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Sample records for oxidized fragrance terpenes

  1. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes are widely used fragrance compounds in fine fragrances, but also in domestic and occupational products. Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure. Previous studies have shown that limonene, linalool and caryophyllene are not allergenic themselves but readily form...... allergenic products on air-exposure. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of allergic reactions to selected oxidized fragrance terpenes other than limonene. In total 1511 consecutive dermatitis patients in 6 European dermatology centres were patch tested with oxidized fragrance...

  2. Selected oxidized fragrance terpenes are common contact allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Frosch, Peter; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne D; Svedman, Cecilia; White, Ian R; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2005-06-01

    Terpenes are widely used fragrance compounds in fine fragrances, but also in domestic and occupational products. Terpenes oxidize easily due to autoxidation on air exposure. Previous studies have shown that limonene, linalool and caryophyllene are not allergenic themselves but readily form allergenic products on air-exposure. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of allergic reactions to selected oxidized fragrance terpenes other than limonene. In total 1511 consecutive dermatitis patients in 6 European dermatology centres were patch tested with oxidized fragrance terpenes and some oxidation fractions and compounds. Oxidized linalool and its hydroperoxide fraction were found to be common contact allergens. Of the patients tested, 1.3% showed a positive reaction to oxidized linalool and 1.1% to the hydroperoxide fraction. About 0.5% of the patients reacted to oxidized caryophyllene whereas 1 patient reacted to oxidized myrcene. Of the patients reacting to the oxidized terpenes, 58% had fragrance-related contact allergy and/or a positive history for adverse reaction to fragrances. Autoxidation of fragrance terpenes contributes greatly to fragrance allergy, which emphasizes the need of testing with compounds that patients are actually exposed to and not only with the ingredients originally applied in commercial formulations.

  3. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - Concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann Therese; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. Objective To investigate concomitant r...

  4. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Giménez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. To investigate concomitant reactions between oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool in consecutive dermatitis patients. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides 0.33%) and oxidized linalool 6% (linalool hydroperoxides 1%) in petrolatum were tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. A total of 281 patients reacted to either oxidized R-limonene or oxidized linalool. Of these, 25% had concomitant reactions to both compounds, whereas 29% reacted only to oxidized R-limonene and 46% only to oxidized linalool. Of the 152 patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene, 46% reacted to oxidized linalool, whereas 35% of the 200 patients reacting to oxidized linalool also reacted to oxidized R-limonene. The majority of the patients (75%) reacted to only one of the oxidation mixtures, thus supporting the specificity of the reactions. The concomitant reactions to the two fragrance allergens suggest multiple sensitizations, which most likely reflect the exposure to the different fragrance materials in various types of consumer products. This is in accordance with what is generally seen for patch test reactions to fragrance materials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Colophonium and Compositae mix as markers of fragrance allergy: cross-reactivity between fragrance terpenes, colophonium and compositae plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2005-01-01

    , colophonium and fragrance mix sensitization. The individual results indicated that simultaneously occurring positive reactions to essential oils, colophonium and Compositae were based on cross-reactivity rather than concomitant sensitization. Thus, all patients with positive reaction to the rare fragrance...... sensitizer beta-caryophyllene had positive colophonium reactions, and cross-reactivity between essential oils and Compositae was related to the Compositae plant extracts of the Compositae mix and not the pure sesquiterpene lactones of the standard series. The implication is that Compositae mix...... and colophonium may be markers of fragrance allergy, which is important to know when assessing the relevance of positive reactions to Compositae plant extracts and colophonium....

  7. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  8. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contact allergy to linalool hydroperoxides (Lin-OOHs) and limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs) is common. Similarly to what occurs with the terpene hydroperoxides, reactive intermediates formed from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) can cause oxidative modifications of tryptophan residues...... on proteins in mechanistic studies. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that patients sensitized to PPD are at increased risk of concomitant reactivity to either of the terpene hydroperoxides, owing to a ‘common pathway’ of skin protein oxidation. Methods: A database study of consecutively patch tested eczema...... patients (n = 3843) from 2012 to 2015, tested concomitantly with PPD, Lim-OOHs and Lin-OOHs, was performed. Associations were examined by level of concordance and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and contact allergy to fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II. Results: Concomitant reactions to PPD were...

  9. Measurements of acetone yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of terpenes by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisthaler, A.; Lindinger, W.; Jensen, N.R.; Winterhalter, R.; Hjorth, J.

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are known to be emitted in large quantities from vegetation exceeding largely global emissions of anthropogenic VOCs. Monoterpenes (C 10 H 16 ) are important constituents of biogenic VOC emissions. The atmospheric oxidation of Monoterpenes appears to be a potentially relevant source of acetone in the atmosphere. Acetone is present as a significant trace gas in the whole troposphere and influences in particular the atmospheric chemistry in the upper troposphere by substantially contributing to the formation of HO x radicals and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Acetone is formed promptly, following attack by the OH-radical on the terpene, via a series of highly unstable radical intermediates, but it is also formed slowly via the degradation of stable non-radical intermediates such as pinonaldehyde and nopinone. In order to investigate the relative importance of these processes, the OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene and β-pinene was investigated in a chamber study, where the concentrations of monoterpenes, acetone, pinonaldehyde and nopinone were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). It was found that significant amounts of acetone are formed directly, whenα-pinene and β-pinene are oxidized by the OH radical, but also secondary chemistry (degradation of primary reaction products) gives a significant contribution to the formation of acetone from monoterpenes. It can be concluded that atmospheric oxidation of monoterpenes contributes a significant fraction to the global acetone source strength. (nevyjel)

  10. Fragrance ingredient labelling in products on sale in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D A

    2007-08-01

    products for men (e.g. aftershave). Limonene (n = 29; 51%) predominated in 57 household products (washing-up liquid, detergent). Limonene (n = 43; 98%) and linalool (n = 42; 95%) were the most frequent fragrances in 44 perfumes for women. Alpha-isomethyl ionone (n = 28; 72%) was the most frequent in 39 cosmetics (foundation, lipstick, etc). Citronellol predominated (n = 15; 88%) in 17 deodorants and limonene (n = 9; 64%) was the commonest in 14 dental products (toothpaste and mouthwash). Thirty-four products (11%) contained none of the listed fragrances but were labelled as containing 'parfum' or 'aroma'. There is ongoing consumer exposure to the most frequent sensitizers in FM I: E. prunastri, isoeugenol and the cinnamon fragrances cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral(trade mark)) is present at significant concentrations in almost one-third of products. Linalool and limonene, fragrance terpenes which are significant allergens in their oxidized state, are the most frequent fragrances encountered by individuals living in the U.K. The current exposure pattern of the U.K. consumer suggests that we should add oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool to the test series for patients suspected to have fragrance allergy.

  11. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  12. Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; White, Ian R; Basketter, David A; Menné, Torkil

    2003-06-01

    Fragrance allergy and hand eczema are both common among dermatological patients. Fragrance mix (FM) and its constituents have a recognized relevance to exposure to fine fragrances and cosmetic products. Based on extensive chemical analysis and database search, a new selection of fragrances was established, including 14 known fragrance allergens present in products to which hand exposure would occur. A non-irritating patch-test concentration for some fragrances was established in 212 consecutive patients. 658 consecutive patients presenting with hand eczema were patch tested with the European standard series and the developed selection of fragrances. 67 (10.2%) of the 658 patients had a positive reaction to 1 or more of our selection of fragrance chemicals present in the new selection. The most common reactions to fragrances not included in the FM were to citral, Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde) and oxidized l-limonene. A concomitant reaction to the FM identified potential fragrance allergy in less than (1/2) of these patients. Exposure assessment and a statistically significant association between a positive patch test to our selected fragrances and patients' history support the relevance of this selection of fragrances. Those with a positive reaction to our selected fragrances were significantly more likely to have 1 or more positive patch tests in the standard series. This observation is the basis for the hypothesis concerning cross-reactivity and the effect of simultaneous exposure. The study found that fragrance allergy could be a common problem in patients with eczema on the hands.

  13. Air-oxidized linalool-a frequent cause of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    patch test reactions in 2500 dermatitis patients. Objectives. To investigate whether oxidized linalool 6%, with a stable concentration of the main haptens, the linalool hydroperoxides (Lin-OOHs) in pet., could be a useful tool for the detection of contact allergy in an international setting. Methods....... Oxidized linalool 6.0% (Lin-OOHs 1%) pet. was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and Australia. Results. Overall, 6.9% (range 3-13%) of the patients showed positive patch test reactions to oxidized linalool. Doubtful reactions were found...

  14. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  15. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  16. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  17. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  18. Alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide with biorenewable terpene-based cyclic anhydrides: a sustainable route to aliphatic polyesters with high glass transition temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, Nathan J; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2015-02-23

    The alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide with terpene-based cyclic anhydrides catalyzed by chromium, cobalt, and aluminum salen complexes is reported. The use of the Diels-Alder adduct of α-terpinene and maleic anhydride as the cyclic anhydride comonomer results in amorphous polyesters that exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg ) of up to 109 °C. The polymerization conditions and choice of catalyst have a dramatic impact on the molecular weight distribution, the relative stereochemistry of the diester units along the polymer chain, and ultimately the Tg of the resulting polymer. The aluminum salen complex exhibits exceptional selectivity for copolymerization without transesterification or epimerization side reactions. The resulting polyesters are highly alternating and have high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Non-mix fragrances are top sensitizers in consecutive dermatitis patients – a cross-sectional study of the 26 EU-labelled fragrance allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels H.; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: For cosmetics, it is mandatory to label 26 fragrance substances, including all constituents of fragrance mix I (FM I) and fragrance mix II (FM II). Earlier reports have not included oxidized R-limonene [hydroperoxides of R-limonene (Lim-OOH)] and oxidized linalool [hydroperoxides...... patients were ‘FM II-negative but constituent-positive’ than ‘FM I-negative but constituent-positive’ (12.4% versus 3.2%, p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Non-mix fragrances are the most important single fragrance allergens among consecutive patients. The test concentration of the single FM I constituents should...

  20. Macrocyclic fragrance materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvito, Daniel; Lapczynski, Aurelia; Sachse-Vasquez, Christen

    2011-01-01

    A screening-level aquatic environmental risk assessment for macrocyclic fragrance materials using a “group approach” is presented using data for 30 macrocyclic fragrance ingredients. In this group approach, conservative estimates of environmental exposure and ecotoxicological effects thresholds....../L and for macrocyclic lactones/lactides is 2.7 μg/L. The results of this screening-level aquatic ecological risk assessment indicate that at their current tonnage, often referred to as volumes of use, macrocyclic fragrance materials in Europe and North America, pose a negligible risk to aquatic biota; with no PEC...... for compounds within two subgroups (15 macrocyclic ketones and 15 macrocyclic lactones/lactides) were used to estimate the aquatic ecological risk potential for these subgroups. It is reasonable to separate these fragrance materials into the two subgroups based on the likely metabolic pathway required...

  1. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  2. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorena, Rheo B.; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-01-01

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including α- and β-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments

  3. Allergy to oxidized limonene and linalool is frequent in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain, H; Kenward, C; Lovell, C R; Green, C; Ormerod, A D; Sansom, J; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Johnston, G A; Wilkinson, M; King, C; Stone, N; Horne, H L; Holden, C R; Wakelin, S; Buckley, D A

    2014-08-01

    The oxidized forms of the fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Significant rates of contact allergy to these fragrances have been reported in European studies and in a recent worldwide study. Patch testing to oxidized terpenes is not routinely carried out either in the U.K. or in other centres internationally. To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to oxidized limonene and linalool in the U.K. Between 1 August 2011 and 31 December 2012, 4731 consecutive patients in 13 U.K. dermatology departments were tested for hydroperoxides of limonene 0·3% pet., hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0% pet., stabilized limonene 10·0% pet. and stabilized linalool 10·0% pet. Doubtful (?+) and equivocal (±) reactions were grouped together as irritant reactions. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients (5·0%) had a positive patch test reaction to hydroperoxides of limonene 0·3% pet. and 281 (5·9%) to hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0% pet. Irritant reactions to one or both oxidized terpenes were found in 242 patients (7·3%). Eleven patients (0·2%) had a positive patch test reaction to the stabilized terpenes alone. This large, multicentre U.K. audit shows a significant rate of allergy to the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool plus a high rate of irritant reactions. Testing to the oxidized forms alone captures the majority (97·0%; 411 of 422) of positive reactions; testing to nonoxidized terpenes appears to be less useful. We recommend that the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool be added to an extended baseline patch test series. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  5. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Regulated as a Cosmetic “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” Safety Requirements Labeling of Fragrance Ingredients Phthalates as ... or Is It a Soap) ." “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” There is no regulatory definition for “essential oils,” ...

  6. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  7. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    .... Written from a practical, problem-solving perspective, it discusses the chemical structures of key flavor and fragrance compounds, contains numerous examples and chromatograms, and emphasizes novel...

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinman, P L

    1996-06-01

    Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.

  9. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  10. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  11. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  12. Regulation of terpene metabolism. Progress report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism of terpenes by peppermint (Menta piperita) are described. The studies describe the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of terpenes and the ultrastructure of the oil glands. 10 refs. (DT)

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragrance material review on hexadecanolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2011-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of hexadecanolide when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Hexadecanolide is a member of the fragrance structural group macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives. The fragrance ingredient described herein is one of 12 structurally diverse C14, C15, and C16 compounds that include (7) saturated mono-and (2) saturated di-ester lactones and (3) unsaturated lactones. For the latter, the double bond is not adjacent to (in conjugation with) the ester group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for hexadecanolide were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; mucous membrane (eye) irritation; skin sensitization; phototoxicity; and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2011) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives in fragrances. Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Hanifin, J.H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2011. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Macrocylic Lactones and Lactide Derivatives When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fragrance allergy could be missed without patch testing with 26 individual fragrance allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejanurug, Patnapa; Tresukosol, Poohglin; Sajjachareonpong, Praneet; Puangpet, Pailin

    2016-04-01

    In 2003, the EU Cosmetics Directive stated that 26 fragrance substances must be listed on the cosmetic product ingredient labels. Not all of these 26 fragrance substances are detected by the usual screening markers comprising fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae. To evaluate the usefulness of testing with the 26 individual fragrance substances in addition to the standard fragrance screening markers. Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients were patch tested with our baseline series and the 26 specific fragrance substances required to be declared on cosmetic product ingredient labels in accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive. Positive reactions to at least either one of the 26 individual fragrance substances or the usual fragrance screening markers were seen in 84 of 312 patients (26.9%). Fifteen of these 84 patients (17.8%) reacted negatively to the fragrance screening markers. The most common individual fragrance allergens were cinnamyl alcohol (11.2%), cinnamal (9%), and hydroxycitronellal (3.8%). Sixty-two of 312 patients (19.8%) had at least one positive reaction to the fragrance screening markers. Additional patch testing with the 26 individual fragrance allergens, or with the commonest fragrance allergens identified within these 26, should be performed to optimize the detection of fragrance allergy. Cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal are important fragrance allergens in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fragrance contact allergy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, A; Nassiri-Kashani, M; Khatami, A; Gorouhi, F; Babakoohi, S; Montaser-Kouhsari, L; Davari, P; Dowlati, Y

    2010-12-01

    Fragrances are considered as one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. About 1-4% of the general population suffer from fragrance contact allergy (FCA). To determine the frequency of FCA and its clinical relevance in a sample of Iranian patients with history of contact and/or atopic dermatitis from January 2004 to December 2008. Standardized patch testing with 28-allergen screening series recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and European Standard Series was used at six dermatological clinics in Iran. Fragrance allergens comprised of fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae (MP; balsam of Peru), Lyral, turpentine and FM II. Fragrance contact allergy was detected in 7.2% of the patients. The frequency of positive reactions to FM I, MP and FM II were 3.7% (41/1105), 2.8% (32/1135) and 1.1% (3/267) respectively. 82.4% of the reactions to fragrance allergens were clinically relevant. The most common involved areas were hands (68.4%) and face (35.4%). Fragrance allergy predominantly affected women aged more than 40 years (P=0.008). Positive reaction to more than two allergens was significantly higher in FCA patients compared with other contact dermatitis patients (P<0.0001), and FM I, nickel and MP were the most frequent allergens in these patients. Despite less frequency of FCA in comparison with some European countries, its clinical relevance in Iranian patients seems to be high. It mostly affects the hands and the face predominantly in women aged more than 40 years. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Fragrance contact allergy: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    Most people in modern society are exposed daily to fragrance ingredients from one or more sources. Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure.

  18. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  19. Fragrance series testing in eyelid dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Kurt S; Ehrlich, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.

  20. An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background. Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies......, giving 2-3% positive patch test reactions in consecutive patients. Objectives. To investigate whether oxidized R-limonene 3.0% in petrolatum, with a stable concentration of the main haptens, limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs), could be a useful tool for the detection of contact allergy...... in an international setting. Methods. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (Lim-OOHs 0.33%) pet. was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and Australia. Results. Overall, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R...

  1. Fragrance mix II in the baseline series contributes significantly to detection of fragrance allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Andersen, Klaus E; Avnstorp, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens.......Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens....

  2. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  3. Fragrance chemicals in domestic and occupational products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, S; Johansen, J D

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have described an increasing prevalence of fragrance allergy and indicated an association with hand eczema. 59 domestic and occupational products intended for hand exposure were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses to test the hypothesis...... that fragrance chemicals known to have the potential to cause contact allergy but not included in fragrance mix (FM) may be common ingredients in these products. A quantitative analysis of 19 selected fragrances was performed by GC-MS. Further analysis of GC-MS data revealed the presence of 43 other fragrance...... chemicals/groups of fragrance chemicals in the products investigated. Among the 19 target substances the most commonly detected were limonene in 78%, linalool in 61% and citronellol in 47% of the products investigated. The FM ingredients were present in these products with the following frequencies: oak...

  4. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene: exposure and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Gimenez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2014-11-01

    R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R-limonene. To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found and assessed as being probably relevant for the patients' dermatitis in 36% of the limonene-allergic patients. In Barcelona and Copenhagen, > 70% of the patients were judged to have had an exposure to limonene assessed as relevant. Oxidized R-limonene is a common fragrance allergen, and limonene was frequently found in the labelling on the patients' products, and assessed as relevant for the patients' dermatitis. A large number of domestic and occupational sources for contact with R-limonene were identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The composition of fine fragrances is changing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    High frequencies of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients have been reported in recent years. Developments in analytical chemistry have made it possible to measure exposure to well-known fragrance contact allergens. It has been shown that exposure is widespread in different types of products. ...... products on the market, have a different composition from the new perfumes. This may be due to change in fashion or to an effort by the fragrance industry to focus on fragrance contact allergy, especially that to the FM ingredients....

  6. Fragrance mix II in the baseline series contributes significantly to detection of fragrance allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria S Vølund; Andersen, Klaus E.; Avnstorp, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens. Aim......: To investigate the diagnostic contribution of including FM II in the baseline series by comparing it with other screening markers of fragrance allergy: fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC). Method: Retrospective study of 12 302 patients consecutively...

  7. Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    . In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha......The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed....... It is concluded that exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix is common in fragrance-allergic patients with cosmetic eczema, and that the fragrance mix is a good reflection of actual exposure....

  8. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control survey...

  9. Fragrance allergy and hand eczema - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    Because hand eczema and fragrance allergy are common both among patients and in the general population, simultaneous occurrence by chance must be expected. Fragrances are ubiquitous and a part of many domestic and occupational products intended for hand exposure. The present review is based on a ...

  10. Fragrances and other materials in deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, J D

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently-used types of cosmetics and are a source of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of 71 deodorants was performed for identification of fragrance and non-fragrance materials present in marketed deodorant...

  11. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  12. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Fragrance allergy and hand eczema are both common among dermatological patients. Fragrance mix (FM) and its constituents have a recognized relevance to exposure to fine fragrances and cosmetic products. Based on extensive chemical analysis and database search, a new selection of fragrances was es...

  14. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee.

  15. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2-phenoxyethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenoxyethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenoxyethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenoxyethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and reproductive toxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fragrance material review on o-tolylethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of safety data for o-tolylethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. o-Tolylethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for o-tolylethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, and skin sensitisation data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fragrance material review on 2-benzylheptanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-benzylheptanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Benzylheptanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fragrance compounds and amphiphilic association structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, S E

    1998-05-01

    Fragrance formulations have traditionally been based on alcohol as the solvent, but the recent legal restrictions on volatile organic solvents have prompted the industry to change to aqueous solubilized systems. The article reviews the fundamental factors in the application of such systems evaluating the influence by different amphiphilic association structures on the vapor pressure of fragrance compounds. This information is subsequently used to estimate the variation of fragrance compound vapor pressures during evaporation. The results reveal that the vapor pressure versus time variation is improved compared to solvent-based formulations.

  20. Neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Adi; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Aschner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Fragrance compounds are chemicals belonging to one of several families, which are used frequently and globally in cosmetics, household products, foods and beverages. A complete list of such compounds is rarely found on the ingredients-list of such products, as "fragrance mixtures" are defined as "trade secrets" and thus protected by law. While some information regarding the general toxicity of some of these compounds is available, their neurotoxicity is known to a lesser extent. Here, we discuss the prevalence and neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds belonging to the three most common groups: phthalates, synthetic musks and chemical sensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonols and Terpene Lactones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid Chromatography-Tandem - Mass Spectrometry: 1. ... Results: The method showed high selectivity of the flavonols and terpene ... Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.232, 0.240, 0.200, ... flavonoid glycosides and terpene lactones.

  3. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample ( n  = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34-7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to

  4. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-lik...

  5. Volatility of fragrance chemicals: patch testing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah J; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic and predictive patch testing to determine contact allergy due to fragrance materials requires applying a fixed dose of material to the skin. This dose can be affected by the volatile nature of fragrances; little data exist on how the loss of fragrance dose due to volatility affects patch testing. (1) To evaluate pH dependence and evaporation rates of two fragrance chemicals, geraniol, citronellol, and a common fragrance solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and (2) Assess implications for predictive patch-testing methods for fragrances. pH analysis of each material at 1% for three values (4.0, 5.0, 7.0) was done over 40 hours. Volatility experiments for each material, nonradiolabeled and radiolabeled, were conducted over a 24-hour period, taking readings at six time points (5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours). Evaporation rates were not sensitive to pH shifts from 4.0 to 7.0. Evaporation rates for nonradiolabeled materials were low: after 24 hours, geraniol lost 8.9%, citronellol 27.0% and DEP 14.5%. The volatility data for radiolabeled materials demonstrated that geraniol loses up to 39% of its dose, citronellol loses up to 26%, and DEP up to 14% within 40 minutes. The tendency of fragrance materials to evaporate can impact the dose being applied to the patch and therefore the result of the patch and ultimately the decision-making process regarding that fragrance material's safety. These data, developed with DEP, utilized in a predictive sensitization assay cannot be generalized.

  6. Comparative analysis and validation of the malachite green assay for the high throughput biochemical characterization of terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest group of natural products with important and diverse biological roles, while of tremendous economic value as fragrances, flavours and pharmaceutical agents. Class-I terpene synthases (TPSs), the dominant type of TPS enzymes, catalyze the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to often structurally diverse bioactive terpene hydrocarbons, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). To measure their kinetic properties, current bio-analytical methods typically rely on the direct detection of hydrocarbon products by radioactivity measurements or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study we employed an established, rapid colorimetric assay, the pyrophosphate/malachite green assay (MG), as an alternative means for the biochemical characterization of class I TPSs activity.•We describe the adaptation of the MG assay for turnover and catalytic efficiency measurements of TPSs.•We validate the method by direct comparison with established assays. The agreement of k cat/K M among methods makes this adaptation optimal for rapid evaluation of TPSs.•We demonstrate the application of the MG assay for the high-throughput screening of TPS gene libraries.

  7. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatic Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wheeler, Amanda J; Larcombe, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01-5.24). Most asthmatics would prefer workplaces, healthcare facilities, and environments that are fragrance-free, which could help reduce adverse effects.

  8. Fragrance material review on cyclohexyl methyl pentanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cyclohexyl methyl pentanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Cyclohexyl methyl pentanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for cyclohexyl methyl pentanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients (submitted for publication).) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Fragrance material review on acetyl carene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl carene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl carene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl carene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013A Toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. (submitted for publication).) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897...

  11. Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Fragrance allergy and hand eczema are both common among dermatological patients. Fragrance mix (FM) and its constituents have a recognized relevance to exposure to fine fragrances and cosmetic products. Based on extensive chemical analysis and database search, a new selection of fragrances...... was established, including 14 known fragrance allergens present in products to which hand exposure would occur. A non-irritating patch-test concentration for some fragrances was established in 212 consecutive patients. 658 consecutive patients presenting with hand eczema were patch tested with the European...

  12. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  13. BIOMIMETIC STRATEGIES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. TERPENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulcitki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper represents an outline of the selected contributions to the biomimetic procedures and approaches for the synthesis of terpenes with complex structure and diverse functionalisation pattern. These include homologation strategies, cyclisations, rearrangements, as well as biomimetic remote functionalisations.

  14. Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2017-05-01

    In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention. The adverse effects of the fragrance constituents as phthalates, paraben, glutaraldehyde, hydroperoxides, oil of turpentine, metals, nitro musks, and essential oils, among others, are being identified. The endocrine-immune-neural axis perturbation pathways of these chemicals are being proven. Despite the revelations of cause-effect nexus, a majority of the vulnerable populations are unaware and unmotivated to avoid these 'slow poisons'. Hence, the researchers need to further validate the toxicity of fragrance compounds, and raise awareness towards the health risks. In this regard, a number of pathologies triggered by fragrance exposure, yet proven only scantily have been hypothesized. Analysis of the health issues from multiple facets, including the pivotal 'stressors - extracellular acidosis - aromatase upregulation - estrogen hyperproduction - inflammation' link has been proposed. Fragrance compounds share configurational similarity with carcinogenic environmental hydrocarbons and they provoke the expression of cytochrome group monooxygenase enzyme aromatase. This enzyme aromatizes androgens to form estrogen, the powerful signaling hormone, which underlies the majority of morbidities. This holistic review with a repertoire of preliminary evidences and robust hypotheses is expected to usher in deserving extent of research on this pervasive health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  15. Fragrance contact dermatitis in Korea: a joint study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol Heon; Kim, Do-Won; Hahm, Jeong Hee; Kim, Kea-Jeung; Moon, Kee-Chan; Won, Young Ho; Ro, Young-Suck; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrances in patients with suspected fragrance allergy and to evaluate the risk factors. 9 dermatology departments of university hospitals have participated in this study for the past 1 year. To determine allergic response to fragrances, 18 additional fragrances in addition to the Korean standard and a commercial fragrance series were patch-tested in patients with suspecting cosmetic contact dermatitis. Over 80% of the patients were women, and the most common site was the face. Cinnamic alcohol and sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.) showed high frequencies of positive responses. Of the specific fragrances, ebanol, alpha-isomethyl-ionone (methyl ionone-gamma) and Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexane carboxdaldehyde) showed high positive responses. We compared the results obtained during this study with those of other studies and concluded that including additional fragrance allergens may be useful for the detection of fragrance allergy.

  16. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Ezendam J; Klerk A de; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Park MVDZ; Loveren H van; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance chemicals could induce unwanted effects on the immune system. Fragrance chemicals are common ingredients in such consumer products as cosmetics and scented products. Several fragrance chemicals are...

  17. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    standard series and the developed selection of fragrances. 67 (10.2%) of the 658 patients had a positive reaction to 1 or more of our selection of fragrance chemicals present in the new selection. The most common reactions to fragrances not included in the FM were to citral, Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl-3...

  19. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devos, S.A.; Constandt, L.; Tupker, R.A.; Noz, K.C.; Lucker, G.P.H.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Kruyswijk, M.R.; Zuuren, E.J. van; Vink, J.; Coenraads, P.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong

  20. Lyral is an important sensitizer in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is a common problem world-wide. The currently used fragrance mix (FM) for patch testing has only eight constituents and does not identify all fragrance-allergic patients. As perfumes may contain 100 or more substances, the search for markers for allergy continues...

  1. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devos, S.A.; Constandt, L.; Tupker, R.A.; Noz, K.C.; Lucker, G.P.H.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Kruyswijk, M.R.J.; van Zuuren, E.J.; Vink, J.; Coenraads, P.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; van der Valk, P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong

  2. Suspected fragrance allergy requires extended patch testing to individual fragrance allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarma, G; Gawkrodger, D J

    1999-10-01

    This study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of fragrance mix (FM) as a screen for fragrance allergy. Patients were included if they had had positive allergic reactions to FM, to 1 of the 8 ingredients of FM, to 1 of 14 other fragrance materials, or to their own perfume. 91 patients were studied. There were 65 women and 23 men (in 3, their sex was not recorded) allergic to FM on patch testing. The mean (+/-SD) age was 48.4+/-18.6 years. 22 patients gave a past history of atopic eczema. Dermatitis of the hands (31%) and face (26%) were the most common presenting complaints. 85 patients (93%) had a positive allergic patch test reaction to FM. 22 of the 40 tested to the extended fragrance series were positive to other perfumes as well, and of these, there were 14 reactions (in 9 patients) to allergens not in the FM. In addition, 6 patients were positive only to separately tested fragrance constituents and not to the FM. In conclusion, FM is an accurate screen for fragrance contact sensitivity. However, patch testing to an extended series is needed if there is clinical suspicion of perfume allergy, as otherwise about 7% of patients allergic to fragrances will be missed.

  3. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  4. Baseline series fragrance markers fail to predict contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jack; McFadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L; White, Ian R; Banerjee, Piu

    2014-05-01

    Negative patch test results with fragrance allergy markers in the European baseline series do not always predict a negative reaction to individual fragrance substances. To determine the frequencies of positive test reactions to the 26 fragrance substances for which labelling is mandatory in the EU, and how effectively reactions to fragrance markers in the baseline series predict positive reactions to the fragrance substances that are labelled. The records of 1951 eczema patients, routinely tested with the labelled fragrance substances and with an extended European baseline series in 2011 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and eighty-one (14.4%) (71.2% females) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled-fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were cinnamyl alcohol (48; 2.46%), Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.26%), and isoeugenol (40; 2.05%). Of the 203 patients who reacted to any of the 26 fragrances in the labelled-fragrance substance series, only 117 (57.6%) also reacted to a fragrance marker in the baseline series. One hundred and seven (52.7%) reacted to either fragrance mix I or fragrance mix II, 28 (13.8%) reacted to Myroxylon pereirae, and 13 (6.4%) reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. These findings confirm that the standard fragrance markers fail to identify patients with contact allergies to the 26 fragrances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fragrance material review on acetyl cedrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl cedrene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl cedrene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. The generic formula for this group can be represented as (R1)(R2)CO. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl cedrene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Terpene content of wine from the aromatic grape variety ‘Irsai Oliver’ (Vitis vinifera L. depends on maceration time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Mojmir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the determination of the content of both free and bound terpenes in berries and wine of the aromatic grapevine variety ‘Irsai Oliver’. Grapes were macerated in juice for different time intervals (viz. 0; 5; 12; 24 hours and thereafter processed to wine. The objective was to map the dependence of some selected terpenes on the period of maceration. Using gas chromatography, some nine organic compounds were detected. Attention was paid to contents of linalool (3,7-dimethylokta-1,6-dien-3-ol, 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol, hotrienol ([(5E-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5,7-trien-3-yl] acetate, αterpineol (2-(4-Methyl-1-cyclohex-3-enylpropan-2-ol, β-citronellol (3,7-Dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol, nerol ((Z-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, geraniol ((trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-oktadien-1-ol and epoxylinalool (2-(5-ethenyl-5-methyloxolan-2-ylpropan-2- ol: epoxylinalool 1 (trans-linalool oxide (furanoid cis-linalool oxide (furanoid and epoxylinalool 2 (trans-linalool oxide (pyranoid cis-linalool oxide (pyranoid. Some basic wine parameters (alcohol, pH, sugars and total acids were estimated as well. The terpene content in wine increased gradually with the period of maceration. The highest and the lowest amounts of terpenes were recorded after 24 hours of maceration and no maceration, respectively. The terpene glycosides content was higher than that of the aglycones. Linalool and 2,6-dimetyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol were the most abundant terpenes.

  7. Fragranced consumer products: exposures and effects from emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments. Data were collected using an online survey with a nationally representative population ( n  = 1136) of adults in the USA. Overall, 34.7 % of the population reported health problems, such as migraine headaches and respiratory difficulties, when exposed to fragranced products. Further, 15.1 % have lost workdays or a job due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Also, 20.2 % would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible if they smell air fresheners or some fragranced product. Over 50 % of the population would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free. While prior research found that common fragranced products, even those called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, more than two thirds of the population were not aware of this, and over 60 % would not continue to use a fragranced product if they knew it emitted such pollutants. Results from this study provide strong evidence that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects in the general population. The study also indicates that reducing exposure to fragranced products, such as through fragrance-free policies, can provide cost-effective and relatively simple ways to reduce risks and improve air quality and health.

  8. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  9. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  10. Differential sensing using proteins: exploiting the cross-reactivity of serum albumin to pattern individual terpenes and terpenes in perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michelle M; Anslyn, Eric V

    2009-12-02

    There has been a growing interest in the use of differential sensing for analyte classification. In an effort to mimic the mammalian senses of taste and smell, which utilize protein-based receptors, we have introduced serum albumins as nonselective receptors for recognition of small hydrophobic molecules. Herein, we employ a sensing ensemble consisting of serum albumins, a hydrophobic fluorescent indicator (PRODAN), and a hydrophobic additive (deoxycholate) to detect terpenes. With the aid of linear discriminant analysis, we successfully applied our system to differentiate five terpenes. We then extended our terpene analysis and utilized our sensing ensemble for terpene discrimination within the complex mixtures found in perfume.

  11. [Regulation of terpene metabolism.] Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.

    1984-01-01

    This research program represents a very broad-based approach to understanding the biochemistry of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene constituents of the essential oils. This program includes basic research on the pathways, enzymes and mechanisms of terpene biosynthesis and catabolism, on the physiology of essential oil production, and on the morphology and development of oil glands, as well as practical approaches to manipulating essential oil composition and yield. As a natural extension of research on monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint we have explored some aspects of possible regulatory mechanisms. Tentative evidence has been obtained for developmental regulation of the levels of biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. 10 refs., 8 figs

  12. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, W; Nakayama, H; Lindberg, M; Fischer, T; Elsner, P; Burrows, D; Jordan, W; Shaw, S; Wilkinson, J; Marks, J; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, J

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients with suspect fragrance allergy and to evaluate risk factors and associations with such responses. The validity of using specific fragrance ingredients versus a mixture of fragrances was evaluated in terms of predicting allergy to different fragrance ingredients. One hundred sixty-seven subjects were evaluated in seven centers worldwide with a fragrance mix, the eight ingredients in the fragrance mixture, six other well-known fragrance allergens, balsam of Peru, and 15 lesser studied fragrance materials. The age of the patients was 44.9 +/- 17.5 years (mean +/- SD). More than 85% were women. A relatively high proportion gave a past history of atopic disease. Facial eruptions (40%) and hand involvement (26.7%) were the most common topographic sites. All but 4 of the 35 fragrance materials produced a positive response in > 1%. A reaction to fragrance mix occurred in 47.3%. Seven of the 34 ingredients tested produced an allergic response in more than 10% of those tested. Men were more likely than women to exhibit a positive response to five fragrance ingredients. White persons were more likely to react to perfume mix (52.8% versus 25.3%) and certain ingredients in the mix than Asian persons. Allergy to benzyl salicylate was more common in Japan than in Europe or the United States. The age at which patients with perfume allergy present for evaluation is similar to that of other contactants. Atopic individuals may be overrepresented in this group of patients. Face involvement is likely. White persons are more likely to react to fragrance mix, whereas in Asian patients benzyl salicylate was a more frequent allergen. Fragrance mix corrected with 85.6% of positive responses to fragrance ingredients. The addition of ylang ylang oil, narcissus oil, and sandalwood oil to fragrance mix would be expected to pick up 94.2% with positive responses to fragrance materials

  13. Evaluation of brand extensions:the case of fragrances

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, José António

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the intentions and the influences that determine the consumption of fragrances, inferring about the symbolic meaning of its purchase. Additionally, it tries to evaluate whether fragrances are a success, as an extension of a luxury brand. Fragrances are part of the market of personal luxury goods, which represents the second most important segment of the luxury industry. Luxury brands have been implementing new marketing strategies, such as the use of brand extensions. Desi...

  14. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Modeling ready biodegradability of fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriani, Lidia; Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Boethling, Robert; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, quantitative structure activity relationships were developed for predicting ready biodegradability of approximately 200 heterogeneous fragrance materials. Two classification methods, classification and regression tree (CART) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN), were applied to perform the modeling. The models were validated with multiple external prediction sets, and the structural applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach. The best models had good sensitivity (internal ≥80%; external ≥68%), specificity (internal ≥80%; external 73%), and overall accuracy (≥75%). Results from the comparison with BIOWIN global models, based on group contribution method, show that specific models developed in the present study perform better in prediction than BIOWIN6, in particular for the correct classification of not readily biodegradable fragrance materials. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Fragrances and other materials in deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently-used types of cosmetics and are a source of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of 71 deodorants was performed for identification of fragrance and non-fragrance materials present in marketed deodorants...... to formulate cosmetic products (over 3500), 226 chemicals were identified in a sample of 71 deodorants. 84 molecules were found to contain at least 1 structural alert, and 70 to belong to, or be susceptible to being metabolized into, the chemical group of aldehydes, ketones and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes......, ketone or esters. The combination of GC-MS and SARs analysis could be helpful in the selection of substances for supplementary investigations regarding sensitizing properties. Thus, it may be a valuable tool in the management of contact allergy to deodorants and for producing new deodorants...

  17. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. METHODS: The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance-mix-positive ecz......BACKGROUND: Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. METHODS: The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance......-mix-positive eczema patients and two control groups, one consisting of 1,279 subjects selected as a random sample of the general population and the other consisting of 806 fragrance-mix-negative eczema patients. The identification of risk products was based on the patients' histories of rash to scented products....... Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy...

  18. Lung function in fragrance industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, G R

    2013-07-01

    Production employees in the UK fragrance industry are exposed to large numbers of chemical substances and mixtures. There is a lack of published literature describing the effects of occupational respiratory exposure in this industry. To investigate whether occupational respiratory exposure to chemicals in the UK fragrance industry is linked to a statistically significant change in lung function as measured using spirometry. A multi-site cross-sectional study in which five UK companies took part, comprising an exposed group (fragrance production and associated functions) and a control group (non-exposed industry employees, e.g. office staff). Spirometric measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow) were taken pre- and post-shift. Participants provided information on potential confounding factors (smoking, history of respiratory problems and body mass index). Post-shift measurements were compared between groups, using analysis of covariance to adjust for the baseline pre-shift measurements. A total of 112 subjects participated: 60 in the exposed group and 52 in control group (response rate 33 and 24%, respectively). Adjusted mean differences in post-shift spirometric measurements between exposed and control groups were not statistically significant. No significant effects were observed on the spirometric performance of the study population. This work is the first step in a novel area of research, and the industry would benefit from further such research.

  19. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  20. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eAllen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance. In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one out from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex. We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odour conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the ‘no fragrance’ condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the ‘own fragrance’ condition than the ‘assigned fragrance’ condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an

  1. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  2. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; Klerk A de; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Park MVDZ; Loveren H van; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1989--March 14, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C{sub 10}) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C{sub 15} C{sub 20}, C{sub 30}, C{sub 40}) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C{sub 15}) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  5. CYP109E1 is a novel versatile statin and terpene oxidase from Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Litzenburger, Martin; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Milhim, Mohammed; Brill, Elisa; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-12-01

    CYP109E1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium with a hydroxylation activity for testosterone and vitamin D3. This study reports the screening of a focused library of statins, terpene-derived and steroidal compounds to explore the substrate spectrum of this enzyme. Catalytic activity of CYP109E1 towards the statin drug-precursor compactin and the prodrugs lovastatin and simvastatin as well as biotechnologically relevant terpene compounds including ionones, nootkatone, isolongifolen-9-one, damascones, and β-damascenone was found in vitro. The novel substrates induced a type I spin-shift upon binding to P450 and thus permitted to determine dissociation constants. For the identification of conversion products by NMR spectroscopy, a B. megaterium whole-cell system was applied. NMR analysis revealed for the first time the ability of CYP109E1 to catalyze an industrially highly important reaction, the production of pravastatin from compactin, as well as regioselective oxidations generating drug metabolites (6'β-hydroxy-lovastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-simvastatin, and 4″-hydroxy-simvastatin) and valuable terpene derivatives (3-hydroxy-α-ionone, 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, 11,12-epoxy-nootkatone, 4(R)-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one, 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 4-hydroxy-β-damascone, and 3,4-epoxy-β-damascone). Besides that, a novel compound, 2-hydroxy-β-damascenone, produced by CYP109E1 was identified. Docking calculations using the crystal structure of CYP109E1 rationalized the experimentally observed regioselective hydroxylation and identified important amino acid residues for statin and terpene binding.

  6. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  7. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  8. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample ( n  = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  9. Inhalation exposure of children to fragrances present in scented toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, I; Hutzler, C; Jann, O; Luch, A

    2011-12-01

    When utilized in the perfuming of children's toys, fragrances capable of inducing contact allergy in human skin may also become bioavailable to children via the inhalation route. The aim of this study was to determine the area-specific emission rates of 24 fragrances from a plasticized PVC reference material that was meant to mimic a real plastic toy. This material was introduced into an emission chamber for 28 days at handling conditions or at worst-case conditions. As a result, fragrances can be separated into three categories according to their emission rates ranging from 0.0041 to 16.2 mg/m² × h, i.e., highly volatile, semivolatile, and low-volatile compounds. Compounds of the first and second categories were monitored with decreasing emission rates. Substances of the third category were detected with increasing emission rates over time. Further, higher temperatures led to higher emission rates. The emission concentration of fragrances from four real scented toys varied between 1.10 and 107 μg/m³ at day 1 in the test chamber. Therefore, short-term inhalation exposure to fragrances originating from toys was in the range of 0.53-2700 ng/kg BW/d for the children of age 1 and older. Long-term exposure to these fragrances was calculated in the range of 2.2-220 ng/kg BW/d. Besides household products and cosmetics, fragrances can be found in toys for children. Some fragrances are known contact allergens in the skin, but there is a lack of information on their effects in the human respiratory tract. Here, we analyzed and categorized fragrances present in a plasticized PVC reference material according to their emission profiles and volatility. We also demonstrate that volatile fragrances are being emitted from real toys and thus may get inhaled under consumer conditions to different extents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced consumer products—such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products— pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098. Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1% could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  11. Structural determinants of reductive terpene cyclization in iridoid biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kries, Hajo; Caputi, Lorenzo; Stevenson, Clare E M

    2016-01-01

    The carbon skeleton of ecologically and pharmacologically important iridoid monoterpenes is formed in a reductive cyclization reaction unrelated to canonical terpene cyclization. Here we report the crystal structure of the recently discovered iridoid cyclase (from Catharanthus roseus) bound...

  12. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    were analysed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Target substances were the fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other fragrance substances, most of which have been described as contact allergens. The fragrance mix ingredients were either not present in children's shampoos...

  13. Fragrance and Perfume in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance and perfume connect with our most basic and primitive window on the world – our sense of smell. Animals use their sense of smell to find food, sense danger and mate. So, too, do human beings. Mothers and their babies bond through smell. Smell triggers memories buried long in our unconscious, probably because our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the oldest part of the brain, which is the seat of emotion and memory. Throughout the ages in Weste...

  14. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  15. Multi-substrate terpene synthases: their occurrence and physiological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pazouki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpene synthases are responsible for synthesis of a large number of terpenes in plants using substrates provided by two distinct metabolic pathways, the mevalonate-dependent pathway that is located in cytosol and has been suggested to be responsible for synthesis of sesquiterpenes (C15, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway located in plastids and suggested to be responsible for the synthesis of hemi- (C5, mono- (C10 and diterpenes (C20. Recent advances in characterization of genes and enzymes responsible for substrate and end product biosynthesis as well as efforts in metabolic engineering have demonstrated existence of a number of multi-substrate terpene synthases. This review summarizes the progress in the characterization of such multi-substrate terpene synthases and suggests that the presence of multi-substrate use might have been significantly underestimated. Multi-substrate use could lead to important changes in terpene product profiles upon substrate profile changes under perturbation of metabolism in stressed plants as well as under certain developmental stages. We therefore argue that multi-substrate use can be significant under physiological conditions and can result in complicate modifications in terpene profiles.

  16. Molecular regulation of plant monoterpene biosynthesis in relation to fragrance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamer, El M.K.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus belongs to an important economical group of crops. Fruits have a distinguished and pleasant taste partly due to the presence of terpenes. Furthermore, these terpenes potentially play a role in the resistance against pathogens such as insects and fungi. The aim of this thesis was

  17. Screening Study of Leaf Terpene Concentration of 75 Borneo Rainforest Plant Species: Relationships with Leaf Elemental Concentrations and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sardans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenes confer advantage in plant protection against abiotic stresses such as heat and drought and biotic stresses such as herbivore and pathogen attack. We conducted a screening of leaf mono- and sesquiterpene concentrations in 75 common woody plant species in the rainforest of Danum Valley (Borneo. Terpene compounds were found in 73 out of the 75 analysed species. Similar or lower proportions have been reported in other parts of the world. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the foliar concentration of mono- and/or sesquiterpene for 71 species and 39 genera not previously analyzed. Altogether 80 terpene compounds were determined across the species, and out of these only linalool oxide and (E- g -bisabolene had phylogenetic signal. A significant negative relationship between leaf monoterpene concentration and leaf length was observed, but leaf mono- and sesquitepene concentration were not related to any other leaf morphological trait nor to leaf elemental composition. Functions such as temperature protection, radiation protection or signaling and communication could underlie the high frequency of terpene-containing species of this tropical ecosystem which has multiple and very diverse interactions among multiple species.

  18. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  19. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-5-phenylpentanol is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire aryl alkyl alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fragrance material review on β-methoxy-benzeneethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methoxy-benzeneethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-methoxy-benzeneethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methoxy-benzeneethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alkyl alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar(-)Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fragrance material review on 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-ol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-ol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-ol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fragrance material review on p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-α,α-Trimethylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitisation, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Alexandre Y; Marin Rodriguez, Adriana A; Menchaca Vega, Danielle S; Sussmann, Rodrigo A C; Kimura, Emília A; Katzin, Alejandro M

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, an infectious disease that kills more than 438,000 people per year worldwide, is a major public health problem. The emergence of strains resistant to conventional therapeutic agents necessitates the discovery of new drugs. We previously demonstrated that various substances, including terpenes, have antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo. Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants that is used in scented products and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a food-flavouring agent. In this study, the antimalarial activity of nerolidol was investigated in a mouse model of malaria. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and were treated with 1000 mg/kg/dose nerolidol in two doses delivered by the oral or inhalation route. In mice treated with nerolidol, parasitaemia was inhibited by >99% (oral) and >80% (inhalation) until 14 days after infection (P  0.05). The toxicity of nerolidol administered by either route was not significant, whilst genotoxicity was observed only at the highest dose tested. These results indicate that combined use of nerolidol and other drugs targeting different points of the same isoprenoid pathway may be an effective treatment for malaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Terpene and dextran renewable resources for the synthesis of amphiphilic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvès, Marie-Hélène; Sfeir, Huda; Tranchant, Jean-François; Gombart, Emilie; Sagorin, Gilles; Caillol, Sylvain; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2014-01-13

    The present work shows the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers based on the hydrophilic dextran and the hydrophobic terpenes as renewable resources. The first step concerns the synthesis of functional terpene molecules by thiol-ene addition chemistry involving amino or carboxylic acid thiols and dihydromyrcenol terpene. The terpene-modified polysaccharides were subsequently synthesized by coupling the functional terpenes with dextran. A reductive amination step produced terpene end-modified dextran with 94% of functionalization, while the esterification step produced three terpene-grafted dextrans with a number of terpene units per dextran of 1, 5, and 10. The amphiphilic renewable grafted polymers were tested as emulsifiers for the stabilization of liquid miniemulsion of terpene droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the stable droplets was observed at about 330 nm.

  14. Fate and transport of fragrance materials in principal environmental sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2013-10-01

    Fragrance materials are widely present in the environment, such as air, water, and soil. Concerns have been raised due to the increasing utilization and suspected impact on human health. The bioaccumulating property is considered as one of the causes of the toxicity to human beings. The removal of fragrance materials from environmental sinks has not been paid enough attention due to the lack of regulation and research on their toxicity. This paper provides systematic information on how fragrance materials are transferred to the environment, how do they affect human lives, and what is their fate in water, wastewater, wastewater sludge, and soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, M; Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, T; Svensson, A; Elsner, P; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, M; Naldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology...

  16. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, J.Z.; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the l...

  17. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  18. Progress in terpene synthesis strategies through engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Kalaivani; Mutturi, Sarma

    2017-12-01

    Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns. Industrial workhorses' viz., Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have become microorganisms to produce non-native terpenes in order to address critical issues such as demand-supply imbalance, sustainability and commercial viability. S. cerevisiae enjoys several advantages for synthesizing non-native terpenes with the most significant being the compatibility for expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes from plant origin. Moreover, achievement of high titers such as 40 g/l of amorphadiene, a sesquiterpene, boosts commercial interest and encourages the researchers to envisage both molecular and process strategies for developing yeast cell factories to produce these compounds. This review contains a brief consideration of existing strategies to engineer S. cerevisiae toward the synthesis of terpene molecules. Some of the common targets for synthesis of terpenes in S. cerevisiae are as follows: overexpression of tHMG1, ERG20, upc2-1 in case of all classes of terpenes; repression of ERG9 by replacement of the native promoter with a repressive methionine promoter in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes; overexpression of BTS1 in case of di- and tetraterpenes. Site-directed mutagenesis such as Upc2p (G888A) in case of all classes of terpenes, ERG20p (K197G) in case of monoterpenes, HMG2p (K6R) in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes could be some generic targets. Efforts are made to consolidate various studies

  19. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  20. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  1. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    [Di Giusto B, Grosbois V, Fargeas E, Marshall D J and Gaume L 2008 Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid ... but does not permit distinction between the attractive and .... sweet scent between pitchers of the lower and upper forms.

  2. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha......-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...... of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients....

  3. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  4. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Pirker, C; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P; White, I R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 1855 patients were evaluated with the 8% fragrance mix (FM) and 14 other frequently used well-defined fragrance chemicals (series I). Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred in 11.3% of the subjects. The 6 substances with the highest reactivity following FM were Lyral (2.7%), citral (1.1%), farnesol P (0.5%), citronellol (0.4%), hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (0.3%), and coumarin (0.3%). 41 (2.2%) of the patients reacted only to materials of series I and not to FM. 6.6% of 1855 patients gave a history of adverse reactions to fragrances which was classified as certain. This group reacted to FM only in 41.1%, to series I and FM in 12.0% and to series I only in 7.2%. 74.3% of the 39 patients reacting to both FM and 1 of the materials of series I had any type of positive fragrance history, which was significantly higher in comparison to those with isolated reactions to series I (53.6% of 41), p = 0.04. The study identified further sensitizers relevant for patch testing of patients with contact dermatitis, of which Lyral is the most important single chemical.

  5. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  6. Menthol differs from other terpenic essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI ENFLEURASI FRAGRANCE DARI BUNGA BINTARO (Cerbera odallam G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarsana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Ekstraksi Enfleurasi dapat dioptimasi dengan memvariasikan perbandingan lemak dan bunga Bintaro serta waktu ekstraksi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menentukan kondisi optimal ekstraksi enfleurasi dan kandungan senyawa fragrance pada bunga Bintaro. Optimasi ekstraksi enfleurasi dilakukan dengan memvariasikan perbandingan lemak dan bunga Bintaro serta waktu ekstraksi. Identifikasi senyawa pada fragrance dari bunga Bintaro dilakukan menggunakan Kromatografi Gas Spektrometri Massa (GC-MS. Perbandingan lemak dan bunga serta variasi waktu optimal yang diperoleh untuk ekstraksi enfleurasi adalah 3 : 21 (w/w dan 48 jam. Senyawa fragrance dalam bunga bintaro  muncul  tiga puncak asing-masing dengan waktu retensi (tR adalah 4,2; 6,9; dan 10,4 menit. Senyawa fragarance yang diduga berturut-turut adalah feniletil alkohol, indol, dan alfa-farnesen.  Selanjutnya terdeteksi pula senyawa golongan ester yaitu etil palmitat, etil oleat, dan etil stearat  dengan waktu retensi adalah  18,1; 20,4; dan 20,7 menit.   ABSTRACT: Enfleurage extraction can be optimized by varying the ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and extraction time. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal extraction and identify kind of compounds in fragrances of Bintaro flowers. Enfleurage extraction optimization was done by varying the ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and extraction time. Identification of compounds in the fragrances of Bintaro flowers was performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Optimal ratio of fat and Bintaro flower and optimal extraction time were 3: 21 (w / w and 48 hours. Fragrance compound in Bintaro flower show three peaks with retention time (tR 4,2; 6,9; and 10,4 minutes. The fragrance compound are allegedly phenylethyl alcohol, indole, and alpha farnesene. Ester compounds which are ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate, are detected as well with retention Time 18,1; 20,4; and 20,7 minutes.

  8. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  9. Deodorants on the European market: quantitative chemical analysis of 21 fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P

    1998-01-01

    allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels...... of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants...... could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems...

  10. Biotransformation of geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria that are able to transform geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, isolated on -terpinene, converts geosmin to several products; the major products are keto-geosmins. This geosmin transformation ability is inducible by -terpinene. Rhodococcus wratisl...

  11. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  12. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  13. Selected important fragrance sensitizers in perfumes--current exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2007-04-01

    Contact allergy to fragrance ingredients is frequent. Recommendations and regulations of some of the most frequent and potent fragrance allergens have recently been introduced. To investigate current exposures to 4 important fragrance allergens in hydroalcoholic cosmetic products. 25 popular perfume products of Danish as well as international brands were purchased from the Danish retail market. Contents of 4 important fragrance allergens, isoeugenol, hydroxy-iso-hexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC, Lyral), were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and atranol and chloro-atranol were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Isoeugenol was found in 56%, HICC in 72%, atranol in 59%, and chloro-atranol in 36% of the 22 eau de toilette/eau de parfum products. The concentrations of isoeugenol were, in all products, below the recommended maximum concentration of 0.02%. HICC reached a maximum of 0.2%, which is 10-fold higher than maximum tolerable concentration considered safe by the EU Scientific Committee. The median concentrations of atranol and chloro-atranol in the investigated products were similar to those found in similar products in 2003. A significant decrease in the frequency of presence of chloro-atranol in the products was observed. There is still a wide-spread exposure to potent fragrance allergens in perfumes.

  14. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 1855 patients were evaluated with the 8% fragrance mix (FM) and 14 other frequently used well-defined fragrance chemicals.......5%), citronellol (0.4%), hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (0.3%), and coumarin (0.3%). 41 (2.2%) of the patients reacted only to materials of series I and not to FM. 6.6% of 1855 patients gave a history of adverse reactions to fragrances which was classified as certain. This group reacted to FM only in 41.1%, to series I...... and FM in 12.0% and to series I only in 7.2%. 74.3% of the 39 patients reacting to both FM and 1 of the materials of series I had any type of positive fragrance history, which was significantly higher in comparison to those with isolated reactions to series I (53.6% of 41), p = 0.04. The study identified...

  15. An in silico skin absorption model for fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Schultz, Terry; Bhatia, Sneha

    2014-12-01

    Fragrance materials are widely used in cosmetics and other consumer products. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) evaluates the safety of these ingredients and skin absorption is an important parameter in refining systemic exposure. Currently, RIFM's safety assessment process assumes 100% skin absorption when experimental data are lacking. This 100% absorption default is not supportable and alternate default values were proposed. This study aims to develop and validate a practical skin absorption model (SAM) specific for fragrance material. It estimates skin absorption based on the methodology proposed by Kroes et al. SAM uses three default absorption values based on the maximum flux (J(max)) - namely, 10%, 40%, and 80%. J(max) may be calculated by using QSAR models that determine octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)), water solubility (S) and permeability coefficient (K(p)). Each of these QSAR models was refined and a semi-quantitative mechanistic model workflow is presented. SAM was validated with a large fragrance-focused data set containing 131 materials. All resulted in predicted values fitting the three-tiered absorption scenario based on Jmax ranges. This conservative SAM may be applied when fragrance material lack skin absorption data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atopy and contact allergy to fragrance: allergic reactions to the fragrance mix I (the Larsen mix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Deirdre A; Basketter, David A; Kan-King-Yu, Denis; White, Ian R; White, Jonathan L M; McFadden, John P

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between an atopic diathesis and contact sensitization to fragrances is unclear. To investigate whether there is an association between atopy and allergy to fragrance mix I (FM I). The computerized files of patients patch tested to FM I at St John's Institute of Dermatology (1980-2004) were reviewed. Demographic details recorded for all patch-tested patients included age, sex, date of testing, history of current or previous atopic eczema (AE), history of current or previous asthma nor hay fever (A/HF), family history (FH) of any type of atopy, and any positive patch tests. About 8.4% of females (1713/20 338) and 6.6% of males (903/13 734) were allergic to FM I. About 8.95% (101/1129) of females with AE were allergic to FM I versus 8.63% (619/7171) of females who had neither AE and A/HF nor FH (non-atopics) (P = 0.72). About 5.6% (40/710) of males with AE were positive to FM I versus 6.9% (427/6201) of male non-atopics (P = 0.23). There was a striking increase in AE and A/HF during this 25-year period (P < 0.0001). We found no association between atopy and allergy to FM I. There has been a marked increase in atopy in individuals referred for patch testing in the past 25 years.

  17. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A link between skin and airways regarding sensitivity to fragrance products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, Holger Fausbøll

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to volatile fragrances is commonplace and may be related to various eye and airway symptoms. Skin exposure to fragrances is known to cause perfume contact allergy and eczema, but it is unknown whether eye or airway symptoms elicited by fragrance products are associated with contact allergy...

  19. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (loss of typical wine terpenes in model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them.

  20. Lyral is an important sensitizer in patients sensitive to fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Rastogi, S C; Bruze, M; Andersen, K E; Lepoittevin, J P; Giménez Arnau, E; Pirker, C; Goossens, A; White, I R

    1999-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is a common problem world-wide. The currently used fragrance mix (FM) for patch testing has only eight constituents and does not identify all fragrance-allergic patients. As perfumes may contain 100 or more substances, the search for markers for allergy continues. The synthetic fragrance 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) was tested together with the FM and 11 other fragrance substances on consecutive patients in six European departments of dermatology. All patients were carefully questioned regarding a history of reactions to scented products in the past and were grouped into four categories: 'certain', 'probable', 'questionable' and 'none'. Lyral (5% in petrolatum) gave a positive reaction in 2.7% of 1855 patients (range 1.2-17%) and ranked next to 11.3% with FM allergy. Twenty-four patients reacted to both Lyral and FM, but 21 (1.1%) reacted positively only to Lyral. Of 124 patients with a 'certain' history, 53.2% reacted to the FM and a further 7.2% to Lyral only. If any kind of history of fragrance intolerance was given, 80% (40 of 50) of Lyral positive patients had a 'positive' history while only 58.6% (123 of 210) of FM positive patients had such a history; this difference was significant at P Lyral was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in some products which had caused an allergic contact dermatitis in four typical patients who showed a patch test positive to Lyral and negative or doubtful to FM. In conclusion, we recommend the testing of 5% Lyral (in petrolatum) in patients suspected of contact dermatitis.

  1. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: clinical management of fragrance mix #1 #2 patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ashley; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Coman, Garrett; Maibach, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Today's fragrances are present in more than just perfumes, having become ubiquitous in skin care products such as creams, shampoos, sun tan lotion and deodorants. While aromatics can arouse the senses, aromatic compounds applied to skin can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This article describes diagnosis, limitations of patch testing for fragrance mix 1 and fragrance mix 2, the relevance of fragrance concentration in products, use testing of common consumer products and our current recommendations in regards to the management of fragrance contact allergy.

  2. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  4. Selected important fragrance sensitizers in perfumes--current exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2007-01-01

    perfume products of Danish as well as international brands were purchased from the Danish retail market. Contents of 4 important fragrance allergens, isoeugenol, hydroxy-iso-hexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC, Lyral), were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and atranol and chloro...

  5. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  6. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  7. Preparation of temperature responsive fragrance release membranes by UV curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Okuda, Jyunya; Kitami, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism

  8. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  9. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of terpene carbon skeletons in plants is formed by enzymes known as terpene synthases. This review covers the monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases presenting an up-to-date list of enzymes reported and evidence for their ability to form multiple products. The reaction mechanisms of these enzyme classes are described, and information on how terpene synthase proteins mediate catalysis is summarized. Correlations between specific amino acid motifs and terpene synthase function are described, including an analysis of the relationships between active site sequence and cyclization type and a discussion of whether specific protein features might facilitate multiple product formation.

  10. Actividad antimicobacteriana de terpenos Antimycobacterial activity of terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Bueno-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La tuberculosis (TB, causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis es la mayor causa de mortalidad mundial por un único agente patógeno. Asimismo, un gran número de micobacterias no tuberculosas, especialmente M. avium, M. intracellulare y M. chelonae, causan infecciones oportunistas en pacientes con SIDA. Muchos terpenos poseen actividad biológica y se emplean en el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades, razón que los hace fuente de moléculas promisorias. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad antimicobacteriana de 16 terpenos contra M. tuberculosis H37Rv y un aislamiento clínico de M. chelonae. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvo la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI de los mismos y se realizaron curvas de letalidad para establecer actividad bactericida, empleando una técnica de macrodilución en caldo estandarizada para este tipo de compuestos volátiles. Resultados: Los terpenos con menor valor de CMI fueron timol y carvacrol, con concentraciones de 125-250 μg/mL, y actividad bactericida contra los dos microorganismos. Geraniol, mirceno, ρ-cimeno, alfa-pineno, presentaron valores de CMI entre 250 y 500 μg/mL. Conclusiones: Algunos terpenos han presentado actividad importante contra microorganismos del género Mycobacterium, sin embargo los valores de CMI obtenidos no explican el efecto antimicrobiano presentado por el aceite completo, se requiere evaluar las interacciones de sinergismo y/o antagonismo entre los terpenos para determinar los componentes responsables de la acción farmacológica. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 231-235Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major source of global mortality from a single pathogen. Moreover, a large number of nontuberculous mycobacteria, especially M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. chelonae, cause opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. Terpenes, possess a wide spectrum of biological activity and are used in the

  11. Systematic Multi‐Scale Model Development Strategy for the Fragrance Spraying Process and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, M.; Rong, Y.; Gregson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The fast and efficient development and application of reliable models with appropriate degree of detail to predict the behavior of fragrance aerosols are challenging problems of high interest to the related industries. A generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of specific fragrance......‐aided modeling framework, which is structured based on workflows for different general modeling tasks. The benefits of the fragrance spraying template are highlighted by a case study related to the derivation of a fragrance aerosol model that is able to reflect measured dynamic droplet size distribution profiles...... aerosol models is proposed. The main benefits of the fragrance spraying template are the speed‐up of the model development/derivation process, the increase in model quality, and the provision of structured domain knowledge where needed. The fragrance spraying template is integrated in a generic computer...

  12. The study of size and stability of n-butylcyanoacrylate nanocapsule suspensions encapsulating green grass fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G. Y.; Lin, C. T.; Chen, J. M.; Lei, D. M.; Zhu, G. X.

    2018-01-01

    Green grass fragrance has been widely used in many fields. However, fragrances are volatile compounds that do not last long. In order to prolong its odor, nanocapsules encapsulated green grass fragrance were prepared. The paper deals with the preparation of green grass fragrance nanocapsules by emulsion polymerization. N-butylcyanoacrylate (BCA) with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability was used as encapsulant. The nanocapsule suspension systems were characterized and its stability was investigated. The physicochemical properties of polymeric nanocapsules (average diameter and polydispersity) were evaluated as a function of time to assess the system stability. The result showed that the system (containing 0.8% of green grass fragrance, with a polydispersity index (PDI) near 0.1 and an average diameter in the range of 20-30 nm) was an ideal state and relatively stable. Besides, the distinction of stability of three nanocapsule suspensions with different green grass fragrance content was also obvious from scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  14. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial...... properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were...

  15. Terpenes of Salvia species leaf oils: chemosystematic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Moneghini, Mariarosa

    2017-01-01

    Wild specimens of Salvia L. were collected in three different moments of anthesis and their volatile leaf oils were analyzed by GC/GCMS. The quantitative terpene composition is very variable with the anthesis. S. bertolonii is the richest species in a-thujone. S. officinalis is characterized by high percentages of 1,8 cineole, 4-terpineol, isorboneol and a -bisabolol. In S. verticillata high percentages of borneol and {3-cariophyllene are present. In the three species a-thujone was always mor...

  16. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  17. Fragrance contact allergic patients: strategies for use of cosmetic products and perceived impact on life situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lysdal, Susan Hovmand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients are a common cause of contact allergy. Very little is known about these patients' strategies to manage their disease and the effect on their daily lives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if patients with diagnosed fragrance contact allergy used scented products, how.......g. by use of ingredient labelling, but a significant proportion had continued skin problems. Almost half of the patients perceived that fragrance allergy significantly affected their daily lives....

  18. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  19. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    usage in the perfume industry. 1606 patients were consecutively tested with series II and 8% FM. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to scented products: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred most frequently in 11.4% of the subjects. The 6...... a history of adverse reactions to fragrances which was classified as certain. This group reacted to FM only in 22.9%, to series II and FM in 15.6% and to series II only in 5.2%. 63.5% of the patients reacting to both FM and 1 of the materials of series II had some type of positive fragrance history, which...

  20. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    In order to find sensitizers additional to the current fragrance mix (FM) a series of fragrance materials (series II) was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 11 of the test materials were essential oils, the remaining 7 being either mixtures of isomers or simple chemicals of frequent...... materials with the highest reactivity after the FM were ylang-ylang oil (YY) I (2.6%), YY II (2.5%), lemongrass oil (1.6%), narcissus absolute (1.3%), jasmine absolute (1.2%) and sandalwood oil (0.9%). 48 (3.0%) of the patients reacted only to materials of series II and not to FM. 6.0% of 1606 patients gave...

  1. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (> 100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed...

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  3. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture.

  4. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Kaaber, Knud; Laurberg, Grete; Henrik Nielsen, Niels; Sommerlund, Mette; Thormann, Jens; Veien, Niels K; Vissing, Susanne; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-05-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions than others. To determine which cosmetic product groups cause fragrance allergy among Danish eczema patients. This was a retrospective study based on data collected by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Participants (N = 17,716) were consecutively patch tested with fragrance markers from the European baseline series (2005-2009). Of the participants, 10.1% had fragrance allergy, of which 42.1% was caused by a cosmetic product: deodorants accounted for 25%, and scented lotions 24.4%. A sex difference was apparent, as deodorants were significantly more likely to be listed as the cause of fragrance allergy in men (odds ratio 2.2) than in women. Correlation was observed between deodorants listed as the cause of allergy and allergy detected with fragrance mix II (FM II) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. Deodorants were the leading causes of fragrance allergy, especially among men. Seemingly, deodorants have an 'unhealthy' composition of the fragrance chemicals present in FM II. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyropoulou, E.A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glandular trichomes are production and storage organs of specialized metabolites such as terpenes, which play a role in the plant's defense system. The present study aimed to shed light on the regulation of terpene biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum trichomes by identification of

  6. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    (series I). Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred in 11.3% of the subjects. The 6 substances with the highest reactivity following FM were Lyral (2.7%), citral (1.1%), farnesol P (0...... further sensitizers relevant for patch testing of patients with contact dermatitis, of which Lyral is the most important single chemical....

  7. Patch tests with fragrance mix II and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Németh, Ilona; Altmayer, Anita; Nagy, Gabriella; Irinyi, Beatrix; Battyáni, Zita; Temesvári, Erzsébet

    2012-01-01

    Fragrance mix II (FM II) was initiated to detect contact hypersenstitivity (CH) to fragrances that could not have been identified previously. The aim of this multicenter study was to map the frequency of CH to FM II and its components in Hungary. Six centers participated in the survey from 2009 to 2010. A total off 565 patients (434 women and 131 men) with former skin symptoms provoked by scented products were patch tested. The tests were performed with Brial GmbH D-Greven allergens. In the environmental patch test series, FM II, FM I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, wood-tar mix, propolis, and sesquiterpene lactone mix were tested as fragrance allergens. The FM II components (citral, farnesol, coumarin, citronellol, α-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde, and hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene-carboxaldehyde [Lyral]) were also tested. Contact hypersenstitivity to any fragrances was detected in 28.8%, to FM II in 17.2% of the patients. Contact hypersenstitivity to hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene-carboxaldehyde was observed in 7.3%, to coumarin in 5.1%, to α-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde in 3.5%, to citral in 3.4%, to farnesol in 2.5%, and to citronellol in 1.2%. Of the FM II-positive cases, 48.4% showed isolated CH reaction. The frequency of CH to FM II is 17.2% in the tested, selected Hungarian population. The CH to FM II and its components could not have been revealed without the present test materials.

  8. Comparison of ready biodegradation estimation methods for fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethling, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Biodegradability is fundamental to the assessment of environmental exposure and risk from organic chemicals. Predictive models can be used to pursue both regulatory and chemical design (green chemistry) objectives, which are most effectively met when models are easy to use and available free of charge. The objective of this work was to evaluate no-cost estimation programs with respect to prediction of ready biodegradability. Fragrance materials, which are structurally diverse and have significant exposure potential, were used for this purpose. Using a database of 222 fragrance compounds with measured ready biodegradability, 10 models were compared on the basis of overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of quality for binary classification. The 10 models were VEGA© Non-Interactive Client, START (Toxtree©), Biowin©1-6, and two models based on inductive machine learning. Applicability domain (AD) was also considered. Overall accuracy was ca. 70% and varied little over all models, but sensitivity, specificity and MCC showed wider variation. Based on MCC, the best models for fragrance compounds were Biowin6, VEGA and Biowin3. VEGA performance was slightly better for the 0.8). However, removing compounds with one and only one quaternary carbon yielded similar improvement in predictivity for VEGA, START, and Biowin3/6, with a smaller penalty in reduced coverage. Of the nine compounds for which the eight models (VEGA, START, Biowin1-6) all disagreed with the measured value, measured analog data were available for seven, and all supported the predicted value. VEGA, Biowin3 and Biowin6 are judged suitable for ready biodegradability screening of fragrance compounds. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2002-01-01

    (series I). Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Reactions to FM occurred in 11.3% of the subjects. The 6 substances with the highest reactivity following FM were Lyral (2.7%), citral (1.1%), farnesol P (0.......5%), citronellol (0.4%), hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (0.3%), and coumarin (0.3%). 41 (2.2%) of the patients reacted only to materials of series I and not to FM. 6.6% of 1855 patients gave a history of adverse reactions to fragrances which was classified as certain. This group reacted to FM only in 41.1%, to series I...... and FM in 12.0% and to series I only in 7.2%. 74.3% of the 39 patients reacting to both FM and 1 of the materials of series I had any type of positive fragrance history, which was significantly higher in comparison to those with isolated reactions to series I (53.6% of 41), p = 0.04. The study identified...

  10. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Constandt, Lieve; Tupker, Ron A; Noz, Kathy C; Lucker, Georges P H; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Kruyswijk, Mente R J; van Zuuren, Esther J; Vink, Jaqueline; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; van der Valk, Pieter G M

    2008-01-01

    Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong reactions. To improve the appraisal of FM patch-test reactions, we studied the relevance of reactions of different strength. We also studied the predictive value of the following on the relevance of the initial FM patch-test results: patch-test results of a repeated FM test; results of patch tests with balsam of Peru, colophony, and ingredients of the mix; and (history of) atopic dermatitis. One hundred thirty-eight patients who had doubtful positive (?+) or positive (+ to +++) reactions were included in the study. We determined relevance by history taking, location and course of the dermatitis, and additional patch testing. Patients were retested with FM and with each ingredient separately. The relevance of reactions to FM increases with the strength of the reactions. Predictors of relevance are the results of retesting with FM, the results of tests with the ingredients, and a history and/or present symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Retesting with FM and its ingredients may add to the benefit of patch testing.

  11. Lyral is an important sensitizer in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    . The synthetic fragrance 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) was tested together with the FM and 11 other fragrance substances on consecutive patients in six European departments of dermatology. All patients were carefully questioned regarding a history of reactions to scented...... products in the past and were grouped into four categories: 'certain', 'probable', 'questionable' and 'none'. Lyral (5% in petrolatum) gave a positive reaction in 2.7% of 1855 patients (range 1.2-17%) and ranked next to 11.3% with FM allergy. Twenty-four patients reacted to both Lyral and FM, but 21 (1.......1%) reacted positively only to Lyral. Of 124 patients with a 'certain' history, 53.2% reacted to the FM and a further 7.2% to Lyral only. If any kind of history of fragrance intolerance was given, 80% (40 of 50) of Lyral positive patients had a 'positive' history while only 58.6% (123 of 210) of FM positive...

  12. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  13. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  14. Reactivity to sorbitan sesquioleate affects reactivity to fragrance mix I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Fragrance mix I (FM I) and its single constituents contain 5% and 1% sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO), respectively. SSO is a rare sensitizer and a potential irritant. To determine whether the outcome of the FM I breakdown test is affected by positive patch test reactivity to SSO. A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 1998-2013, was performed. The full FM I breakdown test including SSO was tested in 2952 patients. Of these, 154 (5.2%) had a positive patch test reaction to SSO 20% pet. and 2709 (91.8%) had a negative patch test reaction. Positive reactions to one or more of the single fragrances contained in the mix were significantly more common (82.5% versus 57.3%) in SSO-positive patients, who also had more multiple reactions than FM I-positive patients with negative SSO reactions (61.5% versus 21.3% patients with reactions to two or more fragrances). Our results indicate that reactivity to SSO markedly affects the outcome of patch testing with FM I and its single constituents. SSO must be an obligatory part of the full FM I breakdown test, and should ideally be included in the baseline series. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Negative inotropism of terpenes on guinea pig left atrium: structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Carla M L; Oliveira, Ingrid S N; Santos, José N A; Souza, Américo A; Menezes-Filho, José E R; Silva Neto, Júlio A; Lima, Tamires C; de Sousa, Damião P

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacological effect of seven structurally related terpenes on the contractility of cardiac muscle. The effect of terpenes was studied on isolated electrically driven guinea pig left atrium. From concentration-response curves for inotropic effect were determined the EC 50 and relative potency of such terpenes. Our results revealed that all terpenes, except phytol, showed ability to reduce the contractile response of guinea pig left atrium. Further, relative potency was directly related to the number of isoprene units and to the lipophilicity of the compounds. For example, sesquiterpenes farnesol and nerolidol showed higher relative potency when compared with the monoterpenes citronellol, geraniol and nerol. We can conclude that most of the evaluated terpenes showed a promising negative inotropism on the atrial muscle. Future studies are necessary to investigate their action mechanism.

  16. Fragrances and work-related asthma-California surveillance data, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justine Lew; Flattery, Jennifer; Harrison, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Fragrance chemicals are used in a large array of products. Workers may be exposed to these chemicals in the workplace directly when used as air fresheners, or indirectly in personal care products used by coworkers or others. This study characterizes work-related asthma (WRA) cases associated with fragrance exposures in California workplaces from 1993 through 2012. We used the California Work-Related Asthma Prevention Program's surveillance database to identify individuals with physician-diagnosed WRA associated with the use of air fresheners and scented personal care products (perfumes, colognes, etc.). Cases were classified using previously published, standardized surveillance methods. Perfume was the ninth most common exposure identified from 1993 through 2012. A total of 270 WRA cases associated with fragrance exposure were reported during this period, representing 3.8% of all confirmed cases. These 270 cases included 242 associated with perfume or cologne, 32 associated with air freshener, and 4 associated with both. Similar to non-fragrance cases, nearly a quarter of fragrance-associated cases were classified as new-onset asthma. Fragrance-associated cases were significantly more likely to be in office, health, and education jobs than non-fragrance-associated cases. When compared to non-fragrance cases, fragrance cases were significantly more likely to be female (94% vs 62%) and be classified as having work-aggravated asthma (38% vs 20%), yet had similar outcomes compared with cases associated with other exposures. Our surveillance data show that fragrance use in the workplace is associated with WRA. Prevention methods include employee education, enforced fragrance-free policies, well-designed ventilation systems, and good building maintenance.

  17. Effective immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic-modified clays: Application for the epoxidation of terpenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzialla, Aikaterini A.; Kalogeris, Emmanuel; Enotiadis, Apostolos; Taha, Ali A.; Gournis, Dimitrios; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2009-01-01

    The use of three smectite nanoclays (Laponite, SWy-2 and Kunipia) organic-modified with octadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium surfactant, as suitable host matrices for the immobilization of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) was demonstrated. The resulting hybrid biocatalysts were characterized by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results confirmed the remarkable binding capacity of the three organoclays for CaLB. Activity and operational stability of immobilized CaLB were determined for the chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of terpenes (α-pinene and d-limonene) in organic media using various oxidizing agents. The immobilized enzyme retains a significant part of its activity after repeated use under drastic reaction conditions originating from the use of oxidants.

  18. Assessment of the risk of respiratory sensitization from fragrance allergens released by air fresheners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Burg, Wouter; Bouma, Krista; Schakel, Durk J; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; van Engelen, Jacqueline; van Loveren, Henk; Ezendam, Janine

    2014-04-01

    Consumers using air fresheners are exposed to the emitted ingredients, including fragrances, via the respiratory tract. Several fragrances are known skin sensitizers, but it is unknown whether inhalation exposure to these chemicals can induce respiratory sensitization. Effects on the immune system were assessed by testing a selection of five fragrance allergens in the respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA). The probability and extent of exposure were assessed by measuring concentrations of the 24 known fragrance allergens in 109 air fresheners. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners were D-limonene and linalool. In the respiratory LLNA, these fragrances were negative. Of the other tested chemicals, only isoeugenol induced a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation. Consumer exposure was assessed in more detail for D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol by using exposure modeling tools. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners, D-limonene, and linalool gave rise to a higher consumer exposure compared with isoeugenol. To evaluate whether the consumer exposure to these fragrances is low or high, these levels were compared with measured air concentrations of diisocyanates, known human respiratory sensitizers. This comparison showed that consumer exposure from air fresheners to D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol is considerably lower than occupational exposure to diisocyanates. By combing this knowledge on sensitizing potency with the much lower exposure compared to diisocyanates it seems highly unlikely that isoeugenol can induce respiratory sensitization in consumers using air fresheners.

  19. Principles and methodology for identification of fragrance allergens in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Arnau, A; Gimenez-Arnau, E; Serra-Baldrich, E; Lepoittevin, J-P; Camarasa, J G

    2002-12-01

    Fragrances contain several hundreds of different chemicals, a few major and many minor, which are responsible for the complexity of the odour. Fragrances are a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis. As a diagnostic tool, the current fragrance mix is very useful though not ideal. A 50-year-old woman presented with a pruriginous, erythematous eruption, characterized by papules, vesicles, exudation and crusting over the neck and chest. With the suspicion of fragrance allergy, patch testing was performed. Initially, the only positive reaction observed was with her own eau de toilette named Woman. The TRUE Test fragrance mix patch test was negative. Chemical fractionation of Woman perfume concentrate was combined with a sequenced patch testing procedure and with structure-activity relationship studies. Ingredients supplied by the manufacturer were also included in the study. Benzophenone-2, Lyral, alpha-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and alpha-damascone were found to be responsible for the patient's contact allergy to the commercial product. These substances contain chemical structural alerts giving them antigenic ability. The common use of new chemicals to manufacture fragrances, and the increased number of patients sensitive to them but with negative fragrance mix reactions, makes it necessary to identify new potential fragrance sensitizers in commercial products.

  20. Fragrance contact allergens in 5588 cosmetic products identified through a novel smartphone application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S

    2018-01-01

    -on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. OBJECTIVE: To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. METHODS: The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide...

  1. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E

    2011-01-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions t...

  2. Propolis, Colophony, and Fragrance Cross-Reactivity and Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiwen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheman, Loren; Scheman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Colophony and propolis are among the complex plant resins used in a wide variety of medicinal and personal care products. A number of studies of colophony, propolis, and fragrance mixes suggest that contact with one of these allergens may increase the risk of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions with additional compounds of significant cross-reactivity. The aims of this study were to determine rates of cross-reactivity between propolis, colophony, and different fragrance mixes and to determine significant cross-reactivity thresholds for which to counsel patient avoidance. Rates of cross-reactivity were calculated from the databases of 2 midwestern US patch testing centers. Rates were calculated both separately and collectively. For patients allergic to colophony, fragrance and propolis may be considered significant cross-reactors. For patients allergic to propolis, fragrance and colophony may be considered significant cross-reactors. Cross-reactions between colophony, propolis, and fragrance mixes are unidirectional so, for patients allergic to fragrance, cross-reaction to propolis or colophony is not significant. Colophony allergy is found in only a small number of fragrance-allergic patients and is not a good indicator for fragrance allergy.

  3. Studies on Fragrance Delivery from Inorganic Nanocontainers: Encapsulation, Release and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Shailesh Adinath; Sonawane, Shirish Hari; Bhanvase, Bharat Apparao; Mishra, Satyendra; Joshi, Kalpana Shrikant

    2015-04-01

    The present work deals with encapsulation of fragrance molecule in inorganic nanocontainers substrate and investigation of its prolonged release at different pH condition. The nanocontainers used were aluminosilicate clay (Halloysite) having cylindrical shape with outside diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, 15 nm lumen and length equal to 800 ± 300 nm. Rosewater absolute was used as a sample fragrance for loading in nanocontainer and delivery purpose. The fragrance loaded nanocontainers were coated with a thin layer of polyelectrolyte i.e. Polyacrylic Acid (PAA). The structural characteristics of prepared nanocontainers were determined by using Fourier Transform Intra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and UV spectroscopy analysis. Release of fragrance molecules in the aqueous medium was monitored for 24 h. The fragrance release was found to be responsive as the amount of fragrance release increases with increase in pH value from 3 to 7. Fragrance release has been studied by using various permeation kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Hixson-Crowell, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg models. Korsemyer-Peppas shows the best fit (R2 = 0.9544) compared to other kinetic model for the release of fragrance from nanocontainers.

  4. Fragrance allergy and quality of life - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-02-01

    Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. A case-control survey was sent to subjects with a positive patch test reaction to a fragrance ingredient/marker (n = 550) and to a control group (n = 1100). It contained questions on eczema and the newly developed fragrance QoL index. Participants had been consecutively patch tested at Gentofte University Hospital (2000-2010). The response rate was 65.7%. Information on patch test data was retrieved from the National Contact Dermatitis Database. An increase in impairment of QoL was observed in women with fragrance allergy as compared with the control group (p = 0.042), which was not found among men. Several factors played a significant role in impairment of QoL in women: (i) number of fragrance allergies, (ii) severity of the patch test reaction, (iii) age combined with recent diagnosis; and (iv) allergy to specific fragrance ingredients/markers. Fragrance-allergic subjects are just as affected in their QoL as other eczema patients. However, women, and in particular recently diagnosed young women, seem to be more impaired in their QoL than other eczema patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Enhanced sensitization and elicitation responses caused by mixtures of common fragrance allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Rubin, Ingrid Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Background. Perfumes are complex mixtures composed of many fragrance ingredients, many of which are known to be only weak allergens when tested individually. It is therefore surprising that fragrance contact allergy is one of the most common forms of contact allergy. Objectives. To investigate wh...

  6. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay for terpene synthase activity based on substrate consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Furubayashi

    Full Text Available Terpene synthases catalyze the formation of a variety of terpene chemical structures. Systematic mutagenesis studies have been effective in providing insights into the characteristic and complex mechanisms of C-C bond formations and in exploring the enzymatic potential for inventing new chemical structures. In addition, there is growing demand to increase terpene synthase activity in heterologous hosts, given the maturation of metabolic engineering and host breeding for terpenoid synthesis. We have developed a simple screening method for the cellular activities of terpene synthases by scoring their substrate consumption based on the color loss of the cell harboring carotenoid pathways. We demonstrate that this method can be used to detect activities of various terpene synthase or prenyltransferase genes in a high-throughput manner, irrespective of the product type, enabling the mutation analysis and directed evolution of terpene synthases. We also report the possibility for substrate-specific screening system of terpene synthases by taking advantage of the substrate-size specificity of C30 and C40 carotenoid pathways.

  8. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  9. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007......BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which...

  10. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted approx...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Stability of fragrance patch test preparations applied in test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, M; Zimerson, E; Svedman, C; Bruze, M

    2012-10-01

    Petrolatum patch test preparations are for practical reasons often applied in test chambers in advance, several hours or even days before the patient is tested. As many fragrance compounds are volatile it may be suspected that petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers are not stable over time. To investigate the stability of petrolatum preparations of the seven chemically defined components in the fragrance mix (FM I) when stored in test chambers. Samples of petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers stored at room temperature and in a refrigerator for between 4 and 144 h were analysed using liquid chromatographic methods. The concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 8 h in four of seven preparations stored in Finn chambers at room temperature. When stored in a refrigerator only the preparation of cinnamal had decreased by ≥ 20% within 24 h. The stability of preparations of cinnamal stored in IQ chambers with a plastic cover was slightly better, but like the preparations applied in Finn chambers, the concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 4 h at room temperature and within 24 h in a refrigerator. Cinnamal and cinnamyl alcohol were found to be more stable when analysed as ingredients in FM I compared with when analysed in individual preparations. Within a couple of hours several fragrance allergens evaporate from test chambers to an extent that may affect the outcome of the patch test. Application to the test chambers should be performed as close to the patch test occasion as possible and storage in a refrigerator is recommended. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Phylogenetic fragrance patterns in Nicotiana sections Alatae and Suaveolentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguso, Robert A; Schlumpberger, Boris O; Kaczorowski, Rainee L; Holtsford, Timothy P

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed floral volatiles from eight tobacco species (Nicotiana; Solanaceae) including newly discovered Brazilian taxa (Nicotiana mutabilis and "Rastroensis") in section Alatae. Eighty-four compounds were found, including mono- and sesquiterpenoids, nitrogenous compounds, benzenoid and aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and esters. Floral scent from recent accessions of Nicotiana alata, Nicotiana bonariensis and Nicotiana langsdorffii differed from previously published data, suggesting intraspecific variation in scent composition at the level of biosynthetic class. Newly discovered taxa in Alatae, like their relatives, emit large amounts of 1,8-cineole and smaller amounts of monoterpenes on a nocturnal rhythm, constituting a chemical synapomorphy for this lineage. Fragrance data from three species of Nicotiana sect. Suaveolentes, the sister group of Alatae, (two Australian species: N. cavicola, N. ingulba; one African species: N. africana), were compared to previously reported data from their close relative, N. suaveolens. Like N. suaveolens, N. cavicola and N. ingulba emit fragrances dominated by benzenoids and phenylpropanoids, whereas the flowers of N. africana lacked a distinct floral scent and instead emitted only small amounts of an aliphatic methyl ester from foliage. Interestingly, this ester also is emitted from foliage of N. longiflora and N. plumbaginifolia (both in section Alatae s.l.), which share a common ancestor with N. africana. This result, combined with the synapomorphic pattern of 1,8 cineole emission in Alatae s.s., suggests that phylogenetic signal explains a major component of fragrance composition among tobacco species in sections Alatae and Suaveolentes. At the intraspecific level, interpopulational scent variation is widespread in sect. Alatae, and may reflect edaphic specialization, introgression, local pollinator shifts, genetic drift or artificial selection in cultivation. Further studies with genetically and geographically well

  13. RNA sequencing on Amomum villosum Lour. induced by MeJA identifies the genes of WRKY and terpene synthases involved in terpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xueying; Wang, Huan; Yang, Jinfen; Deng, Ke; Wang, Teng

    2018-02-01

    Amomum villosum Lour. is an important Chinese medicinal plant that has diverse medicinal functions, and mainly contains volatile terpenes. This study aims to explore the WRKY transcription factors (TFs) and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might be involved in terpene biosynthesis in A. villosum, and thus providing some new information on the regulation of terpenes in plants. RNA sequencing of A. villosum induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) revealed that the WRKY family was the second largest TF family in the transcriptome. Thirty-six complete WRKY domain sequences were expressed in response to MeJA. Further, six WRKY unigenes were highly correlated with eight deduced TPS unigenes. Ultimately, we combined the terpene abundance with the expression of candidate WRKY TFs and TPS unigenes to presume a possible model wherein AvWRKY61, AvWRKY28, and AvWRKY40 might coordinately trans-activate the AvNeoD promoter. We propose an approach to further investigate TF unigenes that might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, and identified four unigenes for further analyses.

  14. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Åke; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology and the reliability of instruments adopted and discuss the feasibility based on a pilot phase. Descriptive epidemiology survey. A random sample from the general population is selected and interviewed, and is offered patch testing in a randomized way. We specifically enquire about any skin rash reported during the previous year, and any history of reactions to products that may contain the sensitizer and/or a history of avoidance of the same products. Patch test data are linked to the questionnaire information to define clinical relevance. The questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability in 94 individuals. Patch test reading also showed a high level of interrater reliability. During the pilot phase, a total of 589 participants were recruited. The EDEN Fragrance Study is feasible and able to provide useful data on fragrance allergy.

  15. Fragrance contact allergens in 5588 cosmetic products identified through a novel smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S; Kirkeby, C S; Jørgensen, C; Christensen, A B; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D

    2018-01-01

    More than 25% of the adult European population suffers from contact allergy, with fragrance substances recognized as one of the main causes. Since 2005, 26 fragrance contact allergens have been mandatory to label in cosmetic products within the EU if present at 10 ppm or above in leave-on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide information to consumers about chemical substances in cosmetic products. Products registered through the app between December 2015 and October 2016 were label checked according to International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) for the presence of the 26 fragrance substances or the wording 'fragrance/parfum/aroma'. The largest product categories investigated were 'cream, lotion and oil' (n = 1192), 'shampoo and conditioner' (n = 968) and 'deodorants' (n = 632). Among cosmetic products labelled to contain at least one of the 26 fragrances, 85.5% and 73.9% contained at least two and at least three of the 26 fragrances, respectively. Linalool (49.5%) and limonene (48.5%) were labelled most often among all investigated products. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC/Lyral ® ) was found in 13.5% of deodorants. Six of the 26 fragrance substances were labelled on less than one per cent of all products, including the natural extracts Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). A total of 329 (5.9%) products had one or more of the 26 fragrance substances labelled but did not have 'parfum/fragrance/aroma' listed on the label. Consumers are widely exposed to, often multiple, well-established fragrance contact allergens through various cosmetic products intended for daily use. Several fragrance substances that are common causes of contact allergy were rarely

  16. Chemical stability and in chemico reactivity of 24 fragrance ingredients of concern for skin sensitization risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-02-01

    Twenty-four pure fragrance ingredients have been identified as potential concern for skin sensitization. Several of these compounds are chemically unstable and convert into reactive species upon exposure to air or light. In the present work, a systematic investigation of the correlation between chemical stability and reactivity has been undertaken. The compounds were subjected to forced photodegradation for three months and the chemical changes were studied with GC-MS. At the end of the stability study, two-thirds of the samples were found to be unstable. The generation of chemically reactive species was investigated using the in chemico HTS-DCYA assay. Eleven and fourteen compounds were chemically reactive before and after three months, respectively. A significant increase in reactivity upon degradation was found for isoeugenol, linalool, limonene, lyral, citronellol and geraniol; in the same conditions, the reactivity of hydroxycitronellal decreased. The non-reactive compounds α-isomethyl ionone, benzyl alcohol, amyl cinnamal and farnesol became reactive after photo-oxidative degradation. Overall, forced degradation resulted in four non-reactive fragrance compounds to display in chemico thiol reactivity, while ten out of 24 compounds remained inactive. Chemical degradation does not necessarily occur with generation of reactive species. Non-chemical activation may be involved for the 10 stable unreactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of fragrance sensitivity in the American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Stanley M; Steinemann, Anne C

    2009-03-01

    This study determined the percentages of individuals who report adverse effects from exposure to fragranced products in the U.S. population and in subpopulations of those with asthma or chemical sensitivity. Data were collected through telephone interviews from two geographically weighted, random samples of the continental U.S. in two surveys during 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 (1,057 and 1,058 cases, respectively). Respondents were asked if they find being next to someone wearing a scented product irritating or appealing; if they have headaches, breathing difficulties, or other problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers; and if they are irritated by the scent from laundry products, fabric softeners, or dryer sheets that are vented outside. Results aggregated from both surveys found that 30.5% of the general population reported scented products on others irritating, 19% reported adverse health effects from air fresheners, and 10.9% reported irritation by scented laundry products vented outside. This study reveals that a considerable percentage of the U.S. population reports adverse health effects or irritation from fragranced products, with higher percentages among those with asthma and chemical sensitivity.

  18. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plant Flavors and Fragrances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo E. Maffei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of plant material with solvents like CO2, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena.

  19. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fragrance materials in asthma: a pilot study using a surrogate aerosol product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethanayagam, Dilini; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Mah, Dennell; Beach, Jeremy; Smith, Ladd; Moqbel, Redwan

    2013-11-01

    Many household products contain fragrances. Little is known about exposure to fragrances on human health, particularly within the airways. This study aimed to evaluate how common household fragrance products (i.e. air fresheners, cleaning products) affect people with asthma, who frequently report sensitivity to these products. Many of these products have volatile organic compounds or semi-volatile organic compounds. This study evaluated nine fragrance materials in an aerosol formulation to assess effects on airway physiology, airway inflammation and symptom perception in normal controls and those with asthma. The effects of fragrances were evaluated in people without asthma, people with mild asthma and people with moderate asthma in a four-way crossover placebo-controlled study. Subjects were exposed twice to a fragranced aerosol and twice to a placebo aerosol (15 and 30 min each). Subjects completed a questionnaire for 29 symptoms during and up to 3 h after each exposure scenario. Spirometry was performed prior to and 3 h post-exposure; sputum induction was conducted 3 h post-exposure. Nasal symptoms showed the greatest frequency of response in all three subject groups, and moderate asthmatics reported the greatest symptom severity and symptom types. No significant differences were noted in physiology or cellular inflammation. A trend for increased symptoms was noted in moderate asthmatics, suggesting that asthma severity may play a factor in fragrance sensitivity.

  1. Fragrance material review on β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β,β,3-Trimethyl-benzenepropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indoor fine particles: the role of terpene emissions from consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Golam; Olson, David A; Corsi, Richard L; Weschler, Charles J

    2004-03-01

    Consumer products can emit significant quantities of terpenes, which can react with ozone (O3). Resulting byproducts include compounds with low vapor pressures that contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential for SOA growth, in the presence of O3, following the use of a lime-scented liquid air freshener, a pine-scented solid air freshener, a lemon-scented general-purpose cleaner, a wood floor cleaner, and a perfume. Two chamber experiments were performed for each of these five terpene-containing agents, one at an elevated O3 concentration and-the other at a lower O3 concentration. Particle number and mass concentrations increased and O3 concentrations decreased during each experiment. Experiments with terpene-based air fresheners produced the highest increases in particle number and mass concentrations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that homogeneous reactions between O3 and terpenes from various consumer products can lead to increases in fine particle mass concentrations when these products are used indoors. Particle increases can occur during periods of elevated outdoor O3 concentrations or indoor O3 generation, coupled with elevated terpene releases. Human exposure to fine particles can be reduced by minimizing indoor terpene concentrations or O3 concentrations.

  3. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  4. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Robson B.; Santos, Mauricio C.; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2016-03-01

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies.

  5. Limonene dehydrogenase hydroxylates the allylic methyl group of cyclic monoterpenes in the anaerobic terpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes-Cala, Edinson; Liebeke, Manuel; Markert, Stephanie; Harder, Jens

    2018-05-01

    The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprene and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen. The purified limonene:ferrocenium oxidoreductase activity hydroxylated the methyl group of limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohex-1-ene) yielding perillyl alcohol ([4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]methanol). The enzyme had a dithiothreitol:perillyl alcohol oxidoreductase activity yielding limonene. Mass spectrometry and molecular size determinations revealed a heterodimeric enzyme comprising CtmA and CtmB. Recently the two proteins had been identified by transposon mutagenesis and proteomics as part of the cyclic terpene metabolism ( ctm ) in Castellaniella defragrans and were annotated as FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the protein domain family phytoene dehydrogenases and related proteins (COG1233). CtmAB is the first heterodimeric enzyme in this protein superfamily. Flavins in the purified CtmAB are oxidized by ferrocenium and are reduced by limonene. Heterologous expression of CtmA, CtmB and CtmAB in E. coli demonstrated that limonene dehydrogenase activity required both subunits carrying each a flavin cofactor. Native CtmAB oxidized a wide range of monocyclic monoterpenes containing the allylic methyl group motif (1-methyl-cyclohex-1-ene). In conclusion, we have identified CtmAB as a hydroxylating limonene dehydrogenase and the first heteromer in a family of FAD-dependent dehydrogenases acting on allylic methylene or methyl CH-bonds. We suggest a placement in EC 1

  6. Influence of the presence and type of fragrance on the sensory perception of cosmetic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mara Silva Gonçalves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensory assessments of identical cosmetic formulations with and without fragrance to investigate not only the acceptance but also how different fragrances affected their attributes, such as skin feel, tackiness and spreadability. Three gel and three cream formulations with and without two types of fragrance, fennel and sweet flowers, were assessed for various attributes. The presence and type of fragrance used affected the testers' perception of some attributes, showing that the influence of this component should not be disregarded. Apparently, a consumer's reaction to a cosmetic product is not only based on its efficacy but also on how its attributes are perceived, such as appearance, skin feel and smell.

  7. Claisen, Cope and Related Rearrangements in the Synthesis of Flavour and Fragrance Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Nowicki

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the use of the Claisen, Cope and related [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, sequential ("tandem" sigmatropic rearrangements and the "ene" reaction in the syntheses of flavour and fragrance compounds is presented.

  8. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-11-01

    Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Good quantification practices of flavours and fragrances by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnaud, Frédéric; Chaintreau, Alain

    2016-10-28

    Over the past 15 years, chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometric detection have been increasingly used to monitor the rapidly expanded list of regulated flavour and fragrance ingredients. This trend entails a need for good quantification practices suitable for complex media, especially for multi-analytes. In this article, we present experimental precautions needed to perform the analyses and ways to process the data according to the most recent approaches. This notably includes the identification of analytes during their quantification and method validation, when applied to real matrices, based on accuracy profiles. A brief survey of application studies based on such practices is given.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. MODEL PERENCANAAN KAPASITAS DI PT GI DIVISI FRAGRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudrajat .

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on MTO strategy in fragrance division of PT GI which has a number of workstations with multiple tools, resources and products profile. The aims are developing a mathematic model of capacity planning system and analyzing the maximum production capacity and flexibility of resources to meet demand. The method is using RCCP technique that consists of product-load profiles, bills of capacity and labors. Cluster technical of sampling and probability plot are used for measuring and analyzing the output of each process and validating the mathematic model of capacity plan in order to establish certain specific sources, especially those expected to be a potential barrier (potential bottleneck, is sufficient to cover the expected demand till one year ahead.

  11. Cross-cultural differences in European and Asian men and women’s consumption of fragrance

    OpenAIRE

    Granleese, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In a cross-cultural study that compares European (N=32) and Asian (N=36) men, Asian men demonstrate significantly more collectivist consumer behaviour but no significant differences in their brand loyalty behaviour for fragrance consumption. This pattern is not found for European (N=38) and Asian (N=70) women. Asian women exhibit significantly more collectivist values in their consumer behaviour for fragrance consumption, while European women exhibit significantly more individualistic values ...

  12. Use of cyclodextrins as a cosmetic delivery system for fragrance materials: linalool and benzyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoğlu, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarimci, Nilüfer; Kartal, Murat; Koo, Otilia M Y; Onyüksel, Hayat

    2007-10-19

    The aim of this study was to increase the stability and water solubility of fragrance materials, to provide controlled release of these compounds, and to convert these substances from liquid to powder form by preparing their inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). For this purpose, linalool and benzyl acetate were chosen as the fragrance materials. The use of beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HP beta CD) for increasing the solubility of these 2 fragrance materials was studied. Linalool and benzyl acetate gave a B-type diagram with beta CD, whereas they gave an A(L)-type diagram with 2-HP beta CD. Therefore, complexes of fragrance materials with 2-HP beta CD at 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios (guest:host) were prepared. The formation of inclusion complexes was confirmed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results of the solubility studies showed that preparing the inclusion complex with 2-HP beta CD at a 1:1 molar ratio increased the solubility of linalool 5.9-fold and that of benzyl acetate 4.2-fold, whereas the complexes at a 1:2 molar ratio increased the solubility 6.4- and 4.5-fold for linalool and benzyl acetate, respectively. The stability and in vitro release studies were performed on the gel formulations prepared using uncomplexed fragrance materials or inclusion complexes of fragrance materials at a 1:1 molar ratio. It was observed that the volatility of both fragrance materials was decreased by preparing the inclusion complexes with 2-HP beta CD. Also, in vitro release data indicated that controlled release of fragrances could be possible if inclusion complexes were prepared.

  13. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, William D.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB...

  14. Evaluation of extensions of luxury brands:the case of fragrances in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, José António

    2016-01-01

    Fragrances are part of the market of personal luxury goods, which represents the second most important segment of the luxury industry. Luxury brands have been implementing new marketing strategies, such as the use of brand extensions. This strategy has become fundamental to the business model of many luxury brand. This research has the intention to understand the influences that have determined the consumption of fragrances, inferring about the symbolic meaning of its purchase. Additionally, ...

  15. Perfume Fragrance Discrimination Using Resistance And Capacitance Responses Of Polymer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John Paul Hempel; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Fonseca, Fernando J.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart M.; de Andrade, Adnei Melges

    2009-05-01

    This work shows a comparison between electrical resistance and capacitance responses of ethanol and five different fragrances using an electronic nose based on conducting polymers. Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were performed to evaluate the main differences between the analytes. It is shown that although the fragrances are quite similar in their compositions the sensors are able to discriminate them through PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) analysis.

  16. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....

  17. Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two landfills (one active and one closed) and two reference sites using high volume air samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters (particle phase) and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges (gas phase), extracted by methyl-tert butyl ether/acetone (neutral PFCs), methanol (ionic PFCs) or hexane/acetone (PBDEs, musk fragrances), and detected by GC-MS (neutral PFCs, PBDEs, musk fragrances) or HPLC-MS/MS (ionic PFCs). Total concentrations ranged from 84 to 706 pg m -3 (volatile PFCs, gas phase), from fragrances, gas + particle phase) and from 1 to 11 pg m -3 (PBDEs, gas + particle phase). Observed sum concentrations of PFCs and synthetic musk fragrances and partly PBDE concentrations were elevated at landfill sites compared to corresponding reference sites. Concentrations determined at the active landfill were higher than those of the inactive landfill. Overall, landfills can be regarded as a source of synthetic musk fragrances, several PFCs and potentially of PBDEs to ambient air.

  18. Developing chiral-technologies. Chiralty of fragrance; Hattensuru kiraru technology. Kaori no chiralty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumobayashi, H.; Yamamoto, K. [Takasago International Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    This paper introduces the relation between chiralty and fragrance of optically active perfumes available by using an unconformity technology which uses rhodium, and ruthenium-BINAP complex catalysts. Chiral perfumes synthesized by unconformable isomerizing reaction are a citronellil derivative and have difference in fragrance between enantiomers. Ring compounds derived from citronellal 5 have greater identification degree in a smell receptor than chain compounds, and show relatively large difference in fragrance properties between optical isomers. Several kinds of new synthesized perfumes presenting amber-like fragrance have been developed. The 1`-hexane-3`-all 14 is one of these perfumes having superior trans form fragrance. The {delta}-decalactone 18 having strong fruit-like fragrance characteristics as a chiral perfume synthesized through unconformable hydrogenating reaction can be obtained by using unconformable hydrogeneating reaction of {alpha}-pentylidene cyclopentanone 16 as a key reaction. In association with advancement of catalytic unconformable synthesis technologies, it is expected that development of chiral perfumes will become more active. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Enzymatic oxidations of alcohols in biosynthesis of bumblebee pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Bártová, Adéla

    2016-01-01

    Secretion of cephalic labial gland of Buff-tailed bumblebee males (Bombus terrestris) contains a mixture of terpene alcohols, aliphatic alcohols, esters and alkanes with small amount of aldehydes potentially biosynthetized of (S)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol and geranylcitronellol (major alcoholic compounds). This secretion acts as a marking and luring pheromone during patrolling. This study is focused on oxidation of terpene alcohols using enzymes of cephalic labial gland of a bumblebee. In vitro inc...

  1. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  2. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  3. Temporal effects of prescribed burning on terpene production in Mediterranean pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valor, Teresa; Ormeño, Elena; Casals, Pere

    2017-12-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel hazard but underburning can damage standing trees. The effect of burning on needle terpene storage, a proxy for secondary metabolism, in fire-damaged pines is poorly understood despite the protection terpenes confer against biotic and abiotic stressors. We investigated variation in needle terpene storage after burning in three Mediterranean pine species featuring different adaptations to fire regimes. In two pure-stands of Pinus halepensis Mill. and two mixed-stands of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra ssp. salzmanni (Dunal) Franco, we compared 24 h and 1 year post-burning concentrations with pre-burning concentrations in 20 trees per species, and evaluated the relative contribution of tree fire severity and physiological condition (δ13C and N concentration) on temporal terpene dynamics (for mono- sesqui- and diterpenes). Twenty-four hours post-burning, monoterpene concentrations were slightly higher in P. halepensis than at pre-burning, while values were similar in P. sylvestris. Differently, in the more fire-resistant P. nigra monoterpene concentrations were lower at 24 h, compared with pre-burning. One year post-burning, concentrations were always lower compared with pre- or 24 h post-burning, regardless of the terpene group. Mono- and sesquiterpene variations were negatively related to pre-burning δ13C, while diterpene variations were associated with fire-induced changes in needle δ13C and N concentration. At both post-burning times, mono- and diterpene concentrations increased significantly with crown scorch volume in all species. Differences in post-burning terpene contents as a function of the pine species' sensitivity to fire suggest that terpenic metabolites could have adaptive importance in fire-prone ecosystems in terms of flammability or defence against biotic agents post-burning. One year post-burning, our results suggest that in a context of fire-induced resource availability, pines likely prioritize

  4. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-01-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol

  5. The hazard communication of fragrance allergens must be improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Contact allergy is a global health problem that could be alleviated considerably if the general public could reduce contact to sensitizers. Efficient hazard communication would be a valuable instrument to achieve this. What do current regulations concerning fragrance sensitizers in cosmetic products in Europe contribute? For example, there are bans and restrictions according to the Cosmetic Regulation, there is the "26 allergens rule" that requires that the names of some allergenic fragrance ingredients are listed on the containers, there is labeling and classification of hazardous products according to Regulation 1272/2008, and there is the regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH). Do these regulations increase consumer protection by suitable hazard communication instruments? Four main problems were identified. First, according to the 26 allergens rule, consumers carry a very large part of the responsibility for risk reduction management. They need to be capable and motivated to recognize the names of strong allergens listed in the ingredient list and decide for themselves whether they want to run the risk or not, provided that they are aware of their responsibility. Second, cosmetic products do not need to be classified and labeled like other consumer goods, according to the European Commission Regulation 1272/2008, if they contain hazardous substances. Third, some pictograms for hazardous substances, for example, the exclamation mark for sensitizers, are not well understood by the majority of the general public. Fourth, very often, the design of cosmetic containers implies health and well being, even if the respective products contain sensitizers or other hazardous substances. Against this background, the following improvements are proposed: 1) the 26 allergens rule needs revision, 2) the exception for cosmetic products from labeling and classification should be abolished, 3) a new self

  6. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  7. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-03-01

    The currently used fragrance mix in the European baseline patch test series (baseline series) fails to detect a substantial number of clinically relevant fragrance allergies. To investigate whether it is justified to include hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) and fragrance mix 2 containing hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, citral, farnesol, coumarin, citronellol, and alpha-hexyl cinnamal in the European baseline patch test series. Survey of the literature on reported frequencies of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis from fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) as well as reported results of experimental provocation test. Fragrance mix 2 has been demonstrated to be a useful additional marker of fragrance allergy with contact allergy rates up to 5% when included in various national baseline patch test series. Of the fragrance substances present in fragrance mix 2, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde is the most common sensitizer. Contact allergy rates between 1.5% and 3% have been reported for hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde in petrolatum (pet.) at 5% from various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn Chamber technique, a dose of 20 mg pet. preparation is recommended. Whenever there is a positive reaction to fragrance mix 2, additional patch testing with the 6 ingredients, 5 if there are simultaneous positive reactions to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and fragrance mix 2, is recommended.

  8. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  9. Dissipation of fragrance materials in sludge-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Angela M; Chiu, Pei C; Standley, Laurel J; Allen, Herbert E; Salvito, Daniel T

    2004-01-01

    A possible removal mechanism for fragrance materials (FMs) in wastewater is adsorption to sludge, and sludge application to land may be a route through which FMs are released to the soil environment. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of FMs in soil receiving sludge application. This study was conducted to better understand the dissipation of FMs in sludge-amended soils. We first determined the spiking and extraction efficiencies for 22 FMs in soil and leachate samples. Nine FMs were detected in digested sludges from two wastewater treatment plants in Delaware using these methods. We conducted a 1-year die-away experiment which involved four different soils amended with sludge, with and without spiking of the 22 FMs. The initial dissipation of FMs in all spiked trays was rapid, and only seven FMs remained at concentrations above the quantification limits after 3 months: AHTN, HHCB, musk ketone, musk xylene, acetyl cedrene, OTNE, and DPMI. After 1 year, the only FMs remaining in all spiked trays were musk ketone and AHTN. DPMI was the only FM that leached significantly from the spiked trays, and no FMs were detected in leachate from any unspiked tray. While soil organic matter content affected the dissipation rate in general, different mechanisms (volatilization, transformation, leaching) appeared to be important for different FMs.

  10. Synthetic musk fragrances in urban and rural air of Iowa and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1-5 ng m -3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.

  11. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A Toxicologic and Dermatologic review of 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2013(1) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin sensitisation to fragrance ingredients: is there a role for household cleaning/maintenance products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Lemoine, Sylvie; McFadden, John P

    2015-01-01

    The induction of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients and the consequent risk of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) present a human health concern that cannot be ignored. The problem arises when exposure exceeds safe levels, but the source(s) of exposure which lead to induction often remain unclear. This contrasts with the elicitation of ACD, where the eczema frequently can be traced to specific source(s) of skin exposure. Cosmetic products are often implicated, both for induction and elicitation. However, other products contain fragrance ingredients, including household cleaning products. In this paper, the risk assessment concerning the ability of these products to induce fragrance contact allergy is considered and the clinical evidence for the induction and/or elicitation of ACD is reviewed. It can be concluded that the risk of the induction of fragrance contact allergy from household cleaning products is low. Especially where more potent fragrance allergens are used in higher exposure products, the aggregated exposure from such products can augment the risk for the elicitation of ACD. This supports the need to manage this risk via the provision of information to consumers.

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all published and unpublished toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2013 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS's profiled, 12 TPS's were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.

  15. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., spices, and other foods and beverages. These three terpene constituents are found naturally in food... ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation through consumption of foods and beverages, as well as through... toxicity. Acute toxicity studies, submitted to support the registration of the end-use product (EP...

  18. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy: a case-referent study based on patients' histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1998-06-01

    Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients and two control groups, one consisting of 1,279 subjects selected as a random sample of the general population and the other consisting of 806 fragrance-mix-negative eczema patients. The identification of risk products was based on the patients' histories of rash to scented products. Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy in a comparison with both control groups. The risk (odds ratio) of being diagnosed as fragrance allergic was 2.3 to 2.9 greater in cases of a history of first-time rash to deodorant sprays and 3.3 to 3.4 greater in cases of a history of rash to perfumes than if no such history were present. First-time rash to cleansing agents, deodorant sticks, or hand lotions was also statistically significant but only in comparison with one of the control groups. Safety evaluation of fragrance materials used in perfumes and deodorant sprays should be performed with special attention.

  19. The fragrance hand immersion study - an experimental model simulating real-life exposure for allergic contact dermatitis on the hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    hydroxycitronellal or Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde). Each participant immersed a finger from each hand, once a day, in a solution containing the fragrance allergen or placebo. During the first 2 weeks, the concentration of fragrance allergen in the solution was low (approximately 10 p...

  20. Identification of coumarin as the sensitizer in a patient sensitive to her own perfume but negative to the fragrance mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutterer, V; Giménez Arnau, E; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-01-01

    obtained was afterwards tested on the patient using a ROAT and/or a patch test. Only 1 fraction gave a positive ROAT result. This fraction was analyzed and found to contain coumarin and ethyl vanillin. Coumarin, one of the most widely used fragrance compounds that is not present in the fragrance mix...

  1. Activation of non-sensitizing or low-sensitizing fragrance substances into potent sensitizers - prehaptens and prohaptens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Börje, Anna; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    the risk of sensitization. In the present review a series of fragrance substances with well documented abiotic and/or biotic activation are given as indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Commonly used fragrance substances, also found in essential oils, autoxidize on contact with air...

  2. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  3. Compartmentation of mono- and sesqui-terpene biosynthesis of the essential oil in poncirus trifoliata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.; Wegener, R.; Schultze, W.

    1980-01-01

    The fruit of Poncirus trifoliata shows glandular cells complexes in the exocarp, which produce a volatile oil rich in monoterpenes but poor in sesquiterpenes and oxigenated compounds. The juice vesicles of the endocarp possess similar cell complexes mainly containing sesquiterpenes and oxigenated compounds, whereas monoterpenes only occur in small amounts. By the use of combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 19 components of the rind oil and 15 compounds of the endocarp oil could be identified. As demonstrated by electron microscopy the terpenes most probably are synthesized predominantly, if not exclusively in plastids. As shown by gasradiochromatography radioactive precursors ( 14 Co 2 and 14 C-leucine) are incorporated into mono- and sesqui-terpenes to a different extent. This is due to two gland types producing essential oils of different composition with regard to their mono- and sesqui-terpene percentage. In fruit development the exocarp glands differentiate earlier than the endocarp glands do. The activity of exogenously applied 14 Co 2 first reaches the peripheral glands and later on appears in the interior glands. Depending upon the growth season, labelled leucine transported by the conducting tissues from lower plant parts leads to a high specific activity of the sesqui-terpenes and oxigenated compounds. It could be argued that in this instance the glands of the pulp are better provided with precursors than the exocarp glands. The successive maxima of essential oil production in both glandular complexes, and the changes in the concentration of individual oil constituents during the ontogeny of the fruit also contribute to different incorporation ratios of radioactive precursors into mono- and sesqui-terpenes. (author)

  4. Reactivity to patch tests with nickel sulfate and fragrance mix in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, H; Norberg, L A; Vach, W

    2004-01-01

    sulfate in 3 concentrations, 200, 66 and 22 microg/cm(2), and fragrance mix 430 microg/cm(2) were used. A likely case of nickel sensitivity was defined as a reproducible positive reaction with at least homogeneous erythema and palpable infiltration occurring at least 2x and present at both the 12 and 18......The pattern of patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate and fragrance mix was studied with respect to patch test performance, reproducibility and clinical relevance in a population of unselected infants followed prospectively from birth to 18 months of age. TRUE Testtrade mark patches with nickel...... sensitivity was found in only 1 child. No reproducible positive reaction to fragrance mix was found. The high proportion of transient patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate 200 microg/cm(2) indicates that this standard concentration used for adults cannot be applied to infants. The interpretation of a single...

  5. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed......Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  6. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Robson B; Santos, Mauricio C; Poppi, Ronei J

    2016-03-15

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)pent-4-en-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)pent-4-en-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)pent-4-en-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)pent-4-en-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients (submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,5,5-trimethylcycloheptyl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,5,5-trimethylcycloheptyl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,5,5-Trimethylcycloheptyl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,5,5-trimethylcycloheptyl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of macrocyclic lactone and lactide derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsito, D.; Bickers, D.; Bruze, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Macrocyclic Lactone and Lactide derivative (ML) group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.47% to 11.15%; systemic exposures vary from 0.0008 to 0.25 mg/kg/day. ......The Macrocyclic Lactone and Lactide derivative (ML) group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.47% to 11.15%; systemic exposures vary from 0.0008 to 0.25 mg...

  10. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. Production of natural fragrance aromatic acids by coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase and p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase genes of Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongfei; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2012-12-05

    A gene encoding p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of p-anisaldehyde to p-anisic acid, was identified to be clustered with the trans-anethole oxygenase (tao) gene in Pseudomonas putida JYR-1. Heterologously expressed PAADH in Escherichia coli catalyzed the oxidation of vanillin, veratraldehyde, and piperonal to the corresponding aromatic acids vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively. Coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase (TAO) and PAADH in E. coli also resulted in the successful transformation of trans-anethole, isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole to p-anisic acid, vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively, which are compounds found in plants as secondary metabolites. Because of the relaxed substrate specificity and high transformation rates by coexpressed TAO and PAADH in E. coli , the engineered strain has potential to be applied in the fragrance industry.

  12. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, M

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships...... (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application......" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance...

  13. Characterization of CYP264B1 and a terpene cyclase of a terpene biosynthesis gene cluster from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Thuy Thi Bich

    2011-01-01

    In the work presented here, CYP264B1 and the terpene cyclase GeoA of Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 have been characterized. CYP264B1 is able to convert norisoprenoids (a-ionone and b-ionone) and diverse sesquiterpene compounds, including nootkatone. Three products, 3-hydroxy-a-ionone, 3-hydroxy-b-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone were characterized using HPLC and 1H and 13C NMR. CYP264B1 is the first enzyme reported to be capable to hydroxylate regioselectively both norisoprenoids at the positi...

  14. Aggregate exposure to common fragrance compounds: Comparison of the contribution of essential oils and cosmetics using probabilistic methods and the example of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Roudot, A C; Batardière, A; Nedelec, A S; Bourgeois, P; Hornez, N; Le Caer, F; Ficheux, A S

    2018-04-09

    The knowledge of aggregate exposure to different types of products is paramount in the risk assessment. The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of essential oils compared to cosmetics on the daily dermal exposure to limonene, an ubiquitous fragrance compound that can be an allergen depending on its degree of oxidation. Aggregate daily exposure to limonene was calculated among a panel of French volunteers using both essential oils and cosmetics, for 4 different specific zones, i.e. face and neck, chest, upper limbs and lower limbs. Calculations were made using a probabilistic Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. The main strength of this work was the inclusion of essential oils in addition to cosmetics in the model. For the first time, the generated data could be used to compare the contribution of these two products in dermal exposure. Essential oils appear to be significant contributors to exposure to limonene particularly for the face. This work is a first step that will permit to determine the exposure to other fragrance compounds with sensitizing potential. These data will be useful for risk managers to consider the inclusion of essential oils in the overall burden of this pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Rose, J; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2017-06-01

    As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as μg/kg bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5-25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The fragrance hand immersion study - an experimental model simulating real-life exposure for allergic contact dermatitis on the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; Basketter, D; Johansen, J D

    2003-06-01

    Recently, we showed that 10 x 2% of consecutively patch-tested hand eczema patients had a positive patch test to a selection of fragrances containing fragrances relevant to hand exposure. In this study, we used repeated skin exposure to a patch test-positive fragrance allergen in patients previously diagnosed with hand eczema to explore whether immersion of fingers in a solution with or without the patch-test-positive fragrance allergen would cause or exacerbate hand eczema on the exposed finger. The study was double blinded and randomized. All participants had a positive patch test to either hydroxycitronellal or Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde). Each participant immersed a finger from each hand, once a day, in a solution containing the fragrance allergen or placebo. During the first 2 weeks, the concentration of fragrance allergen in the solution was low (approximately 10 p.p.m.), whilst during the following 2 weeks, the concentration was relatively high (approximately 250 p.p.m.), imitating real-life exposure to a household product like dishwashing liquid diluted in water and the undiluted product, respectively. Evaluation was made using a clinical scale and laser Doppler flow meter. 3 of 15 hand eczema patients developed eczema on the finger immersed in the fragrance-containing solution, 3 of 15 on the placebo finger and 3 of 15 on both fingers. Using this experimental exposure model simulating real-life exposure, we found no association between immersion of a finger in a solution containing fragrance and development of clinically visible eczema on the finger in 15 participants previously diagnosed with hand eczema and with a positive patch test to the fragrance in question.

  17. Allylic chlorination of terpenic olefins using a combination of MoCl{sub 5} and NaOCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boualy, Brahim; Firdoussi, Larbi El; Ali, Mustapha Ait; Karim, Abdellah, E-mail: elfirdoussi@ucam.ac.m [Universite Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia. Lab. de Chimie de Coordination

    2011-07-01

    MoCl{sub 5} is applied as efficient agent in allylic chlorination of terpenic olefins in the presence of NaOCl as chlorine donor. Various terpenes are converted to the corresponding allylic chlorides in moderate to good yield under mild and optimized reaction conditions. Different molybdenum precursors are also studied. Among them, MoO{sub 3} gives good yield, but after a longer reaction time. (author)

  18. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. 76 FR 21347 - Proposed Pesticide Program's Pilot Fragrance Notification Program; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of... applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... paperwork required of registrants and decrease tracking. The number of fragrance documents needing to be...

  20. Adding Scents to Symbols: Using Food Fragrances with Deafblind Young People Making Choices at Mealtimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Heather; Gough, Anne; Boothroyd, Eileen; Williams, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is written by Heather Murdoch, research consultant for the Seashell Trust, Anne Gough, deputy headteacher at Royal School Manchester/Seashell Trust, Eileen Boothroyd, consultant for the Seashell Trust, and Kate Williams, a creative perfumer for Seven (PZ Cussons). It describes the use of food fragrances with deafblind students who are…

  1. Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Hartati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews various types of heterogeneous acid-base catalysts for fragrances preparation. Catalytic activities of various types of heterogeneous acid and base catalysts in fragrances preparation, i.e. non-zeolitic, zeolitic, and mesoporous molecular sieves have been reported. Generally, heterogeneous acid catalysts are commonly used in fragrance synthesis as compared to heterogeneous base catalysts. Heteropoly acids and hydrotalcites type catalysts are widely used as heterogeneous acid and base catalysts, respectively. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 20th January 2013; Revised: 31st March 2013; Accepted: 1st April 2013[How to Cite: Hartati, H., Santoso, M., Triwahyono, S., Prasetyoko, D. (2013. Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 14-33. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4394.14-33][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4394.14-33] | View in  |

  2. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  5. The role of the skin irritation response in polysensitization to fragrances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Mariette J. C.; Pentinga, Stefanie E.; Kuik, Joop; Kezic, Sanja; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background. Contact allergy to fragrance chemicals is an increasing problem. Polysensitization is likely to be a phenotype of increased susceptibility to contact allergy. The factors that play a role in polysensitization are largely unknown. Identifying these risk factors is important with regard to

  6. Fungal endophytes – the hidden inducers of volatile terpene biosynthesis in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntana, Fani; Jensen, Birgit; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    mycorrhizal spores in the Indian Thar desert, colonizes the root cortex of a wide range of plants, enhancing plant growth and modulating plant specialized metabolism. The effect of S. indica colonization on the metabolism of the host can be potentially used in improving plant defence against pathogens...... and herbivores. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop, often challenged by fungal pathogens and insect pests. The wide variety of secondary metabolites produced by the plant, and especially terpenes, play a crucial role in plant defence, helping in repelling possible enemies. This project is focused....... indica-inoculated and S. indica-free tomato plants. Preliminary data suggest that fungal colonization results in increased production of specific volatile terpenes. A transcriptome analysis on fungus-associated and fungus-free plant tissues is currently ongoing to elucidate in depth the mechanisms...

  7. Identification of coumarin as the sensitizer in a patient sensitive to her own perfume but negative to the fragrance mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutterer, V; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the chemicals responsible for the sensitivity of a 44-year-old woman to her own perfume, but showing negative patch test results to the fragrance mix. For this purpose, the perfume concentrate from the eau de toilette was chemically fractionated. Each fraction...... obtained was afterwards tested on the patient using a ROAT and/or a patch test. Only 1 fraction gave a positive ROAT result. This fraction was analyzed and found to contain coumarin and ethyl vanillin. Coumarin, one of the most widely used fragrance compounds that is not present in the fragrance mix...

  8. Trends of contact allergy to fragrance mix I and Myroxylon pereirae among Danish eczema patients tested between 1985 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fragrance contact allergy has for long been recognized as an important health issue. In Denmark, the frequency of fragrance mix (FM) I contact allergy increased between 1985-1986 and 1997-1998 among male and female dermatitis patients. Objective: To investigate the development of FM I...... of FM I and MP reactions among women but not men were observed between 1999 and 2007. Conclusions: Although the frequency of FM I contact allergy has decreased in Denmark in recent years, it is still high. Furthermore, fragrance contact allergy is caused by other important allergens not included...

  9. Trends of contact allergy to fragrance mix I and Myroxylon pereirae among Danish eczema patients tested between 1985 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance contact allergy has for long been recognized as an important health issue. In Denmark, the frequency of fragrance mix (FM) I contact allergy increased between 1985-1986 and 1997-1998 among male and female dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of FM I...... of FM I and MP reactions among women but not men were observed between 1999 and 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Although the frequency of FM I contact allergy has decreased in Denmark in recent years, it is still high. Furthermore, fragrance contact allergy is caused by other important allergens not included...

  10. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG. The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz, theta (4–8 Hz, alpha (8–13 Hz, beta (13–30 Hz and gamma (30–50 Hz, and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the

  11. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz), and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the

  12. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  13. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Alquézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  14. Suites of terpene synthases explain differential terpenoid production in ginger and turmeric tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jo Koo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale and turmeric (Curcuma longa contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+-germacrene D synthase and (S-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (--caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+-α-turmerone and (+-β-turmerone, are produced from (--α-zingiberene and (--β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

  15. The fragrance hand immersion study - an experimental model simulating real-life exposure for allergic contact dermatitis on the hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E

    2003-01-01

    previously diagnosed with hand eczema to explore whether immersion of fingers in a solution with or without the patch-test-positive fragrance allergen would cause or exacerbate hand eczema on the exposed finger. The study was double blinded and randomized. All participants had a positive patch test to either...... hydroxycitronellal or Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde). Each participant immersed a finger from each hand, once a day, in a solution containing the fragrance allergen or placebo. During the first 2 weeks, the concentration of fragrance allergen in the solution was low (approximately 10 p...... meter. 3 of 15 hand eczema patients developed eczema on the finger immersed in the fragrance-containing solution, 3 of 15 on the placebo finger and 3 of 15 on both fingers. Using this experimental exposure model simulating real-life exposure, we found no association between immersion of a finger...

  16. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to fragrance materials in a select North American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Sasseville, Denis; Marks, James G; De Leo, Vincent A; Storrs, Frances J

    2006-03-01

    In published reports from Europe, 3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HMPCC) (Lyral) has been described as a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In Europe, the rates of reaction to HMPCC among patients undergoing patch testing for suspected ACD have varied from 1.2 to 17.0%, depending on the country. Data on the incidence of sensitivity to HMPCC among North Americans with suspected ACD have not been reported. The goals of this study were (1) to assess the incidence of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to HMPCC among patients undergoing patch testing for evaluation of eczematous dermatitis at six centers throughout North America; (2) to determine the most appropriate concentration of HMPCC to use in performing patch tests; and (3) to compare and contrast the incidence rates for HMPCC hypersensitivity to those for other fragrance materials screened with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening tray, which includes fragrance mix, Myroxilon pereirae (balsam of Peru), cinnamic aldehyde, ylang ylang oil, jasmine absolute, and tea tree oil. This report represents the prospective multicenter data on patients tested with the fragrance-related allergens on the NACDG standard screening tray and with HMPCC at 5%, 1.5%, and 0.5% concentrations in petrolatum. Statistical analyses were performed with Student's t-test (two tailed) and the chi-square test. Data from 1,603 patients evaluated at five US sites and one Canadian site were analyzed. Most patients (87.8%) were Caucasian. The majority (67%) were women, and 26.2% had a history consistent with atopic dermatitis. The patients ranged in age from 1 to 88 years, and the mean +/- standard deviation was 46.3 +/- 16.5 years. Myroxilon pereirae (balsam of Peru) and fragrance mix were the most frequent patch-test-positive fragrance allergens (6.6% and 5.9%, respectively). Cinnamic aldehyde (1.7%), ylang ylang oil (0.6%), jasmine absolute (0.4%), HMPCC (0.4% for 5

  17. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of non-sensitizing or low-sensitizing fragrance substances into potent sensitizers - prehaptens and prohaptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Börje, Anna; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; Uter, Wolfgang; White, Ian R

    2013-12-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fragrance substances can act as prehaptens or prohaptens. They form allergens that are more potent than the parent substance by activation outside or in the skin via abiotic (chemical and physical factors) and/or biotic activation, thus, increasing the risk of sensitization. In the present review a series of fragrance substances with well documented abiotic and/or biotic activation are given as indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Commonly used fragrance substances, also found in essential oils, autoxidize on contact with air, forming potent sensitizers that can be an important source for contact allergy to fragrances and fragranced products. Some of them can act as prohaptens and be activated in the skin as well. The experimental findings are confirmed in large clinical studies. When substances with structural alerts for acting as prohaptens and/or prehaptens are identified, the possibility of generating new potent allergens should be considered. Predictive testing should include activation steps. Further experimental and clinical research regarding activation of fragrance substances is needed to increase consumer safety. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. RIFM Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2013-12-01

    The alkyl cyclic ketone (ACK) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. ACK fragrance materials demonstrate low acute toxicity. Upon repeat dose testing, some adverse effects in biochemical and hematological parameters, and slightly increased liver and kidney weights were reported, primarily at high doses, resulting from adaptive effects. Developmental effects occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity. Assays in bacteria and mammalian cell systems and the mouse micronucleus assay did not demonstrate genotoxicity. ACK fragrance ingredients are considered non-irritating to the skin of humans; results showed few reactions, most of which were equivocal or involved doses greater than those in consumer products. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal tests was observed with most compounds; however, full recovery was usually observed. Human sensitization studies indicate that ACK fragrance ingredients have a low sensitization potential. Diagnostic patch-tests indicated low sensitizing potential in humans; except for fragrance materials which caused reactions at 1% or 5%. Phototoxicity and photosensitization were not demonstrated in humans, and, with the possible exception of acetyl cedrene, would not be expected. It is concluded that ACK materials do not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-02-26

    The evolution of major cannabinoids and terpenes during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants was studied. In this work, seven different plants were selected: three each from chemotypes I and III and one from chemotype II. Fifty clones of each mother plant were grown indoors under controlled conditions. Every week, three plants from each variety were cut and dried, and the leaves and flowers were analyzed separately. Eight major cannabinoids were analyzed via HPLC-DAD, and 28 terpenes were quantified using GC-FID and verified via GC-MS. The chemotypes of the plants, as defined by the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid/cannabidiolic acid (THCA/CBDA) ratio, were clear from the beginning and stable during growth. The concentrations of the major cannabinoids and terpenes were determined, and different patterns were found among the chemotypes. In particular, the plants from chemotypes II and III needed more time to reach peak production of THCA, CBDA, and monoterpenes. Differences in the cannabigerolic acid development among the different chemotypes and between monoterpene and sesquiterpene evolution patterns were also observed. Plants of different chemotypes were clearly differentiated by their terpene content, and characteristic terpenes of each chemotype were identified.

  1. The Contents of Terpene Trilactone and Flavonoid in Leaves of Seedlings from Ancient Female Ginkgo Trees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and terpene trilactones, especially, ginkgo flavonglycosides, ginkgolides and bilobalides in leaves of ginkgo trees, need to be studied for effective application of these active components with high medical and health-care values. This study was aimed to provide scientific bases for genealogies selection and harvest season confirmation for Ginkgo biloba. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC-ELSD was developed to determine the contents of terpene trilactone and flavonoid of 36 ancient G. biloba genealogies from 19 provinces in China. The study indicated that the content gradually increased from April to August, and thereafter declined. Analysis of variance indicated that the contents of terpene trilactone, flavonoids, and their respective components had significant difference among 36 genealogies. The cluster analysis showed that No. 72 (Xing'an, Guangxi, No. 58 (Youyang, Chongqing, No. 82 (Rugao, Jiangsu, No. 123 (Huixian, Gansu, No. 99 (Dujun, Guizhou, No. 10 (Tai'an, Shandong and No. 133 (Mentougou, Beijing genealogies have higher content of terpene trilactone and flavonoid. These results can help us to select superior variety containing high content of terpene trilactone and flavonoid.

  2. Microbial Cell Factories for the Production of Terpenoid Flavor and Fragrance Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Florence M; Drummond, Laura; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C 5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C 5 intermediates to the product of interest. In this review typical terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds marketed or under development by biotech and aroma companies are given, and the specificities of the aroma market are discussed. The main part of this work focuses on key strategies and recent advances to engineer microbes to become efficient terpenoid producers.

  3. Psychogenic chemical sensitivity: psychogenic pseudoseizures elicited by provocation challenges with fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, H; Kramer, R E

    1999-08-01

    A middle-aged woman with a 10-year history of disability attributed to chemical sensitivities complained that exposure to specific fragrances immediately elicited seizures. Video-EEG monitoring was performed in a hospital neurodiagnostic laboratory during provocative challenge studies employing fragrances identified by the patient as reliably inducing symptoms. The baseline clinical EEG was normal. Immediately after each provocation with air deodorant and perfume, she consistently showed both generalized tonic/clonic and multifocal myoclonic jerking, at times was nonresponsive, spoke with slurred speech, and complained of right-sided paralysis and lethargy. None of these events were associated with any EEG abnormalities. Psychological assessment (MMPI-2, MCMI-II) revealed personality traits that predisposed her to somatization and beliefs about environmental sensitivities. The convulsions were a manifestation of psychogenic pseudoseizures that had been iatrogenically reinforced.

  4. Preparation of micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance and its application in the aromatic wallpaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zuobing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance was successfully prepared with wall materials including maltodextrin, sodium octenylsuccinate and gum Arabic. The micro-capsule was added to wallpaper and aromatic wallpaper with strawberry characteristics was obtained. The particle distribution, surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal property and controlled release performance of micro-encapsulated fragrance and aromatic wallpaper were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-TR, thermal gravity analysis (TGA and chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The results showed that the average diameter of micro-capsule was 2 μm and the particles mainly distributed in the tissues of wallpaper. The result of TGA showed that the micro-capsule had a good stability. Meanwhile, the aromatic wallpaper had strawberry aroma more than 3 months and took on excellent controlled release performance.

  5. Not only oxidized R-(+)- but also S-(-)- limonene is a common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, M.; Skold, M.; Borje, A.

    2006-01-01

    proven to be a good and frequent indicator of fragrance-related contact allergy. The current study extends these investigations to 6 European clinics of dermatology, where the oxidation mixture of both enantiomers of limonene (R and S) have been tested in 2411 dermatitis patients. Altogether, 63 out......, colophonium, Myroxylon pereirae, and fragrance-related contact allergy were common in patients reacting to 1 or both the oxidized limonene enantiomers. Our study provides clinical evidence for the importance of oxidation products of limonene in contact allergy. It seems advisable to screen consecutive...

  6. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Silvestre, Juan F; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Data of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. The 'basic markers' were tested on 51 477 [fragrance mix II (FM II)] to 57 123 [Myroxylon pereirae, balsam of Peru] patients, and yielded positive reactions as follows: fragrance mix I 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae 5.4%, FM II 3.8%, colophonium 2.6%, and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde 1.7%, with some regional differences. Prevalences with TRUE Test(®) allergens were lower. Additional fragrances were tested on 3643 (trimethylbenzenepropanol) to 14 071 (oil of turpentine) patients, and yielded between 2.6% (Cananga odorata) and 0.7% (trimethylbenzenepropanol) positive reactions. Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M

    2000-01-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships...... (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application...

  8. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...... frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch...

  9. The Possible Role of Contact Sensitization to Fragrances and Preservatives in Poikiloderma of Civatte

    OpenAIRE

    Khunkhet S; Wattanakrai P

    2014-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of poikiloderma of Civatte, including chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, menopause-related hormonal changes, contact hypersensitivity and genetic predisposition. Herein, we report a case of contact sensitization to fragrances and commonly used preservatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, also widely known as Kathon CG, in a post-menopausal woman with poikiloderma of Civatte,...

  10. Applications of biocatalysis in fragrance chemistry: the enantiomers of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-irones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Fuganti, Claudio; Serra, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    The history of iris extracts, and of the isolation and enzyme-mediated synthesis of their odoriferous principle, the "irones", will be used to describe the improvement brought about by chemistry and biocatalysis in the development of natural fragrances. In particular, this tutorial review will discuss how the progress in the field of enzyme chemistry allowed the optimisation of accelerated procedures for the preparation of natural irone extracts, and the synthesis of all the ten isomers of irone, starting from commercial irone alpha.

  11. The Possible Role of Contact Sensitization to Fragrances and Preservatives in Poikiloderma of Civatte

    OpenAIRE

    Khunkhet, Saranya; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2014-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of poikiloderma of Civatte (PC), including chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, menopause-related hormonal changes, contact hypersensitivity and genetic predisposition. Herein, we report a case of contact sensitization to fragrances and commonly used preservatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, also widely known as Kathon CG, in a post-menopausal woman with PC, who denied exce...

  12. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  13. Determination of 48 fragrance allergens in toys using GC with ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Li, Wentao; Li, Haiyu; Li, Pi; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Xianshuang; Qi, Meiling; Bai, Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a method for the simultaneous determination of 48 fragrance allergens in four types of toys (plastic toys, play clays, plush toys, and paper toys) based on GC with ion trap MS/MS. Compared with single-stage MS, MS/MS is superior in terms of the qualification and quantification of a large range of compounds in complicated matrices. Procedures for extraction and purification were optimized for each toy type. The method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentrations for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0.9768 and 0.9999. Validation parameters, namely, LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.005-5.0 and from 0.02-20 mg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries of target compounds (spiked at three concentration levels) were in the range of 79.5-109.1%. Intraday and interday repeatabilities of the proposed method varied from 0.7-10.5% and from 3.1-13.4%, respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor fragrance allergens in commercial toy products. Our findings indicate that this method is an accurate and effective technique for analyzing fragrance allergens in materials composed of complex components. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Designed cell consortia as fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marius; Ausländer, Simon; Spinnler, Andrea; Ausländer, David; Sikorski, Julian; Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia. The ADC consists of multiple sampling-and-quantization modules sensing analog gaseous fragrance inputs; a gas-to-liquid transducer converting fragrance intensity into diffusible cell-to-cell signaling compounds; a digitization unit with a genetic amplifier circuit to improve the signal-to-noise ratio; and recombinase-based digital expression switches enabling 2-bit processing of logic gates. Synthetic ADCs that can remotely control cellular activities with digital precision may enable the development of novel biosensors and may provide bioelectronic interfaces synchronizing analog metabolic pathways with digital electronics.

  15. Concomitant contact allergies to formaldehyde, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mixes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus; Engfeldt, Malin; Hauksson, Inese; Isaksson, Marléne

    2016-11-01

    Contact allergies to the preservatives formaldehyde and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) have been reported to appear together at a statistically significant level. Recently, revisions concerning the patch test preparations of MCI/MI, MI and formaldehyde have been recommended for the European baseline series. To investigate (i) the number of concomitant contact allergies to the preservatives, (ii) the number of concomitant contact allergies to the preservatives and the fragrance mixes (FM I and FM II) and (iii) gender differences. Patients tested with the Swedish baseline series during the period 2012-2014 at the Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology in Malmö, Sweden were investigated. 2165 patients were patch tested with the baseline series (34% males and 66% females). Contact allergies to formaldehyde and MCI/MI and/or MI were significantly associated (p fragrance allergy. Males and females do not differ significantly concerning contact allergy to fragrances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1991--March 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  17. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Potential contribution of fish feed and phytoplankton to the content of volatile terpenes in cultured Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podduturi, Raju; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Mahmud, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most recognized off-flavors in freshwater fish, but terpenes may also contribute off-flavor in fish. We identified six monoterpenes, 11 sesquiterpenes, and three terpene-related compounds in pangasius and tilapia from aquaculture farms in Bangladesh. The con...

  19. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  20. Genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of terpene synthases in pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoe; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Liqin; Wu, Xianmiao; Cheng, Tian; Li, Guanglin

    2017-10-01

    Terpene synthases (TPSs) are vital for the biosynthesis of active terpenoids, which have important physiological, ecological and medicinal value. Although terpenoids have been reported in pineapple (Ananas comosus), genome-wide investigations of the TPS genes responsible for pineapple terpenoid synthesis are still lacking. By integrating pineapple genome and proteome data, twenty-one putative terpene synthase genes were found in pineapple and divided into five subfamilies. Tandem duplication is the cause of TPS gene family duplication. Furthermore, functional differentiation between each TPS subfamily may have occurred for several reasons. Sixty-two key amino acid sites were identified as being type-II functionally divergence between TPS-a and TPS-c subfamily. Finally, coevolution analysis indicated that multiple amino acid residues are involved in coevolutionary processes. In addition, the enzyme activity of two TPSs were tested. This genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of pineapple TPS genes provide a new insight into understanding the roles of TPS family and lay the basis for further characterizing the function and evolution of TPS gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Terpene-induced porphyria and the illness of Vincent van Gogh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.; Cable, E.; Cable, J.; Clements, E.; Donohue, S.; Greene, Y.; Srivastava, K.; Arnold, W.; Bonkovsky, H. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (United States) Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Vincent van Gogh suffered from recurrent bouts of an illness that may have been acute porphyria and abused camphor and alcohol, the latter particularly in the form of absinthe, a liqueur distilled from wormwood that was popular in 19th C France. To learn whether camphor or terpenes found in absinthe are porphyrogenic, the authors studied them in cultures of chick embryo liver cells. All were found to be porphyrogenic, especially in the presence of deferoxamine. The terpenes also induced the activity and protein amount of 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and induced activities of benzphetamine demethylase. The degree of porphyrin and enzyme induction produced by 1mM camphor was similar to that produced by 50uM glutethimide, a potent porphyrogen. Potency of pinene and thujone were lower. Camphor and glutethimide both produced accumulations of 8- and 7-COOH porphyrins, whereas pinene and thujone produced 4- and 2-COOH porphyrin accumulation. The authors conclude that camphor, pinen and thujone are porphyrogenic, cable of exacerbating acute porphyria, and may have done so in van Gogh.

  2. LIQUID PHASE SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ETHYLBENZENE OVER ACTIVATED AL2O3 SUPPORTED V2O5 CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetophenone, a very useful industrial chemical for fragrance and flavoring agent and a solvent for plastics and resins, is usually produced as a byproduct of phenol production from cumeme. Aluminia supported vandium oxide catalyst is now explored for the selective oxidation of e...

  3. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems.

  4. Fragrance material review on 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all published and unpublished toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, Peter J.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; Silvestre, Juan F.; Sanchez-Perez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    Background. Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. Objective. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Methods. Data of patients

  6. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data of patie......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data...... of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  7. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Rastogi, S C; White, I R; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-12-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application test on the pre-sensitized patient. The chemical composition of the fractions giving a positive patch-test response and repeated open application test reactions was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the compounds identified, those that contained a "structural alert" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance mix. The combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships seems to be a valuable tool for the investigation of contact allergy to fragrance materials.

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  9. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...... in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...... significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...

  10. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. Gribble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB, and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93. This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96, rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25 and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27. Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95 but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30 but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93. Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28 but there were apparent differences in use of

  11. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fox, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)pent-1-en-3-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)pent-1-en-3-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)pent-1-en-3-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)pent-1-en-3-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. Submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fragrance material review on 1-(5,5-dimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(5,5-dimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(5,5-Dimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all published and unpublished toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(5,5-dimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,3-Dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,4-Dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragrance allergy and quality of life - development and validation of a disease-specific quality of life instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-02-01

    Fragrance allergy is a lifelong condition that may give rise to permanent or recurrent contact dermatitis and may affect quality of life (QoL). The effect on QoL has not yet been investigated, and no disease-specific QoL instrument for fragrance allergy exists. To develop and validate a disease-specific instrument to investigate QoL among fragrance-allergic subjects. A fragrance QoL instrument (FQL index) was developed on the basis of narratives from 68 fragrance-allergic subjects, and consisted of 13 items. It was tested in a postal survey among 1650 participants patch tested at Gentofte University Hospital (2000–2010). The survey included other QoL instruments [Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Short Form 36 (SF36) version 2] and questions on eczema severity (response rate of 66%). A retest was conducted after 3–6 months (response rate of 72.5%). The FQL index showed a significant and strong correlation with the DLQI (rS = 0.70), and disease severity, but a weak correlation with SF36 [mental component summary score, rS = − 0.22; physical component summary score, rS = − 0.31]. Good reliability and responsiveness to changes in disease severity were seen. The FQL index is a good instrument with which to investigate QoL in subjects with fragrance allergy. Good correlations with the DLQI and self-estimated disease severity were seen, and it showed good reliability, reproducibility and ability to distinguish changes in disease severity.

  17. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,5,6-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fragrance material review on methyl-2,6,10-trimethylcyclododeca-2,5,9-trien-1-yl ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of methyl 2,6,10-trimethylcyclododeca-2,5,9-trien-1-yl ketone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Methyl 2,6,10-trimethylcyclododeca-2,5,9-trien-1-yl ketone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for methyl 2,6,10-trimethylcyclododeca-2,5,9-trien-1-yl ketone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,4,4,5,5-Pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate and effects of fragrance material on the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Fragrance materials (FMs) have been used ubiquitously at low concentrations in perfume, cosmetics, detergents etc. The primary pathway into the aquatic environment is down-the-drain on a continual basis. Most published papers about FMs are concerned with the polycyclic and nitro musks. Acetyl...... organic matter content in the sediment. Therefore, We used 3 worm densities (C. teleta of the same age at 0, 44,000 and 88,000 individuals per m2), sediments with different organic matter content (4% and 2.7%) and AC spiked sediment (0, 50, 100 µg AC/g dw sed), to examine the fate of sediment...

  1. GC-MS quantitation of fragrance compounds suspected to cause skin reactions. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaintreau, Alain; Joulain, Daniel; Marin, Christophe; Schmidt, Claus-Oliver; Vey, Matthias

    2003-10-22

    Recent changes in European legislation require monitoring of 24 volatile compounds in perfumes as they might elicit skin sensitization. This paper reports a GC-MS quantitation procedure for their determination in fragrance concentrates. GC and MS conditions were optimized for a routine use: analysis within 30 min, solvent and internal standard selection, and stock solution stability. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 2-100 mg/L with coefficients of determination in excess of 0.99. The method was tested using real perfumes spiked with known amounts of reference compounds.

  2. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  3. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  4. Impact of biogenic terpene emissions from Brassica napus on tropospheric ozone over Saxony (Germany): numerical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Eberhard; Münzenberg, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The role of biogenic emissions in tropospheric ozone production is currently under discussion and major aspects are not well understood yet. This study aims towards the estimation of the influence of biogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone concentrations over Saxony in general and of biogenic emissions from brassica napus in special. MODELLING TOOLS: The studies are performed by utilizing a coupled numerical modelling system consisting of the meteorological model METRAS and the chemistry transport model MUSCAT. For the chemical part, the Euro-RADM algorithm is used. EMISSIONS: Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are taken into account. The anthropogenic emissions are introduced by an emission inventory. Biogenic emissions, VOC and NO, are calculated within the chemical transport model MUSCAT at each time step and in each grid cell depending on land use type and on the temperature. The emissions of hydrocarbons from forest areas as well as biogenic NO especially from agricultural grounds are considered. Also terpene emissions from brassica napus fields are estimated. SIMULATION SETUP AND METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS: The simulations were performed over an area with an extension of 160 x 140 km2 which covers the main parts of Saxony and neighboring areas of Brandenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thuringia. Summer smog with high ozone concentrations can be expected during high pressure conditions on hot summer days. Typical meteorological conditions for such cases were introduced in an conceptual way. It is estimated that biogenic emissions change tropospheric ozone concentrations in a noticeable way (up to 15% to 20%) and, therefore, should not be neglected in studies about tropospheric ozone. Emissions from brassica napus do have a moderate potential to enhance tropospheric ozone concentrations, but emissions are still under consideration and, therefore, results vary to a high degree. Summing up, the effect of brassica napus terpene emissions on ozone concentrations is

  5. Application of terpene-induced cell for enhancing biodegradation of TCE contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawan Luepromchai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, a chlorinated solvent, is a major water pollutant originating from spillage and inappropriate disposal of dry cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, and paint strippers. Due to its widespread contamination and potential health threat, remediation technology to clean-up TCE is necessary. Aerobic biodegradation of TCE is reported to occur via cometabolism, by which TCE degrading bacteria utilize other compounds such as toluene, phenol, and methane as growth substrate and enzyme inducer. Although toluene is reported to be the most effective inducer, it is regulated as a hazardous material and should not be applied to the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify an alternative enzyme inducer as well as to apply the induced bacteria for degradation of TCE in contaminated soil. We investigated the effect of terpenes, the main components in volatile essential oils of plants, on induction of TCE degradation in Rhodococcus gordoniae P3, a local Gram (+ bacterium. Selected terpenes including cumene, limonene, carvone and pinene at various concentrations were used in the study. Results from liquid culture showed that 25 mg l-1 cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3 cells resulted in 75% degradation of 10 ppm TCE within 24 hrs. Soil microcosms were later employed to investigate the ability of cumene to enhance TCE biodegradation in the environment. There were two bioremediation treatments studied, including bioaugmentation, the inoculation of cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3, and biostimulation, the addition of cumene to induce soil indigenous microorganisms to degrade TCE. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were shown to accelerate TCE reduction significantly more than control treatment at the beginning of study. The results suggest that cumene-induced R. gordoniae P3 and cumene can achieve rapid TCE biodegradation.

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2017-12-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (-) and (+)-limonene; whereas, (+)-menthol showed greater effect than (-)-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners.

  7. Criteria for development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R A; Domeyer, B; Easterday, O; Maier, K; Middleton, J

    2000-04-01

    Over 2000 different ingredients are used in the manufacture of fragrances. The majority of these ingredients have been used for many decades. Despite this long history of use, all of these ingredients need continued monitoring to ensure that each ingredient meets acceptable safety standards. As with other large databases of existing chemicals, fulfilling this need requires an organized approach to identify the most important potential hazards. One such approach, specifically considering the dermal route of exposure as the most relevant one for fragrance ingredients, has been developed. This approach provides a rational selection of materials for review and gives guidance for determining the test data that would normally be considered necessary for the elevation of safety under intended conditions of use. As a first step, the process takes into account the following criteria: quantity of use, consumer exposure, and chemical structure. These are then used for the orderly selection of materials for review with higher quantity, higher exposure, and the presence of defined structural alerts all contributing to a higher priority for review. These structural alerts along with certain exposure and volume limits are then used to develop guidelines for determining the quality and quantity of data considered necessary to support an adequate safety evaluation of the chosen materials, taking into account existing data on the substance itself as well as on closely related analogs. This approach can be considered an alternative to testing; therefore, it is designed to be conservative but not so much so as to require excessive effort when not justified.

  8. [Determination of 21 fragrance allergens in toys by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qing; Zang, Qing; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Kang, Suyuan; Wang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    A method of gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the determination of 21 fragrance allergens in sticker toys, plush toys and plastic toys. The experimental conditions, such as sample pretreatment conditions, and the analytical conditions of GC-IT-MS, were optimized. The sticker toy samples and plush toy samples were extracted with acetone by ultrasonic wave, and the extracts were separated on an Agilent HP-1 MS column (50 m x 0.2 mm x 0.5 microm), then determined by IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The plastic toy samples were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation approach, cleaned up with an Envi-carb solid phase extraction column and concentrated by rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing, then determined by GC-IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.002-50 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 8. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > 10) were 0.02-40 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the target compounds spiked in the sample at three concentration levels were in the range of 82.2%-110.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.6%-10.5%. These results show that this method is accurate and sensitive for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 21 fragrance allergens in the 3 types of toys.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxicity of nitrile fragrance ingredients using in vitro and in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S P; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxicity studies were conducted on a group of 8 fragrance ingredients that belong to the nitrile family. These nitriles are widely used in consumer products however there is very limited data in the literature regarding the genotoxicity of these nitriles. The 8 nitriles were assessed for genotoxicity using an Ames test, in vitro chromosome aberration test or in vitro micronucleus test. The positive results observed in the in vitro tests were further investigated using an in vivo micronucleus test. The results from these different tests were compared and these 8 nitriles are not considered to be genotoxic. Dodecanitrile and 2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enylacetonitrile were negative in the in vitro chromosome aberration test and in vitro micronucleus test, respectively. While citronellyl nitrile, 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanenitrile, cinnamyl nitrile, and 3-methyl-5-phenylpent-2-enenitrile revealed positive results in the in vitro tests, but confirmatory in vivo tests determined these nitriles to be negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay. The remaining two nitriles (benzonitrile and α-cyclohexylidene benzeneacetonitrile) were negative in the in vivo micronucleus test. This study aims to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of these nitriles as well as enrich the literature with genotoxicity data on fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  11. Fragrance patch tests prepared in advance may give false-negative reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Several of the ingredients in fragrance mix I (FM I) have been shown to evaporate from petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers to an extent that can be suspected to affect the patch test result. To compare the reactivity towards FM I and fragrance mix II (FM II) when they are applied in test chambers in advance and immediately prior to the patch test occasion. Seven hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients were simultaneously patch tested with duplicate samples of FM I and FM II. One sample was applied in the test chamber 6 days in advance (6D sample), and the other sample was applied immediately before the patients were patch tested (fresh sample). Twenty-two (2.8%) patients reacted exclusively to the fresh sample of FM I, 6 (0.7%) reacted exclusively to the 6D sample, and 22 (2.8%) reacted to both samples. The corresponding numbers for FM II were 9 (1.1%) for the fresh sample, 6 (0.7%) for the 6D sample and 12 (1.5%) for both samples. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of patients reacting to the fresh and 6D samples of FM I. No corresponding difference was observed for FM II. This can probably be explained by differences in volatilities between the ingredients of FM I and FM II. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mortality among flavour and fragrance chemical plant workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T L

    1987-01-01

    Vital status on 1 January 1981 was determined for a cohort of 1412 white men employed in a flavour and fragrance chemical plant between 1945 and 1965 in order to investigate the risks from fatal diseases among men exposed to multiple chemicals in the manufacture of fragrances, flavours, aroma chemicals, and other organic substances. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire study population and for several subsets by likelihood of exposure to chemicals, duration of employment, and year of hire. SMRs for rectal cancer and ischaemic heart disease were raised among white male employees whose jobs were in production, maintenance, laboratory, or other jobs that would involve exposure to multiple chemicals used and produced in the plant. The excess of rectal cancer was confined to employees who had worked as chemical operators and mortality was significantly raised among men who worked for ten or more years. Traces of dioxin were recently found in and around plant buildings that used trichlorophenol in the production of hexachlorophene. The study group was small and had limited power to detect excess risk of rare causes of death; however, no soft tissue sarcomas were observed during the study period. PMID:3689704

  13. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Engineering a Synthetic Microbial Consortium for Comprehensive Conversion of Algae Biomass into Terpenes for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weihua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Benjamin Chiau-Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies for algae-based biofuels have primarily focused on biodiesel production by exploiting high algal lipid yields under nutrient stress conditions. However, under conditions supporting robust algal biomass accumulation, carbohydrate and proteins typically comprise up to ~80% of the ash-free dry weight of algae biomass. Therefore, comprehensive utilization of algal biomass for production of multipurpose intermediate- to high-value bio-based products will promote scale-up of algae production and processing to commodity volumes. Terpenes are hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon-like (C:O>10:1) compounds with high energy density, and are therefore potentially promising candidates for the next generation of value added bio-based chemicals and “drop-in” replacements for petroleum-based fuels. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioconversion of proteins into sesquiterpene compounds as well as comprehensive bioconversion of algal carbohydrates and proteins into biofuels. To achieve this, the mevalonate pathway was reconstructed into an E. coli chassis with six different terpene synthases (TSs). Strains containing the various TSs produced a spectrum of sesquiterpene compounds in minimal medium containing amino acids as the sole carbon source. The sesquiterpene production was optimized through three different regulation strategies using chamigrene synthase as an example. The highest total terpene titer reached 166 mg/L, and was achieved by applying a strategy to minimize mevalonate accumulation in vivo. The highest yields of total terpene were produced under reduced IPTG induction levels (0.25 mM), reduced induction temperature (25°C), and elevated substrate concentration (20 g/L amino acid mixture). A synthetic bioconversion consortium consisting of two engineering E. coli strains (DH1-TS and YH40-TS) with reconstructed terpene biosynthetic pathways was designed for comprehensive single-pot conversion of algal carbohydrates and proteins to

  15. Investigations on the emission of fragrance allergens from scented toys by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas

    2010-04-30

    In the revised European toy safety directive 2009/48/EC the application of fragrance allergens in children's toys is restricted. The focus of the present work lies on the instrumental analytics of 13 banned fragrance allergens, as well as on 11 fragrance allergens that require declaration when concentrations surpass 100 microg per gram material. Applying a mixture of ethyl acetate and toluene solid/liquid extraction was performed prior to quantitative analysis of mass contents of fragrances in scented toys. In addition, an easy-to-perform method for the determination of emitted fragrances at 23 degrees C (handling conditions) or at 40 degrees C (worst case scenario) has been worked out to allow for the evaluation of potential risks originating from inhalation of these compounds during handling of or playing with toys. For this purpose a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Fragrance allergens were adsorbed (extracted) from the gas phase onto an 85 microm polyacrylate fiber while incubating pieces of the scented toys in sealed headspace vials at 23 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Quantification of compounds was performed via external calibration. The newly developed headspace method was subsequently applied to five perfumed toys. As expected, the emission of fragrance allergens from scented toys depends on the temperature and on the content of fragrance allergens present in those samples. In particular at conditions mimicking worst case (40 degrees C), fragrance allergens in toys may pose a risk to children since considerable amounts of compound might be absorbed by lung tissue via breathing of contaminated air. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...

  17. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N

    1997-01-01

    in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...

  18. Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Kaymak, Yesim; Karakaya, Asuman

    2014-03-01

    The present studies were performed to compare the differences between sensitization potency of fragrance mix and its ingredients (oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal), by using ex vivo LLNA-BrdU ELISA. The SI and EC3 values were calculated and potency classification was found for the mixture and for each ingredients. TH1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) releases from lymph node cell culture were also investigated as contact sensitization endpoints. The EC3 values were calculated and the potency of contact sensitization were classified for fragrance mix, oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal respectively: 4.4% (moderate), 3.4% (moderate), 0.88% (strong), 16.6% (weak), 1.91% (moderate), 9.77% (moderate), 13.1% (weak), 17.93% (weak), 7.74% (moderate). According to our results it should be concluded that exposure to fragrance mix does not constitute an evidently increased hazard compared to exposure to each of the eight fragrance ingredients separately. Cytokine analyses results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 cytokines are involved in the regulation of murine contact allergy and can be considered as useful endpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-01-01

    various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn...

  20. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, fill...

  1. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste water treatment plants as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    To investigate waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two WWTPs and two reference sites using high volume samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges, extracted compound-dependent by MTBE/acetone, methanol, or hexane/acetone and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Total (gas + particle phase) concentrations ranged from 97 to 1004 pg m -3 (neutral PFCs), -3 (ionic PFCs), 5781 to 482,163 pg m -3 (musk fragrances) and -3 (PBDEs) and were usually higher at WWTPs than at corresponding reference sites, revealing that WWTPs can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, PFCs and probably PBDEs to the atmosphere. Different concentrations at the two WWTPs indicated an influence of WWTP size or waste water origin on emitted contaminant amounts. - Waste water treatment plants can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to the atmosphere

  3. Contact allergy to essential oils cannot always be predicted from allergy to fragrance markers in the baseline series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroe, Ruth A; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2016-04-01

    Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using terpenes rich extract of Lantana camara L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriniwas P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several attempts have been made for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using different plant extracts. Present study revealed that, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic AgNPs were synthesized using terpenes-rich extract (TRE of environmentally notorious Lantana camara L. leaves. AgNPs were characterized by advanced techniques like UV–Visible and Infra red spectroscopy; XRD, SEM techniques as terpenes coated sphere shaped NPs with average diameter 425 nm. Further, on evaluation, AgNPs were found to exhibit dose – dependent antioxidant potential, good to moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and toxicity on Brine shrimp (A. salinanauplii with LD50 value 514.50 µg/ml.

  5. QCM-Arrays for Sensing Terpenes in Fresh and Dried Herbs via Bio-Mimetic MIP Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Iqbal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A piezoelectric 10 MHz multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM, coated with six molecularly imprinted polystyrene artificial recognition membranes have been developed for selective quantification of terpenes emanated from fresh and dried Lamiaceae family species, i.e., rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L., basil (Ocimum Basilicum and sage (Salvia Officinalis. Optimal e-nose parameters, such as layer heights (1–6 KHz, sensitivity

  6. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  7. The effect of bleaching on the terpene chemistry of Plexaurella fusifera: evidence that zooxanthellae are not responsible for sesquiterpene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz-Ross, Jamie L; Enticknap, Julie J; Kerr, Russell G

    2008-01-01

    The close association between marine invertebrates, zooxanthellae, and numerous bacteria gives rise to the question of the identity of the actual producer of secondary metabolites. In fall of 2005, a widespread bleaching event occurred throughout the Caribbean Sea in which some colonies of the gorgonian coral Plexaurella fusifera bleached. This study investigated whether zooxanthellae play a key role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite terpenes from P. fusifera. The extent of bleaching was examined by chlorophyll A analysis and also by zooxanthellae isolation and cell counting. The bleached and unbleached colonies were found to contain similar concentrations of eremophilene as the major terpene, and both exhibited similar biosynthetic capability as evaluated by the transformation of [C(1)-(3)H]-farnesyl diphosphate to the sesquiterpenes. Differences in bacterial communities between the bleached and unbleached colonies were analyzed using molecular techniques, and preliminary indications are that unbleached and bleached corals are dominated by low G + C firmicutes and gammaproteobacteria, respectively. It therefore appears that terpene biosynthesis can proceed independently of the zooxanthellae in P. fusifera, suggesting that the coral or a bacterium is the biosynthetic source.

  8. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on terpene concentrations of ewes' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Eunate; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Albisu, Marta; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco José; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2011-05-01

    Terpene composition of ewes' raw milk from nine commercial flocks was analysed from February to July. Ewes' diet consisted of concentrate and conserved forage in winter (indoor feeding) and part-time grazing from spring (transition and outdoor feeding). Regardless of the feeding, limonene and β-phellandrene were the most abundant monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene showed the highest concentrations among sesquiterpenes. Terpene content increased in the milks of commercial flocks when animals were reared under grazing management. Monoterpenes were detected in the milks of all the commercial flocks throughout the season, whereas sesquiterpenes were only detected in the milks from flocks grazing on non-cultivated community-owned grasslands in which a higher biodiversity of plant species grew. These preliminary results indicated that β-caryophyllene could be a potential pasture-diet marker in the case of milks from animals grazing a higher biodiversity of plant species but in-depth studies including information on terpene composition of plants ingested by the animals are necessary to evaluate the suitability of β-caryophyllene or another terpenoid compound as pasture biomarker.

  9. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm(2) ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. Objectives. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm(2) for the 12 fragrance substances......, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm(2) ) be used for aimed and screening patch testing....... that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Materials and Methods. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual...

  10. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Festner, Maria; Dregus, Márta; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-09-15

    The essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Using a homology-based PCR strategy, two monoterpene synthases (LaLIMS and LaLINS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (LaBERS) were cloned from lavender leaves and flowers. LaLIMS catalyzed the formation of (R)-(+)-limonene, terpinolene, (1R,5S)-(+)-camphene, (1R,5R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene and traces of alpha-phellandrene. The proportions of these products changed significantly when Mn(2+) was supplied as the cofactor instead of Mg(2+). The second enzyme LaLINS produced exclusively (R)-(-)-linalool, the main component of lavender essential oil. LaBERS transformed farnesyl diphosphate and represents the first reported trans-alpha-bergamotene synthase. It accepted geranyl diphosphate with higher affinity than farnesyl diphosphate and also produced monoterpenes, albeit at low rates. LaBERS is probably derived from a parental monoterpene synthase by the loss of the plastidial signal peptide and by broadening its substrate acceptance spectrum. The identification and description of the first terpene synthases from L. angustifolia forms the basis for the biotechnological modification of essential oil composition in lavender.

  12. Terpenes, Phenylpropanoids, Sulfur and Other Essential Oil Constituents as Inhibitors of Cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcul, Franko; Blazevic, Ivica; Radan, Mila; Politeo, Olivera

    2018-03-29

    Essential oils constituents are a diverse family of low molecular weight organic compounds with comprehensive biological activity. According to their chemical structure these active compounds can be divided into four major groups: terpenes, terpenoids, phenylpropenes, and "others". In addition, they may contain diverse functional groups according to which they can be classified as hydrocarbons (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons); oxygenated compounds (monoterpene and sesquiterpene alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and other oxygenated compounds); and sulfur and/or nitrogen sulfur-containing compounds (thioesters, sulfides, isothiocyantes, nitriles, and others). Compounds that act as cholinesterase inhibitors still represent the only pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer´s disease. Numerous in vitro studies showed that some compounds, found in essential oils, have a promising cholinesterase inhibitory activity, such as α-pinene, δ-3-carene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol, thymohydroquinone, α- and β-asarone, anethole, etc. This review summarizes the most relevant research published to date on essential oil constituents and their acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potential as well as their structure related activity, synergistic and antagonistic effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1990--March 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-12-31

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target ``regulatory`` enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 30}) produced by oil glands.

  14. The possible role of contact sensitization to fragrances and preservatives in poikiloderma of civatte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunkhet, Saranya; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2014-09-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of poikiloderma of Civatte (PC), including chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, menopause-related hormonal changes, contact hypersensitivity and genetic predisposition. Herein, we report a case of contact sensitization to fragrances and commonly used preservatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, also widely known as Kathon CG, in a post-menopausal woman with PC, who denied excessive sun exposure and a family history. After abstaining from the use of her personal care products containing the documented allergens, not only the itching and burning symptoms, but also the cutaneous changes appeared to improve partially. This report underlines the possible influence of contact hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of PC.

  15. The Possible Role of Contact Sensitization to Fragrances and Preservatives in Poikiloderma of Civatte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Khunkhet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of poikiloderma of Civatte (PC, including chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, menopause-related hormonal changes, contact hypersensitivity and genetic predisposition. Herein, we report a case of contact sensitization to fragrances and commonly used preservatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, also widely known as Kathon CG, in a post-menopausal woman with PC, who denied excessive sun exposure and a family history. After abstaining from the use of her personal care products containing the documented allergens, not only the itching and burning symptoms, but also the cutaneous changes appeared to improve partially. This report underlines the possible influence of contact hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of PC.

  16. CK One: a shared fragrance. Corporeità e sessualità gender-free

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca De Bortoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polarization masculine/feminine which, in the 1980s, shaped the representation of sexuality and the body in the discourse of fashion - both in the delimitation of market segments ("Pour homme"/ "Pour femme" and in the semantic positioning of the terms of the category of sexuality - dropped in the 1990s, under the impulse of new proposals that appealed to a new conceptualization of a more inclusive sexuality (in line with the newborn Queer Theory. The advertising campaign for the fragrance Calvin Klein One exemplifies this process; it is hereby analyzed with the aim to provide a paradigmatic example of such a shift in perspective, concerning the themes of sexuality and body representation. The analysis considers several aspects of the campaign and makes a diachronic comparison with other previous advertising campaigns from the same fashion house; thus, the innovation and shift from a separatist and stereotyping paradigm to a more inclusive and neutralizing one are even more highlighted.

  17. Sensing of Scent, Fragrance, Smell, and Odor Emissions from Biota Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People encounter enormous numbers of chemicals present in the outdoor atmosphere and/or in the various facilities they use daily. Despite such diversity, not many of them have necessarily the potential to draw human’s nasal attraction if their perception thresholds are in general not sufficiently low enough, regardless of abundance. In this sense, many types of scents, musks, fragrances, smells, odors, and pheromones are unique enough to draw a great deal of attention mainly by their presence at or near threshold levels which are far lower than those of common chemicals with poor odorant characteristics. It is known that most of the diverse characters of odor-related ingredients or expressions are commonly produced from various biota sources present in the biosphere, e.g., fauna, flora, bacteria, fruits, flowers, trees, meats, fresh/decaying foods, etc.

  18. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {l_brace}2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  19. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K.

    2011-01-01

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2)} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  20. Testing with fragrance mix. Is the addition of sorbitan sesquioleate to the constituents useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Burrows, D; Camarasa, J G; Lachapelle, J M; Lahti, A; Menné, T; Wilkinson, J D

    1995-05-01

    In a multicentre study, the value of adding sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO) to the constituents of the 8% fragrance mix (FM) was investigated. In 7 centres, 709 consecutive patients were tested with 2 types of FM from different sources, its 8 constituents with 1% SSO, its 8 constituents without SSO, and 20% SSO. 5 patients (0.71%) reacted to the emulsifier SSO itself, read as definitely allergic on day 3/4. 53 patients reacted to either one of the mixes with an allergic type of reaction. When tested with the constituents without SSO, 41.5% showed an allergic reaction versus 54.7% with SSO. If both types of reactions were considered (allergic and irritant) 38.3% of 73 patients showed a positive "breakdown" result without SSO, versus 54.8% with SSO. The differences were statistically significant. Reactivity to FM constituents was changed in a specific pattern by addition of SSO--irritant reactions increased, particularly for cinnamic alcohol, eugenol, geraniol, oak moss and hydroxycitronellal, whereas others showed only a slight change. Allergic reactions were also increased by SSO, but the rank order of the top 3 sensitizers (isoeugenol, oak moss and eugenol) did not change. Cinnamic alcohol was the only constituent with decreased reactivity after addition of SSO. A positive history of fragrance sensitivity (HFS) was clearly associated with a positive allergic reaction to either the mix or 1 of its constituents (51% versus 28.6% with a negative HFS). Irritant reactions were linked to a negative HFS in a high proportion (64.3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula L. Vieira-Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils (EOs are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products–air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray–for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (− and (+-limonene; whereas, (+-menthol showed greater effect than (−-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners. Keywords: Essential oils, Soap, Body spray, Air freshener

  2. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the photodegradation of a fragrance ingredient for aquatic environmental fate assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianming; Emberger, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Photodegradation is an important abiotic degradation process to be taken into account for more accurate assessment of the fate of chemicals in the aquatic environment, especially those that are not readily biodegradable. Although the significant role of indirect photodegradation in the environmental fate of chemicals has been revealed in recent research, because of the many confounding factors affecting its kinetics, no straightforward approaches can be used to investigate this degradation process for environmental fate assessment. The indirect photodegradation of a fragrance ingredient named Pamplewood was studied in this work for its fate assessment. Indirect photodegradation rates under various indoor and outdoor conditions were measured by using an LC-MS method. Although the half-lives varied from 4 to 13 days, they collectively indicated that Pamplewood is intrinsically photolabile and can undergo rapid photodegradation. Results from quencher experiments revealed that ⋅OH was the main reactive intermediate responsible for indirect photodegradation, with a half-life of about 18 days in sunlit surface water, based on the experimentally determined second-order rate constant (8.48 ± 0.19 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 ). Photodegradation products of Pamplewood were also studied by GC-MS, LC-MS and total organic carbon content analyses. The results indicated that intermediates of Pamplewood photodegradation continued to photodegrade into smaller and more polar species. Complete mineralization of Pamplewood was observed when it was reacted with hydroxyl radicals in an aqueous solution. This novel approach can be applied for a more realistic environmental fate assessment of other non-readily biodegradable, hydrolysis-resistant, and non-sunlight-absorbing fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fragrance chemicals lyral and lilial decrease viability of HaCat cells' by increasing free radical production and lowering intracellular ATP level: protection by antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Julnar; Hachem, Yassmine; El-Rifai, Omar; Bou-Moughlabey, Yolla; Echtay, Karim; Griffiths, David; Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Rajaa Fakhoury

    2013-02-01

    We investigate in this study the biochemical effects on cells in culture of two commonly used fragrance chemicals: lyral and lilial. Whereas both chemicals exerted a significant effect on primary keratinocyte(s), HaCat cells, no effect was obtained with any of HepG2, Hek293, Caco2, NIH3T3, and MCF7 cells. Lyral and lilial: (a) decreased the viability of HaCat cells with a 50% cell death at 100 and 60 nM respectively; (b) decreased significantly in a dose dependant manner the intracellular ATP level following 12-h of treatment; (c) inhibited complexes I and II of electron transport chain in liver sub-mitochondrial particles; and (d) increased reactive oxygen species generation that was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and trolox and the natural antioxidant lipoic acid, without influencing the level of free and/or oxidized glutathione. Lipoic acid protected HaCat cells against the decrease in viability induced by either compound. Dehydrogenation of lyral and lilial produce α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that reacts with lipoic acid requiring proteins resulting in their inhibition. We propose lyral and lilial as toxic to mitochondria that have a direct effect on electron transport chain, increase ROS production, derange mitochondrial membrane potential, and decrease cellular ATP level, leading thus to cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A

    2009-01-01

    subjects were tested in total. The median prevalence of FM and MP sensitization among adults was 2.3% (women, 1.7%; men, 1.3%) and 1.1% (women, 1.4%; men, 0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the reliability of patch test data from the general population and exposure data obtained from patients...... the prevalence of fragrance sensitization in the general population, and to suggest how future population-based studies and questionnaires should be constructed, better to assess the prevalence and burden of fragrance sensitization. This is of relevance as it is often difficult to establish causality...... in biological systems. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Pubmed-Medline, Biosis and contact dermatitis textbooks. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified, of which 13 were performed among adults. Sample sizes varied between 82 and 2545 tested subjects, and 11 648...

  6. Micro/nanoencapsulation of essential oils and fragrances: Focus on perfumed, antimicrobial, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Herbal products have been widely used due to good antimicrobial, fragrance and medical properties. Essential oils and fragrances can be applied on the textile substrates as micro/nanocapsules to prolong lifetime by controlling the release rate. The present review tries to give a general overview on the application of micro/nanoencapsulated essential oils on the textile substrates to achieve aromatherapy textiles. These are divided into four diverse categories as the following: antimicrobial, perfumed, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles. The reports in this field revealed that the encapsulation technique plays an important role in the finishing of plant extracts on the textile substrates. It is also anticipated that aromatherapy textiles have to be developed in the new fields such as multifunctional textiles having wound-healing, antimicrobial and fragrant properties.

  7. Induction of Terpene Biosynthesis in Berries of Microvine Transformed with VvDXS1 Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Dalla Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, are major aroma-impact compounds in grape and wine. Previous studies highlighted a key regulatory role for grapevine 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (VvDXS1, the first enzyme of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. Here, the parallel analysis of VvDXS1 genotype and terpene concentration in a germplasm collection demonstrated that VvDXS1 sequence has a very high predictive value for the accumulation of monoterpenes and also has an influence on sesquiterpene levels. A metabolic engineering approach was applied by expressing distinct VvDXS1 alleles in the grapevine model system “microvine” and assessing the effects on downstream pathways at transcriptional and metabolic level in different organs and fruit developmental stages. The underlying goal was to investigate two potential perturbation mechanisms, the former based on a significant over-expression of the wild-type (neutral VvDXS1 allele and the latter on the ex-novo expression of an enzyme with increased catalytic efficiency from the mutated (muscat VvDXS1 allele. The integration of the two VvDXS1 alleles in distinct microvine lines was found to alter the expression of several terpenoid biosynthetic genes, as assayed through an ad hoc developed TaqMan array based on cDNA libraries of four aromatic cultivars. In particular, enhanced transcription of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and carotenoid pathway genes was observed. The accumulation of monoterpenes in ripe berries was higher in the transformed microvines compared to control plants. This effect is predominantly attributed to the improved activity of the VvDXS1 enzyme coded by the muscat allele, whereas the up-regulation of VvDXS1 plays a secondary role in the increase of monoterpenes.

  8. Taxadiene Synthase Structure and Evolution of Modular Architecture in Terpene Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Köksal; Y Jin; R Coates; R Croteau; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    With more than 55,000 members identified so far in all forms of life, the family of terpene or terpenoid natural products represents the epitome of molecular biodiversity. A well-known and important member of this family is the polycyclic diterpenoid Taxol (paclitaxel), which promotes tubulin polymerization and shows remarkable efficacy in cancer chemotherapy. The first committed step of Taxol biosynthesis in the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) is the cyclization of the linear isoprenoid substrate geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to form taxa-4(5),11(12)diene, which is catalysed by taxadiene synthase. The full-length form of this diterpene cyclase contains 862 residues, but a roughly 80-residue amino-terminal transit sequence is cleaved on maturation in plastids. We now report the X-ray crystal structure of a truncation variant lacking the transit sequence and an additional 27 residues at the N terminus, hereafter designated TXS. Specifically, we have determined structures of TXS complexed with 13-aza-13,14-dihydrocopalyl diphosphate (1.82 {angstrom} resolution) and 2-fluorogeranylgeranyl diphosphate (2.25 {angstrom} resolution). The TXS structure reveals a modular assembly of three {alpha}-helical domains. The carboxy-terminal catalytic domain is a class I terpenoid cyclase, which binds and activates substrate GGPP with a three-metal ion cluster. The N-terminal domain and a third 'insertion' domain together adopt the fold of a vestigial class II terpenoid cyclase. A class II cyclase activates the isoprenoid substrate by protonation instead of ionization, and the TXS structure reveals a definitive connection between the two distinct cyclase classes in the evolution of terpenoid biosynthesis.

  9. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoradova-Murinova, Slavomira; Dudasova, Hana; Lukacova, Lucia; Certik, Milan; Dercova, Katarina [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology and Food Science; Silharova, Katarina; Vrana, Branislav [Water Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes. (orig.)

  10. Parameters for Novel Production of Fruity Floral Fragrance Ester (Geranyl Butyrate) by Locally Isolated Lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Raikhan, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    Geranyl butyrate has been synthesized successfully using our locally isolated lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT) as the fragrance ester with aim to be used in a nanotechnology fragrance application. We have used and modified few parameters from the previous research and then, continued with optimization of the synthesis by looking into degree of esterification and water content in the system. Butyric acid (C4), stearic acid (C18: 0), caprylic acid (C8), linolenic acid (C18: 3), myristic acid (C14), linoleic acid (C18: 2) and oleic acid (C18: 1) were used in the substrate selection. The yield of geranyl butyrate before the optimization was 31.68±0.01%. The optimum parameters for the synthesis of geranyl butyrate were recorded as temperature of 65°C, shaking rate at 200 rpm, 5.0 ml of geraniol and 0.40 ml of butyric acid and 4.0 ml of n-butanol and 0.40 ml of oleic acid. After the optimization, geranyl butyrate synthesis was increased by 297% as to compare with the value before the parameters were optimized. We also have significantly reduced water content as a byproduct of the esterification and managed to run the system a success. The ability thermotolerant lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (LGT) in this synthesis is novel to Malaysian fragrance industry.

  11. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  12. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  13. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  14. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Angelini

    Full Text Available Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring, 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to

  15. Human metabolism and excretion kinetics of the fragrance lysmeral after a single oral dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Koch, Holger M; Schütze, Andre; Pluym, Nikola; Krnac, Dusan; Gilch, Gerhard; Leibold, Edgar; Scherer, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    2-(4-tert-Butylbenzyl)propionaldehyde, also known as lysmeral, lilial or lily-aldehyde (CAS No 80-54-6) is a synthetic fragrance used in a variety of consumer products like perfumes, after shave lotions, cosmetics and others. Due to its broad application, lysmeral was selected for the development of a biomonitoring method for the general population within the frame of the cooperation project of the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI). The project also comprises the identification of suitable biomarkers of exposure in human urine as well as basic toxicokinetic data after defined, experimental exposure. For this purpose, 5 healthy subjects were orally dosed once with 5.26mg lysmeral. Urine was collected immediately before and for 48h after administration of the fragrance. The lysmeral metabolites lysmerol, lysmerylic acid, hydroxylated lysmerylic acid and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (TBBA) were determined in all urine samples by a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry) method. Peak excretion for all metabolites occurred between 2 and 5h after oral application, with the primary metabolites (lysmerol and lysmerylic acid) being excreted about 1h earlier than the secondary metabolites (hydroxylated lysmerylic acid and TBBA). More than 90% of all measured lysmeral metabolites were excreted after 12h, with the renal excretion being virtually complete after 48h. After this time period, TBBA, lysmerol, lysmerylic acid and hydroxyl-lysmerylic acid represent on average 14.3, 1.82, 0.20 and 0.16%, respectively, of the dose administered. In total, the 4 metabolites determined represent about 16.5% of the dose. With the conversion factors derived from the controlled human study, we estimated median exposure doses for lysmeral in a group of 40 human volunteers from the general population of approximately 140-220μg per day. In conclusion, the lysmeral

  16. Stereoselective Copolymerization of Styrene with Terpenes Catalyzed by an Ansa-Lanthanidocene Catalyst: Access to New Syndiotactic Polystyrene-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Laur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The copolymerization of bio-renewable β-myrcene or β-farnesene with styrene was examined using an ansa-neodymocene catalyst, affording two series of copolymers with high styrene content and unprecedented syndioregularity of the polystyrene sequences. The incorporation of terpene in the copolymers ranged from 5.6 to 30.8 mol % (β-myrcene and from 2.5 to 9.8 mol % (β-farnesene, respectively. NMR spectroscopy and DSC analyses suggested that the microstructure of the copolymers consists of 1,4- and 3,4-poly(terpene units randomly distributed along syndiotactic polystyrene chains. The thermal properties of the copolymers are strongly dependent on the terpene content, which is easily controlled by the initial feed. The terpolymerization of styrene with β-myrcene in the presence of ethylene was also examined.

  17. The variability of sesquiterpenes emitted from two Zea mays cultivars is controlled by allelic variation of two terpene synthase genes encoding stereoselective multiple product enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Tobias G; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes.

  18. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fragrance allergens in baby bathwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-07-01

    A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of fragrance allergens in water samples. This is the first study devoted to this family of cosmetic ingredients performed by SPME. The influence of parameters such as fibre coating, extraction and desorption temperatures, salting-out effect and sampling mode on the extraction efficiency has been studied by means of a mixed-level factorial design, which allowed the study of the main effects as well as two-factor interactions. Excluding desorption temperature, the other parameters were, in general, very important for the achievement of high response. The final procedure was based on headspace sampling at 100 degrees C, using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fibres. The method showed good linearity and precision for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the evaluation of the recoveries in different real water samples, including baby bathwater and swimming pool water. The absence of matrix effects allowed the use of external standard calibration to quantify the target compounds in the samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of allergens in several real samples. All the target compounds were found in the samples, and, in some cases, at quite high concentrations. The presence and the levels of these chemicals in baby bathwater should be a matter of concern.

  19. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, K E

    1997-01-01

    with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...... and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...... were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid...

  20. Fragrance material review on 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. OTNE is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for OTNE were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Determination of fragrance allergens in indoor air by active sampling followed by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-03-19

    Fragrances are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, present in the most of household products, air fresheners, insecticides and cosmetics. Commercial perfumes may contain hundreds of individual fragrance chemicals. In addition to the widespread use and exposure to fragranced products, many of the raw fragrance materials have limited available health and safety data. Because of their nature as artificial fragrances, inhalation should be considered as an important exposure pathway, especially in indoor environments. In this work, a very simple, fast, and sensitive methodology for the analysis of 24 fragrance allergens in indoor air is presented. Considered compounds include those regulated by the EU Directive, excluding limonene; methyl eugenol was also included due to its toxicity. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a very low amount of adsorbent to retain the target compounds, and the rapid ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) using a very low volume of solvent which avoids further extract concentration. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influence of main factors involved in the UAE step (type of adsorbent and solvent, solvent volume and extraction time) was studied using an experimental design approach to account for possible factor interactions. Using the optimized procedure, 0.2 m(-3) air are sampled, analytes are retained on 25 mg Florisil, from which they are extracted by UAE (5 min) with 2 mL ethyl acetate. Linearity was demonstrated in a wide concentration range. Efficiency of the total sampling-extraction process was studied at several concentration levels (1, 5 and 125 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries, and good precision (RSD<10%). Method detection limits were < or =0.6 microg m(-3). Finally, the proposed method was applied to real samples collected in indoor environments in which several of the target compounds were determined. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B

  3. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  4. Fragrance material review on 3-methyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)pent-3-en-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-methyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)pent-3-en-2-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Methyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)pent-3-en-2-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-methyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)pent-3-en-2-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. Submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of sulfonated graphene/polypyrrole solid-phase microextraction coating by in situ electrochemical polymerization for analysis of trace terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-06-13

    In this study, a novel sulfonated graphene/polypyrrole (SG/PPy) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating was prepared and fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a one-step in situ electrochemical polymerization method. Crucial preparation conditions were optimized as polymerization time of 15min and SG doping amount of 1.5mg/mL. SG/PPy coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifespan of more than 200 stable replicate extractions. SG/PPy coating demonstrated higher extraction selectivity and capacity to volatile terpenes than commonly-used commercial coatings. Finally, SG/PPy coating was practically applied for the analysis of volatile components from star anise and fennel samples. The majority of volatile components identified were terpenes, which suggested the ultra-high extraction selectivity of SG/PPy coating to terpenes during real analytical projects. Four typical volatile terpenes were further quantified to be 0.2-27.4μg/g from star anise samples with good recoveries of 76.4-97.8% and 0.1-1.6μg/g from fennel samples with good recoveries of 80.0-93.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment.

  7. Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra R L; Silva, Viviane B; Melo, Manuela A; Barbosa, Juliana D F; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-12-01

    In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. p-Cymene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency LC₅₀ = 51 ppm, whereas 1,8-cineole exhibited the lowest activity value LC₅₀ = 1419 ppm. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds, the structure-toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency. In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. aegypti larvae as other terpenes, which we assume to be the result of the increased lipophilicity.

  8. New insights into the microemulsion-based chromatographic NMR resolution mechanism and its application to fragrance/flavor molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Roy E.; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2012-07-01

    The NMR chromatography method is applied to a class of molecules with similar physical properties. We correlate the separation ability of microemulsions to the physical properties of the analyzed molecules. Flavor and aroma compounds are very widespread. Compositional analysis is in many cases tedious. Any new method of analysis is always useful and challenging. Here we show a new application to a class of fragrance molecules, with only a moderate variation in their chemical and physical characteristics. Up to 11 selected compounds in one mixture are resolved in one spectrum by NMR chromatography, despite the similarity of the compounds. The differences between O/W and W/O microemulsions and their resolution mechanism as applied to fragrance molecules are explained in terms of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity and effective critical packing parameters of the microemulsions. The observed diffusion rates are shown to correlate with solvation parameters. These results can be used to estimate the diffusion rates of molecules to be separated, allowing selection of the microemulsion or NMR chromatography solvent appropriate for each specific application.

  9. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in sun-dried raisins made from different fragrance intensities grape varieties using a validated HS-SPME with GC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Javed, Hafiz Umer; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    The conditions of sample pretreatments and HS-SPME for extracting volatile compounds from raisins were optimized, and the method was validated in the study. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in three different fragrance intensities raisins were analysed using this method. There were 91 compounds identified, and 72, 26 and 8 of these compounds came from fresh grapes, the auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAO) and the Maillard reaction, respectively. The aroma profiles of Thompson Seedless raisins (TSRs) and Centennial Seedless raisins (CSRs) were similar, while the floral, fruity, green and roasted aromas of CSRs were higher than those of TSRs due to the contributions of benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran, (E)-2-nonenal and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine. Decanal, rose oxide, geraniol, linalool and β-damascenone made the floral and fruity aromas of Zixiang Seedless raisins (ZSRs) greater than those in TSRs and CSRs, but the green and roasted aroma intensities of ZSRs were lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1997-01-01

    and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...... if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series....... with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...

  12. Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1995-01-01

    ), citronellol (1) and amyl salicylate (1)). The remaining 41 fragrances were negative. 28 irritant or doubtful reactions on day 3/4 were observed to a total of 19 FF materials (more than 1 reaction: 5% citronellol (2), 1% amyl salicylate (2), 1% isononyl acetate (3), 0.1% musk xylol (2), 1% citral (2), and 1...

  13. Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Dirksen, A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfume and fragrance products may, in some individuals, cause symptoms from the eyes and airways. The localization, character and risk factors of such symptoms in the general population are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both the localization and character of symptoms...

  14. Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Andersen, K E; Burrows, D; Camarasa, J G; Dooms-Goossens, A; Ducombs, G; Fuchs, T; Hannuksela, M; Lachapelle, J M

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of reactivity to a series of commonly used fragrances in dermatological patients. A total of 48 fragrances (FF) were chosen, based on the publication of Fenn in 1989 in which the top 25 constituents of 3 types (1. perfumes, 2. household products, 3. soaps) of 400 commercial products on the US market had been determined. In a pilot study on a total of 1069 patients in 11 centres, the appropriate test concentration and vehicle were examined. For most fragrances, 1% and 5% were chosen, and petrolatum proved to be the best vehicle in comparison to isopropyl myristate and diethyl phthalate. In the main study, a set of 5 to 10 fragrances at 2 concentrations was patch tested in each centre on a minimum of 100 consecutive patients seen in the patch test clinic. These patients were also patch tested to a standard series with the 8% fragrance mix (FM) and its 8 constituents. In patients with a positive reaction to any of the 48 FF, a careful history with regard to past or present reactions to perfumed products was taken. A total of 1323 patients were tested in 11 centres. The 8% FM was positive in 89 patients (8.3% of 1072 patients). Allergic reactions to the constituents were most frequent to oak moss (24), isoeugenol (20), eugenol (13), cinnamic aldehyde (10) and geraniol (8). Reactions read as allergic on day 3/4 were observed only 10X to 7 materials of the new series (Iso E Super (2), Lyral (3), Cyclacet (1), DMBCA (1), Vertofix (1), citronellol (1) and amyl salicylate (1)). The remaining 41 fragrances were negative. 28 irritant or doubtful reactions on day 3/4 were observed to a total of 19 FF materials (more than 1 reaction: 5% citronellol (2), 1% amyl salicylate (2), 1% isononyl acetate (3), 0.1% musk xylol (2), 1% citral (2), and 1% ionone beta (2)). Clinical relevance of positive reactions to any of the FF series was not proved in a single case. This included the 4 reactions in patients who were negative to

  15. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  16. Profiling of the Terpene Metabolome in Carrot Fruits of Wild ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) Accessions and Characterization of a Geraniol Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ibdah, Muhammad; Marzouk, Sally; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2018-03-14

    Fruits from wild carrot ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1. Recombinant WtDcTPS1 protein produces mainly geraniol, the predominant monoterpene in carrot seeds of wild accession 23727. The results suggest a role for the WtDcTPS1 gene in the biosynthesis of carrot fruit aroma and flavor compounds.

  17. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L Joyce

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1 to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2 to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass. Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  18. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  19. Multivariate optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of terpenes in Nicotiana langsdorffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini, Francisco; Carro, Marina Di; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Grotti, Marco; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of five terpenes (α-pinene, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, and geraniol) in the leaves of Nicotiana langsdorffii. The microextraction conditions (extraction temperature, equilibration time, and extraction time) were optimized by means of a Doehlert design. The experimental design showed that, for α-pinene and limonene, a low temperature and a long extraction time were needed for optimal extraction, while linalool, α-terpineol, and geraniol required a high temperature and a long extraction time. The chosen compromise conditions were temperature 60°C, equilibration time 15 min and extraction time 50 min. The main analytical figures of the optimized method were evaluated; LODs ranged from 0.07 ng/g (α-pinene) to 8.0 ng/g (geraniol), while intraday and interday repeatability were in the range 10-17% and 9-13%, respectively. Finally, the procedure was applied to in vitro wild-type and transgenic specimens of N. langsdorffii subjected to abiotic stresses (chemical and heat stress). With the exception of geraniol (75-374 ng/g), low concentration levels of terpenes were measured (ng/g level or lower); some interesting variations in terpene concentration induced by abiotic stress were observed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  1. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    order was the same for both FM II concentrations: hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) > citral > farnesol > citronellol > alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (AHCA). No unequivocally positive reaction to coumarin was observed. Lyral) was the dominant individual constituent, with positive...... and a positive reaction to either 28% or 14% FM II but a negative reaction to FM I. Analysis with GC-MS in a total of 24 products obtained from 12 patients showed at least 1-5 individual constituents per product: Lyral (79.2%), citronellol (87.5%), AHCA (58.3%), citral (50%) and coumarin (50%). The patients were...... patch test positive to Lyral, citral and AHCA. In conclusion, patients with a certain fragrance history and a negative reaction to FM I can be identified by FM II. Testing with individual constituents is positive in about 50% of cases reacting to either 14% or 28% FM II....

  2. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde- known as Lyral: quantitative aspects and risk assessment of an important fragrance allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Frosch, Peter J; Svedman, C

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, also known as Lyral, is a fragrance ingredient identified as the cause of contact allergic reactions in 2-3% of eczema patients undergoing patch testing. Lyral has been included in the standard patch test series in many clinics due to its importance...... as an allergen. It has been used without restrictions in cosmetic products, until now. In the present study, the dose-response relationship of Lyral contact allergy was studied with doses relevant for normal exposure in cosmetic products. 18 eczema patients, who previously had given a positive patch test...... to Lyral 5% petrolatum, were included along with 7 control subjects. All cases were tested with a serial dilution of Lyral in ethanol 6% to 6 p.p.m and subjected to a 2-week, repeated open application test with a low dose of Lyral in ethanol. In the case of no reaction, this was followed by another 2 weeks...

  3. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia; Brinkmeier, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menne, Torkil

    2005-04-01

    A new fragrance mix (FM II), with 6 frequently used chemicals not present in the currently used fragrance mix (FM I), was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe, as previously reported. In this publication, test results with the individual constituents and after repeated open application test (ROAT) of FM II are described. Furthermore, cosmetic products which had caused a contact dermatitis in patients were analysed for the presence of the individual constituents. In 1701 patients, the individual constituents of the medium (14%) and the highest (28%) concentration of FM II were simultaneously applied with the new mix at 3 concentrations (break-down testing for the lowest concentration of FM II (2.8%) was performed only if the mix was positive). ROAT was performed with the concentration of the FM II which had produced a positive or doubtful (+ or ?+) patch test reaction. Patients' products were analysed for the 6 target compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 50 patients (2.9%) showed a positive reaction to 14% FM II and 70 patients (4.1%) to 28% FM II. 24/50 (48%) produced a positive reaction to 1 or more of the individual constituents of 14% FM II and 38/70 (54.3%) to 28% FM II, respectively. If doubtful reactions to individual constituents are included, the break-down testing was positive in 74% and 70%, respectively. Patients with a positive reaction to 14% FM II showed a higher rate of reactions to the individual constituent of the 28% FM II: 36/50 (72%). Positive reactions to individual constituents in patients negative to FM II were exceedingly rare. If doubtful reactions are regarded as negative, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the medium concentration of FM II towards at least 1 individual constituent was 92.3% (exact 95% confidence interval 74.9-99.1%), 98.4% (97.7-99.0%), 48% (33.7-62.6%) and 99.9% (99.6-"100.0%), respectively. For the high concentration, the figures

  4. GC-MS quantification of suspected volatile allergens in fragrances. 2. Data treatment strategies and method performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassereau, Maud; Chaintreau, Alain; Duperrex, Stéphanie; Joulain, Daniel; Leijs, Hans; Loesing, Gerd; Owen, Neil; Sherlock, Alan; Schippa, Christine; Thorel, Pierre-Jean; Vey, Matthias

    2007-01-10

    The performances of the GC-MS determination of suspected allergens in fragrance concentrates have been investigated. The limit of quantification was experimentally determined (10 mg/L), and the variability was investigated for three different data treatment strategies: (1) two columns and three quantification ions; (2) two columns and one quantification ion; and (3) one column and three quantification ions. The first strategy best minimizes the risk of determination bias due to coelutions. This risk was evaluated by calculating the probability of coeluting a suspected allergen with perfume constituents exhibiting ions in common. For hydroxycitronellal, when using a two-column strategy, this may statistically occur more than once every 36 analyses for one ion or once every 144 analyses for three ions in common.

  5. COMPUTER-BASED PREDICTION OF TOXICITY USING THE ELECTRON-CONFORMATIONAL METHOD. APPLICATION TO FRAGRANCE ALLERGENS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Gorinchoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed for the toxicophore (Tph identification and quantitative prediction of toxicity using the training set of 24 compounds that are considered as fragrance allergens. The values of a=LD50 in oral exposure of rats were chosen as a measure of toxicity. EC parameters are evaluated on the base of conformational analysis and ab initio electronic structure calculations (including solvent influence. The Tph consists of four sites which in this series of compounds are represented by three carbon and one oxygen atoms, but may be any other atoms that have the same electronic and geometric features within the tolerance limits. The regression model taking into consideration the Tph flexibility, anti-Tph shielding, and influence of out-of-Tph functional groups predicts well the experimental values of toxicity (R2 = 0.93 with a reasonable leaveone- out cross-validation.

  6. Occurrence, profile and spatial distribution of UV-filters and musk fragrances in mussels from Portuguese coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M; Fernandes, J O; Pena, A; Cunha, S C

    2018-07-01

    The increasing production and consumption of Personal Care Products (PCPs), containing UV-filters and musk fragrances, has led to its widespread presence in the aquatic environment which can cause harmful effects to the aquatic organisms due to its intrinsic toxicity. This study aims to evaluate the degree of contamination of wild mussels along the entire Portuguese coastline, continually exposed in their habitat to different contaminants. For this purpose, approximately 1000 mussel specimens were sampled during one year in seven different locations, along the Portuguese coastline. Simultaneous quantification of five UV-filters and seven musks in mussels was achieved by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Ten out of the twelve target analytes were found in the analysed samples, highlighting the presence of AHTN (tonalide), EHS (2-ethylhexylsalicylate) and EHMC (2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) in all positive samples (93%). Overall, the results obtained indicate a widespread contamination of wild mussels along Portuguese coastline, all over the year. UV-filters were more frequently detected (90%) than musk fragrances (70%) and also quantified at higher levels, with average total concentrations reaching 1155.8 ng/g (dw) against 397.7 ng/g (dw) respectively. A high correlation was observed between the most densely populated and industrialized locations and the higher levels of musks and UV-filters found. In other hand, lower levels of PCPs were found in protected areas. As expected, an increase in UV-filters levels was observed after the summer, likely due to the intense period of recreational activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  8. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS) genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2, and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers. PMID:26793212

  9. Emission and accumulation of monoterpene and the key terpene synthase (TPS associated with monoterpene biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaingling eZeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2 and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers.

  10. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D

    2013-08-01

    The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mathias Döll-Boscardin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential.

  12. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC 50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  13. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia Mathias; Sartoratto, Adilson; Sales Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Nakashima, Tomoe; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential. PMID:22645627

  14. [Advances in metabolic engineering for the microbial production of naturally occurring terpenes-limonene and bisabolene: a mini review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yaru; Hu, Zhihui; Xiao, Dongguang; Yu, Aiqun

    2018-01-25

    Limonene (C₁₀H₁₆) and bisabolene (C₁₅H₂₄) are both naturally occurring terpenes in plants. Depending on the number of C₅ units, limonene and bisabolene are recognized as representative monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. Limonene and bisabolene are important pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products used in the prevention and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. In addition, they can be used as starting materials to produce a range of commercially valuable products, such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and biofuels. The low abundance or yield of limonene and bisabolene in plants renders their isolation from plant sources non-economically viable. Isolation of limonene and bisabolene from plants also suffers from low efficiency and often requires harsh reaction conditions, prolonged reaction times, and expensive equipment cost. Recently, the rapid developments in metabolic engineering of microbes provide a promising alternative route for producing these plant natural products. Therefore, producing limonene and bisabolene by engineering microbial cells into microbial factories is becoming an attractive alternative approach that can overcome the bottlenecks, making it more sustainable, environmentally friendly and economically competitive. Here, we reviewed the status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce limonene and bisabolene including microbial hosts, key enzymes, metabolic pathways and engineering of limonene/bisabolene biosynthesis. Furthermore, key challenges and future perspectives were discussed.

  15. Determination of musks and other fragrance compounds at ng/L levels using CLSA (closed loop stripping analysis) and GC/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, D; Ventura, F

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA), a suitable tool for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds at low trace levels (ng/l), has been used to determine and quantify seven selected musks and two fragrances (Acetyl cedrene and Amberonne). The obtained extracts are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operating in the SIM mode. Quality parameters such as limit of detection; matrix effects; precision expressed as repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations of the method and an estimation of the uncertainty have been evaluated. The method has been applied to the analysis of wastewater effluents, surface water and tap water from different places in Europe. All samples contained differents musks at ng/l levels with the polycyclic musks Galaxolide and Tonalide and both fragrances, Amberonne and Acetyl cedrene, being the most abundant. These results suggest the importance of studying and controlling the presence of these ubiquitous environmental compounds in water systems.

  16. Resolving of challenging gas chromatography-mass spectrometry peak clusters in fragrance samples using multicomponent factorization approaches based on polygon inflation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, Salehe; Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of fragrance composition is very important for both the fragrance producers and consumers. Unraveling of fragrance formulation is necessary for quality control, competitor and trace analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been introduced as the most appropriate analytical technique for this type of analysis, which is based on Kovats index and MS database. The most straightforward method to analyze a GC-MS dataset is to integrate those peaks that can be recognized by their mass profiles. But, because of common problems of chromatographic data such as spectral background, baseline offset and specially overlapped peaks, accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis could be failed. Some chemometric modeling techniques such as bilinear multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods have been introduced to overcome these problems and obtained well resolved chromatographic profiles. The main drawback of these methods is rotational ambiguity or nonunique solution that is represented as area of feasible solutions (AFS). Polygonal inflation algorithm (PIA) is an automatic and simple to use algorithm for numerical computation of AFS. In this study, the extent of rotational ambiguity in curve resolution methods is calculated by MCR-BAND toolbox and the PIA. The ability of the PIA in resolving GC-MS data sets is evaluated by simulated GC-MS data in comparison with other popular curve resolution methods such as multivariate curve resolution alternative least square (MCR-ALS), multivariate curve resolution objective function minimization (MCR-FMIN) by different initial estimation methods and independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, two typical challenging area of total ion chromatogram (TIC) of commercial fragrances with overlapped peaks were analyzed by the PIA to investigate the possibility of peak deconvolution analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in contact allergy to fragrance mix I in consecutive Danish patients with eczema from 1986 to 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, N H; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D

    2017-04-01

    For more than 30 years, fragrance mix I (FMI) has been the most important screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. Meanwhile, governmental and corporate initiatives have been implemented, aimed at reducing sensitization to fragrance allergens, including the single constituents of FMI. To examine trends in contact allergy to FMI from 1986 to 2015 in patients with dermatitis, and to test the hypothesis that sensitization to the fragrance screening marker has decreased within recent years. This was a cross-sectional registry study on patch test results to FMI among consecutively tested patients with dermatitis from a single university clinic across three 10-year periods. From 2006 to 2015, data on eczema location according to the MOAHLFA index (male; occupation; atopic dermatitis; hand; leg; face; age ≥ 40 years), clinical relevance of sensitization, and cosmetic exposures were available. Of 24 168 patients, 7·8% (95% confidence interval 7·4-8·1) were sensitized to FMI. For women, a significant trend (P = 0·004) was observed for an increase in sensitization to FMI across the three decades. From 2011 to 2015, the prevalence of contact allergy to FMI increased significantly for women (8·0% vs. 10·4%, P = 0·002) and men (4·4% vs. 7·3%, P = 0·002) compared with the previous 5-year period. From 2006 to 2015, clinical relevance was established in 78·2% of FMI-positive patients with no differences over time. An increase (28·6% vs. 36·1%, P = 0·05) in FMI-positive patients suffering from facial dermatitis was observed for the period 2011 to 2015 compared with 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of contact allergy to FMI has been increasing in recent years. There was no demonstrable effect of previous preventive initiatives. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. An assessment of biodegradability of quaternary carbon-containing fragrance compounds: comparison of experimental OECD screening test results and in silico prediction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Markus; Boschung, Alain

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of biodegradability was carried out for fragrance substances containing quaternary carbons by using data obtained from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301F screening tests for ready biodegradation and from Biowin and Catalogic prediction models. Despite an expected challenging profile, a relatively high percentage of common-use fragrance substances showed significant biodegradation under the stringent conditions applied in the OECD 301F test. Among 27 test compounds, 37% met the pass level criteria after 28 d, while another 26% indicated partial breakdown (≥20% biodegradation). For several compounds for which structural analogs were available, the authors found that structures that were rendered less water soluble by either the presence of an acetate ester or the absence of oxygen tended to degrade to a lesser extent compared to the primary alcohols or oxygenated counterparts under the test conditions applied. Difficulties were encountered when attempting to correlate experimental with in silico data. Whereas the Biowin model combinations currently recommended by regulatory agencies did not allow for a reliable discrimination between readily and nonbiodegradable compounds, only a comparably small proportion of the chemicals studied (30% and 63% depending on the model) fell within the applicability domain of Catalogic, a factor that critically reduced its predictive power. According to these results, currently neither Biowin nor Catalogic accurately reflects the potential for biodegradation of fragrance compounds containing quaternary carbons. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from unripe fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhehao; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Lee, Ah-Reum; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Kim, Soo-Un

    2018-01-15

    To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo. PnTPS1 produced β-caryophyllene as a main product and humulene as a minor compound, and thus was named caryophyllene synthase (PnCPS). Likewise, PnTPS2 and PnTPS3 were, respectively, named cadinol/cadinene synthase (PnCO/CDS) and germacrene D synthase (PnGDS). PnGDS expression in yeast yielded β-cadinene and α-copaene, the rearrangement products of germacrene D. Their k cat /K m values (20-37.7 s -1  mM -1 ) were comparable to those of other sesqui-TPSs. Among three PnTPSs, the transcript level of PnCPS was the highest, correlating with the predominant β-caryophyllene biosynthesis in the peppercorn. The products and rearranged products of three PnTPSs could account for about a half of the sesquiterpenes in number found in unripe peppercorn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of pre-treatment process on matrix effect for the determination of musk fragrances in fish and mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2015-03-01

    Musk compounds are widely used as fragrances in personal care products. On account of their widespread use and their low biodegradation, they can be found in environmental samples. In our study two extraction methodologies were compared and different clean-up strategies were also studied in order to develop a reliable analytical method, with minimum matrix effect and good detection limits, to determine synthetic musk fragrances- six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and the degradation product of one polycyclic musk- in fish and mussel samples. The first extraction technique involves a QuEChERS extraction, a consolidate extraction methodology in the field of food analysis of growing interest over recent years, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) as clean-up strategy. The second extraction technique consists of a conventional pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and an in-cell clean-up to decrease the matrix effect and remove the undesired components(⁎)present in PLE extracts. Large volume injection (LVI) followed by gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS) was chosen as the separation and detection technique. Validation parameters, such as method detection limits and method quantification limits were found at ng g(-1) levels for both fish and mussel matrices. Good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities were obtained analysing fish and mussel samples spiked at 50 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (n=5, RSDsmarket in Tarragona and fish samples from the Ebro River. The results showed the presence of galaxolide (2.97-18.04 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) and tonalide (1.17-8.42 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) in all the samples analysed, while the remaining polycyclic musks such as cashmeran, celestolide and phantolide, were only detected in some of the fish samples analysed. None of the samples analysed contained detectable traces of the nitro musks studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by NAC and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Chen, Xiuyin; Wang, Mindy Y; Matich, Adam J; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Allan, Andrew C; Green, Sol A; Atkinson, Ross G

    2015-04-01

    Two kiwifruit (Actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. High rates of terpinolene production in ripe Actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of A. arguta terpene synthase1 (AaTPS1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). Actinidia chinensis terpene synthase1 (AcTPS1) was identified as part of an array of eight tandemly duplicated genes, and AcTPS1 expression and terpene production were observed only at low levels in developing fruit. Transient overexpression of DXS in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves elevated monoterpene synthesis by AaTPS1 more than 100-fold, indicating that DXS is likely to be the key step in regulating 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate substrate flux in kiwifruit. Comparative promoter analysis identified potential NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the AaTPS1 promoter, and cloned members of both TF classes were able to activate the AaTPS1 promoter in transient assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AaNAC2, AaNAC3, and AaNAC4 bind a 28-bp fragment of the proximal NAC binding site in the AaTPS1 promoter but not the A. chinensis AcTPS1 promoter, where the NAC binding site was mutated. Activation could be restored by reintroducing multiple repeats of the 12-bp NAC core-binding motif. The absence of NAC transcriptional activation in ripe A. chinensis fruit can account for the low accumulation of AcTPS1 transcript, protein, and monoterpene volatiles in this species. These results indicate the importance of NAC TFs in controlling monoterpene production and other traits in ripening fruits. © 2015 American

  3. Natural Variation in Monoterpene Synthesis in Kiwifruit: Transcriptional Regulation of Terpene Synthases by NAC and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-Like Transcription Factors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Chen, Xiuyin; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J.; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Allan, Andrew C.; Green, Sol A.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2015-01-01

    Two kiwifruit (Actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. High rates of terpinolene production in ripe Actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of A. arguta terpene synthase1 (AaTPS1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). Actinidia chinensis terpene synthase1 (AcTPS1) was identified as part of an array of eight tandemly duplicated genes, and AcTPS1 expression and terpene production were observed only at low levels in developing fruit. Transient overexpression of DXS in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves elevated monoterpene synthesis by AaTPS1 more than 100-fold, indicating that DXS is likely to be the key step in regulating 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate substrate flux in kiwifruit. Comparative promoter analysis identified potential NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the AaTPS1 promoter, and cloned members of both TF classes were able to activate the AaTPS1 promoter in transient assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AaNAC2, AaNAC3, and AaNAC4 bind a 28-bp fragment of the proximal NAC binding site in the AaTPS1 promoter but not the A. chinensis AcTPS1 promoter, where the NAC binding site was mutated. Activation could be restored by reintroducing multiple repeats of the 12-bp NAC core-binding motif. The absence of NAC transcriptional activation in ripe A. chinensis fruit can account for the low accumulation of AcTPS1 transcript, protein, and monoterpene volatiles in this species. These results indicate the importance of NAC TFs in controlling monoterpene production and other traits in ripening fruits. PMID:25649633

  4. Monoterpenol Oxidative Metabolism: Role in Plant Adaptation and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Parage, Claire; Boachon, Benoît; Navrot, Nicolas; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Plants use monoterpenols as precursors for the production of functionally and structurally diverse molecules, which are key players in interactions with other organisms such as pollinators, flower visitors, herbivores, fungal, or microbial pathogens. For humans, many of these monoterpenol derivatives are economically important because of their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, flavor, or fragrance applications. The biosynthesis of these derivatives is to a large extent catalyzed by enzymes from the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Here we review the knowledge on monoterpenol oxidative metabolism in plants with special focus on recent elucidations of oxidation steps leading to diverse linalool and geraniol derivatives. We evaluate the common features between oxidation pathways of these two monoterpenols, such as involvement of the CYP76 family, and highlight the differences. Finally, we discuss the missing steps and other open questions in the biosynthesis of oxygenated monoterpenol derivatives. PMID:27200002

  5. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  7. Terpenes tell different tales at different scales: glimpses into the Chemical Ecology of conifer - bark beetle - microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-01-01

    , biochemical time), relationships among inducible and constitutive defenses, population dynamics, and plastic host-selection behavior (stand level, ecological time), and climate-driven range expansion of a native eruptive species into semi-naïve and potentially naïve habitats (geographical level, evolutionary time). I approach this problem by focusing primarily on one chemical group, terpenes, by emphasizing the curvilinear and threshold-structured basis of most underlying relationships, and by focusing on the system's feedback structure, which can either buffer or amplify relationships across scales.

  8. Rice terpene synthase 24 (OsTPS24) encodes a jasmonate-responsive monoterpene synthase that produces an antibacterial γ-terpinene against rice pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Kayo; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Uji, Yuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops worldwide and is widely used as a model plant for molecular studies of monocotyledonous species. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in rice-pathogen interactions. In addition, volatile compounds, including terpenes, whose production is induced by JA, are known to be involved in the rice defense system. In this study, we analyzed the JA-induced terpene synthase OsTPS24 in rice. We found that OsTPS24 was localized in chloroplasts and produced a monoterpene, γ-terpinene. The amount of γ-terpinene increased after JA treatment. γ-Terpinene had significant antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo); however, it did not show significant antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. The antibacterial activity of the γ-terpinene against Xoo was caused by damage to bacterial cell membranes. These results suggest that γ-terpinene plays an important role in JA-induced resistance against Xoo, and that it functions as an antibacterial compound in rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Small RNA Transcriptome of Hibiscus Syriacus Provides Insights into the Potential Influence of microRNAs in Flower Development and Terpene Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewook; Park, June Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Jungho; Shin, Chanseok

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of target mRNAs in plants and animals. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs and their putative targets in Hibiscus syriacus , the national flower of South Korea. We employed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs obtained from four different tissues ( i.e. , leaf, root, flower, and ovary) and identified 33 conserved and 30 novel miRNA families, many of which showed differential tissue-specific expressions. In addition, we computationally predicted novel targets of miRNAs and validated some of them using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR477 was a terpene synthase, the primary gene involved in the formation of disease-resistant terpene metabolites such as sterols and phytoalexins. In addition, a predicted target of conserved miRNAs, miR396, is SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE , which is involved in flower initiation and is duplicated in H. syriacus . Collectively, this study provides the first reliable draft of the H. syriacus miRNA transcriptome that should constitute a basis for understanding the biological roles of miRNAs in H. syriacus.

  10. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November. In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  11. Differential response of terpenes and anthraquinones derivatives in Rumex dentatus and Lavandula officinalis to harsh winters across north-western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S

    2016-01-01

    Herbs adapted to diverse climates exhibit distinct variability to fluctuating temperatures and demonstrate various metabolic and physiological adaptations to harsh environments. In this research, Rumex dentatus L. and Lavandula officinalis L. were collected before snowfall in September-November to evaluate variability in major phytoconstituents to diverse seasonal regime. LC-MS was used for simultaneous determination of eight anthraquinone derivatives in R. dentatus, i.e. emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, physcion glucoside, endocrocin, emodin glucoside, chrysophanol glucoside and chromone derivatives and monoterpenes in L. officinalis i.e. (Z)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-ocimene, terpene alcohol, terpin-4-ol, acetate ester-linalyl acetate and bicyclic sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene. The correlation analysis confirmed significant variation in anthraquinone glucoside and terpene content within Rumex and Lavender, respectively, and altitude was established as the determinant factor in secondary metabolism of both herbs. The study concludes the propagation of herbs in bioclimatic belts which favour accumulation of major constituents and validate their greater pharmacological activity.

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-[5(or 6)-methyl-7(or 8)-1-(methylethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl]ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-[5(Or 6)-Methyl-7(or 8)-1-(methylethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl]ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-[5(Or 6)-Methyl-7(or 8)-1-(methylethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl]ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-[5(Or 6)-Methyl-7(or 8)-1-(methylethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl]ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, and genotoxicity, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. (submitted for publication)). for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of Advertising Communication in the Pre-war: Analysis of Federico Ribas’ Advertising Portfolio for Gal Fragrance House (1916-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Quintas-Froufe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a study of 1,436 pieces of printed advertising which were illustrated by Federico Ribas Montenegro for the Gal Fragrance House between 1916 and 1936.Through the use of a double-level analysis –technical and figurative– some interesting findings concerning the narrative and iconography of the catalogued ads were obtained. By studying the discourse of the advertisements for a company who changed the history of advertising in Spain, one can see evidence of sociocultural changes as well as how advertising evolved from being an artisanal craft into a more technical and systematic industry as a result of the application of scientific principles.

  14. Scented traces--Dermal exposure of synthetic musk fragrances in personal care products and environmental input assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, Eduardo; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance and fixative additives in several personal care products. Until now, little is known about their occurrence and distribution in these household commodities. However, this information is essential to perform a human dermal exposure assessment. Therefore, this study gives an overview on the levels of 12 synthetic musks in 140 personal care products from 7 different categories (body and hair wash, toilet soaps, shaving products, dentifrice products, deodorants/antiperspirants, moisturizers and perfumes). They were analysed by QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detection limits were found between 0.01ngg(-1) (galaxolide) and 5.00ngg(-1) (musk xylene). Higher average concentrations of total synthetic musks were detected in perfumes (5245.05μgg(-1)) and shampoos (487.67μgg(-1)) for adults. Galaxolide, exaltolide and cashmeran were the most detected compounds. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 75.69μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 15.54μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children was achieved. The main contributors for adult and babies/children dermal exposure were perfumes and lotions, respectively. About 40% of the adult daily dermal exposure is related to exaltolide, 30% galaxolide, and 15% tonalide, while for babies/children 96% occurs due to exaltolide. An estimate of the amount of musks discharged "down-the-drain" into the wastewater treatment systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An average emission per capita of 6.7mgday(-1) was determined and galaxolide and exaltolide were the predominant musks in the effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde- known as Lyral: quantitative aspects and risk assessment of an important fragrance allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, P J; Svedman, C; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Pirker, C; Menné, T

    2003-06-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, also known as Lyral, is a fragrance ingredient identified as the cause of contact allergic reactions in 2-3% of eczema patients undergoing patch testing. Lyral has been included in the standard patch test series in many clinics due to its importance as an allergen. It has been used without restrictions in cosmetic products, until now. In the present study, the dose-response relationship of Lyral contact allergy was studied with doses relevant for normal exposure in cosmetic products. 18 eczema patients, who previously had given a positive patch test to Lyral 5% petrolatum, were included along with 7 control subjects. All cases were tested with a serial dilution of Lyral in ethanol 6% to 6 p.p.m and subjected to a 2-week, repeated open application test with a low dose of Lyral in ethanol. In the case of no reaction, this was followed by another 2 weeks of testing with a higher dose. The test was performed at the volar aspect of the forearm. In 16 of 18 cases (89%), a positive use test developed, 11 reacting to the low and 5 to the high concentration. None reacted to the vehicle control of ethanol applied to the contralateral arm. All controls were negative to both the test solutions of Lyral and the ethanol control. The difference between the test and the control group was statistically significant (Fisher's test, P Lyral at the current usage levels is inducing sensitization in the community. The same levels were shown to elicit allergic contact dermatitis in almost all sensitized individuals. A significant reduction in usage concentrations is recommended to prevent contact allergic reactions.

  16. UV-filters and musk fragrances in seafood commercialized in Europe Union: Occurrence, risk and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Trabalón, L; Jacobs, S; Castro, M; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Granby, K; Verbeke, W; Kwadijk, C; Ferrari, F; Robbens, J; Sioen, I; Pocurull, E; Marques, A; Fernandes, J O; Domingo, J L

    2018-02-01

    In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs - EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal Terpene Variation in Needles of Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) Trees Attacked by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and the Effect of Limonene on Beetle Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Aparicio, Domitila; Palacios, Francisco; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Hance, Thierry; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Concentrations of four monoterpenes were determined in needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) (Pinales: Pinaceae) trees that were attacked or nonattacked by Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean ambient temperature was obtained using climate-recording data loggers. The effect of limonene on field aggregation was also evaluated at three limonene release rates using Lindgren attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Attacked trees produced less α-pinene in March, July, and November than nonattacked trees, less β-pinene in July and November, and less limonene from May to November. Limonene reduced the attraction of T. piniperda to attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Results were linked to better responses to high temperatures, with respect to terpene contents, by the nonattacked trees after the spring attack. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. Effects of Exposure to Two Fragrances on the Gene Expression of Ckm and Ckmt2 and Total CK Activity in the Hearts of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Anthony Adefolaju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Some of the most commercially used compounds in fragrances have been associated with various adverse effects in various experimental in vivo and in vitro models and are still being used promiscuously in perfumes and as additives in other household products. Objectives This study sought to determine the effects of exposing wistar rats to two locally made Nigerian perfumes on some cardiac performance enzyme and genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 18 animals were allocated into three groups (A, B and C of six each. Groups B and C animals were exposed (by inhalation to the first and second perfumes (designated F1 and F2 respectively for 77 days, while animals in group A were unexposed control. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the exposure period after which heart tissue was excised for creatine kinase enzyme assay and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded heart tissues were processed for RNA extraction and analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction for the mRNA expression of creatine kinase genes Ckm and Ckmt2. Results The results showed that animals in both exposure groups demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05 increased expression of striated muscle associated creatine kinase and sarcomeric mitochondria Ck genes as well as the increased release of the cardiomyocyte enzyme CK in the hearts of Wistar rats. Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to these two locally made fragrances contributes to cardiomyocyte stress.

  19. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced cell culture technology for essential oil production and micro array studies leading to discovery of genes for fragrance compounds in Michelia alba (Cempaka Putih)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Norazlina Nordin; Edrina Azlan

    2006-01-01

    Michelia spp. is known to produce high value essential oil for perfumery industry. The essence of world's most expensive perfumes, such as JOY and Jadore, is based on the oil of Michelia spp. One major problem anticipated in this approach, based on our early experiments, is limited amount of fragrance produced in cell cultures. The appropriate strategy is to superimpose DNA micro array studies on top of the cell culture project. The study covers natural flower development phases that led to the identification of genes or sets of genes that regulate the production of the fragrance. Seven developmental stages of Michelia alba flower namely Stage 5 to 11 were investigated for their volatile constituents. The essential oil was isolated by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction technique and the oil obtained was subjected to GC-MS analysis. In total, seventy-seven compounds representing 93-98% of the overall volatiles compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra and retention indices. Thirty-three of these compounds belonged to isoprenoids group which comprised 30-50% of the total volatile compounds whereas the remaining belonged to fatty acid derivatives, benzenoid, phenylpropanoid and other hydrocarbon compounds. Studies were conducted to optimize culture parameters for scaling-up the production of callus, suspension cell cultures and somatic and product accumulation of essential oils using bioreactor technology. (Author)

  1. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  2. Risk management by labelling 26 fragrances? Evaluation of Article 10 (1) of the seventh Amendment (Guideline 2003/15/EC) of the Cosmetic Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2010-07-01

    Some fragrance compounds are severe contact allergens. According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" (Article 1 (10) of Directive 2003/15/EC) (EC, 2003), 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be listed on the containers of cosmetics products if they are present above certain mass percentages in the product. This declaration is meant to inform the consumer of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. The objective of this paper is to validate whether "the 26 allergens rule" meets the expectations to improve consumer protection. The method used for this validation was on one hand a reflection on the elements of the approach used in "the 26 allergens rule" and on the other hand a product analysis of 742 products by 4 large producers of cosmetic products on the German market. It was found that more than 50% of these cosmetic and washing and cleansing products contain at least one of the 26 substances above the thresholds for labelling and that there are 14% of all products which contain strong allergens. Many consumers apparently still buy these products. The indirect effect that producers reduce the amounts of these fragrances to avoid declaration seems to be small. Several arguments were assembled which show that other instruments are needed to ensure consumer protection or protection of the environment. This paper recommends different approaches. The use of a list of single substances in such a directive is not in line with scientific standards. It is recommended to base decision making on comprehensive risk assessments or at least on valid and strong criteria. More parameters need to be involved, not only contact allergy. As illustrated in this article, the roles taken over by authorities and manufacturers in risk management of the "26 allergens" are relatively small compared with the responsibility carried by consumers. However, consumers are only able to take over their part properly if they are sufficiently trained and have the necessary

  3. Method translation and full metadata transfer from thermal to differential flow modulated comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography: Profiling of suspected fragrance allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Carretta, Andrea; Cobelli, Luigi; Giardina, Matthew; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-13

    The possibility to transfer methods from thermal to differential-flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GC×GC) platforms is of high interest to improve GC×GC flexibility and increase the compatibility of results from different platforms. The principles of method translation are here applied to an original method, developed for a loop-type thermal modulated GC×GC-MS/FID system, suitable for quali-quantitative screening of suspected fragrance allergens. The analysis conditions were translated to a reverse-injection differential flow modulated platform (GC×2GC-MS/FID) with a dual-parallel secondary column and dual detection. The experimental results, for a model mixture of suspected volatile allergens and for raw fragrance mixtures of different composition, confirmed the feasibility of translating methods by preserving 1 D elution order, as well as the relative alignment of resulting 2D peak patterns. A correct translation produced several benefits including an effective transfer of metadata (compound names, MS fragmentation pattern, response factors) by automatic template transformation and matching from the original/reference method to its translated counterpart. The correct translation provided: (a) 2D pattern repeatability, (b) MS fragmentation pattern reliability for identity confirmation, and (c) comparable response factors and quantitation accuracy within a concentration range of three orders of magnitude. The adoption of a narrow bore (i.e. 0.1mm d c ) first-dimension column to operate under close-to-optimal conditions with the differential-flow modulation GC×GC platform was also advantageous in halving the total analysis under the translated conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term stability in biomass and production of terpene indole alkaloids by hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina and cost approximation to endorse commercial realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Kaur, Ranjeet; Singh, Sailendra; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2014-07-01

    The effect of 6 years of cultivation and use of table-sugar (TS) on the biomass/terpene alkaloid productivities and rol gene expression were studied in a hairy root (HR) clone of Rauvolfia serpentina. The media cost could be reduced >94 % by replacing sucrose (SUC) with TS—an unexplored avenue for HR cultivation. The overall productivities increased over long-term cultivation with sugar proving superior to SUC for biomass (24.4 ± 2.11 g/l DW after 40 days to 17.31 % higher) and reserpine (0.094 ± 0.008 % DW after 60 days to 193.8 % more) production. The latter however revealed comparatively better yields concerning ajmaline (0.507 ± 0.048 % DW after 60 days to 61.98 % higher) and yohimbine (0.628 ± 0.062 % DW after 60 days to 38.32 % higher), respectively. PCR amplification of rol genes confirmed long-term expression stability.

  5. Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or Development of Transgenic Plants or Neighbors1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C.; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with approximately 5,000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction or may require augmentation of substrate pools to achieve enhanced emission, complicating the interpretation of data from affected transgenic lines. Here, we expressed maize (Zea mays) terpene synthase10 (ZmTPS10), which produces (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene, or a point mutant ZmTPS10M, which produces primarily (E)-β-farnesene, under control of the 35S promoter in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. Transgenic N. attenuata plants had specifically enhanced emission of target sesquiterpene(s) with no changes detected in their emission of any other volatiles. Treatment with herbivore or jasmonate elicitors induces emission of (E)-α-bergamotene in wild-type plants and also tended to increase emission of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene in transgenics. However, transgenics did not differ from the wild type in defense signaling or chemistry and did not alter defense chemistry in neighboring wild-type plants. These data are inconsistent with within-plant and between-plant signaling functions of (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-α-bergamotene in N. attenuata. Ectopic sesquiterpene emission was apparently not costly for transgenics, which were similar to wild-type plants in their growth and reproduction, even when forced to compete for common resources. These transgenics would be well suited for field experiments to investigate indirect ecological effects of sesquiterpenes for a wild plant in its native habitat. PMID:25187528

  6. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and its Major Terpenes of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Ríos-Chávez, Patricia; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Garciglia, Rafael Salgado

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant effectiveness of essential oil and its major terpenes of S. macrostema was examined by three different radical scavenging methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The concentrations tested were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL. The major volatile compounds were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone, and thymol. S. macrostema essential oil showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with DPPH and ABTS methods (53.10% and 92.12%, respectively) at 1 mg/mL and 98% with TAC method at 0.1 mg/mL. Thymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with 0.1 mg/mL, reaching 83.38%, 96.96%, and 98.57% by DPPH, ABTS, and TAC methods. Caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, and menthone exhibited an antioxidant capacity essential oil of S. macrostema and thymol showed a free radical scavenging activity close to that of the synthetic butylated hydroxytoluene. The major volatile compounds of essential oil of Satureja macrostema were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone and thymolThe essential oil of S. macrostema showed a high free radical scavengingThymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS and TAC methods. Abbreviations used: GC: Gas Chromatography; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; TAC: Total antioxidant capacity.

  7. Síntese de esteres terpenóides por via enzimática: influência do tamanho da cadeia alifática do ácido graxo e da estrutura do álcool de terpeno Synthesis of terpen esters by enzymatic route: influence of the fatty acid size chain and alcohol structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. CASTRO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A especificidade de uma preparação comercial de lipase imobilizada, com relação a molécula ácida e alcoólica do substrato, foi estudada através da síntese de diversos ésteres de terpenóides. Na série de reações do citronelol e ácidos graxos com diferentes tamanho de cadeia alifática (C2 a C18, altas taxas de esterificação (95 a 98% foram alcançadas para ácidos contendo 4 ou mais carbonos. Numa segunda série de experimentos, diferentes álcoois terpenos foram esterificados com ácido butírico, sendo constatado uma influência marcante da estrutura do álcool de terpeno no desempenho desta preparação enzimática. Graus de esterificação maiores que 95% somente foram obtidos para os álcoois primários como citronelol, geraniol e nerol. Álcoois secundários (mentol e terciários (linalol não foram esterificados, sob as condições testadas.The selectivity of a commercial immobilized lipase preparation was tested in two set of esterification reactions. In the first group, synthesis were carried out with citronellol and different organic acids (C2 to C18. For this case, with the exception of acetic acid, the size of the carbon chain showed no significant alteration in the esterification rates. Acids containing four or more carbons, were considered to be excellent acyl donors, resulting in the esterification rates in the range of 95% to 98%. Alternatively, the esterification reactions were carried out with different terpen alcohols and butyric acid. The alcohol structure showed to have great influence on the performance of this enzyme preparation. Esterification degree over 95% were attained for primary alcohols such as citronellol, geraniol and nerol. Secondary (menthol and tertiary (linallol were not esterified under the tested conditions.

  8. Development and validation of a method for the determination of regulated fragrance allergens by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Parallel Factor Analysis 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Outeiral, Jessica; Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Vidal, Maider

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the development and validation of a multivariate method for quantitation of 6 potentially allergenic substances (PAS) related to fragrances by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with HPLC-DAD and PARAFAC2 in the presence of other 18 PAS. The objective is the extension of a previously proposed univariate method to be able to determine the 24 PAS currently considered as allergens. The suitability of the multivariate approach for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the analytes is discussed through datasets of increasing complexity, comprising the assessment and validation of the method performance. PARAFAC2 showed to adequately model the data facing up different instrumental and chemical issues, such as co-elution profiles, overlapping spectra, unknown interfering compounds, retention time shifts and baseline drifts. Satisfactory quality parameters of the model performance were obtained (R 2 ≥0.94), as well as meaningful chromatographic and spectral profiles (r≥0.97). Moreover, low errors of prediction in external validation standards (below 15% in most cases) as well as acceptable quantification errors in real spiked samples (recoveries from 82 to 119%) confirmed the suitability of PARAFAC2 for resolution and quantification of the PAS. The combination of the previously proposed univariate approach, for the well-resolved peaks, with the developed multivariate method allows the determination of the 24 regulated PAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  10. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Weidmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site.

  11. Solubility of perfumery and fragrance raw materials based on cyclohexane in 1-octanol under ambient and high pressures up to 900 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Morawski, Piotr; Piekarska, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) of binary mixtures containing 1-octanol and fragrance raw materials based on cyclohexane were investigated. The systems {1-octanol (1) + cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE)(2)} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (220 to 320) K and ambient pressure. For all systems SLE diagrams were detected as eutectic mixtures with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. The experimental data were correlated by means of the Wilson and NRTL equations, utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular system and the particular equation used. Additionally, the SLE in binary mixture that contain {1-octanol (1) + CCA (2)} has been measured under very high pressures up to about 900 MPa at the temperature range from T = (303.15 to 353.15) K. The thermostatted apparatus for the measurements of transition pressures from the (liquid + solid) state was used. The freezing and melting temperatures at a constant composition increase monotonously with pressure. The high pressure experimental results obtained at isothermal conditions (p-x) were interpolated to more convenient T-x diagram. Data of the (pressure + temperature) composition relation at the high pressure (solid + liquid) phase equilibria was correlated by the polynomial based on the Yang model. The basic thermodynamic properties of pure substances viz. the melting point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of solid-solid phase transition, and glass transition, have been determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  12. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (IBVA-EEG) measurement. The essential oils examined in this study were those of basil and peppermint, because our previous sensory test had indicated an opposite effect of these essential oils when mental work was undertaken; the inhalation of basil produced a more favorable impression after work than before work, whereas peppermint produced an unfavorable impression under these circumstances. For subjects administered basil or peppermint before and after mental work using an inhalator, a series of multi-channel skin thermometer studies and IBVA-EEG measurements were conducted. Using such paired odorants, our results showed that when compared between before and after mental work assigned to subjects: (1) the inhalation of basil, in which a favorable impression was predominant on the whole in terms of the sensory evaluation spectrum, was shown to be associated upward tendency in finger-tip skin temperature; (2) whereas these situations were opposite in the case of peppermint, in which the reversed (unfavorable) feature in sensory profiling was accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of beta waves and a decrease in the finger-tip skin temperature both based on Welch's method, even at p < 0.01, implying a decreasing propensity of the aroused state and of the arousal response. The elucidation of such sensory and physiological endpoints of paired odorants would be of primary importance for human chemoreception science, because these are only rarely recorded during the same experiments, and this paradigm is highly informative about non-verbal responses to odorants.

  13. Solubility of perfumery and fragrance raw materials based on cyclohexane in 1-octanol under ambient and high pressures up to 900 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.pl; Morawski, Piotr; Piekarska, Maria [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-04-15

    The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) of binary mixtures containing 1-octanol and fragrance raw materials based on cyclohexane were investigated. The systems {l_brace}1-octanol (1) + cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE)(2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (220 to 320) K and ambient pressure. For all systems SLE diagrams were detected as eutectic mixtures with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. The experimental data were correlated by means of the Wilson and NRTL equations, utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular system and the particular equation used. Additionally, the SLE in binary mixture that contain {l_brace}1-octanol (1) + CCA (2){r_brace} has been measured under very high pressures up to about 900 MPa at the temperature range from T = (303.15 to 353.15) K. The thermostatted apparatus for the measurements of transition pressures from the (liquid + solid) state was used. The freezing and melting temperatures at a constant composition increase monotonously with pressure. The high pressure experimental results obtained at isothermal conditions (p-x) were interpolated to more convenient T-x diagram. Data of the (pressure + temperature) composition relation at the high pressure (solid + liquid) phase equilibria was correlated by the polynomial based on the Yang model. The basic thermodynamic properties of pure substances viz. the melting point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of solid-solid phase transition, and glass transition, have been determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  14. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic oxidations with molecular oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, B.B.

    2001-01-01

    How to make spearmint from oranges? This was the original idea behind this research project. The flavors and fragrances industry has access to a large supply of limonene, which is extracted from citrus fruit skins. A valuable product for the industry is carvone, which is chemically similar to

  16. Catalytic oxidation using nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide is a very inert gas used generally as oxidant as it offers some advantage compared with other oxidants such as O2 but a considerably higher temperature (> 526 °C is often required. For particular cases such as the oxidation of sugar alcohols, especially for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, N2O has the advantage over O2 of a higher reaction selectivity. In the present paper we present the modelling of oxidation reaction of sugar alcohols using an oxidizing agent in low concentrations, which is important to suppress subsequent oxidation reactions due to the very low residual concentrations of the oxidizing agent. For orientation experiments we chose nitrous oxide generated by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Kinetic modeling of the reaction was performed after determination of the differential equations that describe the system under study.

  17. Cross-reactivity between citral and geraniol - can it be attributed to oxidized geraniol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    The fragrance compound geraniol is susceptible to autoxidation when in contact with air, and to cutaneous metabolism. In both processes, the isomeric aldehydes geranial and neral are formed. Citral consists of geranial and neral. Among patients with positive reactions to citral, we have previously detected concomitant reactions to geraniol in 85% of cases and to oxidized geraniol in 73% of cases. To study the pattern of concomitant reactions to geraniol and citral and its isomers geranial and neral, and to determine whether these isomers are important sensitizers in contact allergy to geraniol and oxidized geraniol. The irritancy of geranial and citral was studied. Six hundred and fifty-five patients were patch tested with geranial, neral and citral at 3.5% pet., pure geraniol at 6.0% and 11.0% pet., and oxidized geraniol at 6.0% pet. Twenty-six per cent of citral-positive patients reacted to oxidized geraniol, and 10.5% reacted to pure geraniol. Citral and/or its isomers gave positive reactions in 25% of the patients who reacted to pure geraniol. There is little cross-reactivity between pure geraniol and citral; however, concomitant reactions to citral and oxidized geraniol were common, owing to geranial. Geranial was also the main sensitizer in the mixture citral. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  19. Oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshkewitch, E.; Richerson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book explores single-phase ceramic oxide systems from the standpoint of physical chemistry and technology. This second edition also focuses on advances in technology since publication of the original edition. These include improvements in raw materials and forming and sintering techniques, and the major role that oxide ceramics have had in development of advanced products and processes. The text is divided into five major sections: general fundamentals of oxide ceramics, advances in aluminum oxide technology, advances in zirconia technology, and advances in beryllium oxide technology

  20. Recommendation to test limonene hydroperoxides 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodek, C; Penfold, C M; Bourke, J F; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; Johnston, G A; Mughal, A A; Reckling, C; Sabroe, R A; Stone, N M; Thompson, D; Wilkinson, S M; Buckley, D A

    2017-12-01

    There is a significant rate of sensitization worldwide to the oxidized fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool. Patch testing to oxidized terpenes is not routinely carried out; the ideal patch test concentration is unknown. To determine the best test concentrations for limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, added to the British baseline patch test series, to optimize detection of true allergy and to minimize irritant reactions. During 2013-2014, 4563 consecutive patients in 12 U.K. centres were tested to hydroperoxides of limonene in petrolatum (pet.) 0·3%, 0·2% and 0·1%, and hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0%, 0·5% and 0·25% pet. Irritant reactions were recorded separately from doubtful reactions. Concomitant reactions to other fragrance markers and clinical relevance were documented. Limonene hydroperoxide 0·3% gave positive reactions in 241 (5·3%) patients, irritant reactions in 93 (2·0%) and doubtful reactions in 110 (2·4%). Linalool hydroperoxide 1·0% gave positive reactions in 352 (7·7%), irritant reactions in 178 (3·9%) and doubtful reactions in 132 (2·9%). A total of 119 patients with crescendo reactions to 0·3% limonene would have been missed if only tested with 0·1% and 131 patients with crescendo reactions to 1·0% linalool would have been missed if only tested with 0·25%. In almost two-thirds of patients with positive patch tests to limonene and linalool the reaction was clinically relevant. The majority of patients did not react to any fragrance marker in the baseline series. We recommend that limonene hydroperoxides be tested at 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides at 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oxidation of limonene using activated carbon modified in dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonek, Karolina; Wróblewska, Agnieszka; Makuch, Edyta; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Rafał. J.; Koren, Zvi C.; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-10-01

    The waste from industrial fruits processing is utilized for the extraction of limonene, a renewable terpene biomass compound obtained from orange peels. This was followed by limonene oxidation, which produces highly useful oxygenated derivatives (carveol, and perillyl alcohol, 1,2-epoxylimonene and its diol). New catalysts were obtained by treating relatively inexpensive commercially available EuroPh and FPV activated carbons with plasma. These catalysts were characterized by the following instrumental methods XRD, sorption of N2 and CO2, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The activities of the plasma-treated catalysts were measured in the oxidation of limonene by means of either hydrogen peroxide or t-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidizing agents. During the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide the new plasma-treated catalysts were more active than their untreated counterparts. This effect was noticeable in the considerable increase in the conversion of limonene. The mechanism explaining this property is proposed, and it takes into account the role of the appropriate functional groups on the surface of the catalysts. This work has shown for the first time that the commercial EuroPh and FPV activated carbons, after having been treated by plasma, are active catalysts for the selective limonene oxidation for the production of value-added industrial products.

  3. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  4. Biotechnology of flavours and fragrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocho, Shinobu

    1987-10-20

    This paper presents the research and development of fragrant materials using the technologies of microorganism, enzyme and tissue culture. Flavour of dairy products by diacetyl, flavour and tests of blue cheese by methyl ketones, formation of small of fruit such as banana, grapefruit, lemon and peach, flavour of dairy products by reacting butterfat with lipase, patchoulenol as cosmetic perfume, production of musk perfume from carboxylic acid biologically produced from n-paraffin, cool taste of l-menthol and production of lactones for food flavour are being investigated using microorganisms and enzymes. The production of essential oil is being studied by the tissue culture of fragrant plants. Some of these studies have been commercialized and some of them are being developed. The characteristic biochemical processes such as stereospecific reaction, stereoselective reaction and asymmetric reaction will be applied to the conversion of material using biocatalyst. (5 figs, 43 refs)

  5. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  6. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ... solid-phase micro extraction procedures. It also presents important updates on GC-olfactometry as a tool for studying flavor synergy effects"-- "Sample preparation techniques for isolating and concentrating flavor and odor-active chemicals...

  7. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ...)-olfactometry, and electronic-nose technology, this new edition discusses the significant advantage of these methods for flavor and odor studies in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries...

  8. SYNTHETIC FRAGRANCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  9. Cappuccino Bars and Fragrance Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jack Alan

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effects of bookstores on public libraries. Topics discussed include the role of libraries as organizers of information; bookstores as competition; reading trends; library collections; libraries' emphasis on user services, including interlibrary loans; partnership programs; marketing strategies; user needs; hours of operation; and…

  10. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  11. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  12. New Sesquiterpene Oxidations with CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifrin, Alexander; Litzenburger, Martin; Ringle, Michael; Ly, Thuy T B; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Sesquiterpenes are natural products derived from the common precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) but are highly diverse in structure and function. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) exhibit the unique ability to introduce molecular oxygen into non-activated C-H bonds. In plant biosynthetic pathways, P450s commonly derivatize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. However, the potential of bacterial P450s for terpene derivatization is still underinvestigated. This work compares the substrate specificities and regioselectivities of the sesquiterpene hydroxylases CYP260A1 and CYP264B1 from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. Four tested substrate classes (eremophilanes, humulanes, caryophyllanes, and cedranes) were converted by both P450s. The achievable variety of oxidations is demonstrated on the model substrates (+)-nootkatone and zerumbone. Increasing the number of functionally investigated P450s, this study represents a step towards the selective derivatization of sesquiterpenes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Natural terpene derivatives as new structural task-specific ionic liquids to enhance the enantiorecognition of acidic enantiomers on teicoplanin-based stationary phase by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Jolanta; Feder-Kubis, Joanna; Tatarczak-Michalewska, Małgorzata; Płazińska, Anita; Madejska, Anna; Swatko-Ossor, Marta

    2017-06-01

    We present the specific cooperative effect of a semisynthetic glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin and chiral ionic liquids containing the (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol moiety on the chiral recognition of enantiomers of mandelic acid, vanilmandelic acid, and phenyllactic acid. Experiments were performed chromatographically on an Astec Chirobiotic T chiral stationary phase applying the mobile phase with the addition of the chiral ionic liquids. The stereoselective binding of enantiomers to teicoplanin in presence of new chiral ionic liquids were evaluated applying thermodynamic measurements and the docking simulations. Both the experimental and theoretical methods revealed that the chiral recognition of enantiomers in the presence of new chiral ionic liquids was enthalpy driven. The changes of the teicoplanin conformation occurring upon binding of the chiral ionic liquids are responsible for the differences in the standard changes in Gibbs energy (ΔG 0 ) values obtained for complexes formed by the R and S enantiomers and teicoplanin. Docking simulations revealed the steric adjustment between the chiral ionic liquids cyclohexane ring (chair conformation) and the β-d-glucosamine ring of teicoplanin and additionally hydrophobic interactions between the decanoic aliphatic chain of teicoplanin and the alkyl group of the tested salts. The obtained terpene derivatives can be considered as "structural task-specific ionic liquids" responsible for enhancing the chiral resolution in synergistic systems with two chiral selectors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Methodology for the identification of tri-terpenes mixtures components by {sup 13} C NMR; Metodologia para identificao dos componentes de misturas de triterpenos por RMN de {sup 13} C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Roberto S.G.

    1991-12-31

    This work describes a methodology for the identification of tri terpenes complex mixtures by {sup 13} C NMR. The use of {sup 13} C NMR techniques, such as obtention of noise decoupled spectra, DEPT 135 and DEPT 90 sequences, allowed the identification of components of triterpene mixtures with identical functionality through comparison of observed {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts with {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts reported in the literature. The method proved to be specially helpful in the identification of triterpenes by analysis of chemical shifts assignable to doubly bonded carbons, since the particular position of such double bonds is characteristic of some triterpene skeletons. Application of this methodology indicated the presence of bauerenol, {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin in Acmanthera latifolis Griseb. (Malpighiaceae); of germanicone, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrenone and {beta}-amyrenone in Alibertia macrophylla A. Rich. (Rubiaceae); of {alpha}-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate and {beta}-amyrin acetate in Vernonia polyanthes Schreb. (Asteraceae); {alpha}-amyrenone, {beta}-amyrenone, boehmerone, friedelin, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin and glutinol in Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae). (author). 37 refs., 93 figs.

  15. Methodology for the identification of tri-terpenes mixtures components by {sup 13} C NMR; Metodologia para identificao dos componentes de misturas de triterpenos por RMN de {sup 13} C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Roberto S.G.

    1990-12-31

    This work describes a methodology for the identification of tri terpenes complex mixtures by {sup 13} C NMR. The use of {sup 13} C NMR techniques, such as obtention of noise decoupled spectra, DEPT 135 and DEPT 90 sequences, allowed the identification of components of triterpene mixtures with identical functionality through comparison of observed {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts with {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts reported in the literature. The method proved to be specially helpful in the identification of triterpenes by analysis of chemical shifts assignable to doubly bonded carbons, since the particular position of such double bonds is characteristic of some triterpene skeletons. Application of this methodology indicated the presence of bauerenol, {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin in Acmanthera latifolis Griseb. (Malpighiaceae); of germanicone, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrenone and {beta}-amyrenone in Alibertia macrophylla A. Rich. (Rubiaceae); of {alpha}-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate and {beta}-amyrin acetate in Vernonia polyanthes Schreb. (Asteraceae); {alpha}-amyrenone, {beta}-amyrenone, boehmerone, friedelin, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin and glutinol in Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae). (author). 37 refs., 93 figs.

  16. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  17. Simultaneous Quantification of Flavonol Glycosides, Terpene Lactones, Biflavones, Proanthocyanidins, and Ginkgolic Acids in Ginkgo biloba Leaves from Fruit Cultivars by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry working in multiple reaction monitoring mode, an analytical method has been established to simultaneously determine flavonol glycosides, terpene lactones, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, and ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.10% formic acid (v/v at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, and column temperature 30°C. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two G. biloba leaf samples of fruit cultivars collected from different places in China. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the twenty-four chemical constituents. All of the results demonstrated that the developed method was useful for the overall evaluation of the quality of G. biloba leaves, and this study was also helpful for the comprehensive utilization and development of G. biloba resources.

  18. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  19. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of isoprene as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA over Europe is studied with the two-way nested global chemistry transport model TM5. The inclusion of the formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation in our model almost doubles the atmospheric burden of SOA over Europe compared to SOA formation from terpenes and aromatics. The reference simulation, which considers SOA formation from isoprene, terpenes and aromatics, predicts a yearly European production rate of 1.0 Tg SOA yr−1 and an annual averaged atmospheric burden of about 50 Gg SOA over Europe. A fraction of 35% of the SOA produced in the boundary layer over Europe is transported to higher altitudes or to other world regions. Summertime measurements of organic matter (OM during the extensive EMEP OC/EC campaign 2002/2003 are better reproduced when SOA formation from isoprene is taken into account, reflecting also the strong seasonality of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emissions from vegetation. However, during winter, our model strongly underestimates OM, likely caused by missing wood burning in the emission inventories. Uncertainties in the parameterisation of isoprene SOA formation have been investigated. Maximum SOA production is found for irreversible sticking (non-equilibrium partitioning of condensable vapours on particles, with tropospheric SOA production over Europe increased by a factor of 4 in summer compared to the reference case. Completely neglecting SOA formation from isoprene results in the lowest estimate (0.51 Tg SOA yr−1. The amount and the nature of the absorbing matter are shown to be another key uncertainty when predicting SOA levels. Consequently, smog chamber experiments on SOA formation should be performed with different types of seed aerosols and without seed aerosols in order to derive an improved treatment of the absorption of SOA in the models. Consideration of a number of recent insights

  20. Environmental exposure of pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in the Somes River before and after upgrading the municipal wastewater treatment plant Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Chira, Romeo; Alder, Alfredo C

    2009-08-01

    ), cyclophosphamide (cytostatic), ibuprofen (analgesic), and galaxolide (musk fragrance), were determined in samples of the Somes River. The analytes were enriched by solid-phase extraction and subsequently determined by GC/MS. Caffeine, pentoxifylline, and galaxolide were determined underivatized, whereas the acidic pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide, and ibuprofen were determined after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. The concentrations in the Somes River varied from below 10 ng/L up to 10 microg/L. A substantial decrease of the exposure in the Somes River could be observed due to the upgrade of the municipal WWTP in Cluj-Napoca. The loads in the river stretch between Cluj-Napoca and Dej (Somes Mic) varied strongly: caffeine (400-2,000 g/day), carbamazepine (78-213 g/day), galaxolide (140-684 g/day), ibuprofen (84-108 g/day). After the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca, the concentrations in the Somes of caffeine, pentoxifylline, cyclophosphamide, galaxolide, and tonalide were significantly reduced (over 75%). One might be cautious comparing both studies because the relative efficiency of the WWTP's removal of PPCP was not evaluated. However, the significantly lower concentrations of most compounds after the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca allow one to infer that the technical measures at the source substantially reduced inputs of contaminants to the receiving river. Dej loads of the poorly biodegradable substance carbamazepine increased by a factor of 2-3 as a result of wastewater discharges into the river. The disproportionate increase in caffeine loads by a factor of 4 below Cluj-Napoca indicates inputs of untreated wastewater from the Somes Mare due to the discharge of untreated wastewater derived from Bistrita, Nasaud, and Beclean (115,000 inhabitants). The relative contribution of treated and untreated wastewater in surface water might be assessed by measuring chemical markers. Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals like carbamazepine are