIC. A lack of technical knowledge and limited cultural competency was identified, as well as socio-cultural challenges in the abandonment process of the practice, particularly in LMIC settings. Training in the area of FGM was limited. One study reported the outcomes of an education initiative that was found to be beneficial. professional education and training, a working environment supported by guidelines and responsive policy and community education, are necessary to enable midwives to improve the care of women with FGM and advocate against the practice. improved opportunities for midwives to learn about FGM and receive advice and support, alongside opportunities for collaborative practice in contexts that enable the effective reporting of FGM to authorities, may be beneficial and require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Origin and depositional environment of fine-grained sediments since the last glacial maximum in the southeastern Yellow Sea: evidence from rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, In Kwon; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Tae Soo

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-reconstructed seismic stratigraphy of the Holocene mud deposit in the southeastern Yellow Sea, known as the Heuksan mud belt (HMB), the provenances of these sediments and their depositional environments are unclear, especially for the fine-grained sediments. According to seismic data (extracted from another article in this special issue), the HMB comprises several sedimentary units deposited since the last glacial maximum. Based on analytical results on rare earth elements, fine-grained sediments in all sedimentary units can be interpreted as mixtures of sediments discharged from Chinese and Korean rivers. The proportions of fine-grained sediments from Chinese rivers (74.5 to 80.0%) were constant and higher than those from Korean rivers in all units. This fact demonstrates that all units have the same fine-grained sediment provenance: units III-b and III-a, located in the middle and northern parts of the HMB and directly deposited from Chinese rivers during the sea-level lowstand, could be the sediment source for units II-b and II-a. Unit I, while ambiguous, is of mixed origin combining reworked sediments from nearby mud deposits and Changjiang River-borne material with those of the Keum River. The results of this study indicate that at least 18.6% of bulk sediments in the HMB clearly originate from Chinese rivers, despite its location close to the southwestern coast of Korea.

  15. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  16. DISCOVERY OF 'WARM DUST' GALAXIES IN CLUSTERS AT z {approx} 0.3: EVIDENCE FOR STRIPPING OF COOL DUST IN THE DENSE ENVIRONMENT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Rex, M.; Egami, E.; Walth, G.; Pereira, M. J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chung, S. M.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Smail, I. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Appleton, P.; Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alba, A. Berciano [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, NL-7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using far-infrared imaging from the 'Herschel Lensing Survey', we derive dust properties of spectroscopically confirmed cluster member galaxies within two massive systems at z {approx} 0.3: the merging Bullet Cluster and the more relaxed MS2137.3-2353. Most star-forming cluster sources ({approx}90%) have characteristic dust temperatures similar to local field galaxies of comparable infrared (IR) luminosity (T{sub dust} {approx} 30 K). Several sub-luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG; L{sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) Bullet Cluster members are much warmer (T{sub dust} > 37 K) with far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes resembling LIRG-type local templates. X-ray and mid-infrared data suggest that obscured active galactic nuclei do not contribute significantly to the infrared flux of these 'warm dust' galaxies. Sources of comparable IR luminosity and dust temperature are not observed in the relaxed cluster MS2137, although the significance is too low to speculate on an origin involving recent cluster merging. 'Warm dust' galaxies are, however, statistically rarer in field samples (>3{sigma}), indicating that the responsible mechanism may relate to the dense environment. The spatial distribution of these sources is similar to the whole far-infrared bright population, i.e., preferentially located in the cluster periphery, although the galaxy hosts tend toward lower stellar masses (M{sub *} < 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }). We propose dust stripping and heating processes which could be responsible for the unusually warm characteristic dust temperatures. A normal star-forming galaxy would need 30%-50% of its dust removed (preferentially stripped from the outer reaches, where dust is typically cooler) to recover an SED similar to a 'warm dust' galaxy. These progenitors would not require a higher IR luminosity or dust mass than the currently observed normal star-forming population.

  17. ALMA Observations of Gas-rich Galaxies in z ∼ 1.6 Galaxy Clusters: Evidence for Higher Gas Fractions in High-density Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, A. G.; McDonald, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Muzzin, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON MJ3 1P3 (Canada); Nantais, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes 7591538, Santiago, Región Metropolitana (Chile); Rudnick, G. [The University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Van Kampen, E.; Manilla-Robles, A. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Webb, T. M. A.; Delahaye, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Wilson, G.; DeGroot, A.; Foltz, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Boone, K.; Hayden, B.; Perlmutter, S. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 366 LeConte Hall, MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Demarco, R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Región del Biobío (Chile); Lidman, C., E-mail: noble@mit.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, 105 Delhi Road, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)

    2017-06-20

    We present ALMA CO (2–1) detections in 11 gas-rich cluster galaxies at z ∼ 1.6, constituting the largest sample of molecular gas measurements in z > 1.5 clusters to date. The observations span three galaxy clusters, derived from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey. We augment the >5 σ detections of the CO (2–1) fluxes with multi-band photometry, yielding stellar masses and infrared-derived star formation rates, to place some of the first constraints on molecular gas properties in z ∼ 1.6 cluster environments. We measure sizable gas reservoirs of 0.5–2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} in these objects, with high gas fractions ( f {sub gas}) and long depletion timescales ( τ ), averaging 62% and 1.4 Gyr, respectively. We compare our cluster galaxies to the scaling relations of the coeval field, in the context of how gas fractions and depletion timescales vary with respect to the star-forming main sequence. We find that our cluster galaxies lie systematically off the field scaling relations at z = 1.6 toward enhanced gas fractions, at a level of ∼4 σ , but have consistent depletion timescales. Exploiting CO detections in lower-redshift clusters from the literature, we investigate the evolution of the gas fraction in cluster galaxies, finding it to mimic the strong rise with redshift in the field. We emphasize the utility of detecting abundant gas-rich galaxies in high-redshift clusters, deeming them as crucial laboratories for future statistical studies.

  18. Petrological constraints on the high-Mg basalts from Capo Marargiu (Sardinia, Italy): Evidence of cryptic amphibole fractionation in polybaric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchiato, Vanni; Gaeta, Mario; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Bachmann, Olivier; Perinelli, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    This study deals with the textural and compositional characteristics of the calc-alkaline stratigraphic sequence from Capo Marargiu Volcanic District (CMVD; Sardinia island, Italy). The area is dominated by basaltic to intermediate hypabyssal (dikes and sills) and volcanic rocks (lava flows and pyroclastic deposits) emplaced during the Oligo-Miocene orogenic magmatism of Sardinia. Interestingly, a basaltic andesitic dome hosts dark-grey, crystal-rich enclaves containing up 50% of millimetre- to centimetre-sized clinopyroxene and amphibole crystals. This mineral assemblage is in equilibrium with a high-Mg basalt recognised as the parental magma of the entire stratigraphic succession at CMVD. Analogously, centimetre-sized clots of medium- and coarse-grained amphibole + plagioclase crystals are entrapped in andesitic dikes that ultimately intrude the stratigraphic sequence. Amphibole-plagioclase cosaturation occurs at equilibrium with a differentiated basaltic andesite. Major and trace element modelling indicates that the evolutionary path of magma is controlled by a two-step process driven by early olivine + clinopyroxene and late amphibole + plagioclase fractionation. In this context, enclaves represent parts of a cumulate horizon segregated at the early stage of differentiation of the precursory high-Mg basalt. This is denoted by i) resorption effects and sharp transitions between Mg-rich and Mg-poor clinopyroxenes, indicative of pervasive dissolution phenomena followed by crystal re-equilibration and overgrowth, and ii) reaction minerals found in amphibole coronas formed at the interface with more differentiated melts infiltrating within the cumulate horizon, and carrying the crystal-rich material with them upon eruption. Coherently, the mineral chemistry and phase relations of enclaves indicate crystallisation in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment under water-rich conditions. On the other hand, the upward migration and subsequent fractionation of the

  19. Contaminated lead environments of man: reviewing the lead isotopic evidence in sediments, peat, and soils for the temporal and spatial patterns of atmospheric lead pollution in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Clair Patterson and colleagues demonstrated already four decades ago that the lead cycle was greatly altered on a global scale by humans. Moreover, this change occurred long before the implementation of monitoring programs designed to study lead and other trace metals. Patterson and colleagues also developed stable lead isotope analyses as a tool to differentiate between natural and pollution-derived lead. Since then, stable isotope analyses of sediment, peat, herbaria collections, soils, and forest plants have given us new insights into lead biogeochemical cycling in space and time. Three important conclusions from our studies of lead in the Swedish environment conducted over the past 15 years, which are well supported by extensive results from elsewhere in Europe and in North America, are: (1) lead deposition rates at sites removed from major point sources during the twentieth century were about 1,000 times higher than natural background deposition rates a few thousand years ago (~10 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1) vs. 0.01 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1)), and even today (~1 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1)) are still almost 100 times greater than natural rates. This increase from natural background to maximum fluxes is similar to estimated changes in body burdens of lead from ancient times to the twentieth century. (2) Stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios shown in this paper) are an effective tool to distinguish anthropogenic lead from the natural lead present in sediments, peat, and soils for both the majority of sites receiving diffuse inputs from long range and regional sources and for sites in close proximity to point sources. In sediments >3,500 years and in the parent soil material of the C-horizon, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios are higher, 1.3 to >2.0, whereas pollution sources and surface soils and peat have lower ratios that have been in the range 1.14-1.18. (3) Using stable lead isotopes, we have estimated that in southern Sweden the cumulative anthropogenic burden of

  20. Deccan volcanism induced high-stress environment during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition at Zumaia, Spain: Evidence from magnetic, mineralogical and biostratigraphic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Eric; Adatte, Thierry; Andrade, Mariana; Keller, Gerta; Mbabi Bitchong, André; Carvallo, Claire; Ferreira, Joana; Diogo, Zenaida; Mirão, José

    2018-02-01

    We conducted detailed rock magnetic, mineralogical and geochemical (mercury) analyses spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) at Zumaia, Spain, to unravel the signature of Deccan-induced climate and environmental changes in the marine sedimentary record. Our biostratigraphic results show that Zumaia is not complete, and lacks the typical boundary clay, zone P0 and the base of zone P1a(1) in the basal Danian. Presence of an unusual ∼1m-thick interval spanning the KPB is characterized by very low detrital magnetite and magnetosome (biogenic magnetite) contents and by the occurrence of akaganéite, a very rare mineral on Earth in oxidizing, acidic and hyper-chlorinated environments compatible with volcanic settings. These benchmarks correlate with higher abundance of the opportunist Guembelitria cretacea species. Detrital magnetite depletion is not linked to significant lithological changes, suggesting that iron oxide dissolution by acidification is the most probable explanation. The concomitant decrease in magnetosomes, produced by magnetotactic bacteria at the anoxic-oxic boundary, is interpreted as the result of changes in seawater chemistry induced by surficial ocean acidification. Mercury peaks up to 20-50 ppb are common during the last 100 kyr of the Maastrichtian (zone CF1) but only one significant anomaly is present in the early Danian, which is likely due to the missing interval. Absence of correlation between mercury content (R2 = 0.009) and total organic carbon (R2 = 0.006) suggest that the former originated from the Deccan Traps eruptions. No clear relation between the stratigraphic position of the mercury peaks and the magnetite-depleted interval is observed, although the frequency of the mercury peaks tends to increase close to the KPg boundary. In contrast to Bidart (France) and Gubbio (Italy), where magnetite depletion and akaganéite feature within a ∼50cm-thick interval located 5 cm below the KPg boundary, the same benchmarks are

  1. Fetal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinare, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid

  2. Pressures on the marine environment and the changing climate of ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andrew P

    2012-12-13

    The oceans are under pressure from human activities. Following 250 years of industrial activity, effects are being seen at the cellular through to regional and global scales. The change in atmospheric CO(2) from 280 ppm in pre-industrial times to 392 ppm in 2011 has contributed to the warming of the upper 700 m of the ocean by approximately 0.1°C between 1961 and 2003, to changes in sea water chemistry, which include a pH decrease of approximately 0.1, and to significant decreases in the sea water oxygen content. In parallel with these changes, the human population has been introducing an ever-increasing level of nutrients into coastal waters, which leads to eutrophication, and by 2008 had resulted in 245,000 km(2) of severely oxygen-depleted waters throughout the world. These changes are set to continue for the foreseeable future, with atmospheric CO(2) predicted to reach 430 ppm by 2030 and 750 ppm by 2100. The cycling of biogeochemical elements has proved sensitive to each of these effects, and it is proposed that synergy between stressors may compound this further. The challenge, within the next few decades, for the marine science community, is to elucidate the scope and extent that biological processes can adapt or acclimatize to a changing chemical and physical marine environment.

  3. Fairness in risky environments: theory and evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babický, V.; Ortmann, Andreas; van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 419 (2010), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : fairness * risk aversion * subject pool effects * economics experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp419.pdf

  4. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of habitability in which time scales need to be extended, and the role of intermingling abiotic and biotic processes need to be considered.

  5. Flash-flood potential assessment and mapping by integrating the weights-of-evidence and frequency ratio statistical methods in GIS environment - case study: Bâsca Chiojdului River catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Romulus; Zaharia, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    Given the significant worldwide human and economic losses caused due to floods annually, reducing the negative consequences of these hazards is a major concern in development strategies at different spatial scales. A basic step in flood risk management is identifying areas susceptible to flood occurrences. This paper proposes a methodology allowing the identification of areas with high potential of accelerated surface run-off and consequently, of flash-flood occurrences. The methodology involves assessment and mapping in GIS environment of flash flood potential index (FFPI), by integrating two statistical methods: frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence. The methodology was applied for Bâsca Chiojdului River catchment (340 km2), located in the Carpathians Curvature region (Romania). Firstly, the areas with torrential phenomena were identified and the main factors controlling the surface run-off were selected (in this study nine geographical factors were considered). Based on the features of the considered factors, many classes were set for each of them. In the next step, the weights of each class/category of the considered factors were determined, by identifying their spatial relationships with the presence or absence of torrential phenomena. Finally, the weights for each class/category of geographical factors were summarized in GIS, resulting the FFPI values for each of the two statistical methods. These values were divided into five classes of intensity and were mapped. The final results were used to estimate the flash-flood potential and also to identify the most susceptible areas to this phenomenon. Thus, the high and very high values of FFPI characterize more than one-third of the study catchment. The result validation was performed by (i) quantifying the rate of the number of pixels corresponding to the torrential phenomena considered for the study (training area) and for the results' testing (validating area) and (ii) plotting the ROC (receiver operating

  6. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  7. Encapsulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, Tom M.; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  8. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  9. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  10. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  11. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  12. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing on ...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  13. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  14. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  15. Dust in cosmic plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Cosmic dust is invariably immersed in a plasma and a radiative environment. Consequently, it is charged to some electrostatic potential which depends on the properties of the environment as well as the nature of the dust. This charging affects the physical and dynamical properties of the dust. In this paper the basic aspects of this dust-plasma interaction in several cosmic environments - including planetary magnetospheres, the heliosphere and the interstellar medium - are discussed. The physical and dynamical consequences of the interaction, as well as the pertinent observational evidence, are reviewed. Finally, the importance of the surface charge during the condensation process in plasma environments is stressed. (Auth.)

  16. Heuristic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Giunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the identification of a paradigm which fixes the basic concepts and the type of logical relationships between them, whereby direct, govern and evaluate choises on new technologies. The contribution is based on the assumption that the complexity of knowledge is correlated with the complexity of the learning environment. From the existence of this correlation will descend a series of consequences that contribute to the definition of a theoretical construct in which the logical categories of learning become the guiding criteria on which to design learning environments and, consequently, also the indicators on by which to evaluate its effectiveness.

  17. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  18. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  19. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  20. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  1. ECONOMY AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE GREEK COLONIAL SYSTEM IN SOUTHERN ITALY: POLLEN AND NPPS EVIDENCE OF GRAZING FROM THE RURAL SITE OF FATTORIA FABRIZIO (VI-IV CENT. BC; METAPONTO, BASILICATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Florenzano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study case showing integrated analyses of microscopic records from an archaeological site of southern Italy. Pollen and non pollen palynomorphs-NPPs were found in archaeological layers and were basic in reconstructing both the past environment and the economic activities of the site. The site, Fattoria Fabrizio, is a modest 4th-cenury BC farmhouse of the chora (rural territory of the Greek city (polis of Metaponto (Basilicata. Pollen analyses in addition to the study of NPPs have been particularly worthwhile for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoeconomical reconstructions of this site and others in the chora. The pollen spectra delineate an open plant landscape, with scanty woodlands and presence of local wet environments. Olea pollen is fairly well represented in all samples, suggesting that this tree was an important element of the agricultural economy of the chora. Shrubby grasslands and a well-developed maquis characterized the territory, probably as result of grazing activities by sheep and goats. Accordingly, the high percentages of Poaceae and Cichorieae pollen, together with coprophilous fungal spores (such as Sordaria type and Sporormiella type, suggest that pastoral activities were widely practiced. The low number of Cerealia pollen grains suggests that the inhabitants’ fields covered small areas or were quite far from the farmhouse.  

  2. Environment and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paert, P. (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Public concerns, evidence from research and increasing scientific knowledge are all driving widespread discussions on environment and health problems. The issue of environment and health is characterised by multi-causality with different strengths of association. This means that the links between exposures and their health consequences depend on the environmental pollutants and diseases being considered, but are also influenced by factors such as genetic constitution, age, nutrition and lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors such as poverty and level of education. Chapter headings are: Introduction; Environmental burden of disease; Respiratory disease, asthma and allergies; Cancer; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Endocrine disruption; Body burden of chemicals; Wildlife as early warning signals for human impacts; and Climate change and health. 35 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition is selectively blunted by high sodium in angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype: evidence for gene-environment interaction in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lely, A Titia; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Zuurman, Mike; Visser, Folkert W; Kocks, Menno J A; Boomsma, Frans; Navis, Gerjan

    2010-12-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is a cornerstone in cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-DD genotype has been associated with resistance to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi), but data are conflicting. As sodium intake modifies the effect of ACEi as well as the genotype-phenotype relationship, we hypothesize gene-environment interaction between sodium-status, the response to ACEi, and ACE genotype. Thirty-five male volunteers (26 ± 9 years; II n = 6, ID n = 18, DD n = 11) were studied during placebo and ACEi (double blind, enalapril 20 mg/day) on low [7 days 50 mmol Na/day (low salt)] and high [7 days 200 mmol Na/day (high salt)] sodium, with a washout of 6 weeks in-between. After each period mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured before and during graded infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II). During high salt, ACEi reduced MAP in II and ID, but not in DD [II: 88 (78-94) versus 76 (72-88); ID: 87 (84-91) versus 83 (79-87); both P DD: 86 (82-96) versus 88 (80-90); ns, P DD: 84 (80-91) versus 81 (75-85); all P DD, with an 18% rise in MAP during the highest dose versus 22 and 31% in ID and II (P DD genotype during high salt, accompanied by blunted sensitivity to Ang II. Low salt corrects both abnormalities. Further analysis of this gene-environment interaction in patients may contribute to strategies for improvement of individual treatment efficacy.

  4. Implementation of an evidence-based intervention to improve the wellbeing of people with dementia and their carers: study protocol for 'Care of People with dementia in their Environments (COPE)' in the Australian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson, Lindy; Laver, Kate; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Comans, Tracy A; Scanlan, Justin; Rahja, Miia; Culph, Jennifer; Low, Lee-Fay; Day, Sally; Cations, Monica; Crotty, Maria; Kurrle, Susan; Piersol, Catherine; Gitlin, Laura N

    2018-05-09

    There are effective non-pharmacological treatment programs that reduce functional disability and changed behaviours in people with dementia. However, these programs (such as the Care of People with dementia in their Environments (COPE) program) are not widely available. The primary aim of this study is to determine the strategies and processes that enable the COPE program to be implemented into existing dementia care services in Australia. This study uses a mixed methods approach to test an implementation strategy. The COPE intervention (up to ten consultations with an occupational therapist and up to two consultations with a nurse) will be implemented using a number of strategies including planning (such as developing and building relationships with dementia care community service providers), educating (training nurses and occupational therapists in how to apply the intervention), restructuring (organisations establishing referral systems; therapist commitment to provide COPE to five clients following training) and quality management (coaching, support, reminders and fidelity checks). Qualitative and quantitative data will contribute to understanding how COPE is adopted and implemented. Feasibility, fidelity, acceptability, uptake and service delivery contexts will be explored and a cost/benefit evaluation conducted. Client outcomes of activity engagement and caregiver wellbeing will be assessed in a pragmatic pre-post evaluation. While interventions that promote independence and wellbeing are effective and highly valued by people with dementia and their carers, access to such programs is limited. Barriers to translation that have been previously identified are addressed in this study, including limited training opportunities and a lack of confidence in clinicians working with complex symptoms of dementia. A strength of the study is that it involves implementation within different types of existing services, such as government and private providers, so the study

  5. How do large-scale agricultural investments affect land use and the environment on the western slopes of Mount Kenya? Empirical evidence based on small-scale farmers' perceptions and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, Julie G; Wambugu, Grace; Kiteme, Boniface; Eckert, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Africa has been heavily targeted by large-scale agricultural investments (LAIs) throughout the last decade, with scarcely known impacts on local social-ecological systems. In Kenya, a large number of LAIs were made in the region northwest of Mount Kenya. These large-scale farms produce vegetables and flowers mainly for European markets. However, land use in the region remains dominated by small-scale crop and livestock farms with less than 1 ha of land each, who produce both for their own subsistence and for the local markets. We interviewed 100 small-scale farmers living near five different LAIs to elicit their perceptions of the impacts that these LAIs have on their land use and the overall environment. Furthermore, we analyzed remotely sensed land cover and land use data to assess land use change in the vicinity of the five LAIs. While land use change did not follow a clear trend, a number of small-scale farmers did adapt their crop management to environmental changes such as a reduced river water flows and increased pests, which they attributed to the presence of LAIs. Despite the high number of open conflicts between small-scale land users and LAIs around the issue of river water abstraction, the main environmental impact, felt by almost half of the interviewed land users, was air pollution with agrochemicals sprayed on the LAIs' land. Even though only a low percentage of local land users and their household members were directly involved with LAIs, a large majority of respondents favored the presence of LAIs nearby, as they are believed to contribute to the region's overall economic development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goal of the Food, Environment, and Health program is to develop evidence, innovations, and policies to ... A young mother and her baby visit the local nutrition center in rural Madagascar to participate ... Gary Kobinger working in the lab.

  7. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  8. Introducción de especies en ambientes marinos chilenos: no solo exóticas, no siempre evidentes Introduction of species in Chilean marine environments: not only exotic, not always evident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2005-03-01

    the culture of abalone would be provoking them already indirectly through intensive harvesting of macroalgae needed as food sources. However, the phenomenon of introduction is not restricted to exotic species, and it may also include the accidental or intentional introduction of either native or Chilean distributed species into environments where they were not present before naturally. In this sense, species introductions would be a much more common and widespread phenomenon than previously thought, practiced for a long time in aquaculture and related activities, and involving organisms subjected to genetic selection or modification. On the other hand, national and international regulations to control these activities seem to be either insufficient or scarcely efficient, and they might be against large economical interests. Potentially, the combined historical impact of such practices would be high, although proper assessments are lacking. It is worth noting that introductions are not infrequent in activities linked to scientific or technologic marine research, and their potential effects are poorly known as well. The Chilean scientific community, mostly linked to marine biology, should adopt clear positions in face of this problem, and well before aquaculture and conservation become conflicting biological disciplines

  9. Breast cancer and the environment: a life course approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Breast Cancer and the Environment: The Scientific Evidence, Research Methodology, and Future Directions; Institute of Medicine

    2012-01-01

    .... Breast Cancer and the Environment reviews the current evidence on a selection of environmental risk factors for breast cancer, considers gene-environment interactions in breast cancer, and explores...

  10. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  11. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M

    2018-01-15

    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Designing an adaptive salutogenic care environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Cathy; Harrison, Jim D.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are profoundly affected by the surroundings which they inhabit. Environmental psychologists have produced numerous credible theories describing optimal human environments, based on the concept of congruence or “fit” (1, 2). Lack of person/environment fit can lead to stress-related illness and lack of psychosocial well-being (3). Conversely, appropriately designed environments can promote wellness (4) or “salutogenesis” (5). Increasingly, research in the area of Evidence-Based Design, l...

  13. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  14. Agency Costs, Institutional Environment Changes and Corporate Charitable Donation:Empirical Evidence from China’s Manufacturing Industry%代理成本、制度环境变迁与企业慈善捐赠--来自中国制造业的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄送钦

    2017-01-01

    Based on the principal-agent theory, this paper makes an empirical research on the motivation of corporate donation from the perspective of institutional environment changes. It finds that the higher the agency costs are, the greater the sizes of corporate donations are, showing the existence of the agency problem in corporate charitable donation behavior. In addition, the optimization of the external system environment like formal institutions measured by marketization degree and informal institutions measured by trust environment can ease the agency problem in corporate donation behavior. It shows that the external system environment can play a certain role in corporate governance, weaken the impacts of corporate agency costs on the donation sizes, and ease the agency problem of corporate donations. The further research also indicates that corporate state-controlled nature and traditional business group culture have significantly enhanced the agency problem of corporate donations, but political connections have no significant impact on the agency problem of corporate donations. The above conclusions are supported by the evidence from Shanghai A-share manufacturing from 2008 to 2013. This paper provides empirical evidence for the agency problem of corporate donations, and also a reference basis for standardizing and guiding corporate donation behavior from the perspective of institutional environment changes, thereby being beneficial to a more comprehensive understanding of corporate agent problem and donation behavior in the overall institutional environment.%基于委托代理理论,文章从制度环境变迁视角对企业捐赠的动机进行了实证研究。研究发现:代理成本越高,企业捐赠规模就越大,表明企业慈善捐赠行为存在委托代理问题;而外部制度环境,如正式制度(以市场化程度来度量)、非正式制度(以信任环境来度量)的优化可以缓解企业捐赠行为中的代理问题

  15. Enterococci in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korajkic, Asja; Staley, Zachery R.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci are common, commensal members of gut communities in mammals and birds, yet they are also opportunistic pathogens that cause millions of human and animal infections annually. Because they are shed in human and animal feces, are readily culturable, and predict human health risks from exposure to polluted recreational waters, they are used as surrogates for waterborne pathogens and as fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in research and in water quality testing throughout the world. Evidence from several decades of research demonstrates, however, that enterococci may be present in high densities in the absence of obvious fecal sources and that environmental reservoirs of these FIB are important sources and sinks, with the potential to impact water quality. This review focuses on the distribution and microbial ecology of enterococci in environmental (secondary) habitats, including the effect of environmental stressors; an outline of their known and apparent sources, sinks, and fluxes; and an overview of the use of enterococci as FIB. Finally, the significance of emerging methodologies, such as microbial source tracking (MST) and empirical predictive models, as tools in water quality monitoring is addressed. The mounting evidence for widespread extraenteric sources and reservoirs of enterococci demonstrates the versatility of the genus Enterococcus and argues for the necessity of a better understanding of their ecology in natural environments, as well as their roles as opportunistic pathogens and indicators of human pathogens.

  16. Obesity and economic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  18. Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2011-04-01

    advantage of the mucilage event of the summer of 2009, although the persistence of mucilage on hard substrates is known to cause suffocation and macroalgae biomass depletion. It is proposed that, at least in oligotrophic conditions and as long as mucilage persistence doesn't cause severe oxygen depletion, its appearance might have an enhancing rather than a detrimental effect on the seawater and soft-bottom biogeochemical processes.

  19. Bribery environments and firm performance: evidence from CEE countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kochanova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, June (2016), s. 14-28 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bureaucratic corruption * firm performance * CEE countries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.098, year: 2016

  20. Bribery environments and firm performance: evidence from CEE countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kochanova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, June (2016), s. 14-28 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31783S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : bureaucratic corruption * firm performance * CEE countries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.098, year: 2016

  1. Hazardous gases and oxygen depletion in a wet paddy pile: an experimental study in a simulating underground rice mill pit, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenjai, Pornthip; Chaiear, Naesinee; Charerntanyarak, Lertchai; Boonmee, Mallika

    2012-01-01

    During the rice harvesting season in Thailand, large amounts of fresh paddy are sent to rice mills immediately after harvesting due to a lack of proper farm storage space. At certain levels of moisture content, rice grains may generate hazardous gases, which can replace oxygen (O(2)) in the confined spaces of underground rice mill pits. This phenomenon has been observed in a fatal accident in Thailand. Our study aimed to investigate the type of gases and their air concentrations emitted from the paddy piles at different levels of moisture content and duration of piling time. Four levels of moisture content in the paddy piles were investigated, including dry paddy group (Gases emitted were measured with an infrared spectrophotometer and a multi-gas detector every 12 h for 5 days throughout the experiment. The results revealed high levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (range 5,864-8,419 ppm) in all wet paddy groups, which gradually increased over time. The concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH(4)), nitromethane (CH(3)NO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in all wet paddy groups increased with piling time and with moisture content, with ranges of 11-289; 2-8; 36-374; and 4-26 ppm, respectively. The highest levels of moisture content in the paddy piles were in the range 28-30%wb. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations were low in all paddy groups. The percentage of O(2) in the wet paddy groups decreased with piling time and moisture content (from 18.7% to 4.1%). This study suggested that hazardous gases could be emitted in moist paddy piles, and their concentrations could increase with increasing moisture content and piling time period.

  2. The stimulatory adenosine receptor ADORA2B regulates serotonin (5-HT synthesis and release in oxygen-depleted EC cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard Dammen

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that hypoxia, a key feature of IBD, increases enterochromaffin (EC cell 5-HT secretion, which is also physiologically regulated by the ADORA2B mechanoreceptor. Since hypoxia is associated with increased extracellular adenosine, we wanted to examine whether this nucleotide amplifies HIF-1α-mediated 5-HT secretion.The effects of hypoxia were studied on IBD mucosa, isolated IBD-EC cells, isolated normal EC cells and the EC cell tumor derived cell line KRJ-1. Hypoxia (0.5% O2 was compared to NECA (adenosine agonist, MRS1754 (ADORA2B receptor antagonist and SCH442146 (ADORA2A antagonist on HIF signaling and 5-HT secretion. Antisense approaches were used to mechanistically evaluate EC cells in vitro. PCR and western blot were used to analyze transcript and protein levels of HIF-1α signaling and neuroendocrine cell function. An animal model of colitis was evaluated to confirm hypoxia:adenosine signaling in vivo.HIF-1α is upregulated in IBD mucosa and IBD-EC cells, the majority (~90% of which express an activated phenotype in situ. Hypoxia stimulated 5-HT release maximally at 30 mins, an effect amplified by NECA and selectively inhibited by MRS1754, through phosphorylation of TPH-1 and activation of VMAT-1. Transient transfection with Renilla luciferase under hypoxia transcriptional response element (HRE control identified that ADORA2B activated HIF-1α signaling under hypoxic conditions. Additional signaling pathways associated with hypoxia:adenosine included MAP kinase and CREB. Antisense approaches mechanistically confirmed that ADORA2B signaling was linked to these pathways and 5-HT release under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia:adenosine activation which could be reversed by 5'-ASA treatment was confirmed in a TNBS-model.Hypoxia induced 5-HT synthesis and secretion is amplified by ADORA2B signaling via MAPK/CREB and TPH-1 activation. Targeting ADORA2s may decrease EC cell 5-HT production and secretion in IBD.

  3. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...... formalisms, and inheriting all the main features of the Meta-Environment....

  4. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  5. E-Learning and Evidence Based Practice in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quong, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    JCTIC has used open source software to develop a unique school online environment that has made evidence based practice viable in their school. In this paper the proposition is made that eLearning enables evidence based practice which in turn leads to improved student outcomes. Much has been written about evidence based practice in schools, but…

  6. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  7. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  8. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  9. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. Out of 1700 known isotopes of 104 chemical elements, only about 16 per cent are stable. Seventy-three radioactive isotopes of 39 elements occur naturally in the terrestrial environment. The significance of environmental radioactivity lies in the contribution to the annual exposure of the general population to ionising radiation. This exposure results largely from natural sources of radioactivity and radiation together with applications of radiation in medicine. Minor contributions are from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear power production and the nuclear fuel cycle, and consumer products including luminous clocks and watches, television receivers and smoke detectors. The natural background radiation level varies substantially with altitude and geographic location. Although no satisfactory evidence is available that natural variations in background radiation levels are detrimental to humans, upper limits of risk have been estimated for possible somatic and genetic effects from these levels of radiation. Contributory sources of and variability in the radiation background are reviewed and the relation between effective dose equivalent and associated detriment outlined. The risk from exposure to an average level of background radiation is compared with risks from other human activities

  10. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  11. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  12. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  13. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement i...... at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees’ decision on early retirement....

  14. Leading teaming: Evidence from Jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Francisco Maria Trigo da Roza Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In this research we conducted qualitative analysis to study the team dynamics of jazz combos in order to explore deeper the leadership behaviors in a creative environment where teaming occurs. We found evidence of a dual leader, one that shifts his/her role between ‘leader as leader’ and ‘leader as member’, embracing both leaderfulness an...

  15. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. Psychobiology of the amniotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Luigi; Accorsi, Francesca; Marconi, Lorenza; Benassi, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    Water, basic element of amniotic fluid (A.F.), is closely related to Life, Fertility and Motherhood in several cultures and religions. Through material evidences of an essential growth medium and useful diagnostic source, a new concept grow up: the fluid as a first real environment in which fetus lives and acts. Many studies confirm that in A.F. fetus starts his character-building, his memory and his intelligence. The fluid seems to be the first means of learning and acknowledgement. Sounds, smells and tastes are perceived as well as emotions and fears. Urinoterapy and staminal cells sampling shows how A.F. can be considered as an additional terapeutic resource.

  17. Robust speaker recognition in noisy environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses speaker recognition methods to deal with realistic variable noisy environments. The text covers authentication systems for; robust noisy background environments, functions in real time and incorporated in mobile devices. The book focuses on different approaches to enhance the accuracy of speaker recognition in presence of varying background environments. The authors examine: (a) Feature compensation using multiple background models, (b) Feature mapping using data-driven stochastic models, (c) Design of super vector- based GMM-SVM framework for robust speaker recognition, (d) Total variability modeling (i-vectors) in a discriminative framework and (e) Boosting method to fuse evidences from multiple SVM models.

  18. The Geochemistry of Technetium: A Summary of the Behavior of an Artificial Element in the Natural Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Martin, Wayne J.; Zachara, John M.

    2008-12-01

    marine sediments that are oxidizing overall indicate that Tc is relatively immobile, due to formation of oxygen-depleted microenvironments that develop in response to bacteriological activities. The rate of re-mobilization of Tc from these microenvironments is just beginning to be assessed, but with no firm consensus. Reassessment of the simple models in which Tc is mobilized and immobilized is therefore urged.

  19. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  20. [Evidence and Evidence Gaps - an Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, G; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias. This includes the public registration of planned and discontinued trials. In the last 25 years, the evidence-based medicine (EbM) has increasingly found its way into clinical practice and research. Here EbM is closely associated with the names Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. In Germany, both the German Cochrane Centre (DCZ) and the network of evidence-based medicine (DNEbM) were established approximately 15 years ago. In the international Cochrane Collaboration clinicians and other scientists like statisticians interdisciplinary work side by side to develop the methods of evidence-based medicine and to address the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as the transfer of knowledge. Challenge: Existing evidence primarily serves doctors to support their decision-making, but is also the basis for providing scientific proof for a health care intervention's benefit to patients and ultimately payers/health insurances. The closure of existing evidence gaps requires substantial human and financial resources, a complex organizational structure and can only succeed with the involvement of clinical and methodological expertise and specific knowledge in the field of clinical research. In addition, the knowledge must be transferred into practice, using journals, guidelines, conferences, databases, information portals with processed evidence and not least the

  1. Evidence-based management - healthcare manager viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janati, Ali; Hasanpoor, Edris; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Hospital manager decisions can have a significant impact on service effectiveness and hospital success, so using an evidence-based approach can improve hospital management. The purpose of this paper is to identify evidence-based management (EBMgt) components and challenges. Consequently, the authors provide an improving evidence-based decision-making framework. Design/methodology/approach A total of 45 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2016. The authors also established three focus group discussions with health service managers. Data analysis followed deductive qualitative analysis guidelines. Findings Four basic themes emerged from the interviews, including EBMgt evidence sources (including sub-themes: scientific and research evidence, facts and information, political-social development plans, managers' professional expertise and ethical-moral evidence); predictors (sub-themes: stakeholder values and expectations, functional behavior, knowledge, key competencies and skill, evidence sources, evidence levels, uses and benefits and government programs); EBMgt barriers (sub-themes: managers' personal characteristics, decision-making environment, training and research system and organizational issues); and evidence-based hospital management processes (sub-themes: asking, acquiring, appraising, aggregating, applying and assessing). Originality/value Findings suggest that most participants have positive EBMgt attitudes. A full evidence-based hospital manager is a person who uses all evidence sources in a six-step decision-making process. EBMgt frameworks are a good tool to manage healthcare organizations. The authors found factors affecting hospital EBMgt and identified six evidence sources that healthcare managers can use in evidence-based decision-making processes.

  2. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  3. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  4. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  5. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  6. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  7. The PSIM environment architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Reyneri, C.; van den Berg, R.J.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This chapter describes the architecture of the PSIM environment. It briefly presents the PSIM objectives and the role the PSIM environment plays in meeting these objectives. It then states the role and place of each of technological components of the environment: the ontology, the

  8. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  9. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  10. Neotectonism - An offshore evidence from eastern continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    tremor provide evidence of Neo-tectonic activity in this regio. The epicentral region falls in a shallow marine environment ideal for generating a geophysical database for stable continental region earthquakes....

  11. Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grenada School Nutrition Study: Evidence to Inform Policy ... LMICs can direct their efforts to changing the environments and habits that promote ... Report Card that will be suited for advocacy work, and could be used to influence policy.

  12. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  13. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  14. LTDNA evidence on trial

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) discip...

  15. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  16. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment-friendly outcome measures in ..... which included manual grass cutting/hoeing, assuming the Islamic ... who opined that the starting point for any outcome measure is to ...

  17. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived...

  18. Satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and health in older elderly: cross-sectional evidence from the Bambuí cohort study of aging Satisfação com a vizinhança e saúde entre idosos mais velhos: análise seccional do estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87 were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13, difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78, presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95 and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50 were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.Para investigar a associação entre a satisfação com a vizinhança e a percepção de saúde entre idosos mais velhos, foram analisados os dados de 814 participantes do 11º seguimento do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí, por meio da regressão de Poisson robusta. Idosos mais satisfeitos com sua vizinhança apresentaram melhor percepção de saúde (RP = 0,75; IC95%: 0,63-0,87. A percepção de saúde foi significativamente pior para idosos com múltiplas condições crônicas (duas, RP = 1,69; IC95%: 1,05-2,70 e três ou mais, RP = 1,99; IC95%: 1,27-3,13, para aqueles com dificuldade de realizar atividades da vida diária (RP = 1,51; IC95%: 1,28-1,78, com sintomas depressivos (RP = 1,68; IC95%: 1,44-1,95 e com menor frequência de exercícios físicos durante os períodos de lazer nos últimos 90 dias (menos que uma vez por

  19. Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems ''look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs

  1. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  2. Environment, safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.

    2000-01-01

    Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)

  3. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  4. Parliamentarians and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, D.

    2004-01-01

    The data presented in this report come from an inquiry carried out by Sofres between March 5 and April 23, 2003, with a sample of 200 parliamentarians (122 deputies and 78 senators) who explained their attitude with respect to the question of environment. The questionnaire comprises 5 main dimensions dealing with: the relative importance of the environment stake, the attitudes with respect to past, present and future environment policies, the attitude with respect to specific stakes (energy, wastes), the attitude with respect to some problems of conservation of the natural heritage, and the attitude with respect to the participation of the public to some environment-related decisions. (J.S.)

  5. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  6. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  7. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  8. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  9. Hermeneutics, evidence ad judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes several topics of the judicial process from the point of view of the important contributions offered by the hermeneutical philosophy. It deals mainly with the construction of factual narratives, the presentation of evidence and the discovery of truth made by the judge in his final judgment based upon the evidence.

  10. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  11. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  12. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  13. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  14. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  15. International scientists’ priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence...

  16. Environment stakes and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquoy, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This document devoted to the environment discusses on the following topics: the environmental policies, the threats for the environment (climatic change, water management and risks), the deforestation, the sustainable development of cities, the safety first principle, the energy challenge, the international cooperation, the North-South relations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances,

  18. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  19. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  20. Environment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarone, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere

  1. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... institutionalized. We consider that the environment has not been high on the agenda of the socio-economic research community but that there is a substantial amount of socio-economic research on the environment in the ecological economics and other research communities. The chapter then examines the research...... on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...

  2. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  3. Morbidity is related to a green living environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing urbanisation people face the prospect of living in environments with few green spaces. There is increasing evidence for a positive relation between green space in people's living environment and self-reported indicators of physical and mental health. This study

  4. Nova Scotia Environment Act: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In January 1993, a comprehensive review and consolidation of 13 statutes currently under the Department of the Environment's administration began to create a more rational, efficient, and user-friendly framework for environmental management; to fulfill outstanding commitments for regulatory reform; and to provide an opportunity for focused stakeholder consultations on substantive changes to the legislative framework. Draft legislation was released for public comment in November 1993. This report summarizes the public comments but also includes comments by the Public Consultation Committee. Issues addressed include administration, environmental education and research, environmental assessment process, approvals and certificates, release of substances, hazardous substances and pesticides, contaminated sites, waste management, water management, inspections and investigations, orders, appeals, civil remedies, penalties and prosecutions, and documentary evidence.

  5. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  6. DCE. Future IHEP's computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guorui; Liu Xiaoling

    1995-01-01

    IHEP'S computing environment consists of several different computing environments established on IHEP computer networks. In which, the BES environment supported HEP computing is the main part of IHEP computing environment. Combining with the procedure of improvement and extension of BES environment, the authors describe development of computing environments in outline as viewed from high energy physics (HEP) environment establishment. The direction of developing to distributed computing of the IHEP computing environment based on the developing trend of present distributed computing is presented

  7. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  8. Evidence: Study Guide. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) correct application of principles of military rules of evidence. This study guide is also intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps judge advocates and Coast Guard law...

  9. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  10. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  11. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    2003-01-01

    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  12. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  13. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use...... the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. Availability and implementation: The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses...

  14. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  15. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  16. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  17. Environment compendium 1999. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy. Next, the environmental quality is described (section D), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section E. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section F. Finally, in section G, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  18. Environment compendium 2001. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy (section D). Next, the environmental quality is described (section E), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section F. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section G. Finally, in section H, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  19. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  20. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  1. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  2. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  3. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  4. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  5. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  6. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  7. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  8. Environment, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract and contents of these issues along with their costs in Austrian Schillings

  9. Transformers For Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Imagine a revolutionary way to remotely control the environment surrounding one or more roving vehicles exploring remote and unexplored areas of the Solar System,...

  10. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  11. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  12. Built environment and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  13. Assessing Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Testing and Measurement, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Educational environment data derived from classroom settings strongly suggest the positive contribution that climate variables can make in accounting for learning performance. Such measures are not only related to productivity but may constitute criterion variables in and of themselves. (Author)

  14. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  15. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  16. Precision in harsh environments

    OpenAIRE

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnetic noise, radiation, or high vacuum. In the field of actuators, the devices must maintain stringent accuracy specifications for displacement, force, and response times, among others. These new requ...

  17. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  18. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  19. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  20. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  1. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  2. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  3. Is there psychological pressure in competitive environments?

    OpenAIRE

    Feri, Francesco; Innocenti, Alessandro; Pin, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides evidence from a field experiment on the effect of psychological pressure in competitive environments. In our experiment, we analyze a setup of sequential tournaments, in which participants are matched in pairs and experience a kind of pressure that, as in most real world professional tasks, is not perceived as uncommon or exceptional. We do not find support for the first-mover advantage, while we obtain that second-movers perform significantly better under psychological pr...

  4. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  5. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  6. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  8. Happiness: The Potential Power of Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Sosis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists have argued that they can determine to what extent human happiness levels are controlled by genes by comparing the average happiness levels of identical twins raised apart. If we discover that identical twins raised apart tend to be more hedonically similar than fraternal twins raised apart, this is interpreted as evidence for the thesis that genes have a strong influence on our happiness levels. If identical twins are hedonically dissimilar, as dissimilar as fraternal twins raised apart, this has been taken as evidence for the thesis that happiness levels are determined in large part by the environment. I shall show that that these interpretations of these studies rely on a set of false assumptions. There is no good evidence our genes determine how happy we can be.

  9. Bluetooth helper environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbiao

    2001-10-01

    Handheld devices are gaining great popularity and becoming a common commodity on the market primarily due to their small sizes and mobile nature. However, these devices are all limited in capabilities, especially in terms of screen display, processing power, storage space and network access. Some of these limitations, such as the small screen sizes, are inherently difficult to improve given the usage model of these devices. In this paper, we propose a framework in which small handheld devices can use their environment, the devices around them, to expand their limited capabilities. Such an environment can be deployed in the office, at home for user convenience or in a public access area as a revenue generating service. A handheld device interacts with the helper environment through several essential steps including device discovery, service query, request transfer and remote control. In order to ensure the proper operation of such an environment, the framework provides essential system components for admission control, resource allocation, task scheduling and device coordination. We refer to such a framework as the device helper environment and discuss its system architecture and usage scenarios in this paper.

  10. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  11. FEMME, a flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeClippele, V.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A new, FORTRAN-based, simulation environment called FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), designed for implementing, solving and analysing mathematical models in ecology is presented. Three separate phases in ecological modelling are distinguished: (1) the model

  12. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Brown, Daniel K; Wood, Carly; Sandercock, Gavin R; Barton, Jo L

    2013-01-01

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and faci...

  13. The hovercraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  14. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...... level. This paper thus inquires into the emergence of a European environmental policy from a diffusion of ideas perspective. Rather than focusing on multi-level policy making it seeks to trace the diffusion of environmental ideas from the level of international organizations to the European Communities...

  15. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine the nature of students’ digital learning environments to understand the interplay of institutional systems and tools that are managed by the students themselves. The paper is based on a study of 128 students’ digital learning environments. The objectives...... used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally...... of the study are 1) to provide an overview of tools for students’ study activities, 2) to identify the most used and most important tools for students and 3) to discover which activities the tools are used for. The empirical study reveals that the students have a varied use of digital media. Some of the most...

  16. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  17. Radiation environment at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear facilities located at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu State of India include at present nuclear power reactors, a fast breeder reactor, a nuclear research centre and a waste management facility. Active wastes generated at the site are collected, treated and safely disposed. High-level wastes are stored underground in RCC trenches and tile hole and low-level wastes in the from of liquid effluents are discharged into the sea. Off-gases are dispersed through stacks in the atmosphere. Environmental survey laboratory established at the site in 1974 carries out radiation surveillance of the environment, evaluates radiological impacts on environment and public, and assesses radiation exposure of the population. It is observed that even after five years of operation of the nuclear power station, radioactivity and radiation levels in the environment have virtually remained at the pre-operational levels. (M.G.B.). 14 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  19. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede

    2017-01-01

    such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition......Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...

  20. Radioruthenium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Morita, Shigeki.

    1979-01-01

    A change in the amount of radioruthenium in the environment (due to nuclear tests and drainage from atomic energy plants) and the exposure dose are discussed. The level of 106 Ru in the environment due to radioactive fallout, changes in the level, and the characteristics of these changes are reported. Pollution caused by 106 Ru in drainage from atomic energy plants, especially from the Windscale reprocessing factory in the United Kingdom (which release Ru in the greatest amount), changes in the amount of Ru released and in the levels of environmental pollution, and the movement of Ru in the environment are considered. The intake of Ru into the human body by consumption of food produced in polluted areas and by inspiration of Ru present in the air is estimated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Energy problems will play a fundamental role in the near future and researchers, engineers, economists and ecologists must work together to increase existing non-fossil energy sources and to develop new sources or techniques using less energy without pollution of the environment. Four aspects of future activities in this field are considered. First, energy sources, ie solar, fossil, nuclear, geothermal, and others such as wind energy or wave energy are considered in relation to the environment. Secondly the use of these sources by industry and by transportation, domestic, and agricultural sectors are examined. The problem of energy conservation in all fields is then considered. Finally the overall optimisation is analysed. This is the search for a compromise between the cost of usable energy and that of a degradation function taking into account the effect on the environment. (U.K.)

  2. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book. refs

  3. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  4. Understanding healing environments : effects of physical environmental stimuli on patients' health and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.

    2009-01-01

    The research in this dissertation contributes to the growing body of evidence that the physical healthcare environment can make a difference in how quickly patients recover or adapt to specific acute and chronic conditions. The concepts of healing environments and evidence-based design are widely

  5. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment...... environments and that the order in which the decomposed sub-environments are presented in sequence impacts the performance of the evolutionary algorithm....

  6. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...

  7. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    -makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  8. Turning Evidence into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH CRTA, Hillary Topazian, attended the National Cancer Institute’s 3rd Symposium on Global Cancer Research; a satellite meeting to the 6th Annual Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) Conference in Boston. The Symposium centered on the theme of implementation science, a field which studies the integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice.

  9. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  10. Fossil wood evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. And Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and ...

  11. Jupiter Environment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  12. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  13. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...... and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups...

  14. Environment as datascape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    as configuring carbon-as-dataspace, I argue, allows grasping adequately the contingency and constraints of managing carbon as a particular mate- rial-discursive form of environment. In conclusion I generalise the environmental management office as a space that can be configured to stage, beyond carbon, other......Ecological modernist approaches to climate change are premised upon knowing carbon emissions. I ask how corporate environmental managers know and do carbon, i.e., shape the reality of emissions. I argue that for managers’ practical purposes carbon exists as malleable data. Based on ethnographic...... global environments as well....

  15. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  16. The environment and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart P F

    2010-11-11

    Psychotic syndromes can be understood as disorders of adaptation to social context. Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity, growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing 'social' brain during sensitive periods. Therefore heritability, as an index of genetic influence, may be of limited explanatory power unless viewed in the context of interaction with social effects. Longitudinal research is needed to uncover gene-environment interplay that determines how expression of vulnerability in the general population may give rise to more severe psychopathology.

  17. LHCb Dockerized Build Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Belin, M.; Closier, J.; Couturier, B.

    2017-10-01

    Used as lightweight virtual machines or as enhanced chroot environments, Linux containers, and in particular the Docker abstraction over them, are more and more popular in the virtualization communities. The LHCb Core Software team decided to investigate how to use Docker containers to provide stable and reliable build environments for the different supported platforms, including the obsolete ones which cannot be installed on modern hardware, to be used in integration builds, releases and by any developer. We present here the techniques and procedures set up to define and maintain the Docker images and how these images can be used to develop on modern Linux distributions for platforms otherwise not accessible.

  18. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  19. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  20. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  1. The VREST learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, E E; Geelkerken, R H; Sanders, A J B

    2005-01-01

    The VREST learning environment is an integrated architecture to improve the education of health care professionals. It is a combination of a learning, content and assessment management system based on virtual reality. The generic architecture is now being build and tested around the Lichtenstein protocol for hernia inguinalis repair.

  2. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  3. Environment and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Abuodha, N.L.; Abuodha, N.L.; Beigutt, K.S.A.

    1996-01-01

    It contains research papers presented at Kenya Academy of Sciecnes on the theme 'Envoronment and Development' whose objectives are: to highlight levels of achievement and endeavour in scientific research in environment, it's management and related areas, provide a forum debate and exchange of ideas between researchers, policy makers, and the general public on environmental issues and their effect on society, identify gaps in environmental knowledge as a basis for further research. The following titles of the following papers summarizes the details of the presentations; Kenya Eco-systems and global climate change, Integrated Coastal Zone Management related to the Kenyan Coast, Global Climate Change:Implications of the low lying area coastal parts of Kenya, Organochlorine Pesticides:Curse or blessings of the Tropical Environment, Environmental Degradation and Health in Kenya, Urban Environment and City Health Crisis in Kenya: The planning and Resource Allocation Question, Women and Food Security, Food Production and Village based Food Processing Industries of selected plants, Impact of Earthquakes, volcanic Eruptions on the Environment and Human Induced Climate Changes,Myth or reality and The Practice and Principles in Environmental Law for Kenya. this an 'Analytic' record describing research paper presented at the proceedings and published on page 157-168

  4. Designing Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this working paper is to present a conceptual model for media integrated communication in virtual learning environments. The model for media integrated communication is very simple and identifies the necessary building blocks for virtual place making in a synthesis of methods...

  5. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  6. Propagation environments [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...

  7. Environment: Readings for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, J. W. George, Ed.

    Twenty-six articles or extracts from scholarly literature and one article written for this collection are contained in this anthology intended for teachers. The articles present the viewpoints of writers in a number of scientific and sociological fields concerning human interactions with their environment. Articles are arranged in the following…

  8. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  9. Virtual Environments 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the joint 9th International Immersive Projection Technologies Workshop and the 11th EUROGRAPHICS Virtual Environments Workshop (IPTEGVE). The event was held in Aalborg, Denmark the 6. and 7. October 2005. It was organized at the VR Media Lab, Aalborg University...

  10. [Healthy school environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.

  11. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  12. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  13. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  14. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  15. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  16. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  17. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...

  18. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  19. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally...

  20. IMPROVING THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETERS, JON S.; SCHNEIDER, RAYMOND C.

    GUIDELINES FOR CREATING IMPROVED EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS ARE PRESENTED WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DRAWINGS, DIAGRAMS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS. POLICY DECISIONS ARE RELATED TO--(1) THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE FUTURE, (2) INDUSTRY'S RULE IN EDUCATION, AND (3) BUILDING PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF--(1) ART…

  1. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  2. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  3. The redefined environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Although it seems an audacity to try to redefine the environment, the current interpretation of the concept of natural environment in Colombia makes necessary that task, with the purpose of arriving at the same time to a focus but realist and useful for those who should keep it in mind in the planning and in the taking of decisions. The definition of effective environment for most of the Colombians and diffused by entities like the Inderena it corresponds to a partial vision of the national reality. It is necessary to show to the country that that version is no-alone incomplete but dangerous, just as they have checked it the catastrophes of the last years that caused many kill and lost, fortunately the tendency of the last years on the part of some planners has been the one of conferring to the threats and the mineral resources the importance that it deserve. God willing that tendency be returns the denominator common of the whole studies dedicated to the ordination of the territory, so much urban as rural. This work recaptures and wide concepts that were presented previously by the author in several conferences and publications. The work understands a revision of the evolution of the environment concept in the first place in Colombia. They are made some observations next about the necessity of keeping in mind the geosciences in the use of the natural environment and are it finishes with the way to integrate those in the process of physical planning that it receives the name of environmental planning universally

  4. The farrier's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Lotta; Pinzke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The horse industry in Sweden has rapidly expanded in recent years. This increasing number of horses implies a greater need for more farriers. Shoeing a horse is hard physical work, and includes awkward work postures and repetitive movements. It is well known that hard physical work increases the risk of injuries and musculoskeletal problems. The risk is especially high for musculoskeletal disorders when certain movements are constantly repeated. Heavy or repeated unilateral loads lead to considerable stress on the muscles, which can lead to rupture and fatigue that can cause long term problems. A case study showed that farriers worked 75% of their work time with their backs in bent positions (often more than 70 degrees). Farriers are also exposed to risk factors in their physical environment like dust, noise and poor lighting. Risk of kicks and bites, eye injuries and burns are other factors that make their work environment hazardous. There are only a few studies available that have documented the farriers' working environment and these are not of recent date. A US study from 1984 described kicks and bites from horses, metal splinters in the eyes, heat exhaustion and problematic postures to be perceived as the greatest risks in their work. The back, knees and wrists were the most exposed body regions. There is a need for more current and in-depth studies investigating the farriers' working conditions in order to gain more knowledge of their health and work environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the physical health and work environment of farriers. The investigation will use questionnaires, work load measurements and workplace analysis. The results will serve as a base for improvements concerning the design of the workplace, equipment, tools and aids as well as supplying recommendations about physical exercise and the correct work technique, etc. The results are planned to be incorporated in the education of farriers.

  5. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  6. Evidence Based Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Brorson Fich, Lars

    2015-01-01

    ) with the aim to answer the following questions about health-care architecture: • What influence does the physical environment have for the patient's recovery? • Can an improvement of the physical environment influence the relationship between patient, relatives, and employees? • How can architecture make...... a positive difference in these conditions? • What impact has the answers to these questions for architects and designers in future hospital construction? To provide answers to these questions, the project set out to study architectural qualities in the design of health care facilities. The project has...... examined architecture and design’s impact on patient outcomes, relatives and visitors' expectations, as well as of employees, and which seeks to minimize the negative effects of stress-inducing surroundings in health-care facilities. Architecture, in the theoretical framework of the project, supports...

  7. Environment and power; Umwelt und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, W.; Ramser, H.J.; Stadler, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 35th economic seminar with he title '' Environment and power'' held between 18th and 21st September, 2006, at the monastery Ottobeuren (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Environment and power: introduction into the subject matter (Karl Heinrich Opplaender); (b) Theoretical fundamentals of the sustainability (Wolfgang Buchholz); (c) Ecological fiscal reform and double dividend (Ronnie Schoeb); (d) ''My friend, that is all mere theory'' - Notes to the emission trading (Christoph Boehringer); (e) Environmental policy and locational competition (Michael Rauscher); (f) Dynamical incentives of environment political instruments - a survey (Till Requate); (g) Product differentiation in the presence of environmental concern, network effects and compatibility: The automobile market (Klaus Conrad); (h) The liability right as an instrument of environment policy (Alfred Endres); (i) environment economy and experimental evidence (Joachim Weimann); (j) Market design in the energy economy (Felix Muesgen, Axel Ockenfels); (k) Re-regulation of the liberalized energy markets in Europe (Carl Christian von Weizsaecker).

  8. Behaviors of radon in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu; Shimo, Michikuni.

    1987-01-01

    The source of radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is radioactive nuclide, uranium ( 238 U), which exists fairly common throughout the earth's crust. Radium ( 226 Ra) descended from uranium produce radon ( 222 Rn) of noble gas by decay. After formation in the ground, radon diffuses into the atmosphere. Without exception radon decay products are heavy metals which soon become attached to natural aerosols. Therefore, radon and its daughters (decay products) appear also in indoor environment, and generally, their concentration levels become higher than that of outdoor air due to build-up effects in the closed indoor environments. With the progress of the study on the influence of radon and its daughers on human health, it has become clear that they act effectively as an exciting cause of lung cancer. So, the study on the risk evaluation of them in room air has become to be very important. Concequently, the behaviors of radon and its daughters in indoor environment, first of all, should be studied in detail for the accurate estimation of the risk caused by them. In this special edition, fundamental characteristics of radon and its daughters, some measuring methods, theoretical considerations and some observational evidences obtained from various circumstances of indoor environment are described inorder to grasp and understand the behaviors of radon and its daughters in the indoor environment. (author)

  9. Observational evidence for mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Theory has long suggested that dynamical friction between colliding galaxies must lead to mergers. The problem for observers has been to find which galaxies are mergers. The author first reviews the available evidence for mergers in various kinds of galaxies, then proposes a tentative classification scheme for mergers, and finally discusses mergers in giant ellipticals and their relation to the evolution and perhaps even the formation of ellipticals. (Auth.)

  10. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  11. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  12. EPR: Evidence and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W; Bae, You Han

    2014-09-28

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles in tumors has long stood as one of the fundamental principles of cancer drug delivery, holding the promise of safe, simple and effective therapy. By allowing particles preferential access to tumors by virtue of size and longevity in circulation, EPR provided a neat rationale for the trend toward nano-sized drug carriers. Following the discovery of the phenomenon by Maeda in the mid-1980s, this rationale appeared to be well justified by the flood of evidence from preclinical studies and by the clinical success of Doxil. Clinical outcomes from nano-sized drug delivery systems, however, have indicated that EPR is not as reliable as previously thought. Drug carriers generally fail to provide superior efficacy to free drug systems when tested in clinical trials. A closer look reveals that EPR-dependent drug delivery is complicated by high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), irregular vascular distribution, and poor blood flow inside tumors. Furthermore, the animal tumor models used to study EPR differ from clinical tumors in several key aspects that seem to make EPR more pronounced than in human patients. On the basis of this evidence, we believe that EPR should only be invoked on a case-by-case basis, when clinical evidence suggests the tumor type is susceptible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Case histories as evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, Andrew; Healy, David; Menkes, David B

    2012-01-01

    In courts case histories play a central part when a crime may have resulted from an effect of a prescribed drug; in civil cases where a person may have suffered damage from a drug; and in coroners' enquiries into the cause of unexplained deaths. The court must decide two important questions: 1. Can the suspected medication(s) cause this kind of effect? 2. Did it (or they) do so in this particular case? Many judges and coroners have not addressed these questions clearly and have not used expert witnesses consistently, on occasion disregarding scientific evidence. Courts need to appoint experts to explain and interpret the scientific evidence. Few judges are equipped to resolve contradictions between different experts. Brief accounts of five cases from four countries illustrate these points. The reluctance of legal processes to implicate drugs as a possible cause of violent behaviour leads to injustice. Courts must be required to obtain appropriate expert evidence, and be given independent data on which drugs can cause such behaviour.

  14. Evidence-based surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Rems

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is setting a new ground by the reign of evidence that was brought up by the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. While experiences and opinion of an expert count the least by the principles of EBM, randomized controlled trials (RCT and other comparative studies have gained their importance. Recommendations that were included in guidelines represent a demanding shift in surgeon’s professional thinking. Their thinking and classical education have not yet been completely based on the results of such studies and are still very very much master-pupil centred. Assessment of someone’s own experiences is threatened by objectivity as negative experiences get recorded in deeper memory. Randomized studies and meta-analyses do appear also in surgery. However, they demand an extra knowledge about critical assessment.Conclusions: Setting a patient to the foreground brings a surgeon’s decision to the field of EBM. The process has already begun and cannot be avoided. Decision hierarchy moves from the experience field to the evidence territory but to a lesser extent when compared to the rest of medicine. There exist objective restrictions with approving a new paradigm. However, these should not stop the process of EBM implementation. Finally, there is an ethic issue to be considered. Too slow activities in research, education and critical assessment can bring the surgeon to the position when a well-informed patient loses his/her trust.

  15. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  16. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed......Abstract: The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE......'s differ from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  17. The power of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Becky

    2015-06-01

    In Ten tips for normal birth, the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) (2014) advocates the building of nests; creating an environment that helps women to feel safe and secure during birth, as this can improve women's experiences and likelihood of normal birth. Furthermore, a private, undisturbed and dark environment, where women feel calm and safe can promote the release of oxytocin, the hormone responsible for uterine contractions and thought to promote the release of the pain relieving hormones endorphins (Uvnas Moberg 2003). When this is not achieved, women can experience fear-tension-pain syndrome, impeding labour progress and causing increased levels of pain (Dick-Read 2013). In addition, birth space has the potential to encourage the promotion of normality through providing space to mobilise, and alternative furniture to enable upright birth positions. Midwives should help women to create a birth space in which they feel safe, calm and secure, to promote normality and increase the incidence of normal birth (RCM 2014).

  18. Energy, environment and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E

    1977-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important prerequisites of life. The growing socio-economic activities and the rising standard of living have led to a rapid increase in energy consumption. The limited resources of fossil fuels and the recent geopolitical developments activated the exploration of ways and means for energy conservation and exploitation of unconventional renewable sources of energy. Of the renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, tidal, hydropower, etc), hydro-power production has some potential environmental effects. Man-made lakes have several physical, biological, geochemical and biogeochemical impacts on the environment both in the area of the lake and downstream. From the socio-economic point of view, the harnessing of renewable sources of energy will not only lead to the enhancement of the human environment, particularly in remote rural areas in developing countries, but will also lead to substantial savings in the use of non-renewable sources of energy.

  19. Securing collaborative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, Mary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  20. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    of the study are 1) to provide an overview of tools for students’ study activities, 2) to identify the most used and most important tools for students and 3) to discover which activities the tools are used for. The empirical study reveals that the students have a varied use of digital media. Some of the most......, the study shows that most of the important tools are not related to the systems provided by the educational institutions. Based on the study, the paper concludes with a discussion of how institutional systems connect to the other tools in the students’ practices, and how we can qualify students’ digital......The objective of the paper is to examine the nature of students’ digital learning environments to understand the interplay of institutional systems and tools that are managed by the students themselves. The paper is based on a study of 128 students’ digital learning environments. The objectives...

  1. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  2. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  3. Crystallography and environment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Crystallography, the study of atomic and molecular structure, has given detailed information about the fine-structure of the inorganic and living world-i.e. about the environment (in the widest sense of the world)-. It has contributed to geology (at the atomic level), crystal chemistry, the structure of minerals, soils and clays. In the case of the living world it has contributed to structural studies of biological molecules; proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), and polysaccharides. knowing how the atoms in a material are arranged allows to understand the relationship between atomic structure and properties of these materials. Today we are entering a new age in crystallography-the age of genetic engineering in the living world, and inorganic crystallographic engineering, where we use crystallographic information from the structures nature has given us, to begin to design and build structure of our own, of specified properties, aiming at the welfare of man and the development of his environment

  4. Balancing media environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    The paper examines how students in Danish upper secondary schools experience the uses and effects of the digital environment in relation to their school activities. Theoretically a media ecological perspective (Strate 2006) is applied which understands teaching and learning practices as shaped...... by the interrelation between teacher, student and the media technologies. According to this perspective, media creates an environment that shapes our possibilities for acting and communicating. In a basic sense, teaching and learning is a communicative situation where, traditionally, the teacher sends information...... to the receiving students through a medium (e.g. speech, blackboard, book or online learning platform). Digital media challenge this situation due to their affordances (Gibson 1979) for interactivity. Affordance has become an increasingly popular term within media studies for describing a complementary...

  5. Study in Classroom Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai

    2016-01-01

    It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators? physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchr...

  6. Environment report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief account of activities in environment protection carried out by the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. in 1999 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Address; (2) Electricity generation and consumption in the Slovak Republic; (3) Air protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system at Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.; (7) Environmental protection funds; (8) Structure of SE, a.s., power installations

  7. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The book summarizes general concepts on radiation, nuclear structure, radioactivity and the interaction of the nuclear radiation with matter. It describes also the basic principles of radio dosimetry. Natural and artificial sources of radiation are reviewed as well as the effects of radiation in man. Medical and industrial applications of ionizing radiation and the pollution produced by the discharge of radioactive materials are outlined. A short review is made of the safety rules and the regulations concerning the protection of the environment [es

  8. Population vs. the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    In anticipation of UN Conference on Environment and Development scheduled for June in Brazil, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) recently televised a hard-hitting documentary focusing on the impact of rapid population growth on resources and the environment. Entitled "Population Explosion and the Looming Crisis: Can Humankind Determine a Better Future?" the documentary aired on January 5, featuring interviews with experts from the population field such as Dr. Nafis Sadik of the UNFPA and Dr. Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University. The program, made with the cooperation of UNFPA and JOICFP, compared the current global demograhic and environmental situation with the one expected to exist in 2025, when the world population is expected to reach 10 billion. The documentary depicted a future fraught with food shortages, depleted energe resources, refugees, and a devastated environment. In order to illustrate the effect of population growth in developing countries, the documentary featured reports from countries in Asia and Africa. And to show the heavy burden that industrialized countries place on the global environment, the documentary examined Japan's own pattern of consumption and waste. As the UNFPA's Sadik pointed out, the luxurious lifestyle of developed countries comes at the expense of the developing world. Stressing that everyone in the world should be able to enjoy a reasonable standard of living. Sadik called for "sustainable patterns of development," which can be achieved through the following: improved technology, reduced consumption patterns, and changed lifestyles. A critical element in changing lifestyles includes reducing global fertility to 3.2 children/woman by the year 2000. Otherwise, a world population will not double but triple by the year 2025.

  9. Working for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This video looks at the work of the UKAEA which is concerned with environmental protection and covers 4 projects, the routine monitoring which ensures a constant check on the safe operation of nuclear plant, research into the ways radioactivity released routinely into the Irish Sea from Sellafield returns to land. Computer modelling of the large scale behaviour of radioactive releases to the environment and research into the behaviour of released chemicals and heavy metals into the food chain. (author)

  10. Environment and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to in...

  11. Monitoring of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsudera, M

    1974-09-01

    The amount of pollutants discharged has now exceeded the environment's natural ability to purify itself. The effect of urbanization is traced especially the degeneration of plants and animals in Tokyo. One of the methods of monitoring plants is remote sensing with multi-band photography and multi-spectroscanning. There is a correlation between the sulfur content of tree leaves and multi-band photograms on red pine trees with a correlation coefficient of -0.862.

  12. 2001 Industry Studies: Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Internet . 8 March 2001. xliii Henry Kelly, “ Information Technology and the Environment: Choices and Opportunities,” CISP.org (October 1999) pp 8...development. Despite only a small percentage of U.S. environmental businesses participating in the world market , the U.S. industry has the best technology ...businesses participating in the world market , the U.S. industry has the best technology in the world and already generates a trade surplus. With the world

  13. Environment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    As part of its contribution to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the IAEA produced a booklet entitled ''Nuclear Power, Nuclear Techniques and Sustainable Development''. The second half of this dealt with the relevance of the IAEA's work to ''Agenda 21'', an agenda of environmental conservation and sustainable development for the twenty-first century. This article briefly summarizes the text

  14. Nuclear and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2002-06-01

    After having discussed the evolution of energy needs in relationship with economic and demographic evolutions, the evolution of energy resources and of the energy mix in different part of the world, the evolution of energy costs, the author comments the different impacts of the different energies, and more particularly nuclear energy, on the environment. He identifies six major impacts: energy congestion management, greenhouse effect, wastes, radioactivity, accidents, and nuclear proliferation

  15. Intrauterine Environment and PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.; Abbott, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal-fetal environment plays an important role in developmental programming of adult disease. Metabolic and hormonal dysfunction during human fetal development accompanies gestational diabetes as a common occurrence in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mothers, while human fetal androgen excess from congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors precedes PCOS-like symptoms after birth. To date, clinical studies of infant blood levels at term have yet to confirm that human fetal an...

  16. Environment Committee report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of the House of Commons Environment Committee (March 1986) on radioactive waste are examined. The report includes 43 recommendations and conclusions, many of which are directed at improving public acceptance of nuclear power, rather than constituting an attack on the nuclear industry. Some of the major topics considered in the report include: waste disposal, waste classification, waste disposal policy, discharges, reprocessing, and public acceptance. (UK)

  17. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  18. Greening the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maf; Whitelegg, John; Williams, Nick J.

    1998-07-15

    The built environment incorporates our homes, our workplaces and places of leisure. Under the influence of a complex web of social and economic processes, it is where many issues of human and environmental well-being come to a head - whether of space, mobility, energy consumption, pollution, health or security. All too often, concerns such as cost are put before the things we value for a fulfilling life, including peace and quiet and health and happiness. Getting the built environment right is fundamental to a sustainable society and requires an integrated approach. This important new book, published in association with the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF-UK), provides us with a firm understanding of the interrelationships of many of the issues and problems of the built environment and describes the holistic models of development, management and planning necessary for urban sustainability. It draws attention to the major challenges and policy implications and offers analysis, approaches and vision for moving towards sustainable towns and cities that in turn will facilitate sustainable lifestyles. (Author)

  19. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In this report different aspects of the radioactivity in the environment of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2004 - 2006 years are reported. This report is published only on the Enviroportal.sk. The following aspects of the radioactivity in the environment are reviewed there: Electricity production in nuclear power plants and their consumption; Natural sources of ionisation radiation; Man-made sources of ionisation radiation; Safety of exploitation of the nuclear power plants on the territory of the Slovak Republic; International Nuclear Event Scale; Basic information about influence of radiation on health of population and about evaluation methods; Influence of physical risk factors (including of ionisation radiation) in the working environment on formation of occupation diseases; Collective doses of occupation in NPPs; Health state of population in the locality of the NPP Mochovce; Food contamination by ionisation radiation; Radiation monitoring network; Legislative directives about population health protection against ionisation radiation action; Decommissioning of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (EBO V-1); Conception of the back fuel cycle and treatment of spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes; Project of territorial-economic development of the Trnava region after decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

  20. The aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-10-15

    The rapid increase in technological development and the broad societal benefit it has brought has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in environmental and societal problems. This has established a need to asses the impacts of new technologies, including nuclear industries. We are now entering an age which will see a rapid proliferation of nuclear power plants all over the world. As long as man continues to utilize nuclear energy, some releases of radioactive materials to the environment seem to be inescapable consequences. The problem therefore is to limit and control such releases, so that adverse effects on man and his environment can be reduced to acceptable levels. We can now draw on three decades of experience of the environmental impact of radioactive materials. To review this experience and to survey recent results of studies related to the safety of releases of nuclear facilities into fresh water, estuaries and sea water, the International Symposium on 'Radiological Impacts of Releases from Nuclear Facilities into Aquatic Environments' was held at Otaniemi, near Helsinki, Finland. (author)

  1. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  2. Environment monitoring from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone depletion, deforestation, erosion, and the greenhouse effect are of increasing concern, and continuous earth observation from artificial satellites has been contributing significant information on the environment since the 1960s. Earth observation from space has the advantages of wide area coverage at potentially high resolutions, periodic and long-term observation capability, data acquisition with uniform quality and repeatability, and ability to observe using different types of sensors. Problems to be solved in earth observation include the need for preprocessing of satellite data, understanding the relationship between observed physical parameters and objects, and the high volume of data for processing. In Japan, a research project on the higher-order utilization of remote sensing data from space was organized in 1985, and the results led to recognition of the importance of satellite observation. It was then decided to undertake a program to improve the understanding of the earth environment by satellite. Five research plans were selected: a basic study on earth observation by microwaves; global change analysis of the biosphere; a study of the physical process of the water cycle over land; a study of air-sea interaction; and higher-order processing of earth observation information. In recognition of the international nature of satellite data, as well as the capabilities of Canada and Japan in computer, communication, and multimedia technologies, bilateral cooperation is proposed in the area of earth environment information systems based on satellite observation

  3. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  4. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  5. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  6. [Overview of indicators in the context of environment and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobollik, Myriam; Kabel, Claudia; Mekel, Odile; Hornberg, Claudia; Plaß, Dietrich

    2018-06-01

    Evidence-based political measures need reliable information about the health status of a population and the determinants affecting health. Here, environment and health indicators can provide helpful additional insights. This article provides an overview of existing indicators in the field of environment and health. There are single indicators and indicator sets describing solely the environment or health as well as some indicators integrating both aspects. The indicator sets cover classical epidemiological indicators but also summary measures of population health, which combine mortality and morbidity as well as simple descriptions of the exposure towards environmental risks. The indicator sets mostly cover water and air quality related aspects. For some of the indicators their influence on health is also presented. Furthermore, environment related health indicators are part of sustainability indicator sets. There are indicators on the international, European, national, and municipal level. All indicator sets aim to support policy-making by advising on measures and setting priorities in the area of environment and health protection. However not all indicators reflect the effect of the environment on health adequately. Therefore, further development of the existing indicators is necessary to reflect current progress (e. g. political needs) and to include new scientific evidence in the field of environment and health. A continuous provision, review, and interpretation of meaningful indicators is required to identify trends and to react to these in order to protect the environment and health. This is necessary to adequately pursue the precautionary principle.

  7. Ward design: creating a healing patient-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biley, F

    The drive for cost-effectiveness in hospital design over the decades has meant that minimal thought has been given to the effect of environments on patients' health. The author draws on research evidence to demonstrate how the appearance and ambience of patient areas can have profound effects on recovery patterns, and suggests that the creation of environments more conducive to healing need not incur heavy expense in time or money.

  8. Creating a supportive learning environment for students with learning difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Grah, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Co-building of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties is one of the 21st century inclusive school’s elements. Since the physical presence of learners with learning difficulties in the classroom does not self-evidently lead to an effective co-operation and implementation of 21st century inclusive school, I have dedicated my doctor thesis to the establishment of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties in primary school wit...

  9. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  10. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  11. Evidence Based Management as a Tool for Special Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Fisher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To examine the evidence based management literature, as an example of evidence based practice, and determine how applicable evidence based management might be in the special library environment. Methods ‐ Recent general management literature and the subject‐focused literature of evidence based management were reviewed; likewise recent library/information science management literature and the subject‐focused literature of evidence based librarianshipwere reviewed to identify relevant examples of the introduction and use of evidence based practice in organizations. Searches were conducted in major business/management databases, major library/information science databases, and relevant Web sites, blogs and wikis. Citation searches on key articles and follow‐up searches on cited references were also conducted. Analysis of the retrieved literature was conducted to find similarities and/or differences between the management literature and the library/information scienceliterature, especially as it related to special libraries.Results ‐ The barriers to introducing evidence based management into most organizations were found to apply to many special libraries and are similar to issues involved with evidence based practice in librarianship in general. Despite these barriers, a set of resources to assist special librarians in accessing research‐based information to help them use principles of evidence based management is identified.Conclusion ‐ While most special librarians are faced with a number of barriers to using evidence based management, resources do exist to help overcome these obstacles.

  12. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  13. Creativity in Organizational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szobiová Eva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on the conditions which allow the application of creativity in the context of an organization. The aim of the article is to reveal the work environment factors influencing the creativity of the employees. Another aim is to demonstrate how management style of an organization can affect the creativity of employees in order to successfully exploit their creative potential. The contribution also presents the manner how a manager can influence creativity of one’s own employees. Moreover, the article deals with the process of innovation and transmission of creative ideas and solutions into practice.

  14. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  15. Nanomaterials and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Sonia; Rametta, Gabriella; Miglietta Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology intend to engineer the material using the special properties that it exhibits in the nanoscale to create new products. These properties imply a greater chemical reactivity, a higher strength and electrical conductivity and, potentially, a more pronounced biological activity. This can have not only positive valence (antioxidant activity, penetration of cellular barriers to the release of drugs), but also negative (eg. Toxicity, induction of oxidative stress or cellular dysfunction). Therefore, in addition to the great practical interest, nanotechnology has attracted the attention of the scientific community and the legislative authority for the specific interactions that may occur with living beings and the environment [it

  16. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  17. Photovoltaics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of photovoltaics on the environment and its application and role in the energy supply sector. It discusses the environmental and health impacts associated with photovoltaics by using Life Cycle Analysis as an instrument to determine its environmental effects. Recent Life Cycle studies have shown that PV can be considered an environmentally low risk technology, with its major environmental impacts occurring at the module manufacturing and waste disposal stages. The employment of environmental control mechanisms and statutory health and safety regulations at PV production facilities have helped to further reduce occupational and public health hazards. (author)

  18. Teleobservation in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteau, M.

    1983-01-01

    For maintenance operations in radiation environment, French nuclear industry uses television cameras operating in closed circuit, specially designed to penetrate in reactor cores and in active cells of reprocessing plants. The nuclear cameras, used by VISIONIC are the product of 20 years of experience. They are tight, submersible, and equipped with objectives which are not affected by radiations and are characterized by their miniaturization. This equipment complies with international television standards C.C.I.R. 625 intertwined lines. In order to facilitate the approach of cameras, VISIONIC uses remote handling equipment such as remotely operated caterpillar trolleys

  19. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  20. Environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, H.; Kneller, P.

    1981-01-01

    FACIT is a periodical intended to provide the reader with a survey of outstanding publications on topical subjects. At the same time, it offers a first insight into the subject field, enabling the reader to select among the literature cited the publications he may need to enhance his knowledge and information. The periodical is aimed at serving as a guide to the complex variety of publications in a subject field, and to offer information in brief. Vol. 1, Environment and Energy, cites representative statements and samples from the German-language literature in this field and gives hints for further reading. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. The digital environment in men's sexual disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Cruz, E; Romero-Otero, J; Fode, M

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: The revolution of digital technologies constitutes a new setting for the patient-physician relationship and provides patients with a scenario of privacy and universal access to a vast amount of information. However, there is little information on how digital resources are used and what...... their advantages and disadvantages are. OBJECTIVES: To explore the scope of the scientific research on the use of digital technology related to men's sexual disorders and to analyze the primary sources of digital information related to this field. ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: Systematic searches of the scientific...... to predefined indicators. SYNTHESIS OF EVIDENCE: The qualitative analysis of the scientific literature included 116 manuscripts; 47% were clinical studies based on online survey, 9% dealt with digital treatments, 11% with quality/safety of digital healthcare environment, 3% with digital activity, 21...

  2. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...... or noise, with only little consideration of possible interactions between the different types of exposure. The studies summarized in this article found a clear impact of activity and overall thermal sensation on human sensitivity to air movement, whereas no interaction effects of exposure to several local...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available....

  3. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y; Kovanen, K [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1996-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  4. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.; Kovanen, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1995-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  5. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases. We correct this and other misunderstandings in the essay and find that gene-environment (GE) interplay is a well-articulated concept in behavior genetics and political science, operationalized as gene-environment correlation and gene-environment interaction. Both are incorporated into interpretations of the classical twin design (CTD) and estimated in numerous empirical studies through extensions of the CTD. We then conduct simulations to quantify the influence of GE interplay on estimates from the CTD. Due to the criticism’s mischaracterization of the CTD and GE interplay, combined with the absence of any empirical evidence to counter what is presented in the extant literature and this article, we conclude that the critique does not enhance our understanding of the processes that drive political traits, genetic or otherwise. PMID:24808718

  6. Nanomaterials in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  7. Focusing on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D.

    2004-01-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners

  8. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  9. Focusing on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners.

  10. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    'Radiation in the environment' includes the natural background, the release and transport of radionuclides within the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and marine environments, understanding the pathways through which radionuclides gain access to humans, and the development of methods for measuring, assessing, and controlling the resulting exposures. Contributions of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to these subjects include early studies of the behaviour of radionuclides in the Columbia River and in the atmosphere and soil in the vicinity of the Hanford site, the development of methods for assessing the accompanying doses to members of the public, and the preparation of guides for the conduct of environmental surveillance activities as well as the clean-up of decommissioned facilities. An integral part of these activities has been the maintenance of close working relationships with the public, prime examples being the landmark Tri-Party Agreement and the designation of a portion of the Hanford site as the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Through these efforts scientists at PNL have provided leadership in environmental activities at both the national and the international level. (author)

  12. Adaptation in stochastic environments

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Colib

    1993-01-01

    The classical theory of natural selection, as developed by Fisher, Haldane, and 'Wright, and their followers, is in a sense a statistical theory. By and large the classical theory assumes that the underlying environment in which evolution transpires is both constant and stable - the theory is in this sense deterministic. In reality, on the other hand, nature is almost always changing and unstable. We do not yet possess a complete theory of natural selection in stochastic environ­ ments. Perhaps it has been thought that such a theory is unimportant, or that it would be too difficult. Our own view is that the time is now ripe for the development of a probabilistic theory of natural selection. The present volume is an attempt to provide an elementary introduction to this probabilistic theory. Each author was asked to con­ tribute a simple, basic introduction to his or her specialty, including lively discussions and speculation. We hope that the book contributes further to the understanding of the roles of "Cha...

  13. Communication in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Herold, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications

  14. Plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The first volume of the new series, Radioactivity in the Environment, focuses on the environmental occurrence, the speciation, the behaviour, the fate, the applications and the health consequences of that much-feared and much-publicised element, plutonium. Featuring a collection of selected, peer-reviewed, up-to-date papers by leading researchers in the field, this work provides a state-of-the-art description of plutonium in the environment. This title helps to explain where present frontiers are drawn in our continuing efforts to understand the science of environmental plutonium and will help to place widespread concerns into perspective. As a whole this new book series on environmental radioactivity addresses, at academic research level, the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us will be documented and given perspective. refs

  15. Radiation in living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, R.

    1991-01-01

    Aside from the atomic bomb attacks in 1945, the experience of radioactive contamination of human environment was the exposure of a tuna fishing boat to the radioactive fallout of a hydrogen bomb test explosion at Bikini atoll in March, 1954. Thereafter, radioactivity was frequently detected in fishes in central Pacific Ocean. Radioactivity was also detected in rain, which resulted in the contamination of agricultural products. Due to the great concern of general public for the radioactivity in food materials, the government initiated the national program of radioactivity surveillance. Since then, the fallout radioactivity due to nuclear test explosions was the main object surveillance in 1950s and 1960s, but the program was gradually expanded to include natural radiation, the artificial radioactivity due to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and other special programs. The history of the radioactive contamination of environment, natural radiation, medical exposure, the radioactive fallout due to nuclear tests, nuclear power generation and the Chernobyl accident are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Working Environment and Technological Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    and their and their concept of working environment2) Technology renewal, which considers the role of the working environment in connection with the development and use of concrete technologies3) Working environment planning, which considers the existing efforts to place the working environment in a planning process.......The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions...

  17. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  18. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  19. Evidence for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  20. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724