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Sample records for oxide particles process

  1. Process for electroforming nickel containing dispersed thorium oxide particles therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Nickel electroforming is effected by passing a direct current through a bath containing a dissolved nickel salt or a mixture of such salts, such as those present in sulfamate or Watts baths, and finely divided sol-derived thorium oxide particles of 75 to 300 angstroms, preferably 100 to 200 angstroms diameters therein, at a pH in the range of 0.4 to 1.9, preferably 0.8 to 1.3. The nickel so deposited, as on a pre-shaped stainless steel cathode, may be produced in desired shape and may be removed from the cathode and upon removal, without additional working, possesses desirable engineering properties at elevated temperatures, e.g., 1,500 to 2,200 0 F. Although the material produced is of improved high temperature stability, hardness, and ductility, compared with nickel alone, it is still ductile at room temperature and has properties equivalent or superior to nickel at room temperatures up to 1,500 0 F. Further improvements in mechanical properties of the material may be obtained by working. Also disclosed are electrodeposition baths, methods for their manufacture, and products resulting from the electrodeposition process. (U.S.)

  2. Chlorine gas processing of oxide nuclear fuel particles containing thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Bildstein, H.; Falta, G.; Wagner, H.

    Experimental studies on the chloride extraction and separation of U and Th from coated Th--U oxide particles are reported. After a description of the chlorination equipment and the experimental procedures, the results are discussed. The yield of U is determined as a function of the reaction temperature. The results of a thermogravimetric analysis of the chlorination of uranium carbide and thorium carbides are reported and used to establish the reaction mechanism for the chlorination

  3. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Wang, X.J.; Gong, W.X.; Wu, K.; Wang, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiC p /AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage–time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO 2 before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO 2 by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiC p /AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  4. Process R&D for Particle Size Control of Molybdenum Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dzwiniel, Trevor [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pupek, Krzysztof [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krumdick, Gregory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to produce MoO3 powder with a particle size range of 50 to 200 μm for use in targets for production of the medical isotope 99Mo. Molybdenum metal powder is commercially produced by thermal reduction of oxides in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most common source material is MoO3, which is derived by the thermal decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM). However, the particle size of the currently produced MoO3 is too small, resulting in Mo powder that is too fine to properly sinter and press into the desired target. In this study, effects of heating rate, heating temperature, gas type, gas flow rate, and isothermal heating were investigated for the decomposition of AHM. The main conclusions were as follows: lower heating rate (2-10°C/min) minimizes breakdown of aggregates, recrystallized samples with millimeter-sized aggregates are resistant to various heat treatments, extended isothermal heating at >600°C leads to significant sintering, and inert gas and high gas flow rate (up to 2000 ml/min) did not significantly affect particle size distribution or composition. In addition, attempts to recover AHM from an aqueous solution by several methods (spray drying, precipitation, and low temperature crystallization) failed to achieve the desired particle size range of 50 to 200 μm. Further studies are planned.

  5. Impact of temperature on zinc oxide particle size by using sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keanchuan, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Saipolbahri, Zulhilmi Akmal bin, E-mail: zulhilmiakmal@gmail.com [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized via sol-gel method, by using citric acid as a precursor. The impact of annealing on the particle size was investigated. Based on the results from the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), three different annealing temperature which is 500, 600 and 700 °C were chosen followed by the characterization of the ZnO nanoparticle by using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the crystallite size estimated from PXRD increased with the annealing temperature which was hexagonal structure for ZnO. TEM further revealed the same tendency which the Zn NPs size also increased with the annealing temperature.

  6. Impact of temperature on zinc oxide particle size by using sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keanchuan; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan; Saipolbahri, Zulhilmi Akmal bin; Guan, Beh Hoe; Soleimani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized via sol-gel method, by using citric acid as a precursor. The impact of annealing on the particle size was investigated. Based on the results from the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), three different annealing temperature which is 500, 600 and 700 °C were chosen followed by the characterization of the ZnO nanoparticle by using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the crystallite size estimated from PXRD increased with the annealing temperature which was hexagonal structure for ZnO. TEM further revealed the same tendency which the Zn NPs size also increased with the annealing temperature

  7. Fabrication of Al5083 surface composites reinforced by CNTs and cerium oxide nano particles via friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, Khalil, E-mail: k_ranjbar@scu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehmolaei, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirani, A.R. [12th Ghaem Street, Bld. Hashemzadeh, Shahrak Golestan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Using friction stir processing, an effect of CNTs and CeO{sub 2} reinforcements on mechanical and corrosion properties of Al5083 alloy is reported. • The strength of Al5083 was increased by 42%, its matrix grain size reduced five times, and hardness was doubled by the incorporation of CNTs-CeO{sub 2} mixture in the volume ratio of 75-25 respectively. • Unlike the CNTs, incorporation of nanosized CeO{sub 2} particles resulted in remarkable increase in pitting resistance of the alloy. - Abstract: In the present investigation, friction stir processing (FSP) was utilized to incorporate Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) and nanosized cerium oxide particles into the matrix of Al5083 alloy to form surface reinforced composites. The effect of these nanosized reinforcements either separately or in the combined form, on microstructural modification, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of FSPed Al5083 surface composites was studied. A threaded cylindrical hardened steel tool was used with the rotation speeds of 600 and 800 rpm and travel speeds of 35 and 45 mm/min and a tilt angle of 5°. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of FSPed samples were evaluated and compared with the base alloy. The maximum tensile strength and hardness value were achieved for the hybrid composite containing a mixture of CNTs and cerium oxide in the volume ratio of 75-25, respectively, whereas a significant increase in pitting resistance of the base alloy was obtained when cerium oxide alone was incorporated. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and assessed in term of pitting potential and passivation range. Microstructural analysis carried out by using optical and electron microscopes showed that reinforcements are well dispersed inside the nugget zone (NZ), and remarkable grain refinement is gained. The study was aimed to fabricate surface composites with improved mechanical properties and

  8. Particle processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  9. Chemical process to separate iron oxides particles in pottery sample for EPR dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Ferraz, G. M.; Kunzli, R.; Chubaci, J. F. D.

    2008-12-01

    Ancient potteries usually are made of the local clay material, which contains relatively high concentration of iron. The powdered samples are usually quite black, due to magnetite, and, although they can be used for thermoluminescene (TL) dating, it is easiest to obtain better TL reading when clearest natural or pre-treated sample is used. For electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the huge signal due to iron spin-spin interaction, promotes an intense interference overlapping any other signal in this range. Sample dating is obtained by dividing the radiation dose, determined by the concentration of paramagnetic species generated by irradiation, by the natural dose so as a consequence, EPR dating cannot be used, since iron signal do not depend on radiation dose. In some cases, the density separation method using hydrated solution of sodium polytungstate [Na 6(H 2W 12O 40)·H 2O] becomes useful. However, the sodium polytungstate is very expensive in Brazil; hence an alternative method for eliminating this interference is proposed. A chemical process to eliminate about 90% of magnetite was developed. A sample of powdered ancient pottery was treated in a mixture (3:1:1) of HCl, HNO 3 and H 2O 2 for 4 h. After that, it was washed several times in distilled water to remove all acid matrixes. The original black sample becomes somewhat clearer. The resulting material was analyzed by plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the result that the iron content is reduced by a factor of about 9. In EPR measurements a non-treated natural ceramic sample shows a broad spin-spin interaction signal, the chemically treated sample presents a narrow signal in g = 2.00 region, possibly due to a radical of (SiO 3) 3-, mixed with signal of remaining iron [M. Ikeya, New Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993, p. 285]. This signal increases in intensity under γ-irradiation. However, still due to iron influence, the additive method yielded too

  10. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  12. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  13. Production of sized particles of uranium oxides and uranium oxyfluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, I.E.; Randall, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) of a relatively large particle size in a fluidized bed reactor by mixing uranium hexafluoride with a mixture of steam and hydrogen and by preliminary reacting in an ejector gaseous uranium hexafluoride with steam and hydrogen to form a mixture of uranium and oxide and uranium oxyfluoride seed particles of varying sizes, separating the larger particles from the smaller particles in a cyclone separator, recycling the smaller seed particles through the ejector to increase their size, and introducing the larger seed particles from the cyclone separator into a fluidized bed reactor where the seed particles serve as nuclei on which coarser particles of uranium dioxide are formed. 9 claims, 2 drawing figures

  14. High temperature oxidation kinetics of dysprosium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, Brian J.; Butt, Darryl P., E-mail: DarrylButt@BoiseState.edu

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of dysprosium particles was studied from 500 to 1000 °C. • Activation energy in initial region found as 8–25 kJ/mol, depending on atmosphere. • Activation energy in intermediate region found as 80–95 kJ/mol. • The oxide grows at the metal–oxide interface. • Generally, the formed oxide behaved as a p-type semiconductor. - Abstract: Rare earth elements have been recognized as critical materials for the advancement of many strategic and green technologies. Recently, the United States Department of Energy has invested many millions of dollars to enhance, protect, and forecast their production and management. The work presented here attempts to clarify the limited and contradictory literature on the oxidation behavior of the rare earth metal, dysprosium. Dysprosium particles were isothermally oxidized from 500 to 1000 °C in N{sub 2}–(2%, 20%, and 50%) O{sub 2} and Ar–20% O{sub 2} using simultaneous thermal analysis techniques. Two distinct oxidation regions were identified at each isothermal temperature in each oxidizing atmosphere. Initially, the oxidation kinetics are very fast until the reaction enters a slower, intermediate region of oxidation. The two regions are defined and the kinetics of each are assessed to show an apparent activation energy of 8–25 kJ/mol in the initial region and 80–95 kJ/mol in the intermediate oxidation reaction region. The effects of varying the oxygen partial pressure on the reaction rate constant are used to show that dysprosium oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) generally acts as a p-type semiconductor in both regions of oxidation (with an exception above 750 °C in the intermediate region)

  15. Probing the oxidation kinetics of small permalloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiaolei; Song, Xiao; Yin, Shiliu; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of permalloys is important to apply in a wide range. The oxidation and diffusion mechanisms of small permalloy particles with different Fe content are studied by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and microstructure characterizations. Fe 2 O 3 /(Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 plays a key role in the morphology evolution and diffusion mechanisms of small NiFe particles upon oxidation. The activation energies of grain boundary diffusion for the NiFe alloys increase from 141 kJ/mol to 208 kJ/mol as the Fe content increases from 0 to ~50 wt%. We have developed a diffusion process resolved temperature programed oxidation (PR-TPO) analysis method. Three diffusion mechanisms have been recognized by using this method: In addition to the grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion, our TGA analysis suggests that the phase conversion from Fe 2 O 3 to (Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 induces diffusion change and affects the diffusion process at the intermediate temperature. Relevant oxidation kinetics and diffusion mechanisms are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The oxidation mechanisms of small Permalloy particles with different Fe content is studied by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and microstructure characterizations. The activation energies of grain boundary diffusion for the NiFe alloys increases from 140 kJ/mol to 208 kJ/mol as the Fe content increases from 0 to 50 wt% as determined by TGA. We have developed a diffusion process resolved temperature programed oxidation (DPR-TPO) analysis method, and three diffusion mechanisms have been recognized by using this method: In addition to the well-known grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion, we found that the phase conversion from Fe 2 O 3 to (Ni, Fe) 3 O 4 will induce diffusion changes and affect the diffusion process at the intermediate temperature. The diffusion processes can be characterized by the corresponding characteristic peak temperatures in temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) analysis. This work not only

  16. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  17. Magnetic characteristics of ultrafine Fe particles reduced from uniform iron oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, K.; Watts, J.; Tadros, M.; Xiao, Gang; Liou, S. H.; Chien, C. L.

    1987-04-01

    Uniform, cubic 0.05-μm iron oxide particles were formed by forced hydrolysis of ferric perchlorate. These particles were reduced to α-Fe by heating in hydrogen at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C. The effect of reduction temperature and various prereduction treatments on the microstructure of the iron particles will be discussed. Complete reduction to α-Fe was established by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on epoxy and polyurethane films containing these particles with various mass fractions gave coercivities as high as 1000 Oe. The relationship between the magnetic measurements and the microstructure will be discussed. Na2SiO3 is found to be the best coating material for the process of reducing iron oxide particles to iron.

  18. Oxidation of nickel particles in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    nanometres in size. These domains impinge and cover the particles surface. As the temperature increases under O2, the NiO film grows and creates irregular structures composed of many crystallites. The reaction kinetics are inferred by EELS using different techniques analyzing changes in shapes of the Ni L2...... temperature, providing new insights into oxidation/corrosion processes....

  19. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  20. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  1. Process for the fabrication of nuclear fuel oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Bernard; Paradis, Yves.

    1977-01-01

    Process for the fabrication of nuclear fuel oxide pellets of the type for which particles charged with an organic binder -selected from the group that includes polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, polyvinyl compounds and methyl cellulose- are prepared from a powder of such an oxide, for instance uranium dioxide. These particles are then compressed into pellets which are then sintered. Under this process the binder charged particles are prepared by stirring the powder with a gas, spraying on to the stirred powder a solution or a suspension in a liquid of this organic binder in order to obtain these particles and then drying the particles so obtained with this gas [fr

  2. Reactivity of surface of metal oxide particles: from adsorption of ions to deposition of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In this Accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of chemistry. These works more particularly addressed the understanding of the surface reactivity of metal oxide particles and its implication on sorption and adherence processes. In a first part, he addresses the study of surface acidity-alkalinity: measurement of surface reactivity by acid-base titration, stability of metal oxides in suspension, effect of morphology on oxide-hydroxide reactivity. The second part addresses the study of sorption: reactivity of iron oxides with selenium species, sorption of sulphate ions on magnetite, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Adherence effects are addressed in the third part: development of an experimental device to study adherence in massive substrates, deposition of particles under turbulent flow. The last part presents a research project on the effect of temperature on ion sorption at solids/solutions interfaces, and on the adherence of metal oxide particles. The author gives his detailed curriculum, and indicates his various publications, teaching activities, research and administrative responsibilities

  3. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  4. Particle-particle interactions in aluminum reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.V.; McLemore, W.J.S.; Sparrow, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute has been studying the use of thermite reactions for the production of specialized compounds since the mid-1950's. One of the goals of the research at GTRI is to define the reaction mechanism in order to be ble to predict the resultant reaction behaviour and thus prevent hazardous conditions. Thermite processing advantages are discussed in this paper. A typical thermite type of reaction to produce a composite titanium diboride/alumina is shown. The reactions typically use three starting materials for the production of a specific compound. A preliminary experimental mechanistic model of the extremely exothermic oxidation-reduction reaction is being developed

  5. Properties of supersymmetric particles and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The motivations for experimental searches for supersymmetric particles are discussed. The role of R-parity in these searches is described. The production and decay characteristics of each class of supersymmetric particles are investigated in the context of both e+e- and hadron machines. There is a detailed presentation of a sample calculation of a supersymmetric process. Emphasis is given to the signatures for detection of supersymmetric particles and processes. The current limits for supersymmetric particles are given. 125 refs., 50 figs

  6. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  7. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1987-08-01

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs

  8. Visualisation of axolotl blastema cells and pig endothelial progenitor cells using very small super paramagnetic iron oxide particles in MRI: A technique with applications for non invasive visualisation of regenerative processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Kjær, N.B.; Bek, Maria

    oxide particles (VSOP) in animal cells enable non invasive cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and can prove useful, when visualising regenerative processes. This study examines the possibility of labelling limited numbers of axolotl blastema cells (aBC) and pig endothelial progenitor...... implanted in live axolotl tail and dead porcine heart, respectively. Cellular iron uptake was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results: T2*-weighted 2D gradient-echo sequences on samples of 10˄5 cells yielded at significant linear correlations between...

  9. Enhancement of aspirin capsulation by porous particles including iron hydrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Koishi, Masumi; Hosoi, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo.

    1986-01-01

    Polymer-coated porous particles containing aspirin as a drug were prepared and the release of rate of aspirin was studied. The impregnation of aspirin was carried out by post-graft polymerization, where methyl methacrylate containing aspirin was treated with porous particles including iron oxide, pre-irradiated with γ-ray form Co-60. Release of aspirin from modified particles was examined with 50 % methanol solution. The amount of aspirin absorbed in porous particles increased by grafting of methyl methacrylate. The particles treated with iron hydrous oxide sols before irradiation led to the increment of aspirin absorption. Diffusion of aspirin through the polymer matrix and the gelled layer was the limiting process in the aspirin release from particles. The rate of aspirin released from modified particles including iron hydrous oxide wasn't affected by the grafting of methyl methacrylate. (author)

  10. Measuring oxidation processes: Atomic oxygen flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Of the existing 95 high-energy accelerators in the world, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the only one of the linear-collider type, where electrons and positrons are smashed together at energies of 50 GeV using linear beams instead of beam rings for achieving interactions. Use of a collider eliminates energy losses in the form of x-rays due to the curved trajectory of the rings, a phenomena known as bremsstrauhlung. Because these losses are eliminated, higher interaction energies are reached. Consequently the SLC produced the first Z particle in quantities large enough to allow measurement of its physical properties with some accuracy. SLAC intends to probe still deeper into the structure of matter by next polarizing the electrons in the beam. The surface of the source for these polarized particles, typically gallium arsenide, must be kept clean of contaminants. One method for accomplishing this task requires the oxidation of the surface, from which the oxidized contaminants are later boiled off. The technique requires careful measurement of the oxidation process. SLAC researchers have developed a technique for measuring the atomic oxygen flux in this process. The method uses a silver film on a quartz-crystal, deposition-rate monitor. Measuring the initial oxidation rate of the silver, which is proportional to the atomic oxygen flux, determines a lower limit on that flux in the range of 10 13 to 10 17 atoms per square centimeter per second. Furthermore, the deposition is reversible by exposing the sensor to atomic hydrogen. This technique has wider applications to processes in solid-state and surface physics as well as surface chemistry. In semiconductor manufacturing where a precise thickness of oxide must be deposited, this technique could be used to monitor the critical flux of atomic oxygen in the process

  11. Characterization of depleted uranium oxides fabricated using different processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, E.P.; Lewis, C.; FitzPatrick, J.; Rademacher, D.; Tandon, L.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying both physical and chemical characteristics of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) production processes is the corner stone of nuclear forensics. Typically, processing markers are based on measuring an interdicted sample's bulk chemical properties, such as the elemental or isotopic composition, or focusing on the chemical and physical morphology of only a few particles. Therefore, it is imperative that known SNM processes be fully characterized from bulk to trace level for each particle size range. This report outlines a series of particle size measurements and fractionation techniques that can be applied to a bulk SNM powders, categorizing both chemical and physical properties in discrete particle size fractions. This will be demonstrated by characterizing the process signatures of a series of different depleted uranium oxides prepared at increasing firing temperatures (350-1100 deg C). Results will demonstrate how each oxides' material density, particle size distribution, and morphology varies. (author)

  12. Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sajal

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.

  13. Thermal processing and native oxidation of silicon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, Brandon J.; Holm, Jason; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to investigate in-air oxidation of silicon nanoparticles ca. 11 nm in diameter. Particle samples were prepared first by extracting them from an RF plasma synthesis reactor, and then heating them in an inert carrier gas stream. The resulting particles had varying surface hydrogen coverages and relative amounts of SiH x (x = 1, 2, and 3), depending on the temperature to which they had been heated. The particles were allowed to oxidize in-air for several weeks. FTIR, XPS, and EELS analyses that were performed during this period clearly establish that adsorbed hydrogen retards oxidation, although in complex ways. In particular, particles that have been heated to intermediate hydrogen coverages oxidize more slowly in air than do freshly generated particles that have a much higher hydrogen content. In addition, the loss of surface hydride species at high processing temperatures results in fast initial oxidation and the formation of a self-limiting oxide layer. Analogous measurements made on deuterium-covered particles show broadly similar behavior; i.e., that oxidation is the slowest at some intermediate coverage of adsorbed deuterium.

  14. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in chromium(III) oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Vazquez, Carlos; Banobre-Lopez, Manuel; Lopez-Quintela, M.A.; Hueso, L.E.; Rivas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The low temperature (4< T(K)<350) magnetic properties of chromium(III) oxide particles have been studied. A clear evidence of the presence of weak ferromagnetism is observed below 250 K. The magnetisation curves as a function of the applied field show coercive fields due to the canted antiferromagnetism of the particles. Around 55 K a maximum is observed in the zero-field-cooled curves; this maximum can be assumed as a blocking temperature, similarly to ultrafine ferromagnetic particles

  15. High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coating in TRISO coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Kaihong; Liu, Malin; Shao, Youlin; Tang, Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature oxidation tests of SiC coating in TRISO particles were carried out. • The dynamic oxidation process was established. • Oxidation mechanisms were proposed. • The existence of silicon oxycarbides at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated. • Carbon was detected at the interface at high temperatures and long oxidation time. - Abstract: High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coatings in tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is crucial to the in-pile safety of fuel particles for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The postulated accident condition of air ingress was taken into account in evaluating the reliability of the SiC layer. Oxidation tests of SiC coatings were carried out in the ranges of temperature between 800 and 1600 °C and time between 1 and 48 h in air atmosphere. Based on the microstructure evolution of the oxide layer, the mechanisms and kinetics of the oxidation process were proposed. The existence of silicon oxycarbides (SiO x C y ) at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated by X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Carbon was detected by Raman spectroscopy at the interface under conditions of very high temperatures and long oxidation time. From oxidation kinetics calculation, activation energies were 145 kJ/mol and 352 kJ/mol for the temperature ranges of 1200–1500 °C and 1550–1600 °C, respectively

  16. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Laboratory-generated Mixed Composition and Biomass Burning Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Sugrue, R. A.; Hagan, D. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Browne, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol (OA) can significantly transform the chemical and physical properties of particulate matter in the atmosphere, leading to changes to the chemical composition of OA and potential volatilization of organic compounds. It has become increasingly apparent that the heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of OA depend on the phase and morphology of the particles. However, most laboratory experiments to date have been performed on single-component, purely organic precursors, which may exhibit fundamentally different behavior than more complex particles in the atmosphere. Here we present laboratory studies of the heterogeneous oxidation of two more complex chemical systems: thin, organic coatings on inorganic seed particles and biomass burning OA. In the first system, squalane (C30H62), a model compound for reduced OA, is coated onto dry ammonium sulfate particles at various thicknesses (10-20 nm) and exposed to hydroxyl radical (OH) in a flow tube reactor. In the second, we use a semi-batch reactor to study the heterogeneous OH-initiated oxidation of biomass burning particles as a part of the 2016 FIREX campaign in Missoula, MT. The resulting changes in chemical composition are monitored with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a soot-particle AMS for the non-refractory and refractory systems, respectively. We show that the heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of these multicomponent particles are substantially different than that of the single-component particles. The oxidation of organic coatings is rapid, undergoing dramatic changes to carbon oxidation state and losing a significant amount of organic mass after relatively low OH exposures (equivalent to several days of atmospheric processing). In the case of biomass burning particles, the kinetics are complex, with different components (inferred by aerosol mass spectrometry) undergoing oxidation at different rates.

  17. Microgravity Processing of Oxide Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, James R.; Hofmeister, William H.; Bayuzick, Robert J.; Vlasse, Marcus

    1999-01-01

    Considerable effort has been concentrated on the synthesis and characterization of high T(sub c) oxide superconducting materials. The YBaCuO system has received the most intense study, as this material has shown promise for the application of both thin film and bulk materials. There are many problems with the application of bulk materials- weak links, poor connectivity, small coherence length, oxygen content and control, environmental reactivity, phase stability, incongruent melting behavior, grain boundary contamination, brittle mechanical behavior, and flux creep. The extent to which these problems are intrinsic or associated with processing is the subject of controversy. This study seeks to understand solidification processing of these materials, and to use this knowledge for alternative processing strategies, which, at the very least, will improve the understanding of bulk material properties and deficiencies. In general, the phase diagram studies of the YBaCuO system have concentrated on solid state reactions and on the Y2BaCuO(x) + liquid yields YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) peritectic reaction. Little information is available on the complete melting relations, undercooling, and solidification behavior of these materials. In addition, rare earth substitutions such as Nd and Gd affect the liquidus and phase relations. These materials have promising applications, but lack of information on the high temperature phase relations has hampered research. In general, the understanding of undercooling and solidification of high temperature oxide systems lags behind the science of these phenomena in metallic systems. Therefore, this research investigates the fundamental melting relations, undercooling, and solidification behavior of oxide superconductors with an emphasis on improving ground based synthesis of these materials.

  18. Microgravity Processing of Oxide Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Bayuzick, Robert J.; Vlasse, Marcus; McCallum, William; Peters, Palmer (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal is to understand the microstructures which develop under the nonequilibrium solidification conditions achieved by melt processing in copper oxide superconductor systems. More specifically, to define the liquidus at the Y- 1:2:3 composition, the Nd-1:2:3 composition, and several intermediate partial substitution points between pure Y-1:2:3 and Nd-1:2:3. A secondary goal has been to understand resultant solidification morphologies and pathways under a variety of experimental conditions and to use this knowledge to better characterize solidification phenomena in these systems.

  19. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Popel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations.Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated.Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  20. Effects of particle size and pH value on the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hou, Weimin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin, E-mail: lxsong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Graphene-based material has attracted extensive attention from both experimental and theoretical scientific communities due to its extraordinary properties. As a derivative of graphene, graphene oxide has also become an attractive material and been investigated widely in many areas since the ease of synthesizing graphene oxide and its solution processability. In this paper, we prepared graphene oxide by the modified Hummers method. The hydrophilicity of graphene oxide with different particle sizes and pH values was characterized with water contact angle. And we find the water contact angle of the different graphene oxides decreases from 61.8° to 11.6°, which indicates graphene oxide has the excellent hydrophilicity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering measurements were taken to study the chemical state of elements and the performances of graphene oxide in this experiment. The results show the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide is sensitive to particle size and pH value, which result in the variations of the ionizable groups of graphene oxide. Our work provides a simple ways to control the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide by adjusting particle size and pH value.

  1. Developments in kinetic modelling of chalcocite particle oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervi, J; Ahokainen, T; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating chalcocite particle oxidation is presented. Combustion of pure chalcocite with oxygen is coded as a kinetic module which can be connected as a separate part of commercial CFD-package, PHOENICS. Heat transfer, fluid flow and combustion phenomena can be simulated using CFD-calculation together with the kinetic model. Interaction between gas phase and particles are taken into account by source terms. The aim of the kinetic model is to calculate the particle temperature, contents of species inside the particle, oxygen consumption and formation of sulphur dioxide. Four oxidation reactions are considered and the shrinking core model is used to describe the rate of the oxidation reactions. The model is verified by simulating the particle oxidation reactions in a laboratory scale laminar-flow furnace under different conditions and the model predicts the effects of charges correctly. In the future, the model validation will be done after experimental studies in the laminar flow-furnace. (author) 18 refs.

  2. Developments in kinetic modelling of chalcocite particle oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervi, J.; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating chalcocite particle oxidation is presented. Combustion of pure chalcocite with oxygen is coded as a kinetic module which can be connected as a separate part of commercial CFD-package, PHOENICS. Heat transfer, fluid flow and combustion phenomena can be simulated using CFD-calculation together with the kinetic model. Interaction between gas phase and particles are taken into account by source terms. The aim of the kinetic model is to calculate the particle temperature, contents of species inside the particle, oxygen consumption and formation of sulphur dioxide. Four oxidation reactions are considered and the shrinking core model is used to describe the rate of the oxidation reactions. The model is verified by simulating the particle oxidation reactions in a laboratory scale laminar-flow furnace under different conditions and the model predicts the effects of charges correctly. In the future, the model validation will be done after experimental studies in the laminar flow-furnace. (author) 18 refs.

  3. Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Compounds particularly suitable as oxidation catalysis are described, comprising specified amounts of uranium, antimony and tin as oxides. Processes for making and using the catalysts are described. (U.K.)

  4. Resuspension of uranium-plutonium oxide particles from burning Plexiglas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel materials such as Uranium-Plutonium oxide must be handled remotely in gloveboxes because of their radiotoxicity. These gloveboxes are frequently constructed largely of combustible Plexiglas sheet. To estimate the potential airborne spread of radioactive contamination in the event of a glovebox fire, the resuspension of particles from burning Plexiglas was investigated. (author)

  5. Optimization of Iron Oxide Tracer Synthesis for Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Ziemian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of iron oxide nanoparticles as tracers for magnetic particle imaging (MPI alongside the development of data acquisition equipment and image reconstruction techniques is crucial for the required improvements in image resolution and sensitivity of MPI scanners. We present a large-scale water-based synthesis of multicore superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran (MC-SPIONs. We also demonstrate the preparation of single core superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in organic media, subsequently coated with a poly(ethylene glycol gallic acid polymer and phase transferred to water (SC-SPIONs. Our aim was to obtain long-term stable particles in aqueous media with high MPI performance. We found that the amplitude of the third harmonic measured by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS at 10 mT is 2.3- and 5.8-fold higher than Resovist for the MC-SPIONs and SC-SPIONs, respectively, revealing excellent MPI potential as compared to other reported MPI tracer particle preparations. We show that the reconstructed MPI images of phantoms using optimized multicore and specifically single-core particles are superior to that of commercially available Resovist, which we utilize as a reference standard, as predicted by MPS.

  6. Process of dosimetry of a particle flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, H; Heilmann, C; Jacquot, C

    1976-06-25

    The main feature of this dosimetry process is that a nuclear emulsion plate with an emulsion of gelatine and silver bromide microcrystals is subjected to the flux of particles to be measured, that the plate is developed in a standard manner and that the amount of silver thus reduced to the metal state is then analysed by activation. The plate containing the nuclear emulsion irradiated in this way is then developed by the conventional temperature method, the effect of which is to cause traces to appear formed of metal silver particles at those places where ionising particles have penetrated into the emulsion and have given up therein all or part of their energy. Once the plates have been developed, like an ordinary photographic plate, they are then subjected to a neutron flux (nuclear reactor, accelerator, etc.) that activates the silver particles in the emulsion which then become emitters of ..gamma.. radiations which may then be detected to find out the amount of silver present in the plate, which finally is specific of the radiation flux dose received by this plate. A Geiger type gamma ray detector gives a global indication on the mass of silver contained in the emulsion. A more refined method consists in using a multi-channel gamma spectrometer and this makes it possible to have an energy selective dosimetry. The juxtaposition of several separate plates each having its own sensitivity in a given energy band enable a veritable 'sandwhich' of several plates to be made.

  7. Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides gas treating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for treating particle-containing gas streams by removing particles and gaseous atmospheric pollutants. Parallel passage contactors are utilized to remove the gaseous pollutants. The minimum required gas flow rate for effective operation of these contactors is maintained by recycling a variable amount of low temperature gas which has been passed through a particle removal zone. The recycled gas is reheated by heat exchange against a portion of the treated gas

  8. Oxidation products of biogenic emissions contribute to nucleation of atmospheric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobono, Francesco; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Dommen, Josef; Ortega, Ismael K; Rondo, Linda; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hansel, Armin; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Spracklen, Dominick V; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Wimmer, Daniela; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-16

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Oxidation Products of Biogenic Emissions Contribute to Nucleation of Atmospheric Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobono, Francesco; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Wimmer, Daniela; Wex, Heike; Weingartner, Ernest; Wagner, Paul E; Vrtala, Aron; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vaattovaara, Petri; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, Antonio; Stratmann, Frank; Stozhkov, Yuri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Sipilä, Mikko; Praplan, Arnaud P; Petäjä, Tuukka; Onnela, Antti; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mathot, Serge; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Laaksonen, Ari; Kvashin, Alexander N.; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Keskinen, Helmi; Kajos, Maija; Junninen, Heikki; Hansel, Armin; Franchin, Alessandro; Flagan, Richard C; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear M; Downard, Andrew; David, André; Breitenlechner, Martin; Bianchi, Federico; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, João; Rondo, Linda; Ortega, Ismael K; Dommen, Josef; Scott, Catherine E; Vrtala, Aron; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipila, Mikko; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm 2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  11. Surface structure and oxidation reactivity of oil sand coke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, C.; Palmer, A.D.; Ng, S.H.; Furimsky, E.

    1987-05-01

    Fractions of particles of varying mean diameter were isolated from coke obtained from the fluid coking of Athabasca bitumen. Correlations were established between the rate of oxygen sorption and the apparent surface area as measured by carbon dioxide adsorption. The rate of oxygen sorption, r/sub o/, could be related to particle radius, R, by r/sub o/ varying with R/sup D/ T over a range of particle size where D is the fractal dimension of the coke. The existence of such correlations may be related to the iterative processes which form the particles. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of particle size on iron nanoparticle oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Lysaght, Andrew C.; Goberman, Daniel G.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting catalyst particles is a very important part of carbon nanotube growth, although the properties of these nanoscale particles are unclear. In this article iron nanoparticles are analyzed through the use of atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to understand how the size affects the chemical composition of nanoparticles and thus their physical structure. Initially, atomic force microscopy was used to confirm the presence of iron particles, and to determine the average size of the particles. Next an analytical model was developed to estimate particle size as a function of deposition time using inputs from atomic force microscopy measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was then performed with a focus on the spectra relating to the 2p Fe electrons to study the chemical state of the particles as a function of time. It was shown that as the size of nanoparticles decreased, the oxidation state of the particles changed due to a high proportion of atoms on the surface.

  13. Suppression of new particle formation from monoterpene oxidation by NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, J.; Mentel, T. F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Andres, S.; Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Müsgen, P.; Rohrer, F.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2014-03-01

    The impact of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) on new particle formation (NPF) and on photochemical ozone production from real plant volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions was studied in a laboratory setup. At high NOx conditions ([BVOC] / [NOx] 23 ppb) new particle formation was suppressed. Instead, photochemical ozone formation was observed resulting in higher hydroxyl radical (OH) and lower nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations. When [NO] was reduced back to levels below 1 ppb by OH reactions, NPF was observed. Adding high amounts of NOx caused NPF to be slowed by orders of magnitude compared to analogous experiments at low NOx conditions ([NOx] ~300 ppt), although OH concentrations were higher. Varying NO2 photolysis enabled showing that NO was responsible for suppression of NPF. This suggests that peroxy radicals are involved in NPF. The rates of NPF and photochemical ozone production were related by power law dependence with an exponent approaching -2. This exponent indicated that the overall peroxy radical concentration must have been similar when NPF occurred. Thus, permutation reactions of first-generation peroxy radicals cannot be the rate limiting step in NPF from monoterpene oxidation. It was concluded that permutation reactions of higher generation peroxy-radical-like intermediates limit the rate of new particle formation. In contrast to the strong effects on the particle numbers, the formation of particle mass was substantially less sensitive to NOx concentrations. If at all, yields were reduced by about an order of magnitude only at very high NOx concentrations.

  14. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  15. Microstructure and optical appearance of anodized friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate Ti, Y and Ce oxide powders into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The FSP processed surface composite was subsequently anodized with an aim to develop optical effects in the anodized layer owing to the presence of incorporated...... oxide particles which will influence the scattering of light. This paper presents the investigations on relation between microstructure of the FSP zone and optical appearance of the anodized layer due to incorporation of metal oxide particles and modification of the oxide particles due to the anodizing...

  16. PROCESSES OF CHLORINATION OF URANIUM OXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, S.

    1958-09-16

    An improvement is described in the process fur making UCl/sub 4/ from uranium oxide and carbon tetrachloride. In that process, oxides of uranium are contacted with carbon tetrachloride vapor at an elevated temperature. It has been fuund that the reaction product and yield are improved if the uranlum oxide charge is disposed in flat trays in the reaction zone, to a depth of not more than 1/2 centimeter.

  17. Graphene oxide particles and method of making and using them

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Alazmi, Amira

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of production of graphenic materials used to store energy and the energy storage systems using such produced graphenic materials. Provided herein is a method of producing graphene oxide that includes oxidizing graphite powder in a mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 in the presence of KMnO4, wherein the ratio of graphite powder to KMnO4 is about 1:9 by weight and the ratio of H3PO4 to H2SO4 is about 1:9 by volume, to produce graphene oxide; dispersing the graphene oxide in water at an acidic pH (e.g., about 0) to form a solution; adjusting the solution to about a neutral pH; and isolating the graphene oxide. An energy storage device is provided herein that includes the graphene oxide made by the disclosed methods or that includes the population (plurality) of reduced graphene oxide particles having the properties disclosed herein, such as batteries and supercapacitors.

  18. Graphene oxide particles and method of making and using them

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2017-12-07

    The present invention is an improved method of production of graphenic materials used to store energy and the energy storage systems using such produced graphenic materials. Provided herein is a method of producing graphene oxide that includes oxidizing graphite powder in a mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 in the presence of KMnO4, wherein the ratio of graphite powder to KMnO4 is about 1:9 by weight and the ratio of H3PO4 to H2SO4 is about 1:9 by volume, to produce graphene oxide; dispersing the graphene oxide in water at an acidic pH (e.g., about 0) to form a solution; adjusting the solution to about a neutral pH; and isolating the graphene oxide. An energy storage device is provided herein that includes the graphene oxide made by the disclosed methods or that includes the population (plurality) of reduced graphene oxide particles having the properties disclosed herein, such as batteries and supercapacitors.

  19. Accelerated oxidation processes is biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J.

    1999-12-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feedstocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters that can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This article reports the results of experiments to track the chemical and physical changes that occur in biodiesel as it oxidizes. These results show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are explored also. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq/kg ester, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  20. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  1. Particles in water properties and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, John

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Particles in the Aquatic Environment Colloidal Aspects PARTICLE SIZE AND RELATED PROPERTIES Particle Size and Shape Particle Size Distributions Particle Transport Light Scattering and Turbidity Measurement of Particle Size SURFACE CHARGE Origin of Surface Charge The Electrical Double Layer Electrokinetic Phenomena COLLOID INTERACTIONS AND COLLOID STABILITY Colloid Interactions - General Concepts van der Waals Interaction Electrical Double Layer Interaction Combined Interaction - DLVO Theory Non-DLVO Interactions AGGREGATION KINETICS Collision Frequency - Smoluchow

  2. Relativistic Photon Induced Processes of Composite Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro-Silva, C.I; Curado, E. M. F.; Rego-Monteiro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a complex quantum field theory based on a generalized Heisenberg[1] algebra, which describes at the space-time a spin less composite particle. We compute the perturbative series and the cross section of the scattering process 2 γ→φ - , φ + up to second order in the coupling constant and we find a further contribution due to the structure of the composite pion which is described here phenomenologically by the generalized algebra. We compare the results of this study with available experimental data. (Author)

  3. Synthesis and Oxidation of Silver Nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solution (20%wt propyl alcohol, 5%wt hydrochloric acid and 5%wt stannous chloride in water). Scheme 1b and c illustrate the sensitization and silver... Synthesis and Oxidation of Silver Nano-particles Hua Qi*, D. A. Alexson, O.J. Glembocki and S. M. Prokes* Electronics Science and Technology...energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) techniques. The results Quantum Dots and Nanostructures: Synthesis , Characterization, and Modeling VIII, edited by Kurt

  4. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOX) TEXTILE WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Salas C., G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOX) are based on the in situ generation of hydroxyradicals (·OH), which have a high oxidation potential. In the case of Fenton processes !he generation of hydroxy radicals takes place by the combination of an oxidation agent (H202) with a catalyst (Fe(II)). These radicals are not selective and they react very fast with the organic matter,being able to oxidize a high variety of organic compounds. This property allows the degradation of pollutants into more biodeg...

  5. Particle Handling Techniques in Microchemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S. Flowers

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of particulates in microfluidics is a challenge that continues to impact applications ranging from fine chemicals manufacturing to the materials and the life sciences. Heterogeneous operations carried out in microreactors involve high surface-to-volume characteristics that minimize the heat and mass transport resistances, offering precise control of the reaction conditions. Considerable advances have been made towards the engineering of techniques that control particles in microscale laminar flow, yet there remain tremendous opportunities for improvements in the area of chemical processing. Strategies that have been developed to successfully advance systems involving heterogeneous materials are reviewed and an outlook provided in the context of the challenges of continuous flow fine chemical processes.

  6. Process for removal of sulfur oxides from hot gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, G. L.; Kohl, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the removal of sulfur oxides from two gas streams containing the same. One gas stream is introduced into a spray dryer zone and contacted with a finely dispersed spray of an aqueous medium containing an absorbent for sulfur oxides. The aqueous medium is introduced at a controlled rate so as to provide water to the gas in an amount to produce a cooled product gas having a temperature at least 7 0 C. above its adiabatic saturation temperature and from about 125-300% of the stoichiometric amount of absorbent required to react with the sulfur oxides to be removed from the gas stream. The effluent from the spray dryer zone comprises a gas stream of reduced sulfur oxide content and contains entrained dry particulate reaction products including unreacted absorbent. This gas stream is then introduced into a particulate removal zone from which is withdrawn a gas stream substantially free of particles and having a reduced sulfur oxide content. the dry particulate reaction products are collected and utilized as a source of absorbent for a second aqueous scrubbing medium containing unreacted absorbent for the sulfur oxides. An effluent gas stream is withdrawn from the aqueous scrubbing zone and comprises a water-saturated gas stream of reduced sulfur oxide content and substantially free of particles. The effluent gas streams from the particulate removal zone and the aqueous scrubbing zone are combined in such proportions that the combined gas stream has a temperature above its adiabatic saturation temperature

  7. Formation of oxides particles in ferritic steel by using gas-atomized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Fang Jinghua; Liu Donghua; Lu Zhi; Liu Feng; Chen Shiqi; Liu, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Oxides dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was prepared by using gas-atomized pre-alloyed powder, without the conventional mechanical alloying process. By adjusting the volume content of O 2 in the gas atmosphere Ar, the O level in the ferritic powder can be well controlled. The O dissolves uniformly in the ferritic powder, and a very thin layer of oxides forms on the powder surface. After hot deformation, the primary particle boundaries, which retain after sintering, can be disintegrated and near fully dense materials can be obtained. The oxide layer on the powder surface has a significant effect on the microstructural evolution. It may prevent the diffusion in between the primary particles during sintering, and may dissolve and/or induce the nucleation of new oxides in the ferritic matrix during recrystallization. Two kinds of oxide particles are found in the ferritic steel: large (∼100 nm) Ti-rich and fine (10-20 nm) Y-Ti-rich oxides. The hardness of the ferritic steel increases with increasing annealing temperatures, however, decreases at 1400 deg. C, due to the coarsening of precipitates and the recrystallization microstructure.

  8. NMR relaxation induced by iron oxide particles: testing theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossuin, Y; Orlando, T; Basini, M; Henrard, D; Lascialfari, A; Mattea, C; Stapf, S; Vuong, Q L

    2016-04-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles find their main application as contrast agents for cellular and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. The contrast they bring is due to the shortening of the transverse relaxation time T 2 of water protons. In order to understand their influence on proton relaxation, different theoretical relaxation models have been developed, each of them presenting a certain validity domain, which depends on the particle characteristics and proton dynamics. The validation of these models is crucial since they allow for predicting the ideal particle characteristics for obtaining the best contrast but also because the fitting of T 1 experimental data by the theory constitutes an interesting tool for the characterization of the nanoparticles. In this work, T 2 of suspensions of iron oxide particles in different solvents and at different temperatures, corresponding to different proton diffusion properties, were measured and were compared to the three main theoretical models (the motional averaging regime, the static dephasing regime, and the partial refocusing model) with good qualitative agreement. However, a real quantitative agreement was not observed, probably because of the complexity of these nanoparticulate systems. The Roch theory, developed in the motional averaging regime (MAR), was also successfully used to fit T 1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles, even outside the MAR validity range, and provided a good estimate of the particle size. On the other hand, the simultaneous fitting of T 1 and T 2 NMRD profiles by the theory was impossible, and this occurrence constitutes a clear limitation of the Roch model. Finally, the theory was shown to satisfactorily fit the deuterium T 1 NMRD profile of superparamagnetic particle suspensions in heavy water.

  9. Methanol oxidation at platinized copper particles prepared by galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Mintsouli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Pt-Cu particles have been prepared by galvanic replacement of Cu precursor nanoparticles, upon the treatment of the latter with a chloro-platinate acidic solution. The resulting particles, typically a few tens of nm large, were supported on high surface area carbon (Vulcan® XC–72R, Cabot and tested as electrodes. Surface electrochemistry in deaerated acid solutions was similar to that of pure Pt, indicating the existence of a Pt shell (hence the particles are denoted as Pt(Cu. Pt(Cu/C supported catalysts exhibit superior carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation activity with respect to their Pt/C analogues when compared on a per electroactive surface area basis, due to the modification of Pt activity by Cu residing in the particle core. However, as a result of large particle size and agglomeration phenomena, Pt(Cu/C are still inferior to Pt/C when compared on a mass specific activity basis.

  10. Statistical optimization of microencapsulation process for coating of magnesium particles with Viton polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi, E-mail: pourmortazavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaee, Saeed; Ashtiani, Fatemeh Shamsi [Faculty of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface of magnesium particles was modified with Viton via solvent/non-solvent method. • FT-IR, SEM, EDX, Map analysis, and TG/DSC techniques were employed to characterize the coated particles. • Coating process factors were optimized by Taguchi robust design. • The importance of coating conditions on resistance of coated magnesium against oxidation was studied. - Abstract: The surface of magnesium particles was modified by coating with Viton as an energetic polymer using solvent/non-solvent technique. Taguchi robust method was utilized as a statistical experiment design to evaluate the role of coating process parameters. The coated magnesium particles were characterized by various techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and thermogravimetry (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the coating of magnesium powder with the Viton leads to a higher resistance of metal against oxidation in the presence of air atmosphere. Meanwhile, tuning of the coating process parameters (i.e., percent of Viton, flow rate of non-solvent addition, and type of solvent) influences on the resistance of the metal particles against thermal oxidation. Coating of magnesium particles yields Viton coated particles with higher thermal stability (632 °C); in comparison with the pure magnesium powder, which commences oxidation in the presence of air atmosphere at a lower temperature of 260 °C.

  11. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  12. Optimization of mechanical performance of oxidative nano-particle electrode nitrile butadiene rubber conducting polymer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Park, S J; Cho, M S; Lee, Y; Nam, J D; Choi, H R; Koo, J C

    2009-12-01

    Present work delivers a systematical evaluation of actuation efficiency of a nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator fabricated based on Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Attempts are made for maximizing mechanical functionality of the nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator that can be driven in the air. As the conducting polymer polypyrrole of the actuator is to be fabricated through a chemical oxidation polymerization process that may impose certain limitations on both electrical and mechanical functionality of the actuator, a coordinated study for optimization process of the actuator is necessary for maximizing its performance. In this article actuation behaviors of the nano-particle electrode polypyrrole conducting polymer is studied and an optimization process for the mechanical performance maximization is performed.

  13. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  14. Comparison of particle sizes between 238PuO2 before aqueous processing, after aqueous processing, and after ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Particle sizes determined for a single lot of incoming Russian fuel and for a lot of fuel after aqueous processing are compared with particle sizes measured on fuel after ball-milling. The single samples of each type are believed to have particle size distributions typical of oxide from similar lots, as the processing of fuel lots is fairly uniform. Variation between lots is, as yet, uncharacterized. Sampling and particle size measurement methods are discussed elsewhere.

  15. Oxidatively damaged DNA in animals exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Jantzen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    on optimal methods. The majority of studies have used single intracavitary administration or inhalation with dose rates exceeding the pulmonary overload threshold, resulting in cytotoxicity and inflammation. It is unclear whether this is relevant for the much lower human exposure levels. Still...... not be equivocally determined. Roles of cytotoxicity or inflammation for oxidatively induced DNA damage could not be documented or refuted. Studies on exposure to particles in the gastrointestinal tract showed consistently increased levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in the liver. Collectively, there is evidence...

  16. Subway particles are more genotoxic than street particles and induce oxidative stress in cultured human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna L; Nilsson, Lennart; Möller, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between airborne particles and a wide range of adverse health effects. The mechanisms behind these effects include oxidative stress and inflammation. Even though traffic gives rise to high levels of particles in the urban air, people are exposed to even higher levels in the subway. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how particles from different urban subenvironments differ in toxicity. The main aim of the present study was to compare the ability of particles from a subway station and a nearby very busy urban street, respectively, to damage DNA and to induce oxidative stress. Cultured human lung cells (A549) were exposed to particles, DNA damage was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay), and the ability to induce oxidative stress was measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation in lung cell DNA. We found that the subway particles were approximately eight times more genotoxic and four times more likely to cause oxidative stress in the lung cells. When the particles, water extracts from the particles, or particles treated with the metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate were incubated with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 8-oxodG was analyzed, we found that the oxidative capacity of the subway particles was due to redox active solid metals. Furthermore, analysis of the atomic composition showed that the subway particles to a dominating degree (atomic %) consisted of iron, mainly in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4). By using electron microscopy, the interaction between the particles and the lung cells was shown. The in vitro reactivity of the subway particles in combination with the high particle levels in subway systems give cause of concern due to the high number of people that are exposed to subway particles on a daily basis. To what extent the subway particles cause health effects in humans needs to be further evaluated.

  17. Study of the pelletizing process zirconium oxide and zircon sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Paschoal, J.O.A.; Acevedo, M.T.P.

    1990-12-01

    The study of the process to obtain zirconium tetrachloride under development at IPEN, can be divide into two steps: pelletizing and chlorination. Pelletizing is an important step in the overall process as it facilitates greater contact between the particles and permits the production of pellets with dimensional uniformity and mechanical strength. In this paper, the results of the study of pelletizing zirconium oxide and zircon sand are presented. The influence of some variables related to the process and the equipment on the physical characteristics of the pellets are discussed. (author)

  18. Entanglement of identical particles and the detection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; de Melo, Fernando; Kus, Marek

    2013-01-01

    We introduce detector-level entanglement, a unified entanglement concept for identical particles that takes into account the possible deletion of many-particle which-way information through the detection process. The concept implies a measure for the effective indistinguishability of the particles...... statistical behavior depends on their initial entanglement. Our results show that entanglement cannot be attributed to a state of identical particles alone, but that the detection process has to be incorporated in the analysis....

  19. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instr......, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution.......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable...... instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood...

  20. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    , the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes......Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources...

  1. Simulation of atomistic processes during silicon oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Bongiorno, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films grown on silicon monocrystal (Si) substrates form the gate oxides in current Si-based microelectronics devices. The understanding at the atomic scale of both the silicon oxidation process and the properties of the Si(100)-SiO2 interface is of significant importance in state-of-the-art silicon microelectronics manufacturing. These two topics are intimately coupled and are both addressed in this theoretical investigation mainly through first-principles calculations....

  2. Advanced oxidation processes: overall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Curco, D.; Addardak, A.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica. Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Modelling AOPs implies to consider all the steps included in the process, that means, mass transfer, kinetic (reaction) and luminic steps. In this way, recent works develop models which relate the global reaction rate to catalyst concentration and radiation absorption. However, the application of such models requires to know what is the controlling step for the overall process. In this paper, a simple method is explained which allows to determine the controlling step. Thus, it is assumed that reactor is divided in two hypothetical zones (dark and illuminated), and according to the experimental results, obtained by varying only the reaction volume, it can be decided if reaction occurs only in the illuminated zone or in the all reactor, including dark zone. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol, by using titania degussa P-25 as catalyst, is studied as reaction model. The preliminary results obtained are presented here, showing that it seems that, in this case, reaction only occurs in the illuminated zone of photoreactor. A model is developed to explain this behaviour. (orig.)

  3. The toxicity of particles from combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m 3 of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m 3 soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles

  4. Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical...... dark to greyish white. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the metal oxide particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The metal oxide particles in the FSP zone electrochemically shadowed the underlying Al matrix and modified the local...

  5. An interacting particle process related to Young tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    Borodin, Alexei; Olshanski, Grigori

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a stochastic particle system consisting of a two-dimensional array of particles living in one space dimension. The stochastic evolution bears a certain similarity to Hammersley's process, and the particle interaction is governed by combinatorics of the Young tableaux.

  6. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  7. The crystallization processes in the aluminum particles production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mathematical model of the crystallization process of liquid aluminum particles in the spray-jet of the ejection-type atomizer was proposed. The results of mathematical modeling of two-phase flow in the spray-jet and the crystallization process of fluid particles are given. The influence of the particle size, of the flow rate and the stagnation temperature gas in the ranges of industrial technology implemented for the production of powders aluminum of brands ASD, on the crystallization characteristics were investigated. The approximations of the characteristics of the crystallization process depending on the size of the aluminum particles on the basis of two approaches to the mathematical description of the process of crystallization of aluminum particles were obtained. The results allow to optimize the process parameters of ejection-type atomizer to produce aluminum particles with given morphology.

  8. Clearance of iron oxide particles in rat liver: effect of hydrated particle size and coating material on liver metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C; Johansson, Lars O; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf; Haldorsen, Anita G; Bjørnerud, Atle; Fayad, Zahi A; Ahlstrom, Haakan K

    2006-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of the particle size and coating material of various iron oxide preparations on the rate of rat liver clearance. The following iron oxide formulations were used in this study: dextran-coated ferumoxide (size = 97 nm) and ferumoxtran-10 (size = 21 nm), carboxydextran-coated SHU555A (size = 69 nm) and fractionated SHU555A (size = 12 nm), and oxidized-starch coated materials either unformulated NC100150 (size = 15 nm) or formulated NC100150 injection (size = 12 nm). All formulations were administered to 165 rats at 2 dose levels. Quantitative liver R2* values were obtained during a 63-day time period. The concentration of iron oxide particles in the liver was determined by relaxometry, and these values were used to calculate the particle half-lives in the liver. After the administration of a high dose of iron oxide, the half-life of iron oxide particles in rat liver was 8 days for dextran-coated materials, 10 days for carboxydextran materials, 14 days for unformulated oxidized-starch, and 29 days for formulated oxidized-starch. The results of the study indicate that materials with similar coating but different sizes exhibited similar rates of liver clearance. It was, therefore, concluded that the coating material significantly influences the rate of iron oxide clearance in rat liver.

  9. Particle detector and its construction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, Paul.

    1980-01-01

    This invention refers to a detector of particles that enables accurate determinations to be effected at high temperature, irrespective of the particle flux to which it is subjected (for example, a neutron flux in the core of a reactor) and preferentially is of elongated shape and particularly reduced radial section. According to the invention, the specifications of this detector include a body in a single piece, made of a ceramic material, in which are embedded and sealed two concentric tubular electrodes forming between them an annular chamber filled with a gas under pressure and electric wires connecting the electrodes to the outside of the body [fr

  10. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  11. Supported versus colloidal zinc oxide for advanced oxidation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Karthik; Al Rashdi, Manal; Al Sabahi, Jamal; Al Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    Photocatalysis is a green technology which typically utilizes either supported or colloidal catalysts for the mineralization of aqueous organic contaminants. Catalyst surface area and surface energy are the primary factors determining its efficiency, but correlation between the two is still unclear. This work explores their relation and hierarchy in a photocatalytic process involving both supported and colloidal catalysts. In order to do this the active surface areas of supported zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NR's) and colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (having different surface energies) were equalized and their phenol oxidation mechanism and capacity was analyzed. It was observed that while surface energy had subtle effects on the oxidation rate of the catalysts, the degradation efficiency was primarily a function of the surface area; which makes it a better parameter for comparison when studying different catalyst forms of the same material. Thus we build a case for the use of supported catalysts, wherein their catalytic efficiency was tested to be unaltered over several days under both natural and artificial light, suggesting their viability for practical applications.

  12. Process for fabricating mixed-oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmaleh, D.; Giraudel, A.

    1975-01-01

    A physical-chemical process for fabricating homogeneous powders suitable for sintering is described. It can be applied to the synthesis of all mixed oxides having mutually compatible and water soluble salts. As a specific example, the fabrication of lead titanate-zirconate powders used to make hot pressed ceramics is described. These ceramics show improved piezoelectric properties [fr

  13. Uranium bed oxidation vacuum process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeland, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Deuterium and tritium gases are occluded in uranium powder for release into neutron generator tubes. The uranium powder is contained in stainless steel bottles, termed ''beds.'' If these beds become damaged, the gases must be removed and the uranium oxidized in order not to be flammable before shipment to ERDA disposal grounds. This paper describes the system and methods designed for the controlled degassing and oxidation process. The system utilizes sputter-ion, cryo-sorption and bellows pumps for removing the gases from the heated source bed. Removing the tritium gas is complicated by the shielding effect of helium-3, a byproduct of tritium decay. This effect is minimized by incremental pressure changes, or ''batch'' processing. To prevent runaway exothermic reaction, oxidation of the uranium bed is also done incrementally, or by ''batch'' processing, rather than by continuous flow. The paper discusses in detail the helium-3 shielding effect, leak checks that must be made during processing, bed oxidation, degree of gas depletion, purity of gases sorbed from beds, radioactivity of beds, bed disposal and system renovation

  14. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, A.J., E-mail: andrew.london@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, S.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sundar, C.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471–503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174–1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors.

  15. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J; Lozano-Perez, S; Moody, M P; Amirthapandian, S; Panigrahi, B K; Sundar, C S; Grovenor, C R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471-503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174-1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe-0.3Y2O3, Fe-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3 and Fe-14Cr-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Process for producing metal oxide kernels and kernels so obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, Bernard; Feugier, Andre.

    1974-01-01

    The process desbribed is for producing fissile or fertile metal oxide kernels used in the fabrication of fuels for high temperature nuclear reactors. This process consists in adding to an aqueous solution of at least one metallic salt, particularly actinide nitrates, at least one chemical compound capable of releasing ammonia, in dispersing drop by drop the solution thus obtained into a hot organic phase to gel the drops and transform them into solid particles. These particles are then washed, dried and treated to turn them into oxide kernels. The organic phase used for the gel reaction is formed of a mixture composed of two organic liquids, one acting as solvent and the other being a product capable of extracting the anions from the metallic salt of the drop at the time of gelling. Preferably an amine is used as product capable of extracting the anions. Additionally, an alcohol that causes a part dehydration of the drops can be employed as solvent, thus helping to increase the resistance of the particles [fr

  17. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon

  18. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  19. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  20. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  1. Flow Kinematics and Particle Orientations during Composite Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kunji

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of orientation of fibers or thin micro-particles in various flows involving the processing of composite materials has not been fully understood although it is much significant to obtain the knowledge of the processing operations of particle reinforced composites as well as to improve the properties of the advanced composites. The objective of this paper is to introduce and well understand the evolution of the particle orientation in a suspension flow and flow kinematics induced by suspended particles by means of our two research work

  2. Impact of metal-ion contaminated silica particles on gate oxide integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Ingrid; Wali, F.; Knotter, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of metal-ion contamination (present on wafer surface before oxidation) on gate oxide integrity (GOI) is well known in literature, which is not the case for clean silica particles [1, 2]. However, it is known that particles present in ultra-pure water (UPW) decrease the random yield in

  3. Encapsulation of sacrificial silicon containing particles for SH oxide ceramics via a boehmite precursor route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabat, A.L.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Easy crack propagation in oxide ceramic coatings limits their application in high temperature environment (e.g. such as engines and gas turbine components) [1]. In order to overcome this problem, incorporation of sacrificial particles into an oxide ceramic coating may be a viable option. Particles

  4. STIMULATION OF OXIDANT PRODUCTION IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES BY POLLUTANT AND LATEX PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant dusts as well as chemically defined particles were examined for their activating effect on oxidant production (O2- and H2O2) in guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM). Oxidant production was measured as chemiluminescence of albumin-bound luminol. All particles examine...

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode infiltrate particle size control and oxygen surface exchange resistance determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burye, Theodore E.

    Over the past decade, nano-sized Mixed Ionic Electronic Conducting (MIEC) -- micro-sized Ionic Conducting (IC) composite cathodes produced by the infiltration method have received much attention in the literature due to their low polarization resistance (RP) at intermediate (500-700°C) operating temperatures. Small infiltrated MIEC oxide nano-particle size and low intrinsic MIEC oxygen surface exchange resistance (Rs) have been two critical factors allowing these Nano-Micro-Composite Cathodes (NMCCs) to achieve high performance and/or low temperature operation. Unfortunately, previous studies have not found a reliable method to control or reduce infiltrated nano-particle size. In addition, controversy exists on the best MIEC infiltrate composition because: 1) Rs measurements on infiltrated MIEC particles are presently unavailable in the literature, and 2) bulk and thin film Rs measurements on nominally identical MIEC compositions often vary by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Here, two processing techniques, precursor nitrate solution desiccation and ceria oxide pre-infiltration, were developed to systematically produce a reduction in the average La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3-delta (LSCF) infiltrated nano-particle size from 50 nm to 22 nm. This particle size reduction reduced the SOFC operating temperature, (defined as the temperature where RP=0.1 Ocm 2) from 650°C to 540°C. In addition, Rs values for infiltrated MIEC particles were determined for the first time through finite element modeling calculations on 3D Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) reconstructions of electrochemically characterized infiltrated electrodes.

  6. Spheronization process particle kinematics determined by discrete element simulations and particle image velocimentry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; García, R Edwin; Thommes, Markus

    2014-12-30

    Spheronization is an important pharmaceutical manufacturing technique to produce spherical agglomerates of 0.5-2mm diameter. These pellets have a narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. During the spheronization process, the extruded cylindrical strands break in short cylinders and evolve from a cylindrical to a spherical state by deformation and attrition/agglomeration mechanisms. Using the discrete element method, an integrated modeling-experimental framework is presented, that captures the particle motion during the spheronization process. Simulations were directly compared and validated against particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments with monodisperse spherical and dry γ-Al2O3 particles. demonstrate a characteristic torus like flow pattern, with particle velocities about three times slower than the rotation speed of the friction plate. Five characteristic zones controlling the spheronization process are identified: Zone I, where particles undergo shear forces that favors attrition and contributes material to the agglomeration process; Zone II, where the static wall contributes to the mass exchange between particles; Zone III, where gravitational forces combined with particle motion induce particles to collide with the moving plate and re-enter Zone I; Zone IV, where a subpopulation of particles are ejected into the air when in contact with the friction plate structure; and Zone V where the low poloidal velocity favors a stagnant particle population and is entirely controlled by the batch size. These new insights in to the particle motion are leading to deeper process understanding, e.g., the effect of load and rotation speed to the pellet formation kinetics. This could be beneficial for the optimization of a manufacturing process as well as for the development of new formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of manganese dioxide particles resulting from in situ chemical oxidation using permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Michelle; Ko, Saebom

    2009-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate is an approach to organic contaminant site remediation. Manganese dioxide particles are products of permanganate reactions. These particles have the potential to deposit in the subsurface and impact the flow-regime in/around permanganate injection, including the well screen, filter pack, and the surrounding subsurface formation. Control of these particles can allow for improved oxidant injection and transport and contact between the oxidant and contaminants of concern. The goals of this research were to determine if MnO(2) can be stabilized/controlled in an aqueous phase, and to determine the dependence of particle stabilization on groundwater characteristics. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to study the ability of four stabilization aids (sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP), Dowfax 8390, xanthan gum, and gum arabic) in maintaining particles suspended in solution under varied reaction conditions and time. Variations included particle and stabilization aid concentrations, ionic content, and pH. HMP demonstrated the most promising results, as compared to xanthan gum, gum arabic, and Dowfax 8390 based on results of spectrophotometric studies of particle behavior, particle filtration, and optical measurements of particle size and zeta potential. HMP inhibited particle settling, provided for greater particle stability, and resulted in particles of a smaller average size over the range of experimental conditions evaluated compared to results for systems that did not include HMP. Additionally, HMP did not react unfavorably with permanganate. These results indicate that the inclusion of HMP in a permanganate oxidation system improves conditions that may facilitate particle transport.

  8. Metallorganic routes to nanoscale iron and titanium oxide particles encapsulated in mesoporous alumina: formation, physical properties, and chemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J J; Czap, N; Hagen, J; Engstler, J; Ensling, J; Gütlich, P; Reinoehl, U; Bertagnolli, H; Luis, F; de Jongh, L J; Wark, M; Grubert, G; Hornyak, G L; Zanoni, R

    2000-12-01

    Iron and titanium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized in parallel mesopores of alumina by a novel organometallic "chimie douce" approach that uses bis(toluene)iron(0) (1) and bis(toluene)titanium(0) (2) as precursors. These complexes are molecular sources of iron and titanium in a zerovalent atomic state. In the case of 1, core shell iron/iron oxide particles with a strong magnetic coupling between both components, as revealed by magnetic measurements, are formed. Mössbauer data reveal superparamagnetic particle behavior with a distinct particle size distribution that confirms the magnetic measurements. The dependence of the Mössbauer spectra on temperature and particle size is explained by the influence of superparamagnetic relaxation effects. The coexistence of a paramagnetic doublet and a magnetically split component in the spectra is further explained by a distribution in particle size. From Mössbauer parameters the oxide phase can be identified as low-crystallinity ferrihydrite oxide. In agreement with quantum size effects observed in UV-visible studies, TEM measurements determine the size of the particles in the range 5-8 nm. The particles are mainly arranged alongside the pore walls of the alumina template. TiO2 nanoparticles are formed by depositing 2 in mesoporous alumina template. This produces metallic Ti, which is subsequently oxidized to TiO2 (anatase) within the alumina pores. UV-visible studies show a strong quantum confinement effect for these particles. From UV-visible investigations the particle size is determined to be around 2 nm. XPS analysis of the iron- and titania- embedded nanoparticles reveal the presence of Fe2O3 and TiO2 according to experimental binding energies and the experimental line shapes. Ti4+ and Fe3+ are the only oxidation states of the particles which can be determined by this technique. Hydrogen reduction of the iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles at 500 degrees C under flowing H2/N2 produces a catalyst, which is active

  9. Hybrid process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sprague, B.N.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a process for reducing the nitrogen oxide concentration in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing into the effluent a first treatment agent comprising a nitrogenous composition selected from the group consisting of urea, ammonia, hexamethylenetetramine, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, NH{sub 4}-lignosulfonate, fur-furylamine, tetrahydrofurylamine, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, biuret, 1.1{prime}-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, calcium cyanamide, and mixtures thereof under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration and ensure the presence of ammonia in the effluent; introducing into the effluent a second treatment agent comprising an oxygenated hydrocarbon at an effluent temperature of about 500{degrees} F. to about 1600{degrees} F. under conditions effective to oxidize nitric oxide in the effluent to nitrogen dioxide and ensure the presence of ammonia at a weight ratio of ammonia to nitrogen dioxide of about 1:5 to about 5:1; and contacting the effluent with an aqueous scrubbing solution having a pH of 12 or lower under conditions effective to cause nitrogen dioxide to be absorbed therein.

  10. The Particle Distribution in Liquid Metal with Ceramic Particles Mould Filling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Xing, Shu-ming

    2017-09-01

    Adding ceramic particles in the plate hammer is an effective method to increase the wear resistance of the hammer. The liquid phase method is based on the “with the flow of mixed liquid forging composite preparation of ZTA ceramic particle reinforced high chromium cast iron hammer. Preparation method for this system is using CFD simulation analysis the particles distribution of flow mixing and filling process. Taking the 30% volume fraction of ZTA ceramic composite of high chromium cast iron hammer as example, by changing the speed of liquid metal viscosity to control and make reasonable predictions of particles distribution before solidification.

  11. Oxidation behavior of TiC particle-reinforced 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianlin; Zhang Jianqiang; Sun Yangshan

    2010-01-01

    TiC particle-reinforced 304 stainless steels were prepared using a new developed in situ technology and exhibited the uniform distribution of TiC particles in the matrix. The oxidation behavior of 304SS-2TiC and 304SS-6TiC (all in weight percentage) was compared with that of 304SS at 850 deg. C in air for 96 h using thermogravimetry analysis. For 304SS, the rate of weight gain was very slow initially, but accelerated suddenly to a very high level, forming breakaway oxidation. The addition of TiC particles to 304SS resulted in no breakaway oxidation and maintained a low oxidation rate in the whole reaction time investigated. Examination of oxide scale morphology and cross-section analysis by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy showed a significant scale spallation and a deep oxide penetration in the case of 304SS, but a rather continuous, dense and adherent oxide layer formed on the surface of TiC particle-reinforced alloys. XRD analysis revealed the presence of Cr 2 O 3 together with spinel-type oxides in the oxide scale. For TiC-containing alloys, fine TiO 2 was also found on the surface and the amount of this oxide increased with TiC addition. The TiC addition developed finer matrix structure before oxidation, which accelerates chromium diffusion. As a result, scale adherence was improved and oxidation resistance was increased.

  12. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  13. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  14. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Shams Eldin, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  15. Investigation of the Scanning Microarc Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqin Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning microarc oxidation (SMAO is a coating process which is based on conventional microarc oxidation (MAO. The key difference is that deposition in SMAO is achieved by using a stainless steel nozzle to spray an electrolyte stream on the substrate surface as opposed to immersing the workpiece in an electrolyzer. In the present study, SMAO discharge characteristics, coating morphology, and properties are analyzed and compared to results obtained from MAO under similar conditions. Results show that MAO and SMAO have comparable spark and microarc lifetimes and sizes, though significant differences in incubation time and discharge distribution were evident. Results also showed that the voltage and current density for MAO and SMAO demonstrate similar behavior but have markedly different transient and steady-state values. Results obtained from coating A356 aluminum sheet show that oxide thickness and growth rate in SMAO are strongly dependent on interelectrode spacing and travel speed. Analysis of the SMAO coating morphology and structure showed that a denser and slightly harder layer was deposited in comparison to MAO and is attributed to reduced porosity and increased formation of α-Al2O3. Preliminary results indicate that SMAO represents a viable process for coating of aluminum surfaces.

  16. Iron oxide-mediated semiconductor photocatalysis vs. heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment of viruses in wastewater. Impact of the oxide particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Liu, Siting; Carratalà, Anna; Rtimi, Sami; Talebi Amiri, Masoud; Bensimon, Michaël; Pulgarin, César

    2017-10-05

    The photo-Fenton process is recognized as a promising technique towards microorganism disinfection in wastewater, but its efficiency is hampered at near-neutral pH operating values. In this work, we overcome these obstacles by using the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process as the default disinfecting technique, targeting MS2 coliphage in wastewater. The use of low concentrations of iron oxides in wastewater without H 2 O 2 (wüstite, maghemite, magnetite) has demonstrated limited semiconductor-mediated MS2 inactivation. Changing the operational pH and the size of the oxide particles indicated that the isoelectric point of the iron oxides and the active surface area are crucial in the success of the process, and the possible underlying mechanisms are investigated. Furthermore, the addition of low amounts of Fe-oxides (1mgL -1 ) and H 2 O 2 in the system (1, 5 and 10mgL -1 ) greatly enhanced the inactivation process, leading to heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes on the surface of the magnetically separable oxides used. Additionally, photo-dissolution of iron in the bulk, lead to homogeneous photo-Fenton, further aided by the complexation by the dissolved organic matter in the solution. Finally, we assess the impact of the presence of the bacterial host and the difference caused by the different iron sources (salts, oxides) and the Fe-oxide size (normal, nano-sized). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A nanogravimmetric investigation of the charging processes on ruthenium oxide thin films and their effect on methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.C.; Cogo, L.; Tanimoto, S.T.; Calegaro, M.L.; Bulhoes, L.O.S

    2006-01-01

    The charging processes and methanol oxidation that occur during the oxidation-reduction cycles in a ruthenium oxide thin film electrode (deposited by the sol-gel method on Pt covered quartz crystals) were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance techniques. The ruthenium oxide rutile phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained during the charging of rutile ruthenium oxide films indicate that in the anodic sweep the transition from Ru(II) to Ru(VI) occurs followed by proton de-intercalation. In the cathodic sweep, electron injection occurs followed by proton intercalation, leading to Ru(II). The proton intercalation/de-intercalation processes can be inferred from the mass/charge relationship which gives a slope close to 1 g mol -1 (multiplied by the Faraday constant) corresponding to the molar mass of hydrogen. From the chronoamperometric measurements, charge and mass saturation of the RuO 2 thin films was observed (440 ng cm -2 ) during the charging processes, which is related to the total number of active sites in these films. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance technique to study the methanol oxidation reaction at these films was possible to demonstrate that bulk oxidation occurs without the formation of strongly adsorbed intermediates such as CO ads , demonstrating that Pt electrodes modified by ruthenium oxide particles can be promising catalysts for the methanol oxidation as already shown in the literature

  18. Synthesis of Co/Co3O4 Nanocomposite Particles Relevant to Magnetic Field Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Madhavi, S.; Menon, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fc...... cobalt (Co). Removal of boron residues from the final product was established by surface characterization. Magnetic moment of these nanocomposite particles is relevant to magnetic field processing.......Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fcc...

  19. Particle Simulation of Oxidation Induced Band 3 Clustering in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Shimo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress mediated clustering of membrane protein band 3 plays an essential role in the clearance of damaged and aged red blood cells (RBCs from the circulation. While a number of previous experimental studies have observed changes in band 3 distribution after oxidative treatment, the details of how these clusters are formed and how their properties change under different conditions have remained poorly understood. To address these issues, a framework that enables the simultaneous monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes following oxidation is needed. In this study, we established a novel simulation strategy that incorporates deterministic and stochastic reactions with particle reaction-diffusion processes, to model band 3 cluster formation at single molecule resolution. By integrating a kinetic model of RBC antioxidant metabolism with a model of band 3 diffusion, we developed a model that reproduces the time-dependent changes of glutathione and clustered band 3 levels, as well as band 3 distribution during oxidative treatment, observed in prior studies. We predicted that cluster formation is largely dependent on fast reverse reaction rates, strong affinity between clustering molecules, and irreversible hemichrome binding. We further predicted that under repeated oxidative perturbations, clusters tended to progressively grow and shift towards an irreversible state. Application of our model to simulate oxidation in RBCs with cytoskeletal deficiency also suggested that oxidation leads to more enhanced clustering compared to healthy RBCs. Taken together, our model enables the prediction of band 3 spatio-temporal profiles under various situations, thus providing valuable insights to potentially aid understanding mechanisms for removing senescent and premature RBCs.

  20. Particle Simulation of Oxidation Induced Band 3 Clustering in Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Hanae; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Machiyama, Hiroaki; Nishino, Taiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Fujita, Hideaki; Tomita, Masaru; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress mediated clustering of membrane protein band 3 plays an essential role in the clearance of damaged and aged red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. While a number of previous experimental studies have observed changes in band 3 distribution after oxidative treatment, the details of how these clusters are formed and how their properties change under different conditions have remained poorly understood. To address these issues, a framework that enables the simultaneous monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes following oxidation is needed. In this study, we established a novel simulation strategy that incorporates deterministic and stochastic reactions with particle reaction-diffusion processes, to model band 3 cluster formation at single molecule resolution. By integrating a kinetic model of RBC antioxidant metabolism with a model of band 3 diffusion, we developed a model that reproduces the time-dependent changes of glutathione and clustered band 3 levels, as well as band 3 distribution during oxidative treatment, observed in prior studies. We predicted that cluster formation is largely dependent on fast reverse reaction rates, strong affinity between clustering molecules, and irreversible hemichrome binding. We further predicted that under repeated oxidative perturbations, clusters tended to progressively grow and shift towards an irreversible state. Application of our model to simulate oxidation in RBCs with cytoskeletal deficiency also suggested that oxidation leads to more enhanced clustering compared to healthy RBCs. Taken together, our model enables the prediction of band 3 spatio-temporal profiles under various situations, thus providing valuable insights to potentially aid understanding mechanisms for removing senescent and premature RBCs.

  1. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of welding fume derived particles generated from real time welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cali; Demokritou, Philip; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David

    2013-01-01

    Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM 2.5–10), and fine (PM 0.1–2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM 0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be

  2. RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...

  3. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  4. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  5. Effect of heavy particles in low-energy light-particle processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.H.; Hagiwara, T.; Ovrut, B.

    1979-01-01

    The ''decoupling theorem'' of Appelquist and Carazzone is found not always to be applicable to light-scalar-particle processes in spontaneously broken theories. If the Higgs scalar is considered to be light, then Higgs-scalar processes see the effect of heavy fermions and heavy vector gauge bosons at the one-loop level. If there is more than one scalar multiplet in a spontaneously broken gauge theory, the effect of a heavy Higgs particle in light-scalar-particle processes is significant at the tree level. In the latter case, such an effect can be absorbed completely into an effective phi 4 coupling constant, lambda/sub eff/, of the light particle provided that lambda/sub eff/ is positive definite

  6. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M A )/2, where M A is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ c /(8τ diff )), where τ c /τ diff is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ diff /τ c . Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c –5 (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk and Gloeckler

  7. Removal of 4-chlorophenol from synthetic wastewater by the granulated graphene oxide nano particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: 4-chlorophenols one of the most common pollutants in wastewater is generated from the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is due to the presence of chloride and benzene ring is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, the use of granulated graphene oxide nano particles as an adsorbent nanostructure with better properties than other adsorbents for Removal of 4- chlorophenol from aqueous solution were investigated Methods: This research was implemented during the year 2013-2014 where the Granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles were prepared using sodium silicate and X-ray diffraction techniques and electron microscope were used to identify the morphology and structure of the adsorbent of.  Parameters  affecting the adsorption process such as initial concentration of  4-chlorophenol(5,10,15,20,25,30mg/L, amount of adsorbent(20,40,60,80% by weight, contact time (3,5,10,20,30 min and pH(4,6,7,8,9 were investigated by changing one factor at a time. Finally, the data fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were showed. Results: Adsorption process reached to equilibrium after 20 minutes. 2 g/L of graphene oxide granules at 3 minutes and 7 = pH could remove 5 mg/L 4-chlorophenol up to 58%. Freundlich isotherm have describing adsorption process and R2 =0.92. Conclusion: Absorbed process by the granules of Graphene oxide nanoparticles is low-cost high-efficiency and it could used to reduce and eliminate environmental pollutants particularly aqueous solutions.  

  8. Decreasing biotoxicity of fume particles produced in welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Tseng, Yiider; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Cho, Kuk

    2011-01-30

    Welding fumes contain heavy metals, such as chromium, manganese, and nickel, which cause respiratory diseases and cancer. In this study, a SiO(2) precursor was evaluated as an additive to the shielding gas in an arc welding process to reduce the biotoxicity caused by welding fume particles. Transmission electron micrographic images show that SiO(2) coats on the surface of welding fume particles and promotes particle agglomeration. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy further shows that the relative amount of silicon in these SiO(2)-coated agglomerates is higher than in baseline agglomerates. In addition, Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to different concentrations of pure SiO(2) particles generated from the arc welding process exhibits similar responses, suggesting that SiO(2) does not contribute to welding fume particle toxicity. The trend of E. coli growth in different concentrations of baseline welding fume particle shows the most significant inhibition occurs in higher exposure concentrations. The 50% lethal logarithmic concentrations for E. coli in arc welding particles of baseline, 2%, and 4.2% SiO(2) precursor additives were 823, 1605, and 1800 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that using SiO(2) precursors as an additive to arc welding shielding gas can effectively reduce the biotoxicity of welding fume. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formalism of continual integrals for cascade processes with particle fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedalin, Eh.V.

    1987-01-01

    Formalism of continuous integrals for description of cascade processes, in which besides cascade particle reproduction, their synthesis and coalescence take place, is used. Account of cascade particle coalescence leads to the fact that the development of some cascade branches cannot be independent and main equations of the cascade process become functional instead of integral. The method of continuous intagrals permits to construct in the closed form producing functionals for the cascade process and to obtain the rules of their calculation using diagrams. Analytical expressions in the form of continuous integrals for producing functionals describing cascade development are obtained

  10. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  11. On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level

    OpenAIRE

    A, Michaud

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.

  12. Inelastic diffraction nuclear processes with redistribution of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Goryachij, V.V.; Peresypkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic nuclear processes at high energies with redistribution of particles are described within the framework of the diffraction approach. The capture processes (p,d) and (p,p'n) generated by the high energy nucleon collision with nuclei are considered. The angular distribution of 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction is calculated and compared with experimental data

  13. β-cyclodextrin functionalized on glass micro-particles: A green catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, M. Nazir, E-mail: tahir.muhammad_nazir@courrier.uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 7H, DK-9220, Aalborg East (Denmark); Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Nielsen, Thorbjørn T.; Larsen, Kim L. [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 7H, DK-9220, Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Functionalization of βCD onto glass micro-particles (GMP-βCD). • Application of GMP-βCD as a green catalyst for the oxidation of toluene. • 82% yield at room temperature. • Repeated use of the catalyst for several cycles. - Abstract: Oxidation of toluene is considered an important process which often requires high temperatures and specific conditions along with heavy-metals based catalysts. In this study, we have developed a green catalyst by functionalizing beta-cyclodextrin onto glass micro-particle surfaces. All surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and applied to catalyze the selective oxidation of toluene into benzaldehyde (82% yield) at room temperature. The catalyst was stable and could be used repeatedly for several cycles without losing efficiency.

  14. Physicochemical analysis of interaction of oxide fuel with pyrocarbon coatings of fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, R.A.; Khromov, Yu.F.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium pressure of (CO+Kr,Xe) gases inside fuel particle with oxide kern depending on design features of fuel particle, on temperature. on (O/U) initial composition and fuel burnup is calculated using the suggested model. Analysis of possibility for gas pressure reduction by means of uranium carbide alloying of kern and degree increase of solid fission product retention (Cs for example) during alumosilicate alloying of uranium oxide is conducted

  15. Preparation of Janus Particles and Alternating Current Electrokinetic Measurements with a Rapidly Fabricated Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-06-23

    This article provides a simple method to prepare partially or fully coated metallic particles and to perform the rapid fabrication of electrode arrays, which can facilitate electrical experiments in microfluidic devices. Janus particles are asymmetric particles that contain two different surface properties on their two sides. To prepare Janus particles, a monolayer of silica particles is prepared by a drying process. Gold (Au) is deposited on one side of each particle using a sputtering device. The fully coated metallic particles are completed after the second coating process. To analyze the electrical surface properties of Janus particles, alternating current (AC) electrokinetic measurements, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (EROT)- which require specifically designed electrode arrays in the experimental device- are performed. However, traditional methods to fabricate electrode arrays, such as the photolithographic technique, require a series of complicated procedures. Here, we introduce a flexible method to fabricate a designed electrode array. An indium tin oxide (ITO) glass is patterned by a fiber laser marking machine (1,064 nm, 20 W, 90 to 120 ns pulse-width, and 20 to 80 kHz pulse repetition frequency) to create a four-phase electrode array. To generate the four-phase electric field, the electrodes are connected to a 2-channel function generator and to two invertors. The phase shift between the adjacent electrodes is set at either 90° (for EROT) or 180° (for DEP). Representative results of AC electrokinetic measurements with a four-phase ITO electrode array are presented.

  16. Porous metal oxide particles and their methods of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-03-12

    Methods are generally disclosed for synthesis of porous particles from a solution formed from a leaving agent, a surfactant, and a soluble metal salt in a solvent. The surfactant congregates to form a nanoparticle core such that the metal salt forms about the nanoparticle core to form a plurality of nanoparticles. The solution is heated such that the leaving agent forms gas bubbles in the solution, and the plurality of nanoparticles congregate about the gas bubbles to form a porous particle. The porous particles are also generally disclosed and can include a particle shell formed about a core to define an average diameter from about 0.5 .mu.m to about 50 .mu.m. The particle shell can be formed from a plurality of nanoparticles having an average diameter of from about 1 nm to about 50 nm and defined by a metal salt formed about a surfactant core.

  17. Characterizing uranium oxide reference particles for isotopic abundances and uranium mass by single particle isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraiem, M.; Richter, S.; Erdmann, N.; Kühn, H.; Hedberg, M.; Aregbe, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method to quantify the U mass in single micron particles by ID-TIMS was developed. ► Well-characterized monodisperse U-oxide particles produced by an aerosol generator were used. ► A linear correlation between the mass of U and the volume of particle(s) was found. ► The method developed is suitable for determining the amount of U in a particulate reference material. - Abstract: Uranium and plutonium particulate test materials are becoming increasingly important as the reliability of measurement results has to be demonstrated to regulatory bodies responsible for maintaining effective nuclear safeguards. In order to address this issue, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of preparing and characterizing a uranium particle reference material for nuclear safeguards, which is finally certified for isotopic abundances and for the uranium mass per particle. Such control particles are specifically required to evaluate responses of instruments based on mass spectrometric detection (e.g. SIMS, TIMS, LA-ICPMS) and to help ensuring the reliability and comparability of measurement results worldwide. In this paper, a methodology is described which allows quantifying the uranium mass in single micron particles by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). This methodology is characterized by substantial improvements recently achieved at IRMM in terms of sensitivity and measurement accuracy in the field of uranium particle analysis by TIMS. The use of monodisperse uranium oxide particles prepared using an aerosol generation technique developed at ITU, which is capable of producing particles of well-characterized size and isotopic composition was exploited. The evidence of a straightforward correlation between the particle volume and the mass of uranium was demonstrated in this study

  18. MR imaging of abscess by use of lipid-coated iron oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.W.; Eley, C.G.S.; Kressel, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper investigate the potential application of lipid-coated iron oxide particles as an MR contrast agent for imaging inflammatory process by using a rat subcutaneous abscess model induced by turpentine. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous injections of 0.1 mL of turpentine in the flank. At 24-36 hours later, the rats developed a subcutaneous abscess of 1-1.8 cm. An intravenous injection of lipid-coated iron oxide particles, Ferrosome (Vestar) at doses of 25, 40, 100, 200 μg/kg was administered. The animals were imaged at 12-24 hours later on a 1.5-T magnet using a 3-inch (7.62-cm) surface coil. Two animals were also imaged 5 days later. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and multiplanar gradient-recalled (MPGR) sequences were obtained. The abscess was then excised and examined with routine H-E and iron staining

  19. Particle Acceleration and Heating Processes at the Dayside Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, J.; Lapenta, G.; Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Walker, R. J.; Schriver, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that electrons and ions are accelerated and heated during magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. However, a detailed description of the actual physical mechanisms driving these processes and where they are operating is still incomplete. Many basic mechanisms are known to accelerate particles, including resonant wave-particle interactions as well as stochastic, Fermi, and betatron acceleration. In addition, acceleration and heating processes can occur over different scales. We have carried out kinetic simulations to investigate the mechanisms by which electrons and ions are accelerated and heated at the dayside magnetopause. The simulation model uses the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to set the initial state and the evolving boundary conditions of fully kinetic implicit particle-in-cell (iPic3D) simulations for different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions. This approach allows us to include large domains both in space and energy. In particular, some of these regional simulations include both the magnetopause and bow shock in the kinetic domain, encompassing range of particle energies from a few eV in the solar wind to keV in the magnetospheric boundary layer. We analyze the results of the iPic3D simulations by discussing wave spectra and particle velocity distribution functions observed in the different regions of the simulation domain, as well as using large-scale kinetic (LSK) computations to follow particles' time histories. We discuss the relevance of our results by comparing them with local observations by the MMS spacecraft.

  20. In-situ formation of complex oxide precipitates during processing of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasankar, K.; Pandey, Abhishek; Mishra, B.K.; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of dual drive planetary ball mill for Bench scale (>1 kg) production. • X-ray diffraction and TEM were used to study transformations during sintering. • HIPped and rolled samples with nearly 99% density successfully produced. - Abstract: In fusion and fission reactor material development, ODS alloys are the most suitable candidate materials due to its high temperature creep properties and irradiation resistance properties. This paper describes the preparation of oxide dispersion strengthened alloy powder in large quantity (>1 kg batch) in dual drive planetary ball mill using pre-alloyed ferrtic steel powder with nano sized Y_2O_3. The consolidation of the powders was carried out in hot isostatic press (HIP) followed by hot rolling. 99% of the theoretical density was achieved by this method. The vickers hardness values of pressed and rolled samples were in the range of 380 ± 2HV and 719 ± 2HV, respectively. Samples were further investigated using X-ray diffraction particle size analyzer and electron microscope. Initial increase in particle size with milling was observed showing flattening of the particle. It was found that 5 h of milling time is sufficient to reduce the particle size to achieve the desired size. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of milled ODS steel powder revealed a uniform distribution of combustion synthesized nano-Y_2O_3 in ferritic steel matrix after a milling time of 5 h. Preliminary results demonstrated suitability of dual drive planetary ball mill for mass production of alloy within a short time due to various kinds of forces acting at a time during milling process. Fine monoclinic Y_2Si_2O_7 precipitates were also observed in the steel. This study explains the particle characteristics of nano Y_2O_3 dispersed ODS powder and formation of nano clusters in ODS ferritic alloy.

  1. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle micelles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) of thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, L.W.E.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Aussems-Custers, E.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that directly visualizes magnetic particles in a hot-spot like fashion. We recently developed an iron oxide nanoparticle-micelle (ION-Micelle) platform that allows highly sensitive MPI. The goal of this study was to assess the

  2. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  3. Spin-lock MR enhances the detection sensitivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, R.P.M.; van der Tol, P.; Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Starmans, L.W.E.; Nicolaij, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate spin-lock MR for detecting superparamagnetic iron oxides and compare the detection sensitivity of quantitative T1ρ with T2 imaging. Methods In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the influence of iron oxide particle size and composition on T1ρ. These comprise T1ρ and

  4. Spin-lock MR enhances the detection sensitivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Rik P. M.; van der Tol, Pieternel; Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Starmans, Lucas W. E.; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate spin-lock MR for detecting superparamagnetic iron oxides and compare the detection sensitivity of quantitative T1ρ with T2 imaging. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the influence of iron oxide particle size and composition on T1ρ . These comprise T1ρ and T2 measurements

  5. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  6. From oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles to polyethyleneimine-coated single-particle magnetofectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Acuña, Melissa [University of Florida, J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena [University of Florida, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [University of Florida, J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Various inorganic nanoparticle designs have been developed and used as non-viral gene carriers. Magnetic gene carriers containing polyethyleneimine (PEI), a well-known transfection agent, have been shown to improve DNA transfection speed and efficiency in the presence of applied magnetic field gradients that promote particle–cell interactions. Here we report a method to prepare iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with PEI that: preserves the narrow size distribution of the nanoparticles, conserves magnetic properties throughout the process, and results in efficient transfection. We demonstrate the ability of the particles to electrostatically bind with DNA and transfect human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by the use of an oscillating magnet array. Their transfection efficiency is similar to that of Lipofectamine 2000™, a commercial transfection reagent. PEI-coated particles were subjected to acidification, and acidification in the presence of salts, before DNA binding. Results show that although these pre-treatments did not affect the ability of particles to bind DNA they did significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. Finally, we show that these magnetofectins (PEI-MNP/DNA) complexes have no effect on the viability of cells at the concentrations used in the study. The systematic preparation of magnetic vectors with uniform physical and magnetic properties is critical to progressing this non-viral transfection technology.

  7. Material Flow and Oxide Particle Distributions in Friction-Stir Welded F/M-ODS Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It is well known that uniform nano-oxide dispersoids act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion in ODS(Oxide dispersion strengthened) steel. However, these advantages will disappear while the material is subjected to the high temperature of conventional fusion welding. There is only limited literature available on the joining of ODS steels. Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the best welding technique for welding ODS steels as the technique helps in retaining the homogeneous nano-oxide particles distributions in matrix. FSW is a solid.state, hot.shear joining process in which a rotating tool with a shoulder and terminating in a threaded pin, moves along the butting surfaces of two rigidly clamped plates placed on a backing plate. Heat generated by friction at the shoulder and to a lesser extent at the pin surface, softens the material being welded. Severe plastic deformation and flow of this plasticised metal occurs as the tool is translated along the welding direction. Material is transported from the front of the tool to the trailing edge where it is forged into a joint. Friction stir welding appears to be a very promising technique for the welding of FMS and ODS steels. This study found that, during FSW, the forward movement of the tool pin results in loose contact between the tool pin and the receding material on the advancing side.

  8. Ultra-small particles of iron oxide as peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yihang; Song Mengjie; Zhang Xiaoqing; Zhang Yu; Wang Chunyu; Gu Ning; Xin Zhuang; Li Suyi

    2011-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) were synthesized through a two-step process. The first step: oleic acid (OA) capped Fe 3 O 4 (OA-USPIO) were synthesized by a novel oxidation coprecipitation method in H 2 O/DMSO mixing system, where DMSO acts as an oxidant simultaneously. The second step: OA was replaced by DMSA to obtain water-soluble nanoparticles. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR, TGA, VSM, DLS, EDS and UV-vis. Hydrodynamic sizes and Peroxidase-like catalytic activity of the nanoparticles were investigated. The hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticles (around 24.4 nm) were well suited to developing stable nanoprobes for bio-detection. The kinetic studies were performed to quantitatively evaluate the catalytic ability of the peroxidase-like nanoparticles. The calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the DMSA-USPIO possesses high catalytic activity. Based on the high activity, immunohistochemical experiments were established: using low-cost nanoparticles as the enzyme instead of expensive HRP, Nimotuzumab was conjugated onto the surface of the nanoparticles to construct a kind of ultra-small nanoprobe which was employed to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-expressed on the membrane of esophageal cancer cell. The proper sizes of the probes and the result of membranous immunohistochemical staining suggest that the probes can be served as a useful diagnostic reagent for bio-detection.

  9. Further studies of oxidation processes on filter surfaces: Evidence for oxidation products and the influence of time in service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    understanding of such processes. The measured ratio of downstream to upstream submicron particle concentrations increased when ozone was added to air passing through samples from loaded particle filters. Such an observation is consistent with low volatility oxidation products desorbing from the filter...... been in service from 2 to 16 weeks found that ozone removal efficiencies changed in a manner that indicated at least two different removal mechanisms-reactions with compounds present on the filter media following manufacturing and reactions with compounds associated with captured particles....... The contribution from the former varies with the type and manufacturer of the filter, while that of the latter varies with the duration of service and nature of the captured particles. In complimentary experiments, a filter sample protected from ozone during its 9 weeks of service had higher ozone removal...

  10. Oxidative stress generated damage to DNA by gastrointestinal exposure to insoluble particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Folkmann, J K; Danielsen, P H

    2012-01-01

    that gastrointestinal exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), fullerenes C60, carbon black, titanium dioxide and diesel exhaust particles generates oxidized DNA base lesions in organs such as the bone marrow, liver and lung. Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black has also been associated with increased...... level of lipid peroxidation derived exocyclic DNA adducts in the liver, suggesting multiple pathways of oxidative stress for particle-generated damage to DNA. At equal dose, diesel exhaust particles (SRM2975) generated larger levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat liver than carbon black...

  11. On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter

    2018-02-01

    The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.

  12. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  13. PART 2: LARGE PARTICLE MODELLING Simulation of particle filtration processes in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Boiger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In filtration processes it is necessary to consider both, the interaction of thefluid with the solid parts as well as the effect of particles carried in the fluidand accumulated on the solid. While part 1 of this paper deals with themodelling of fluid structure interaction effects, the accumulation of dirtparticles will be addressed in this paper. A closer look is taken on theimplementation of a spherical, LAGRANGIAN particle model suitable forsmall and large particles. As dirt accumulates in the fluid stream, it interactswith the surrounding filter fibre structure and over time causes modificationsof the filter characteristics. The calculation of particle force interactioneffects is necessary for an adequate simulation of this situation. A detailedDiscrete Phase Lagrange Model was developed to take into account thetwo-way coupling of the fluid and accumulated particles. The simulation oflarge particles and the fluid-structure interaction is realised in a single finitevolume flow solver on the basis of the OpenSource software OpenFoam.

  14. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

  15. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

  16. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Horiishi, Nanao [Bengala Techno Laboratory, 9-5-1006, 1-1 Kodai, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-0007 (Japan); Tsuge, Takeharu [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kitamoto.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites.

  17. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  18. Imaging pathobiology of carotid atherosclerosis with ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Umar; Usman, Ammara; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2017-07-01

    To provide brief overview of the developments regarding use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide in imaging pathobiology of carotid atherosclerosis. MRI is a promising technique capable of providing morphological and functional information about atheromatous plaques. MRI using iron oxide particles, called ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles, allows detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic tissue. Ferumoxytol has emerged as a new USPIO agent, which has an excellent safety profile. Based on the macrophage-selective properties of ferumoxytol, there is increasing number of recent reports suggesting its effectiveness to detect pathological inflammation. USPIO particles allow magnetic resonance detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic tissue. Ferumoxytol has emerged as a new USPIO agent, with an excellent safety profile. This has the potential to be used for MRI of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis.

  19. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed......Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe......-shaped particles were embedded in the anodic oxide film as a thin strip structure and located near the top surface of the film, whereas the round-shaped particles were trapped in the film with a spherical structure, but partially dissolved and were located throughout the thickness of the anodic film. The Fe...

  20. Consideration of the oxide particle-dislocation interaction in 9Cr-ODS steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Yuta; Oono, N.; Ukai, S.; Yu, Hao; Ohtsuka, S.; Abe, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between oxide particles and dislocations in a 9Cr-ODS ferritic steel is investigated by both static and in situ TEM observation under dynamic straining conditions and room temperature. The measured obstacle strength (?) of the oxide particles was no greater than 0.80 and the average was 0.63. The dislocation loops around some coarsened particles were also observed. The calculated obstacle strength by a stress formula of the Orowan interaction is nearly equaled to the average experimental value. Not only cross-slip system but also the Orowan interaction should be considered as the main interaction mechanism between oxide particles and dislocation in 9CrODS ferritic steel.

  1. Oxidative stress and inflammation generated DNA damage by exposure to air pollution particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    at different locations (spatial variability), times (temporal variability) or particle size fraction across different experimental systems of acellular conditions, cultured cells, animals and humans. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in the genotoxic, inflammation and oxidative stress potential......Generation of oxidatively damaged DNA by particulate matter (PM) is hypothesized to occur via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing ROS production, inflammation and oxidatively damaged DNA in different experimental systems...... investigating air pollution particles. There is substantial evidence indicating that exposure to air pollution particles was associated with elevated levels of oxidatively damaged nucleobases in circulating blood cells and urine from humans, which is supported by observations of elevated levels of genotoxicity...

  2. Visualized effect of oxidation on magnetic recording fidelity in pseudo-single-domain magnetite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Kasama, Takeshi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2014-01-01

    fidelity of Fe3O4 particles is greatly diminished over time by progressive oxidation to less magnetic iron oxides, such as maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), with consequent alteration of remanent magnetization potentially having important geological significance. Here we use the complementary techniques...... of environmental transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography to induce and visualize the effects of oxidation on the magnetization of individual nanoscale Fe3O4 particles as they transform towards γ-Fe2O3. Magnetic induction maps demonstrate a change in both strength and direction of remanent...... magnetization within Fe3O4 particles in the size range dominant in rocks, confirming that oxidation can modify the original stored magnetic information....

  3. Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.

    2007-04-01

    The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.

  4. Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.

  5. Effect of Particle Acceleration Process on the Flare Characteristics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2002) 23, 95–99. Effect of Particle Acceleration Process on the Flare Characteristics of. Blazars. S. Bhattacharyya, S. Sahayanathan & C. L. Kaul Nuclear Research Laboratory,. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. Abstract. Following the kinetic equation approach, we study the flare.

  6. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-10-02

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ∼20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation.

  8. Evaluation of tumoral enhancement by superparamagnetic iron oxide particles: comparative studies with ferumoxtran and anionic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, P-Y.; Gazeau, F.; Luciani, A.; Bessoud, B.; Cuenod, C.-A.; Siauve, N.; Pons, J.-N.; Poupon, J.; Clement, O.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to compare tumor enhancement by superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, using anionic iron oxide nanoparticles (AP) and ferumoxtran. In vitro, relaxometry and media with increasing complexity were used to assess the changes in r2 relaxivity due to cellular internalization. In vivo, 26 mice with subcutaneously implanted tumors were imaged for 24 h after injection of particles to describe kinetics of enhancement using T1 spin echo, T2 spin echo, and T2 fast spin echo sequences. In vitro, the r2 relaxivity decreased over time (0-4 h) when AP were uptaken by cells. The loss of r2 relaxivity was less pronounced with long (Hahn Echo) than short (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) echo time sequences. In vivo, our results with ferumoxtran showed an early T2 peak (1 h), suggesting intravascular particles and a second peak in T1 (12 h), suggesting intrainterstitial accumulation of particles. With AP, the late peak (24 h) suggested an intracellular accumulation of particles. In vitro, anionic iron oxide nanoparticles are suitable for cellular labeling due to a high cellular uptake. Conversely, in vivo, ferumoxtran is suitable for passive targeting of tumors due to a favorable biodistribution. (orig.)

  9. Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Kittelson, David B; Zachariah, Michael R

    2006-08-15

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels. As diesel emission regulations have become more stringent, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become an essential part of the aftertreatment system. Knowledge of kinetics of exhaust particle oxidation for alternative diesel fuels is useful in estimating the change in regeneration behavior of a DPF with such fuels. This study examines the characteristics of diesel particulate emissions as well as kinetics of particle oxidation using a 1996 John Deere T04045TF250 off-highway engine and 100% soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B100) as fuel. Compared to standard D2 fuel, this B100 reduced particle size, number, and volume in the accumulation mode where most of the particle mass is found. At 75% load, number decreased by 38%, DGN decreased from 80 to 62 nm, and volume decreased by 82%. Part of this decrease is likely associated with the fact that the particles were more easily oxidized. Arrhenius parameters for the biodiesel fuel showed a 2-3times greater frequency factor and approximately 6 times higher oxidation rate compared to regular diesel fuel in the range of 700-825 degrees C. The faster oxidation kinetics should facilitate regeneration when used with a DPF.

  10. Elaboration and characterisation of yttrium oxide and hafnium oxide powders by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hours, T.

    1988-01-01

    The two classical sol-gel processes, colloidal and polymeric are studied for the preparation of yttrium oxide and hafnium oxide high performance powders. In the colloidal process, controlled and reproducible conditions for the preparation of yttrium oxide and hafnium oxide sols from salts or alkoxides are developed and the hydrothermal synthesis monodisperse hafnium oxide colloids is studied. The polymeric process is studied with hafnium ethyl-hexylate, hydrolysis kinetics for controlled preparation of sols and gels is investigated. Each step of preparation is detailed and powders obtained are characterized [fr

  11. Combustion synthesis of micron-sized Sm2Co17 particles via mechanochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; McCormick, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The spontaneous formation of Sm 2 Co 17 micron-sized particles via a mechanically induced combustion reaction has been investigated. Sm 2 Co 17 alloy particles of 0.1--2 μm in size embedded in a CaO matrix formed directly via a combustion reaction induced by milling the powder mixture of Sm 2 O 3 , CoO, CaO and Ca over a critical time. The micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles were found to have the TbCu 7 -type structure and characterized by a coercivity value of 7.8 kOe while embedded in the CaO matrix. The effect of subsequent heat treatment on the structure and magnetic properties of as-milled samples was also investigated. Removal of the CaO by a carefully controlled washing process yielded micron-sized Sm 2 Co 17 particles without significant oxidation of the particles. These fine Sm 2 Co 17 particles can be used to produce anisotropic bulk or bonded magnets

  12. Simulation of the selective oxidation process of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahoud, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to simulate the selective oxidation of semiconductors is presented. This approach is based on the so-called b lack box simulation method . This method is usually used to simulate complex processes. The chemical and physical details within the process are not considered. Only the input and output data of the process are relevant for the simulation. A virtual function linking the input and output data has to be found. In the case of selective oxidation the input data are the mask geometry and the oxidation duration whereas the output data are the oxidation thickness distribution. The virtual function is determined as four virtual diffusion processes between the masked und non-masked areas. Each process delivers one part of the oxidation profile. The method is applied successfully on the oxidation system silicon-silicon nitride (Si-Si 3 N 4 ). The fitting parameters are determined through comparison of experimental and simulation results two-dimensionally.(author)

  13. A two-wavelength imaging pyrometer for measuring particle temperature, velocity and size in thermal spray processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.E.; Parker, R.A.; Lee, D.Y.; Biancaniello, F.; Ridder, S.

    1999-01-01

    An imaging pyrometer has been developed to measure the surface temperature of hot metal objects and to measure particle temperature, velocity and size in thermal spray, spray-fonning and atomization processes. The two-wavelength surface imaging pyrometer provides true temperature measurement with high resolution, even when the surface has emissivity variation caused by roughness or oxidation. The surface imaging pyrometer has been calibrated for use in a material processing lab calibration over the range of 1000 to 3000 deg K, and these results are described. The particle imaging pyrometer has a field of view that spans the entire particle stream in typical thermal spray devices, and provides continuous measurement of the entire particle stream. Particle temperature and velocity are critical parameters for producing high quality spray coatings efficiently and reliably. The software locates the particle streaks in the image, and determines the intensity ratio for each particle streak pair to obtain the temperature. The dimensions of the particle streak image are measured to determine the velocity and size. Because the vision-based sensor samples the entire particle stream in every video frame, the particle temperature, velocity and size data are updated at 30 Hz at all points in the particle stream. Particle measurements in a plasma spray at NIST are described. In this paper, we will describe our experiments with ceramic powders, in which measurements have been made at several positions along the particle stream. The particle data are represented as profiles across the particle stream, histograms of the full particle stream or time histories of the full-stream average. The results are compared and calibrated with other temperature and diagnostic measurement systems. (author)

  14. Synthesis of Porous Europium Oxide Particles for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Zheng, Kai; Lou, Kai-Li; Meng, Xiao-Ting; Yan, Zi-Qiao; Ye, Zhen-Ni; Su, Rui-Rui; Zhong, Shengliang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Porous Eu 2 O 3 particles were synthesized by a facile electrochemical method. • Porous Eu 2 O 3 NPs were firstly implemented as photoanode for PEC water splitting. • The Eu 2 O 3 NPs exhibited good PEC performance and stability. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the facile electrochemical synthesis of porous Eu 2 O 3 particles (NPs) and their implementation as photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. These porous Eu 2 O 3 NPs exhibit a significant photocurrent density of 40 μA cm −2 at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH electrolyte under white light irradiation (Xe lamp, 100 mW cm −2 ). Moreover, the as-synthesized Eu 2 O 3 NPs have an excellent PEC stability with no obvious decay in its photocurrent after 100 min irradiation

  15. SUPERPOSITION OF STOCHASTIC PROCESSES AND THE RESULTING PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M.; Fahr, H.; Jokipii, J. R.; Lee, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many observations of suprathermal and energetic particles in the solar wind and the inner heliosheath show that distribution functions scale approximately with the inverse of particle speed (v) to the fifth power. Although there are exceptions to this behavior, there is a growing need to understand why this type of distribution function appears so frequently. This paper develops the concept that a superposition of exponential and Gaussian distributions with different characteristic speeds and temperatures show power-law tails. The particular type of distribution function, f ∝ v -5 , appears in a number of different ways: (1) a series of Poisson-like processes where entropy is maximized with the rates of individual processes inversely proportional to the characteristic exponential speed, (2) a series of Gaussian distributions where the entropy is maximized with the rates of individual processes inversely proportional to temperature and the density of individual Gaussian distributions proportional to temperature, and (3) a series of different diffusively accelerated energetic particle spectra with individual spectra derived from observations (1997-2002) of a multiplicity of different shocks. Thus, we develop a proof-of-concept for the superposition of stochastic processes that give rise to power-law distribution functions.

  16. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan [School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Ma, Xiaofei, E-mail: maxiaofei@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} diffused in, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was prepared. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was characterized. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT.

  17. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe 3 O 4 particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ diffused in, Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 @HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was prepared. • Fe 3 O 4 @HNT was characterized. • Fe 3 O 4 particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT

  18. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2...... the morning after exposure measurement. Cumulated outdoor and cumulated indoor exposures to UFPs each were independent significant predictors of the level of purine oxidation in DNA but not of strand breaks. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ..., particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution....

  19. A self-seeded, surfactant-directed hydrothermal growth of single crystalline lithium manganese oxide nanobelts from the commercial bulky particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Yu, Jimmy C; Xu, An-Wu; Li, Quan; Kwong, Kwan Wai; Wu, Ling

    2003-12-07

    Single crystalline lithium manganese oxide nanobelts were obtained through a self-seeded, surfactant-directed growth process from the commercial bulky particles under hydrothermal treatment. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of the nanobelts. This new process could be extended to prepare other one-dimensional nanomaterials such as Se nanorods, Te nanotubes, and MnO2 nanowires.

  20. Effect of nano-oxide particle size on radiation resistance of iron–chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weizong; Li, Lulu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Valdez, James A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Saber, Mostafa [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Zhu, Yuntian, E-mail: ytzhu@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Radiation resistance of Fe–14Cr alloys under 200 keV He irradiation at 500 °C was systematically investigated with varying sizes of nano oxide Zr, Hf and Cr particles. It is found that these nano oxide particles acted as effective sites for He bubble formation. By statistically analyzing 700–1500 He bubbles at the depth of about 150–700 nm from a series of HRTEM images for each sample, we established the variation of average He bubble size, He bubble density, and swelling percentage along the depth, and found them to be consistent with the He concentration profile calculated from the SIRM program. Oxide particles with sizes less than 3.5–4 nm are found most effective for enhancing radiation resistance in the studied alloy systems.

  1. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousse-Nottelmann, S.; Zubler, E. M.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    An explicit and detailed treatment of cloud-borne particles allowing for the consideration of aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO). The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases

  2. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2015-04-20

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field.

  3. Impedimetric Zika and Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Stanciu, Lia A. Stanciu; Poudyal, Shishir; Kuhn, Richard J.

    A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO2 particles (SiO2@APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect Zika and dengue DNA and RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrate that the SiO2@APTES-GO electrode materials provide enhanced RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO2. The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO2@APTES-GO resulted in a successful design of a Zika and dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date. We are in the process of developing a platform for multiple viral detection for point-of-care diagnostics for arthropode borne viral infectious diseases.

  4. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Study their Particle Size at Different Current Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzan A. Omar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by electrochemical reduction method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as structure directing agent in an organic medium viz. tetrahydrofuran (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density and molar concentration of the ligand. The reduction process takes place under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles are prepared by using a simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode as a commercially available in tin metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet act as a cathode. The parameters such as current density, solvent polarity, distance between electrodes and concentration of stabilizers are used to control the size of nanoparticles. The synthesized tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by using UV–Visible, FT-IR and SEM–EDS analysis techniques. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed the optical band gap to be 4.13, 4.16 and 4.24 ev for (8, 10 and 12 mA/cm2 and the effect of current density on theirs particle size, respectively.

  5. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  6. Creation of hydrophobic surfaces using a paint containing functionalized oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sino, Paul Albert L.; Herrera, Marvin U.; Balela, Mary Donnabelle L.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces were created by coating various substrates (aluminum sheet, soda-lime glass, silicon carbide polishing paper, glass with double-sided adhesive) with paint containing functionalized oxide particles. The paint was created by functionalizing oxide particles (ground ZnO, TiO2 nanoparticles, or TiO2 microparticles) with fluorosilane molecules in absolute ethanol. Water contact angle of samples shows that the coated substrate becomes hydrophobic (water contact angle ≥ 90°). Among the oxides that were used, ground ZnO yielded contact angle exemplifying superhydrophobicity (water contact angle ≥ 150°). Scanning electron micrograph of paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles shows rough functionalized oxides structures which probably increase the hydrophobicity of the surface.

  7. Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by gas and electric cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Dennekamp, M; Howarth, S; Dick, C; Cherrie, J; Donaldson, K; Seaton, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To measure the concentrations of particles less than 100 nm diameter and of oxides of nitrogen generated by cooking with gas and electricity, to comment on possible hazards to health in poorly ventilated kitchens.
METHODS—Experiments with gas and electric rings, grills, and ovens were used to compare different cooking procedures. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured by a chemiluminescent ML9841A NOx analyser. A TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure average nu...

  8. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  9. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhong, Kyusik Yun Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties. Keywords: graphene oxide, ZnO, characterization, antibacterial property

  10. A process of dosimetry of a particle flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Henri; Heilmann, Celine; Jacquot, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    The main feature of this dosimetry process is that a nuclear emulsion plate with an emulsion of gelatine and silver bromide microcrystals is subjected to the flux of particles to be measured, that the plate is developed in a standard manner and that the amount of silver thus reduced to the metal state is then analysed by activation. The plate containing the nuclear emulsion irradiated in this way is then developed by the conventional temperature method, the effect of which is to cause traces to appear formed of metal silver particles at those places where ionising particles have penetrated into the emulsion and have given up therein all or part of their energy. Once the plates have been developed, like an ordinary photographic plate, they are then subjected to a neutron flux (nuclear reactor, accelerator, etc.) that activates the silver particles in the emulsion which then become emitters of γ radiations which may then be detected to find out the amount of silver present in the plate, which finally is specific of the radiation flux dose received by this plate. A Geiger type gamma ray detector gives a global indication on the mass of silver contained in the emulsion. A more refined method consists in using a multi-channel gamma spectrometer and this makes it possible to have an energy selective dosimetry. The juxtaposition of several separate plates each having its own sensitivity in a given energy band enable a veritable 'sandwhich' of several plates to be made [fr

  11. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d ≥ 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results

  12. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2003-02-28

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d {>=} 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  13. Nonlinear Statistical Signal Processing: A Particle Filtering Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.

    2007-01-01

    A introduction to particle filtering is discussed starting with an overview of Bayesian inference from batch to sequential processors. Once the evolving Bayesian paradigm is established, simulation-based methods using sampling theory and Monte Carlo realizations are discussed. Here the usual limitations of nonlinear approximations and non-gaussian processes prevalent in classical nonlinear processing algorithms (e.g. Kalman filters) are no longer a restriction to perform Bayesian inference. It is shown how the underlying hidden or state variables are easily assimilated into this Bayesian construct. Importance sampling methods are then discussed and shown how they can be extended to sequential solutions implemented using Markovian state-space models as a natural evolution. With this in mind, the idea of a particle filter, which is a discrete representation of a probability distribution, is developed and shown how it can be implemented using sequential importance sampling/resampling methods. Finally, an application is briefly discussed comparing the performance of the particle filter designs with classical nonlinear filter implementations

  14. Nanosized zinc oxide particles induce neural stem cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaoyong; Luan Qixia; Wu Minghong; Zhang Haijiao; Jiao Zheng; Chen Wenting; Wang Yanli

    2009-01-01

    Given the intensive application of nanoscale zinc oxide (ZnO) materials in our life, growing concerns have arisen about its unintentional health and environmental impacts. In this study, the neurotoxicity of different sized ZnO nanoparticles in mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated. A cell viability assay indicated that ZnO nanoparticles manifested dose-dependent, but no size-dependent toxic effects on NSCs. Apoptotic cells were observed and analyzed by confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy examination, and flow cytometry. All the results support the viewpoint that the ZnO nanoparticle toxicity comes from the dissolved Zn 2+ in the culture medium or inside cells. Our results highlight the need for caution during the use and disposal of ZnO manufactured nanomaterials to prevent the unintended environmental and health impacts.

  15. Physical and chemical analysis of interaction between oxide fuel and pyrocarbon coating of coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, R.A.; Kromov, Yu.F.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    In terms of the model proposed the equilibrium pressure of gases (CO, Kr, Xe) in pyrocarbon-coated uranium dioxide fuel particles has been calculated, as function of the initial composition of the fuel (O/U), the design features of the coated particles, the fuel temperature, and the burnup. The possibility of reducing gas pressure in the particles by alloying the kernels with uranium carbide, and increasing the kernel capacity for retention of solid fission products by alloying the uranium oxide with aluminum-silicates, has been investigated. (author)

  16. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content. In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions: 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.

  17. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  18. Sol-gel processed thin-layer ruthenium oxide/carbon black supercapacitors: A revelation of the energy storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panic, V.V.; Dekanski, A.B.; Stevanovic, R.M. [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, Belgrade 125213 (RS)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrous ruthenium oxide/carbon black nanocomposites were prepared by impregnation of the carbon blacks by differently aged inorganic RuO{sub 2} sols, i.e. of different particle size. Commercial Black Pearls 2000 {sup registered} (BP) and Vulcan {sup registered} XC-72 R (XC) carbon blacks were used. Capacitive properties of BP/RuO{sub 2} and XC/RuO{sub 2} composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Capacitance values and capacitance distribution through the composite porous layer were found different if high- (BP) and low- (XC) surface-area carbons are used as supports. The aging time (particle size) of Ru oxide sol as well as the concentration of the oxide solid phase in the impregnating medium influenced the capacitive performance of prepared composites. While the capacitance of BP-supported oxide decreases with the aging time, the capacitive ability of XC-supported oxide is promoted with increasing oxide particle size. The increase in concentration of the oxide solid phase in the impregnating medium caused an improvement of charging/discharging characteristics due to pronounced pseudocapacitance contribution of the increasing amount of inserted oxide. The effects of these variables in the impregnation process on the energy storage capabilities of prepared nanocomposites are envisaged as a result of intrinsic way of population of the pores of carbon material by hydrous Ru oxide particle. (author)

  19. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  20. Magnetic properties of magnetic liquids with iron-oxide particles - the influence of anisotropy and interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, C.; Hanson, M.; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic liquids containing iron-oxide particles were investigated by magnetization and Mossbauer measurements. The particles were shown to be maghemite with a spontanious saturation magentization Ms = 320 kA m-1 at 200 K and a normalized high-field susceptibility x/M0 = 5.1x10-6 mkA-1, practically...... independent of temperature. Ms increases with decreasing temperature according to an effective Bloch law with an exponent larger than 1.5, as expected for fine magnetic particles. The model of magnetic particles with uniaxial anisotropy and the actual size distribution gives a consistent description...... of independent measurements of the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and the isothermal magnetization versus field. From this an effective anisotropy constant of about 4.5x10 4 J m-3 is estimated for a particle with diameter 7.5 nm. The magnetic relaxation, as observed in zero...

  1. Oxide superconducting ribbon and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belouet, C.

    1990-01-01

    A film without cavities, of perovskite type superconducting oxide is deposited by melting on a metal or composite flexible substrate with a rectangular cross section. The film thickness is comprised between 1 and 100 micrometers and orientation of C axis of superconducting crystals is perpendicular to the subtrate [fr

  2. Oxidative processes in power plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Zambrano, Debora N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the chemical properties differences between thermal-oxidation and radioactive-oxidation in turbine oils in order to estimate the oils' Service Life. The oils were Turbine R type, provided by Repsol-YPF with only few additives such as: anti rust, antioxidant, anticorrosion and without viscosity index improvers. The oils were ISO 32 and ISO 68 grade -with viscosity index 95- and API (American Petroleum Institute) group I, due to its viscosity index (95), the percent of paraffinic component ( 0.03%). Different samples from the heavy water main pumps were collected with different service times and radiation fields during an Embalse NPP's outage. For comparison purposes oils from feedwater pumps systems that convey light water to the steam generators in the Turbine building -without radiation- were obtained. The properties studied by ASTM standards were: colour (visual inspection), Viscosity Index VI (ASTM D227/93), viscosity at 40 C degrees (ASTM D445/96) and Total Acid Number, TAN (ASTM D974-97). Oxidative degradation of base oils could be described by two successive mechanisms that allow the definition of two stages: Primary and Secondary Oxidation. Primary oxidation begins with the thermal generation of alkylation's reactions and acid products formation. Radiation damage operates by two mechanisms: scission and cross-linking. The first one generates free radicals of low molecular weight while the other one can build-up complex molecular networks with high or low solubility in the base oil. Moreover, radiation damage destroys additives molecules and generates colour centres different from oxidative colour modification. Due to scission and cross-linking alkyl group substitution in the aromatic rings are formed. Then, radiation acts as a precursor of Primary Oxidation. Both, thermal and radioactive, damage mechanisms can act simultaneously making the isolated analysis for each one very difficult. To manage it, a Relative Damage Index (RDI) has been

  3. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  4. Fabrication of polyaniline coated iron oxide hybrid particles and their dual stimuli-response under electric and magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANI-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4 sphere particles were fabricated and applied to a dual stimuliresponsive material under electric and magnetic fields, respectively. Sphere Fe3O4 particles were synthesized by a solvothermal process and protonated after acidification. The aniline monomer tended to surround the surface of the Fe3O4 core due to the electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions. A core-shell structured product was finally formed by the oxidation polymerization of PANI on the surface of Fe3O4. The formation of Fe3O4@PANI particles was examined by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The bond between Fe3O4 and PANI was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscope and magnetic properties were analyzed by vibration sample magnetometer. A hybrid of a conducting and magnetic particle-based suspension displayed dual stimuli-response under electric and magnetic fields. The suspension exhibited typical electrorheological and magnetorheological behaviors of the shear stress, shear viscosity and dynamic yield stress, as determined using a rotational rheometer. Sedimentation stability was also compared between Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@PANI suspension.

  5. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles

  6. Microphysical processing of aerosol particles in orographic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pousse-Nottelmann

    2015-08-01

    aerosol cycling in clouds has been implemented into COSMO-Model, the regional weather forecast and climate model of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO. The effects of aerosol scavenging, cloud microphysical processing and regeneration upon cloud evaporation on the aerosol population and on subsequent cloud formation are investigated. For this, two-dimensional idealized simulations of moist flow over two bell-shaped mountains were carried out varying the treatment of aerosol scavenging and regeneration processes for a warm-phase and a mixed-phase orographic cloud. The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol number and mass and additionally alter the shape of the aerosol size distributions by enhancing the internally mixed/soluble Aitken and accumulation mode and generating coarse-mode particles. Concerning subsequent cloud formation at the second mountain, accounting for aerosol processing and regeneration increases the cloud droplet number concentration with possible implications for the ice crystal number

  7. Features oxidative processes in sturgeons fish (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Symon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To anayze scientific sources on physiological-biochemical pecularities of reducing-oxidizing processes, including peroxide oxidation of lipids and work of the system of antioxidant protection system in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. The initiation and process of the oxidative stress have been described. The main products of peroxide oxidation of lipids, antioxidants of natural and artificial origin, organs and tissues for the studies of reducing-oxidizing processes have been examined. Findings. The work generalizes the processes of lipid peroxidation. Briefly outlined the main mechanism of action of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant defense system plays one of key role in the life of organism due regulating its series of metabolic processes, use of assessing of its state gives an opportunity obtain quantitative information on the progress of these processes. The products of free radical peroxidation (dien conjugates and malonic dialdehyde can also act as a sort of biomarkers of tissue damage, because their content can judge about the intensity of the flow of free radical processes in the various systems in organism. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. It is shown the most common antioxidants used in the feeding of sturgeon. Organs and tissues, which should be used for studying the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in sturgeon species, have been examined. Practical value. The systematized data regarding peroxide oxidation of lipids, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system allow finding a balance between these processes. The data on antioxidants, which are used in feeds for sturgeon species, will be useful for sturgeon culturists. The array of the generalized information will be important for scientists who study the pecularities of the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection system in

  8. Development of accident tolerant FeCrAl-ODS steels utilizing Ce-oxide particles dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko H.; Sakamoto, Kan; Hirai, Mutsumi

    2018-04-01

    FeCrAl-ODS ferritic steels with Ce-oxide dispersion instead of Y-oxide were produced for the accident tolerant fuel cladding of the light water reactor. Excess oxygen (Ex.O) was added to improve the mechanical property. The tensile strength at Ex.O = 0 is around 200 MPa at 700 °C, mainly owing to dispersed Ce2O3 particles in less than 10 nm size. The formation of the fine Ce2O3 particles is dominated by a coherent interface with ferritic matrix. With increasing Ex.O, an increased of number density of coarser Ce-Al type oxide particles over 10 nm size is responsible for the improvement of the tensile strength. Change of the type of oxide particle, CeO2, Ce2O3, CeAlO3, Al2O3, in FeCrAl-ODS steel was thermodynamically analyzed as a parameter of Ex.O.

  9. Internalization of annexin A5-functionalized iron oxide particles by apoptotic Jurkat cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Geralda A. F.; Geelen, Tessa; Duimel, Hans; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Frederik, Peter M.; Sanders, Honorius M. H. F.; Deckers, Niko M.; Deckers, Roel; Reutelingsperger, Chris P. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in the etiology of various diseases. Several studies have reported on the use of annexin A5-functionalized iron oxide particles for the detection of apoptosis with MRI, both in vitro and in vivo. The protein annexin A5 binds with high affinity to the phospholipid

  10. IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    IN VITRO CARDIOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: ROLE OF BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION.T. L. Knuckles1 R. Jaskot2, J. Richards2, and K.Dreher2.1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicin...

  11. Reduction of nickel oxide particles by hydrogen studied in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    In situ reduction of nickel oxide (NiO) particles is performed under 1.3 mbar of hydrogen gas (H2) in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structural and chemical evolution of the...

  12. Pluriformity of inflammation in multiple sclerosis shown by ultra-small iron oxide particle enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, M.M.; Oude Engberink, R.D.; Seewann, A.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Wattjes, M.P.; van der Pol, S.M.A.; Pering, C.; Polman, C.H.; de Vries, H.E.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Barkhof, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) is routinely used as a marker for inflammation in MRI to visualize breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis. Recent data suggest that ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) can be used to visualize cellular infiltration,

  13. Discharge time dependence of a solution plasma process for colloidal copper nanoparticle synthesis and particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Lee, Sang Yul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a new synthetic route, termed the solution plasma process, for the synthesis of colloidal copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the presence of an amide and acid capping agent. Gelatin and ascorbic acid were selected as the capping agents to protect the particles against coalescence and oxidation side reaction. Using a high voltage power supply, CuNPs were rapidly formed by 1 min after the discharge. The size and shape of the CuNPs were dependent on the discharge time and were clearly influenced by the effect of the capping agents under two characteristics of the discharge medium (pH and temperature). With a long discharge time, the CuNP size tended to decrease with the formation of anisotropic particle morphologies: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, triangular and rod-like shapes. The decrease in CuNP size as a function of discharge time could be explained by the dissolution of CuNPs in a lower pH solution. After 5 min discharge the capping agent evidently allowed the protection of the synthesized CuNPs against oxidation with the presence of anisotropic CuNP shapes. It is demonstrated that the CuNP shape could be tuned from spherical to anisotropic shapes without the undesirable oxidation by adjusting the discharge time of the solution plasma. These advantages are valuable for material engineering to design the properties of Cu-based nanoparticles for the desired applications. (paper)

  14. Iron oxides and their applications in catalytic processes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz C. A.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.

    2013-01-01

    A review of most of the reported studies on the use of iron oxides as catalyst in specific processes, namely Haber-Bosch reaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fenton oxidation and photolytic molecular splitting of water to produce gaseous hydrogen, was carried out. An essential overview is thus presented, intending to address the fundamental meaning, as well as the corresponding chemical mechanisms, and perspectives on new technological potentialities of natural and synthetic iron oxides, more...

  15. Image processing applications: From particle physics to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Citraro, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Giannetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded system for extremely efficient real-time pattern recognition execution, enabling technological advancements with both scientific and social impact. It is a compact, fast, low consumption processing unit (PU) based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the full custom associative memory chip. The PU has been developed for real time tracking in particle physics experiments, but delivers flexible features for potential application in a wide range of fields. It has been proposed to be used in accelerated pattern matching execution for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (biomedical applications), in real time detection of space debris trails in astronomical images (space applications) and in brain emulation for image processing (cognitive image processing). We illustrate the potentiality of the PU for the new applications.

  16. Release of ultrafine particles from three simulated building processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike; Som, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Building activities are recognised to produce coarse particulate matter but less is known about the release of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs; those below 100 nm in diameter). For the first time, this study has investigated the release of particles in the 5–560 nm range from three simulated building activities: the crushing of concrete cubes, the demolition of old concrete slabs, and the recycling of concrete debris. A fast response differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS50) was used to measure particle number concentrations (PNC) and size distributions (PNDs) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz in a confined laboratory room providing controlled environment and near–steady background PNCs. The sampling point was intentionally kept close to the test samples so that the release of new UFPs during these simulated processes can be quantified. Tri–modal particle size distributions were recorded for all cases, demonstrating different peak diameters in fresh nuclei ( 4 cm −3 . These background modal peaks shifted towards the larger sizes during the work periods (i.e. actual experiments) and the total PNCs increased between 2 and 17 times over the background PNCs for different activities. After adjusting for background concentrations, the net release of PNCs during cube crushing, slab demolition, and ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ recycling events were measured as ∼0.77, 19.1, 22.7 and 1.76 (×10 4 ) cm −3 , respectively. The PNDs were converted into particle mass concentrations (PMCs). While majority of new PNC release was below 100 nm (i.e. UFPs), the bulk of new PMC emissions were constituted by the particles over 100 nm; ∼95, 79, 73 and 90% of total PNCs, and ∼71, 92, 93 and 91% of total PMCs, for cube crushing, slab demolition, dry recycling and wet recycling, respectively. The results of this study firmly elucidate the release of UFPs and raise a need for further detailed studies and designing health and safety related exposure guidelines for

  17. The pick-up mechanism in composite particle emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang; Yan Shiwei; Wang Cuilan

    1992-01-01

    The pick-up mechanism has been included in the exciton model for the light composite particle emissions. Based on the cluster phase space integration method the formation probabilities of α,d,t, 3 He are obtained. The calculation results of (n,t) cross sections indicate that this theoretical method can reproduce the experimental data nicely. For triton emissions in pre-equilibrium reaction processes, the semi-direct reactions are the dominant terms which are just omitted in the previous model calculation

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory and Astrophysical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.; Brown, M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the final technical report for a funded program to provide theoretical support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment. We examined mhd relaxation, reconnecton between two spheromaks, particle acceleration by these processes, and collisonless effects, e.g., Hall effect near the reconnection zone,. Throughout the project, applications to space plasma physics and astrophysics were included. Towards the end of the project we were examining a more fully turbulent relaxation associated with unconstrained dynamics in SSX. We employed experimental, spacecraft observations, analytical and numerical methods.

  19. Interfacial electronic structure of electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles on iron oxide nanorice particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Ku [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A bimetallic hybrid nanostructure of uni- formly electrodeposited Ag NPs on an Fe oxide nanorice particle template was developed. Figure 6 schematically illustrates uniform electrodeposition of Ag NPs on Fe oxide nanorice supported on a Si substrate. According to Ar + ion depth-probling XPS spectra, the electrodeposited Ag NPs are metallic, and the Fe oxide nanorice particles consist of a metallic shell covered by ultrathin FeOOH or Fe 2 O 3 shells. When the template was functionalized with 1,4-diisocyanobenzene, one terminal NC group was bridge- bonded as in the N C form on the Fe surface. The newly developed selective facial electrodeposition method will be very useful for facial fabrication of bimetallic hybrid systems for diverse application areas.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  1. DLVO and XDLVO calculations for bacteriophage MS2 adhesion to iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2015-10-01

    In this study, batch experiments were performed to examine the adhesion of bacteriophage MS2 to three iron oxide particles (IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3) with different particle properties. The characteristics of MS2 and iron oxides were analyzed using various techniques to construct the classical DLVO and XDLVO potential energy profiles between MS2 and iron oxides. X-ray diffractometry peaks indicated that IOP1 was mainly composed of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), but also contained some goethite (α-FeOOH). IOP2 was composed of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and IOP3 was composed of iron (Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron oxide (FeO). Transmission electron microscope images showed that the primary particle size of IOP1 (γ-Fe2O3) was 12.3±4.1nm. IOP2 and IOP3 had primary particle sizes of 167±35nm and 484±192nm, respectively. A surface angle analyzer demonstrated that water contact angles of IOP1, IOP2, IOP3 and MS2 were 44.83, 64.00, 34.33 and 33.00°, respectively. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the magnetic saturations of IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3 were 176.87, 17.02 and 946.85kA/m, respectively. Surface potentials measured in artificial ground water (AGW; 0.075mM CaCl2, 0.082mM MgCl2, 0.051mM KCl, and 1.5mM NaHCO3; pH7.6) indicated that iron oxides and MS2 were negatively charged in AGW (IOP1=-0.0185V; IOP2=-0.0194V; IOP3=-0.0301V; MS2=-0.0245V). Batch experiments demonstrated that MS2 adhesion to iron oxides was favorable in the order of IOP1>IOP2>IOP3. This tendency was well predicted by the classical DLVO model. In the DLVO calculations, both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere geometries predicted the same trend of MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Additionally, noticeable differences were not found between the DLVO and XDLVO interaction energy profiles, indicating that hydrophobic interactions did not play a major role; electrostatic interactions, however, did influence MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Furthermore, the aggregation of iron oxides was investigated with a modified XDLVO

  2. Uranium Metal to Oxide Conversion by Air Oxidation –Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A

    2001-12-31

    Published technical information for the process of metal-to-oxide conversion of uranium components has been reviewed and summarized for the purpose of supporting critical decisions for new processes and facilities for the Y-12 National Security Complex. The science of uranium oxidation under low, intermediate, and high temperature conditions is reviewed. A process and system concept is outlined and process parameters identified for uranium oxide production rates. Recommendations for additional investigations to support a conceptual design of a new facility are outlined.

  3. The Evonik-Uhde HPPO process for proplene oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, B.; Baerz, M. [Evonik Industries, Hanau (Germany); Schemel, J.; Kolbe, B. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund/Bad Soden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2008 the HPPO technology has shown up as an economically and environmentally friendly alternative for manufacturing of propylene oxide. The HPPO technology offers the advantage of an on purpose process for manufacturing of propylene oxide without dependency on disposal or marketing of coupling products. (orig.)

  4. Effect of preliminary oxidation on process of steel carburization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devochkin, O V; Vorontsov, E S; Filonov, V N [Voronezhskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    Effects of preliminary oxidation of the metal surface and its subsequent reduction steel cementation were studied. The samples with interferentionally coloured oxide film on the surface had deeper carbonated layer than those without film. The kinetics of carbonation process and the mechanism proposed for this phenomenon are given.

  5. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C 60 or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C 60 , diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered expression

  6. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter, E-mail: pemo@sund.ku.dk

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  7. Statistical analysis of oxides particles in ODS ferritic steel using advanced electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unifantowicz, P.; Schäublin, R.; Hébert, C.; Płociński, T.; Lucas, G.; Baluc, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques enabled a statistically significant analysis of various types of few nanometer size oxides particles in Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ferritic steel. These methods include a scanning TEM with EDS and EFTEM coupled with EELS. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to the chemical maps obtained by EFTEM, which drastically improved the signal to noise ratio. Three types of particles were identified in a size range from 2 to 300 nm, namely Cr–Ti–O, Y–O and Y–Ti–O particles, with an average size of 33,16 and 8 nm, respectively. The Cr–Ti–O particles contain Y and Ti enriched zones, which were not observed previously. The EFTEM analysis showed that the titanium addition leads to formation of Y–Ti–O nano-particles, which constitute 84% of the oxides but also precipitation of larger Cr–Ti–O. The presence of small amount of Y–O particles indicated a not sufficient amount of Ti available for reaction during mechanical alloying or consolidation.

  8. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  9. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  10. Online Measurements of Highly Oxidized Organics in the Gas and Particle phase during SOAS and SENEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Thornton, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase organic compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington and with airborne HR-ToF-CIMS measurements. The FIGAERO instrument was deployed on the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study α-pinene oxidation, and subsequently at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and the SOAS ground site, in Brent Alabama. During the Southern Atmosphere Study, a gas-phase only version of the HR-ToF-CIMS was deployed on the NOAA WP-3 aircraft as part of SENEX. We focus here on highly oxygenated organic compounds derived from monoterpene oxidation detected both aloft during SENEX and at the ground-based site during SOAS. In both chamber and the atmosphere, many highly oxidized, low volatility compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same compositions detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition such as O/C ratios, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. The detailed structure in the thermograms reveals a significant contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers in both chamber and ambient aerosol samples. Approximately 50% of the measured organics in the particle phase are associated with compounds having effective vapour pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. We discuss the implications of these findings for measurements of gas-particle partitioning and for evaluating the contribution of monoterpene oxidation to organic aerosol formation and growth. We also use the aircraft measurements and a

  11. Process for producing nuclear reactor fuel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenrich, H.; Druckenbrodt, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The waste gases of the calcination process furnace in the AVC or AV/PuC process (manufacture of nuclear reactor fuel dioxides) are returned to the furnace in a closed circuit. The NH 3 produced replaces the hydrogen which would otherwise be required for reduction in this process. (orig.) [de

  12. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  13. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  14. Optimization of process and solution parameters in electrospinning polyethylene oxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the optimization of electrospinning process and solution parameters using factorial design approach to obtain uniform polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers. The parameters studied were distance between nozzle and collector screen...

  15. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol: Kinetics of Changes to the Amount and Oxidation State of Particle-Phase Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jesse H; Lim, Christopher Y; Kessler, Sean H; Wilson, Kevin R

    2015-11-05

    Atmospheric oxidation reactions are known to affect the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) particles over timescales of several days, but the details of such oxidative aging reactions are poorly understood. In this study we examine the rates and products of a key class of aging reaction, the heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase organic species by the gas-phase hydroxyl radical (OH). We compile and reanalyze a number of previous studies from our laboratories involving the oxidation of single-component organic particles. All kinetic and product data are described on a common basis, enabling a straightforward comparison among different chemical systems and experimental conditions. Oxidation chemistry is described in terms of changes to key ensemble properties of the OA, rather than to its detailed molecular composition, focusing on two quantities in particular, the amount and the oxidation state of the particle-phase carbon. Heterogeneous oxidation increases the oxidation state of particulate carbon, with the rate of increase determined by the detailed chemical mechanism. At the same time, the amount of particle-phase carbon decreases with oxidation, due to fragmentation (C-C scission) reactions that form small, volatile products that escape to the gas phase. In contrast to the oxidation state increase, the rate of carbon loss is nearly uniform among most systems studied. Extrapolation of these results to atmospheric conditions indicates that heterogeneous oxidation can have a substantial effect on the amount and composition of atmospheric OA over timescales of several days, a prediction that is broadly in line with available measurements of OA evolution over such long timescales. In particular, 3-13% of particle-phase carbon is lost to the gas phase after one week of heterogeneous oxidation. Our results indicate that oxidative aging represents an important sink for particulate organic carbon, and more generally that fragmentation reactions play a major

  16. Carbon contaminant in the ion processing of aluminum oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaug, Y.; Roy, N.

    1989-01-01

    Ion processing can induce contamination on the bombarded surface. However, this process is essential for the microelectronics device fabrication. Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to study the simultaneous deposition of carbon impurity during ion bombardment of magnetron rf-sputtering deposited aluminum oxide film. Ion bombardment on aluminum oxide results in a preferential removal of surface oxygen and a formation of a metastable state of aluminum suboxide. Cosputtered implanted carbon contaminant appears to have formed a new state of stoichiometry on the surface of the ion bombarded aluminum oxide and existed as an aluminum carbide. This phase has formed due to the interaction of the implanted carbon and the aluminum suboxide. The Ar + ion sputter etching rate is reduced for the carbon contaminated oxide. The electrical resistance of the aluminum oxide between two gold strips has been measured. It is found that the electrical resistance is also reduced due to the formation of the new stoichiometry on the surface

  17. Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide films on As-synthesized magnetic Ni particles: Magnetic and safety properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uudeküll, Peep, E-mail: peep.uudekull@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Link, Joosep [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Sihtmäe, Mariliis [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Käosaar, Sandra [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Blinova, Irina; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Stern, Raivo [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Tätte, Tanel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tamm, Aile [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-05-01

    Spherical nickel particles with size in the range of 100–400 nm were synthesized by non-aqueous liquid phase benzyl alcohol method. Being developed for magnetically guided biomedical applications, the particles were coated by conformal and antimicrobial thin titanium oxide films by atomic layer deposition. The particles retained their size and crystal structure after the deposition of oxide films. The sensitivity of the coated particles to external magnetic fields was increased compared to that of the uncoated powder. Preliminary toxicological investigations on microbial cells and small aquatic crustaceans revealed non-toxic nature of the synthesized particles.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide films on As-synthesized magnetic Ni particles: Magnetic and safety properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uudeküll, Peep; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo; Link, Joosep; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Käosaar, Sandra; Blinova, Irina; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne; Stern, Raivo; Tätte, Tanel; Kukli, Kaupo; Tamm, Aile

    2017-01-01

    Spherical nickel particles with size in the range of 100–400 nm were synthesized by non-aqueous liquid phase benzyl alcohol method. Being developed for magnetically guided biomedical applications, the particles were coated by conformal and antimicrobial thin titanium oxide films by atomic layer deposition. The particles retained their size and crystal structure after the deposition of oxide films. The sensitivity of the coated particles to external magnetic fields was increased compared to that of the uncoated powder. Preliminary toxicological investigations on microbial cells and small aquatic crustaceans revealed non-toxic nature of the synthesized particles.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of synthetic CoS oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štrbac N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of kinetics and mechanism for synthetic a-CoS oxidation process are presented in this paper. Based on experimental data obtained using DTA and XRD analysis and constructed PSD diagrams for Co-S-O system, mechanism of synthetic a-CoS oxidation process is suggested. Characteristic kinetic parameters were obtained for experimental isothermal investigations of desulfurization degree using Sharp method.

  20. High sensitivity tracer imaging of iron oxides using magnetic particle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwill, Patrick [University of California, Dept. of Bioengineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Konkle, Justin; Lu, Kuan; Zheng, Bo [UC Berkeley (UCSF), Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, CA (United States); Conolly, Steven [University of California, Berkeley Bioengineering, Electrical Engineering, and Computer Science, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new tracer imaging modality that is gaining significant interest from NMR and MRI researchers. While the physics of MPI differ substantially from MRI, it employs hardware and imaging concepts that are familiar to MRI researchers, such as magnetic excitation and detection, pulse sequences, and relaxation effects. Furthermore, MPI employs the same superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents that are sometimes used for MR angiography and are often used for MRI cell tracking studies. These SPIOs are much safer for humans than iodine or gadolinium, especially for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. The weak kidneys of CKD patients cannot safely excrete iodine or gadolinium, leading to increased morbidity and mortality after iodinated X-ray or CT angiograms, or after gadolinium-MRA studies. Iron oxides, on the other hand, are processed in the liver, and have been shown to be safe even for CKD patients. Unlike the 'black blood' contrast generated by SPIOs in MRI due to increased T2 dephasing, SPIOs in MPI generate positive, 'bright blood' contrast. With this ideal contrast, even prototype MPI scanners can already achieve fast, high-sensitivity, and high-contrast angiograms with millimeter-scale resolutions in phantoms and in animals. Moreover, MPI shows great potential for an exciting array of applications, including stem cell tracking in vivo, first-pass contrast studies to diagnose or stage cancer, and inflammation imaging in vivo. So far, only a handful of prototype small-animal MPI scanners have been constructed worldwide. Hence, MPI is open to great advances, especially in hardware, pulse sequence, and nanoparticle improvements, with the potential to revolutionize the biomedical imaging field. (author)

  1. High sensitivity tracer imaging of iron oxides using magnetic particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwill, Patrick; Konkle, Justin; Lu, Kuan; Zheng, Bo; Conolly, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new tracer imaging modality that is gaining significant interest from NMR and MRI researchers. While the physics of MPI differ substantially from MRI, it employs hardware and imaging concepts that are familiar to MRI researchers, such as magnetic excitation and detection, pulse sequences, and relaxation effects. Furthermore, MPI employs the same superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents that are sometimes used for MR angiography and are often used for MRI cell tracking studies. These SPIOs are much safer for humans than iodine or gadolinium, especially for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. The weak kidneys of CKD patients cannot safely excrete iodine or gadolinium, leading to increased morbidity and mortality after iodinated X-ray or CT angiograms, or after gadolinium-MRA studies. Iron oxides, on the other hand, are processed in the liver, and have been shown to be safe even for CKD patients. Unlike the 'black blood' contrast generated by SPIOs in MRI due to increased T2 dephasing, SPIOs in MPI generate positive, 'bright blood' contrast. With this ideal contrast, even prototype MPI scanners can already achieve fast, high-sensitivity, and high-contrast angiograms with millimeter-scale resolutions in phantoms and in animals. Moreover, MPI shows great potential for an exciting array of applications, including stem cell tracking in vivo, first-pass contrast studies to diagnose or stage cancer, and inflammation imaging in vivo. So far, only a handful of prototype small-animal MPI scanners have been constructed worldwide. Hence, MPI is open to great advances, especially in hardware, pulse sequence, and nanoparticle improvements, with the potential to revolutionize the biomedical imaging field. (author)

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols on single gold particles in highly ordered SiO2 cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Zhou, Qun; Tian, Shu; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaowei; Adkins, Jason; Gu, Zhuomin; Zhao, Lili; Zheng, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we report a new and simple approach for preparing a highly ordered Au (1 1 1) nanoparticle (NP) array in SiO 2 cavities on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. We fabricated a SiO 2 cavity array on the surface of an ITO electrode using highly ordered self-assembly of polystyrene spheres as a template. Gold NPs were electrodeposited at the bottom of the SiO 2 cavities, and single gold NPs dominated with (1 1 1) facets were generated in each cavity by annealing the electrode at a high temperature. Such (1 1 1) facets were the predominate trait of the single gold particle which exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol. This has been attributed to the formation of incipient hydrous oxides at unusually low potential on the specific (1 1 1) facet of the gold particles. Moreover, each cavity of the SiO 2 possibly behaves as an independent electrochemical cell in which the methanol molecules are trapped; this produces an environment advantageous to catalyzing electrooxidation. The oxidation of methanol on the electrodes is a mixed control mechanism (both by diffusion and electrode kinetics). This strategy both provided an approach to study electrochemical reactions on a single particle in a microenvironment and may supply a way to construct alcohols sensors

  3. Compositional evolution of particle-phase reaction products and water in the heterogeneous OH oxidation of model aqueous organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Chim

    2017-12-01

    0.362 to 0.424; however, the diameter of the droplets decreases by 6.1 %. This can be attributed to the formation of volatile fragmentation products that partition to the gas phase, leading to a net loss of organic species and associated particle-phase water, and thus a smaller droplet size. Overall, fragmentation and volatilization processes play a larger role than the functionalization process in determining the evolution of aerosol water content and droplet size at high-oxidation stages.

  4. Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.

  5. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  6. Studies on supercritical hydrothermal syntheses of uranium and lanthanide oxide particles and their reaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, DongKi; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kosuke; Osaka, Masahiko; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop preparation method of raw metal oxide particles for low decontaminated MOX fuels by supercritical hydrothermal (SH) treatments, we have investigated behavior of aqueous solutions dissolving U(VI), Ln(III) (Ln: lanthanide = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb), Cs(I), and Sr(II) nitrate or chloride compounds under SH conditions (temperature = 400-500 °C, pressure = 30-40 MPa). As a result, it was found that Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb) compounds produce LnO2, that Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Nd, Sm) compounds are hardly converted to their oxides, and that LnCl3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb), CsNO3, and Sr(NO3)2 do not form their oxide compounds. Furthermore, HNO2 species were detected in the liquid phase obtained after treating HNO3 aqueous solutions containing Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Ce, Pr, Tb) under SH conditions, and also NO2 and NO compounds were found to be produced by decomposition of HNO3. From these results, it was proposed that the Ln oxide (LnO2) particles are directly formed with oxidation of Ln(III) to Ln(IV) by HNO3 and HNO2 species in the SH systems. Moreover, the uranyl ions were found to form U3O8 and UO3 depending on the concentration of HNO3. From these results, it is expected that the raw metal oxide particles for low decontaminated MOX fuels are efficiently prepared by the SH method.

  7. Effect of process parameters on surface oxides on chromium-alloyed steel powder during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasoglou, D.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of chromium in the PM steel industry today puts high demands on the choice and control of the atmosphere during the sintering process due to its high affinity to oxygen. Particular attention is required in order to control the surface chemistry of the powder which in turn is the key factor for the successful sintering and production of PM parts. Different atmosphere compositions, heating rates and green densities were employed while performing sintering trials on water atomized steel powder pre-alloyed with 3 wt.% Cr in order to evaluate the effect on surface chemical reactions. Fracture surfaces of sintered samples were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The investigation was complemented with thermogravimetric (TG) studies. Reaction products in particulate form containing strong-oxide forming elements such as Cr, Si and Mn were formed during sintering for all conditions. Processing in vacuum results in intensive inter-particle neck development during the heating stage and consequently in the excessive enclosure of surface oxide which is reflected in less good final mechanical properties. Enhanced oxide reduction was observed in samples processed in hydrogen-containing atmospheres independent of the actual content in the range of 3–10 vol.%. An optimum heating rate was required for balancing reduction/oxidation processes. A simple model for the enclosure and growth of oxide inclusions during the sinter-neck development is proposed. The obtained results show that significant reduction of the oxygen content can be achieved by adjusting the atmosphere purity/composition. - Highlights: ► A local atmosphere microclimate is very important for sintering of PM steels. ► High risk of surface oxide enclosure between 800 and 1000 °C. ► Coalescence and agglomeration of enclosed oxides take place during sintering. ► The effect of different process parameters on the oxide reduction is examined. ► A

  8. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  9. Characteristics of agglomerates of sodium oxide aerosol particles: Task 7, topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, J.A.; Reed, L.D.; Jordan, H.; Lee, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate macroscopic predictions of aerosol population behavior within enclosed containments are known to depend strongly upon the microscopic characteristics of the individual aerosols. Also, coagulation rates due to mechanisms which produce relative motions between particles within the suspended aerosol are known to depend upon the cross sectional areas of the individual particles. Hence, it has been the primary concern of this study to examine experimentally the microscopic characteristics of sodium oxide aerosols produced in air. The results of these measurements can now be incorporated into the various macroscopic aerosol behavior prediction models

  10. Exposure to Ultrafine Particles from Ambient Air and Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Møller, Peter

    2007-01-01

    mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during controlled exposure to urban air particles with assignment of number concentration (NC) to four size modes with average diameters of 12, 23, 57, and 212 nm. DESIGN. Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in a randomized, two-factor cross-over study with or without biking...... exercise for 180 min and with exposure to particles (NC 6169-15362/cm3) or filtered air (NC 91-542/cm3) for 24 hr. METHODS: The levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs), oxidized purines as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycolase (FPG) sites, and activity of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in PBMCs were...

  11. Phenomenology of supersymmetric particle production process at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenkel, Maike Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We study the hadronic production of strongly interacting SUSY particles in the framework of the MSSM. In particular, we consider top-squark pair, gluino. squark pair, and same sign squark-squark pair production processes. Aiming at precise theoretical predictions, we calculate the cross section contributions of electroweak origin up to the one-loop level. We find sizable effects both from tree-level electroweak subprocesses and next-to-leading order electroweak corrections, reaching the 20% level in kinematical distributions. In a second part of this thesis, we investigate the phenomenology of R-parity violating B 3 SUSY models with the lightest stau (τ 1 ) being the LSP. We analyze the possible τ 1 decay modes, taking into account the dynamical generation of non-zero R-parity violating couplings at lower scales. As an application of our studies which is interesting for experiments at particle accelators, we discuss single slepton production at the LHC and give numerical results for single smuon production. (orig.)

  12. Infrared processed Cu composites reinforced with WC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.K.; Li, J.H.; Lin, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Copper matrix composites with WC particle reinforcements have been prepared with an innovative infrared infiltration technique. The volume content of the reinforcement particles in the composite is about 53%. The relative composite density of as high as 99.9% has been obtained with this process. The electric conductivity of composites prepared in this study as determined by a four-point probe method, is similar to commercially available Cu/W composites containing 52 vol% tungsten. Microhardness, microstructure and wear resistance of the composites were also determined. The microstructure of Cu/WC composite reveals excellent wetting between the two constituent phases, WC and copper. The microhardness values of all completely infiltrated Cu/WC composites were in the range of 360-370 HV which is significantly higher than the microhardness of pure copper, 65 HV. Wear resistance of the composites was determined with a pin on disk wear test technique. The wear test results show that composites prepared in this study performed much better than those commercially available Cu/W composites by more than two-fold against silicon carbide abrasive disks

  13. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone

  14. Phenomenology of supersymmetric particle production process at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkel, Maike Christina

    2009-07-20

    We study the hadronic production of strongly interacting SUSY particles in the framework of the MSSM. In particular, we consider top-squark pair, gluino. squark pair, and same sign squark-squark pair production processes. Aiming at precise theoretical predictions, we calculate the cross section contributions of electroweak origin up to the one-loop level. We find sizable effects both from tree-level electroweak subprocesses and next-to-leading order electroweak corrections, reaching the 20% level in kinematical distributions. In a second part of this thesis, we investigate the phenomenology of R-parity violating B{sub 3} SUSY models with the lightest stau ({tau}{sub 1}) being the LSP. We analyze the possible {tau}{sub 1} decay modes, taking into account the dynamical generation of non-zero R-parity violating couplings at lower scales. As an application of our studies which is interesting for experiments at particle accelators, we discuss single slepton production at the LHC and give numerical results for single smuon production. (orig.)

  15. Oxidation of siloxanes during biogas combustion and nanotoxicity of Si-based particles released to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2014-01-01

    Siloxanes have been detected in the biogas produced at municipal solid waste landfills and wastewater treatment plants. When oxidized, siloxanes are converted to silicon oxides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the transformation of siloxanes and potential nanotoxicity of Si-based particles released to the atmosphere from the gas engines which utilize biogas. Data available from nanotoxicity studies were used to assess the potential health risks associated with the inhalation exposure to Si-based nanoparticles. Silicon dioxide formed from siloxanes can range from 5 nm to about 100 nm in diameter depending on the combustion temperature and particle clustering characteristics. In general, silicon dioxide particles formed during from combustion process are typically 40-70 nm in diameter and can be described as fibrous dusts and as carcinogenic, mutagenic, astmagenic or reproductive toxic (CMAR) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles deposit in the upper respiratory system, conducting airways, and the alveoli. Size ranges between 5 and 50 nm show effective deposition in the alveoli where toxic effects are higher. In this study the quantities for the SiO₂ formed and release during combustion of biogas were estimated based on biogas utilization characteristics (gas compositions, temperature). The exposure to Si-based particles and potential effects in humans were analyzed in relation to their particle size, release rates and availability in the atmosphere. The analyses showed that about 54.5 and 73 kg/yr of SiO₂ can be released during combustion of biogas containing D4 and D5 at 14.1 mg/m(3) (1 ppm) and 15.1 mg/m(3) (1ppm), respectively, per MW energy yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-voltage, large-strain soft electrothermal actuators based on laser-reduced graphene oxide/Ag particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Ye; Yan, Jun-Chao; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Yang, Fan; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, low-voltage, large-strain flexible electrothermal actuators (ETAs) based on laser-reduced graphene oxide (LRGO)/Ag particle composites were fabricated in a simple and cost-efficient process. By adding Ag particles to the LRGO, the sheet resistance decreased effectively. Under a driving voltage of 28 V, the actuator obtained a bending angle of 192° within 6 s. Besides, the bending deformation could be precisely controlled by the driving voltage ranging from 10° to 192°. Finally, a gripper composed of two actuators was demonstrated to manipulate a piece of polydimethylsiloxane block. With the advantages of low-voltage, fast-response, and easy-to-manufacture, the graphene based ETAs have a promising application in soft robotics and soft machines.

  17. Electrochemical and morphological analyses on the titanium surface modified by shot blasting and anodic oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szesz, Eduardo M., E-mail: eszesz@neoortho.com.br [Neoortho Research Institute, Rua Ângelo Domingos Durigan, 607-Cascatinha, CEP 82025-100 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pereira, Bruno L., E-mail: brnl7@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kuromoto, Neide K., E-mail: kuromoto@fisica.ufpr.br [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marino, Claudia E.B., E-mail: claudiamarino@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gelson B. de, E-mail: gelsonbs@uepg.br [Physics Department, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84051-510 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Soares, Paulo, E-mail: pa.soares@pucpr.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many surface modification processes have been developed in order to induce the osseointegration on titanium surface and thus to improve the implants' biocompatibility. In this work, Ti surface has been modified by shot blasting followed by anodic oxidation process in order to associate the good surface characteristics of both processes to obtain a rough and porous surface able to promote the titanium surface bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium (grade 2) plates were used on the surface treatments that were as follows: Shot blasting (SB) performed using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, and anodic oxidation (AO) using NaOH electrolyte. The morphology, structural changes and the open-circuit potentials (OCP) of the surfaces were analyzed. It can be observed that an increase on the roughness of the blasted surface and a rough and porous surface happens after the AO process. The anodic film produced is thin and followed the blasted surface topography. It can be observed that there are small pores with regular shape covering the entire surface. X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the anatase and rutile phases on the blasted and anodized surface after heat treatment at 600 °C/1 h. Concerning electrochemical measurements, when the different samples were submitted to open-circuit conditions in a physiological electrolyte, the protective effect increases with the oxidation process due to the oxide layer. When the surface was blasted, the OCP was more negative when compared with the Ti surface without surface treatments. - Highlights: ► A combination of shot blasting and anodic oxidation surface treatments is proposed. ► Both processes produced an increase in roughness compared to the polished surface. ► The combination of processes produced a rough and porous surface. ► Open circuit results show that the protective effect increases with oxidation process. ► The combination of processes presents the better results in this

  18. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei; Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wei, Nini; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    , which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin

  20. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  1. Killer smog of London, 50 years on: particle properties and oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andy; BéruBé, Kelly; Jones, Tim; Maynard, Robert; Richards, Roy

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 microm in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  2. Effects of Process Parameters on Copper Powder Compaction Process Using Multi-Particle Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, F.; Sofuoğlu, H.

    2018-01-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) has been widely used in several industries; especially automotive and aerospace industries and powder metallurgy products grow up every year. The mechanical properties of the final product that is obtained by cold compaction and sintering in powder metallurgy are closely related to the final relative density of the process. The distribution of the relative density in the die is affected by parameters such as compaction velocity, friction coefficient and temperature. Moreover, most of the numerical studies utilizing finite element approaches treat the examined environment as a continuous media with uniformly homogeneous porosity whereas Multi-Particle Finite Element Method (MPFEM) treats every particles as an individual body. In MPFEM, each of the particles can be defined as an elastic- plastic deformable body, so the interactions of the particles with each other and the die wall can be investigated. In this study, each particle was modelled and analyzed as individual deformable body with 3D tetrahedral elements by using MPFEM approach. This study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effects of different temperatures and compaction velocities on stress distribution and deformations of copper powders of 200 µm-diameter in compaction process. Furthermore, 3-D MPFEM model utilized von Mises material model and constant coefficient of friction of μ=0.05. In addition to MPFEM approach, continuum modelling approach was also performed for comparison purposes.

  3. SIMULATION OF TRANSLATIONAL - ROTATIONAL MOTION OF WOOD PARTICLES DURING THE PROCESS OF PARTICLE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey PLOTNIKOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The simulation from the motion of flat particle revealed that the fall depends on the height of the drop, the thickness and density of the particles and does not depend on its length and width. The drop in air is about 20% longer than in vacuum. During orientation from angular particles the velocity of rotating particles with a length of 150mm is reduced by 18%, for particles with a length of 75mm by 12%. This reduction increases linearly with decreasing density of particles. A velocity field acting on the particle in the fall and rotation was presented. The results of the study prove the possibility to reduce the scatter of the particles during the mat's formation, that in turns can increase the board’s bending strength.

  4. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest.

  5. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest

  6. Method of decontamination for uranium oxide particles floating in liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakado, Tsutomu; Ebara, Tsuneo; Sato, Kuniaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly treat liquid waste containing uranium oxide particles floating in it and to enable substantially complete decontamination. Method: An iron salt such as ferrous sulfate or the like is added to liquid waste with floating uranium oxide particles, an alkaline solution such as caustic soda or the like is then added to the liquid waste while feeding compressed air at 0.1 to 0.02 l/sec. per ton of liquid waste, and the pH of the liquid waste is made to from 6.5 to 7.5. Thereafter, the feed of compressed air is stopped, the liquid waste is allowed to stand, and is then filtered. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Ultrafine titanium dioxide particles in the absence of photoactivation can induce oxidative damage to human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurr, J.-R.; Wang, Alexander S.S.; Chen, C.-H.; Jan, K.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles have been shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity when exposed to UVA radiation, but are regarded as a biocompatible material in the absence of photoactivation. In contrast to this concept, the present results indicate that anatase-sized (10 and 20 nm) TiO 2 particles in the absence of photoactivation induced oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and micronuclei formation, and increased hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. However, the treatment with anatase-sized (200 and >200 nm) particles did not induce oxidative stress in the absence of light irradiation; it seems that the smaller the particle, the easier it is for the particle to induce oxidative damage. The photocatalytic activity of the anatase form of TiO 2 was reported to be higher than that of the rutile form. In contrast to this notion, the present results indicate that rutile-sized 200 nm particles induced hydrogen peroxide and oxidative DNA damage in the absence of light but the anatase-sized 200 nm particles did not. In total darkness, a slightly higher level of oxidative DNA damage was also detected with treatment using an anatase-rutile mixture than with treatment using either the anatase or rutile forms alone. These results suggest that intratracheal instillation of ultrafine TiO 2 particles may cause an inflammatory response

  8. Effects of tunnel oxide process on SONOS flash memory characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong Hua; Park, Il Han; Yun, Jang-Gn; Park, Byung-Gook

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, various process conditions of tunnel oxides are applied in SONOS flash memory to investigate their effects on charge transport during the program/erase operations. We focus the key point of analysis on Fermi-level (E F ) variation at the interface of silicon substrate and tunnel oxide. The Si-O chemical bonding information which describes the interface oxidation states at the Si/SiO 2 is obtained by the core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, relative E F position is determined by measuring the Si 2p energy shift from XPS spectrums. Experimental results from memory characteristic measurement show that MTO tunnel oxide structure exhibits faster erase speed, and larger memory window during P/E cycle compared to FTO and RTO tunnel oxide structures. Finally, we examine long-term charge retention characteristic and find that the memory windows of all the capacitors remain wider than 2 V after 10 5 s.

  9. WHIZARD. Simulating multi-particle processes at LHC and ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Juergen; Edinburgh Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    2011-11-01

    We describe the universal Monte-Carlo (parton-level) event generator WHIZARD, version 2. The program automatically computes complete tree-level matrix elements, integrates them over phase space, evaluates distributions of observables, and generates unweighted partonic event samples. These are showered and hadronized by calling external codes, either automatically from within the program or via standard interfaces. There is no conceptual limit on the process complexity; using current hardware, the program has successfully been applied to hard scattering processes with up to eight particles in the final state. Matrix elements are computed as helicity amplitudes, so spin and color correlations are retained. For event generation, processes can be concatenated with full spin correlation, so factorized approximations to cascade decays are possible when complete matrix elements are not desired. The Standard Model, the MSSM, and many alternative models such as Little Higgs, anomalous couplings, or effects of extra dimensions or noncommutative SM extensions have been implemented. Using standard interfaces to parton shower and hadronization programs, WHIZARD covers physics at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders. (orig.)

  10. WHIZARD. Simulating multi-particle processes at LHC and ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik I; Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Reuter, Juergen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2011-11-15

    We describe the universal Monte-Carlo (parton-level) event generator WHIZARD, version 2. The program automatically computes complete tree-level matrix elements, integrates them over phase space, evaluates distributions of observables, and generates unweighted partonic event samples. These are showered and hadronized by calling external codes, either automatically from within the program or via standard interfaces. There is no conceptual limit on the process complexity; using current hardware, the program has successfully been applied to hard scattering processes with up to eight particles in the final state. Matrix elements are computed as helicity amplitudes, so spin and color correlations are retained. For event generation, processes can be concatenated with full spin correlation, so factorized approximations to cascade decays are possible when complete matrix elements are not desired. The Standard Model, the MSSM, and many alternative models such as Little Higgs, anomalous couplings, or effects of extra dimensions or noncommutative SM extensions have been implemented. Using standard interfaces to parton shower and hadronization programs, WHIZARD covers physics at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders. (orig.)

  11. Modelling of chalcopyrite oxidation reactions in the Outokumpu flash smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating oxidation reactions of chalcopyrite particles together with momentum, heat and mass transfer between particle and gas phase in a flash smelting furnace reaction shaft is presented. In simulation, the equations governing the gas flow are solved numerically with a commercial fluid flow package, Phoenics. The particle phase is introduced into the gas flow by a Particle Source In Cell (PSIC) - technique, where a number of discrete particles is tracked in a gas flow and the relevant source terms for momentum, mass, and heat transfer are added to the gas phase equations. The gas phase equations used are elliptic in nature and the fluid turbulence is described by the (k-{epsilon}) -model. Thermal gas phase radiation is simulated with a six-flux radiation model. The chemical reactions of concentrate particles are assumed to happen at two sharp interfaces, and a shrinking core model is applied to describe the mass transfer of chemical species through the reaction product layer. In a molten state, the oxygen consumption is controlled by a film penetration concept. The reacting concentrate particles are a mixture of chalcopyrite and silica. Also a certain amount of pure inert silica is fed to the process as flux. In the simulations the calculation domain includes the concentrate burner and a cylindrical reaction shaft of an industrial scale flash smelting furnace. Some examples about the simulations carried out by the combustion model are presented. (author)

  12. Modelling of chalcopyrite oxidation reactions in the Outokumpu flash smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating oxidation reactions of chalcopyrite particles together with momentum, heat and mass transfer between particle and gas phase in a flash smelting furnace reaction shaft is presented. In simulation, the equations governing the gas flow are solved numerically with a commercial fluid flow package, Phoenics. The particle phase is introduced into the gas flow by a Particle Source In Cell (PSIC) - technique, where a number of discrete particles is tracked in a gas flow and the relevant source terms for momentum, mass, and heat transfer are added to the gas phase equations. The gas phase equations used are elliptic in nature and the fluid turbulence is described by the (k-{epsilon}) -model. Thermal gas phase radiation is simulated with a six-flux radiation model. The chemical reactions of concentrate particles are assumed to happen at two sharp interfaces, and a shrinking core model is applied to describe the mass transfer of chemical species through the reaction product layer. In a molten state, the oxygen consumption is controlled by a film penetration concept. The reacting concentrate particles are a mixture of chalcopyrite and silica. Also a certain amount of pure inert silica is fed to the process as flux. In the simulations the calculation domain includes the concentrate burner and a cylindrical reaction shaft of an industrial scale flash smelting furnace. Some examples about the simulations carried out by the combustion model are presented. (author)

  13. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials

  14. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M. [Delphi Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials.

  15. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized [fr

  16. Thermoluminescence of europium-doped zinc oxide exposed to beta particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriqui R, J. L.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano, V. M., E-mail: jorgeiriqui@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Zn O is a promising material for a range of optoelectronics applications, due to its direct wide band gap (E{sub g} ∼3.3 eV at 300 K) and large exciton binding energy (60 MeV). Its applications include UV light emitters, varistors, surface acoustic wave devices, piezoelectric transducers, and chemical and gas sensing. Rare-earth activation of phosphors has long been seen as an effective process since coupling energy into the rare-earth-ion site, either by ionization, charge exchange or a resonance energy process, results in light production. It is reported that Europium modifies the response thermoluminescence (Tl) for pure zinc oxide, when is irradiated with X-ray, created a peak at 365 degrees C. In this work, Zn O:Eu phosphors were synthesized by a chemical method. Some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation for doses ranging from 1 up to 100 Gy. Tl response as a function of dose is linear throughout the studied dose range. The glow curve exhibits three maxima, centered at 176, 279 and 340 degrees C. The reusability studies obtained after ten repeated cycles of annealing irradiation readout for the Zn O:Eu shows that the variation in the Tl response is ten percent and tends to stabilization. The results indicate that these new Zn O:Eu phosphors are promising detectors and dosimeters for beta radiation. The structural and morphological characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. (Author)

  17. An Application of X-ray Fluorescence as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) to Monitor Particle Coating Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshio; Katakuse, Yoshimitsu; Azechi, Yasutaka

    2018-03-30

    An attempt to apply X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis to evaluate small particle coating process as a Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) was made. The XRF analysis was used to monitor coating level in small particle coating process with at-line manner. The small particle coating process usually consists of multiple coating processes. This study was conducted by a simple coating particles prepared by first coating of a model compound (DL-methionine) and second coating by talc on spherical microcrystalline cellulose cores. The particles with two layered coating are enough to demonstrate the small particle coating process. From the result by the small particle coating process, it was found that the XRF signal played different roles, resulting that XRF signals by first coating (layering) and second coating (mask coating) could demonstrate the extent with different mechanisms for the coating process. Furthermore, the particle coating of the different particle size has also been investigated to evaluate size effect of these coating processes. From these results, it was concluded that the XRF could be used as a PAT in monitoring particle coating processes and become powerful tool in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  18. Influences on particle shape in underwater pelletizing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, O., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Musialek, M., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Geiger, K., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: oliver.kast@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: kalman.geiger@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Underwater pelletizing has gained high importance within the last years among the different pelletizing technologies, due to its advantages in terms of throughput, automation, pellet quality and applicability to a large variety of thermoplastics. The resulting shape and quality of pellets, however, differ widely, depending on material characteristics and effects not fully understood yet. In an experimental set-up, pellets of different volumes and shapes were produced and the medium pellet mass, the pellet surface and the bulk density were analyzed in order to identify the influence of material properties and process parameters. Additionally, the shaping kinetics at the die opening were watched with a specially developed camera system. It was found that rheological material properties correlate with process parameters and resulting particle form in a complex way. Higher cutting speeds were shown to have a deforming influence on the pellets, leading to less spherical s and lower bulk densities. More viscous materials, however, showed a better resistance against this. Generally, the viscous properties of polypropylene proofed to be dominant over the elastic ones in regard to their influence on pellet shape. It was also shown that the shapes filmed at the die opening and the actual form of the pellets after a cooling track do not always correlate, indicating a significant influence of thermodynamic properties during the cooling.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW Warm spraying—a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kuroda et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1 the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2 the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3 various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC–Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.

  20. Hydrophobic and optical characteristics of graphene and graphene oxide films transferred onto functionalized silica particles deposited glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, H.; Khaled, M.; Laoui, T.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrophobic and optical transmittance characteristics of the functionalized silica particles on the glass surface prior and after transfer of graphene and graphene oxide films on the surface are examined. Nano-size silica particles are synthesized and functionalized via chemical grafting and deposited onto a glass surface. Graphene film, grown on copper substrate, was transferred onto the functionalized silica particles surface through direct fishing method. Graphene oxide layer was deposited onto the functionalized silica particles surface via spin coating technique. Morphological, hydrophobic, and optical characteristics of the functionalized silica particles deposited surface prior and after graphene and graphene oxide films transfer are examined using the analytical tools. It is found that the functionalized silica particles are agglomerated at the surface forming packed structures with few micro/nano size pores. This arrangement gives rise to water droplet contact angle and contact angle hysteresis in the order of 163° and 2°, respectively, and remains almost uniform over the entire surface. Transferring graphene and depositing graphene oxide films over the functionalized silica particles surface lowers the water droplet contact angle slightly (157-160°) and increases the contact angle hysteresis (4°). The addition of the graphene and graphene oxide films onto the surface of the deposited functionalized silica particles improves the optical transmittance.

  1. Statistical analysis of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Statistical processing of a particle multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, J.P.

    1985-12-01

    Statistic study of Poisson non-homogeneous and spatial processes is the first part of this thesis. A Neyman-Pearson type test is defined concerning the intensity measurement of these processes. Conditions are given for which consistency of the test is assured, and others giving the asymptotic normality of the test statistics. Then some techniques of statistic processing of Poisson fields and their applications to a particle multidetector study are given. Quality tests of the device are proposed togetherwith signal extraction methods [fr

  2. Dynamic mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/polyethylene oxide nanocomposites: characterizing isotropic and post-processing microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, Meisha; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Compatible component interfaces in polymer nanocomposites can be used to facilitate a dispersed morphology and improved physical properties as has been shown extensively in experimental results concerning amorphous matrix nanocomposites. In this research, a block copolymer compatibilized interface is employed in a semi-crystalline matrix to prevent large scale nanoparticle clustering and enable microstructure construction with post-processing drawing. The specific materials used are hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated with a polyethylene oxide-b-polymethacrylic acid block copolymer and a polyethylene oxide matrix. Two particle shapes are used: spherical and needle-shaped. Characterization of the dynamic mechanical properties indicated that the two nanoparticle systems provided similar levels of reinforcement to the matrix. For the needle-shaped nanoparticles, the post-processing step increased matrix crystallinity and changed the thermomechanical reinforcement trends. These results will be used to further refine the post-processing parameters to achieve a nanocomposite microstructure with triangulated arrays of nanoparticles.

  3. Powder processing of high Tc oxide superconductors and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajpei, A.C.; Upadhyaya, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    Powder processing of ceramics is an established technology and in the area of high T c superconductors, its importance is felt even more significantly. The present monograph is an attempt in this direction to explore the perspectives and practice of powder processing routes towards control and optimization of the microstructure and pertinent properties of high T c oxide superconductors. The monograph consists of 6 chapters. After a very brief introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 describes various classes of high T c oxide superconductors and their phase equilibria. Chapter 3 highlights the preparation of oxide superconductor powders through various routes and details their subtle distinctions. Chapter 4 briefly covers characterisation of the oxide superconductors, laying emphasis on the process-analysis and microstructure. Chapter 5 describes in detail various fabrication techniques for bulk superconductors through the powder routes. The last Chapter (Chapter 6) describing properties of bulk oxide superconductors, discusses the role of subtituents, compositional variations and processing methods on such properties. References are given at the end of each chapter. (orig.)

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the Gas- and Particle-Phase Products of VOC Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Arkema, J.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environmental chamber studies are important for determining atmospheric reaction mechanisms and gas and aerosol products formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such information is necessary for developing detailed chemical models for use in predicting the atmospheric fate of VOCs and also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, complete characterization of atmospheric oxidation reactions, including gas- and particle-phase product yields, and reaction branching ratios, are difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the reactions of terminal and internal alkenes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx in an attempt to fully characterize the chemistry of these systems while minimizing and accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with environmental chamber experiments. Gas-phase products (aldehydes formed by alkoxy radical decomposition) and particle-phase products (alkyl nitrates, β-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls, and dihydroxycarbonyls) formed through pathways involving addition of OH to the C=C double bond as well as H-atom abstraction were identified and quantified using a suite of analytical techniques. Particle-phase products were analyzed in real time with a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer; and off-line by collection onto filters, extraction, and subsequent analysis of functional groups by derivatization-spectrophotometric methods developed in our lab. Derivatized products were also separated by liquid chromatography for molecular quantitation by UV absorbance and identification using chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Gas phase aldehydes were analyzed off-line by collection onto Tenax and a 5-channel denuder with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography, or by collection onto DNPH-coated cartridges and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography. The full product identification and quantitation, with careful

  5. Studies of Physicochemical Processes in Atmospheric Particles and Acid Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.

    A comprehensive chemical mechanism for aqueous -phase atmospheric chemistry was developed and its detailed sensitivity analysis was performed. The main aqueous-phase reaction pathways for the system are the oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by H_2O_2 , OH, O_2 (catalysed by Fe ^{3+} and Mn^ {2+}), O_3 and HSO_sp{5}{-}. The gas-phase concentrations of SO_2, H_2O_2, HO _2, OH, O_3 HCHO, NH_3, HNO_3 and HCl and the liquid water content of the cloud are of primary importance. The Lagrangian model predictions for temperature profile, fog development, liquid water content, gas-phase concentrations of SO_2 , HNO_3, and NH_3 , pH, aqueous-phase concentrations of SO _sp{4}{2-}, NH _sp{4}{+} and NO _sp{3}{-}, and finally deposition rates of the above ions match well the observed values. A third model was developed to study the distribution of acidity and solute concentration among the various droplet sizes in a fog or a cloud. Significant solute concentration differences can occur in aqueous droplets inside a fog or a cloud. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations, but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium as well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate producd during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80% were calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition. Isoprene and beta-pinene, at concentration levels ranging from a few ppb to a few ppm were reacted photochemically with NO_ {x} in the Caltech outdoor smog chamber facility. Aerosol formation from the isoprene photooxidation was found to be negligible even under extreme ambient conditions due to the relatively high vapor pressure of its

  6. Treatment of uranium turning with the controllable oxidizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bingyi; Zhang Yonggang; Zhen Huikuan

    1989-02-01

    The concept, procedure and safety measures of the controllable oxidizing for uranium turning is described. The feasibility study on technological process has been made. The process provided several advantages such as: simplicity of operation, no pollution environment, safety, high efficiency and low energy consumption. The process can yield nuclear pure uranium dioxide under making no use of a great number of chemical reagent. It may supply raw material for fluoration and provide a simply method of treatment for safe store of uranium turning

  7. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND VASCULAR DAMAGE IN HYPOXIA PROCESSES. MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA AS BIOMARKER FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñiz P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the levels oxidative stress biomarkers are related with different diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular, renal, aging, etc. One of these biomarkers is the malondialdehyde (MDA generated as resulted of the process of lipid peroxidation. This biomarker is increased under conditions of the oxidative stress. Their levels, have been frequently used to measure plasma oxidative damage to lipids by their atherogenic potential. Its half-life high and their reactivity allows it to act both inside and outside of cells and interaction with proteins and DNA involve their role in different pathophysiological processes. This paper presents an analysis of the use of MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress and its implications associated pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases ago.

  8. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  9. Humic Acid Adsorption Onto Iron Oxide Magnetic Nano Particles in Aquious Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Foroghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Humic Acid (HA compounds affects water quality, such as color, taste and odor. The compounds not only react with disinfectants to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs harmful to human health. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have a high adsorption capacity to adsorb to organic matter. In this study HA removal by IOMNPs was surveyed in aqueous solutions. Methods:  The effects of pH value, agitation rate, adsorbent dose, contact time and the adsorbate concentration on the adsorption efficiency were studied as critical parameters. In addition, effect of ionic strength on the adsorption process and effluent turbidity was surveyed. The MNPs was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Results: Results revealed that at HA concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 4.5, adsorbent dose of 2.7 g/l, agitation rate of 250 rpm and contact time of 90 min at presence of 0.1 M NaCl as an ionic strength agent, the HA removal reached to about 98%. Also, the turbidity of treated samples was increased with increasing of HA loading. On the other hand, increases of ionic strength resulting in increase of removal efficiency and decrees of effluent turbidity. Conclusion: With increasing HA concentration, adsorption capacity of MNPs was increased and HA removal efficiency was decreased. Increasing of ionic strength leads to increase of removal efficiency and decrease of nano particles release. MNPs are easily attracted to the magnetic field application leads to easy separation from aquatic environment.

  10. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data.

  11. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data

  12. Granulation study of porous silica particles for MA recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ichiro; Kofuji, Hirohide; Oriuchi, Akio; Watanabe, Sou; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    JAEA has been working on partition of MA from HLLW generated in the reprocessing by extraction chromatography technology. This technology utilizes 50 μm porous silica particles coated by styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer in which an extractant for MA recovery is impregnated as adsorbent. In this study, spray drying granulating experiments with various operating conditions and with different experimental apparatuses were carried out to find an appropriate condition to control the size of the particle and the pore. The target average sizes of the particle and pore are more than 50 μm and 600 nm respectively. Suspension containing fine silica particles were supplied to the spray drying devices, and small droplets generated through the spray nozzle were dried inside the drying chamber. In this study, viscosity of the feed solution and some granulation conditions were parametrically changed, and two different types of the spray nozzles were used. An air atomizing nozzle and a rotary disk nozzle were equipped at different chambers respectively. Then, performance of the product particle was evaluated by particle and pore size distributions and adsorption experiment after the polymer coating and an extractant impregnation. The particle size of the product depended on the atomizing pressure and viscosity of the feed solution, and the size increased with decrease in the pressure and in the viscosity. The maximum size obtained in this study was about 40 μm. Large viscosity of the feed solution lead poor recovery ratio and uniformity in the size distribution of the product powder. The pore size of the resultant particle was 550-800 nm as expected. As the type of the nozzle changed from the air atomizing nozzle to the rotary disk nozzle and size of the drying chamber became large, the average particle size and the particle size distribution became large and sharp, respectively. Rotation speed of the nozzle also influenced on the particle size, and targeted average size of the

  13. Iron-oxidation processes in an electroflocculation (electrocoagulation) cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Moshe Ben, E-mail: mosheinspain@hotmail.com [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Calmano, Wolfgang [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany); Adin, Avner [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2009-11-15

    The processes of iron oxidation in an electroflocculation cell were investigated for a pH range of 5-9 and electric currents of 0.05-0.4 A (equivalent current densities of 8.6-69 A/m{sup 2}). At all pH values and electric currents investigated, it was demonstrated and proven that for all practical purposes, the form of iron that dissolves from the anode is Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous). The difference between the amount of theoretical dissolution as calculated by Faraday's law and the amount of observed dissolved iron ions may indicate two phenomena in electrochemical cells. The first is possible dissolution of the anode even without the operation of an electric current; this led to higher theoretical dissolution rates at lower pH. The second is the participation of some of the electrons of the electric current in reactions other than anode dissolution which led to lower theoretical dissolution rates at higher pH. Those other reactions did not lead to an increase in the local oxidation saturation level near the anode and did not affect iron-oxidation rates in the electroflocculation processes. The oxidation rates of the dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric) ions in electroflocculation processes were strongly dependent on the pH and were similar to the known oxidation rates of iron in non-electrochemical cells.

  14. Iron-oxidation processes in an electroflocculation (electrocoagulation) cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasson, Moshe Ben; Calmano, Wolfgang; Adin, Avner

    2009-01-01

    The processes of iron oxidation in an electroflocculation cell were investigated for a pH range of 5-9 and electric currents of 0.05-0.4 A (equivalent current densities of 8.6-69 A/m 2 ). At all pH values and electric currents investigated, it was demonstrated and proven that for all practical purposes, the form of iron that dissolves from the anode is Fe 2+ (ferrous). The difference between the amount of theoretical dissolution as calculated by Faraday's law and the amount of observed dissolved iron ions may indicate two phenomena in electrochemical cells. The first is possible dissolution of the anode even without the operation of an electric current; this led to higher theoretical dissolution rates at lower pH. The second is the participation of some of the electrons of the electric current in reactions other than anode dissolution which led to lower theoretical dissolution rates at higher pH. Those other reactions did not lead to an increase in the local oxidation saturation level near the anode and did not affect iron-oxidation rates in the electroflocculation processes. The oxidation rates of the dissolved Fe 2+ (ferrous) to Fe 3+ (ferric) ions in electroflocculation processes were strongly dependent on the pH and were similar to the known oxidation rates of iron in non-electrochemical cells.

  15. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.

  16. The history of magnetization process influence on FMR response of particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Ioan; Stancu, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    In order to express the history of magnetization process dependence on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for a particle system we use a statistical model based on the Preisach model. The precedent magnetization processes define in Preisach plane a configuration of particle magnetization orientations. The particles are considered single domain and saturated and are modeled as Stoner-Wohlfarth particles. The FMR response of the system is computed by summarizing the individual dynamic susceptibility of the particles, keeping account of the initial directions of the particle magnetizations. The FMR spectra of the particle system is determined considering three initial magnetization states: the demagnetized state, the positive saturated state in which all the particles have the magnetization in the static field direction and the negative saturated state when all the particles have the magnetization in the opposite field direction. The static field dependence of the resonance frequency and linewidth are determined as functions of the initial magnetization states

  17. Lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting brain glioma cells in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Arami, Hamed; Gandhi, Sonu; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new real-time imaging modality, which promises high tracer mass sensitivity and spatial resolution directly generated from iron oxide nanoparticles. In this study, monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles with median core diameters ranging from 14 to 26 nm were synthesized and their surface was conjugated with lactoferrin to convert them into brain glioma targeting agents. The conjugation was confirmed with the increase of the hydrodynamic diameters, change of zeta potential, and Bradford assay. Magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS), performed to evaluate the MPI performance of these nanoparticles, showed no change in signal after lactoferrin conjugation to nanoparticles for all core diameters, suggesting that the MPI signal is dominated by Néel relaxation and thus independent of hydrodynamic size difference or presence of coating molecules before and after conjugations. For this range of core sizes (14-26 nm), both MPS signal intensity and spatial resolution improved with increasing core diameter of nanoparticles. The lactoferrin conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles (Lf-IONPs) showed specific cellular internalization into C6 cells with a 5-fold increase in MPS signal compared to IONPs without lactoferrin, both after 24 h incubation. These results suggest that Lf-IONPs can be used as tracers for targeted brain glioma imaging using MPI.

  18. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2009-03-15

    Exposure to particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be proatherogenic in ApoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intracellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry showed that UFP increased MitoSOX red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content was increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP-stimulated O(2)(-) production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation plays an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression.

  19. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  20. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  1. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  2. Thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell anode processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomfret, Michael B.; Kidwell, David A.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C. [Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Steinhurst, Daniel A. [Nova Research Inc., Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Si-charge-coupled device (CCD), camera-based, near-infrared imaging system is demonstrated on Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fragments and the anodes of working solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). NiO reduction to Ni by H{sub 2} and carbon deposition lead to the fragment cooling by 5 {+-} 2 C and 16 {+-} 1 C, respectively. When air is flowed over the fragments, the temperature rises 24 {+-} 1 C as carbon and Ni are oxidized. In an operational SOFC, the decrease in temperature with carbon deposition is only 4.0 {+-} 0.1 C as the process is moderated by the presence of oxides and water. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon deposits results in a {delta}T of +2.2 {+-} 0.2 C, demonstrating that electrochemical oxidation is less vigorous than atmospheric oxidation. While the high temperatures of SOFCs are challenging in many respects, they facilitate thermal imaging because their emission overlaps the spectral response of inexpensive Si-CCD cameras. Using Si-CCD cameras has advantages in terms of cost, resolution, and convenience compared to mid-infrared thermal cameras. High spatial ({proportional_to}0.1 mm) and temperature ({proportional_to}0.1 C) resolutions are achieved in this system. This approach provides a convenient and effective analytical technique for investigating the effects of anode chemistry in operating SOFCs. (author)

  3. Thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell anode processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Michael B.; Steinhurst, Daniel A.; Kidwell, David A.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    A Si-charge-coupled device (CCD), camera-based, near-infrared imaging system is demonstrated on Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fragments and the anodes of working solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). NiO reduction to Ni by H 2 and carbon deposition lead to the fragment cooling by 5 ± 2 °C and 16 ± 1 °C, respectively. When air is flowed over the fragments, the temperature rises 24 ± 1 °C as carbon and Ni are oxidized. In an operational SOFC, the decrease in temperature with carbon deposition is only 4.0 ± 0.1 °C as the process is moderated by the presence of oxides and water. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon deposits results in a Δ T of +2.2 ± 0.2 °C, demonstrating that electrochemical oxidation is less vigorous than atmospheric oxidation. While the high temperatures of SOFCs are challenging in many respects, they facilitate thermal imaging because their emission overlaps the spectral response of inexpensive Si-CCD cameras. Using Si-CCD cameras has advantages in terms of cost, resolution, and convenience compared to mid-infrared thermal cameras. High spatial (∼0.1 mm) and temperature (∼0.1 °C) resolutions are achieved in this system. This approach provides a convenient and effective analytical technique for investigating the effects of anode chemistry in operating SOFCs.

  4. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  5. Development and Processing of p-type Oxide Thermoelectric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Van Nong, Ngo

    The main aim of this research is to investigate and develop well-performing p-type thermoelectric oxide materials that are sufficiently stable at high temperatures for power generating applications involving industrial processes. Presently, the challenges facing the widespread implementation...

  6. Aerosol and Photo-Oxidant Processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazaridis, M.; Spyridaki, A.; Solberg, S.; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír; Eleftheriadis, K.; Aleksandropoulos, V.; Hov, O.; Georgopoulos, P. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2004), s. 5455-5514 ISSN 1680-7367 Grant - others:ENVK2(XE) 1999-00052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : aerosol * mesoscale modeling * photo-oxidant processes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  8. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  9. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... decrease of pH value by MeOx, a synergism of acidic and chloride ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  10. Improved methane removal in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process using immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Yang, Zhi-Man; Fu, Shan-Fei; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    Methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process, which is a greenhouse gas, could cause global warming. The biofilter with immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) is a promising approach for methane removal, and the selections of inoculated MOB culture and support material are vital for the biofilter. In this work, five MOB consortia were enriched at different methane concentrations. The MOB-20 consortium enriched at the methane concentration of 20.0% (v/v) was then immobilized on sponge and two particle sizes of volcanic rock in biofilters to remove methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed that the immobilized MOB performed more admirable methane removal capacity than suspended cells. The immobilized MOB on sponge reached the highest methane removal efficiency (RE) of 35%. The rough surface, preferable hydroscopicity, appropriate pore size and particle size of support material might favor the MOB immobilization and accordingly methane removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Size-separated particle fractions of stainless steel welding fume particles - A multi-analytical characterization focusing on surface oxide speciation and release of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Belleville, L; Cha, Y; Olofsson, U; Odnevall Wallinder, I; Persson, K-A; Hedberg, Y S

    2018-01-15

    Welding fume of stainless steels is potentially health hazardous. The aim of this study was to investigate the manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) speciation of welding fume particles and their extent of metal release relevant for an inhalation scenario, as a function of particle size, welding method (manual metal arc welding, metal arc welding using an active shielding gas), different electrodes (solid wires and flux-cored wires) and shielding gases, and base alloy (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex stainless steel LDX2101). Metal release investigations were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.3, 37°, 24h. The particles were characterized by means of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical methods. Cr was predominantly released from particles of the welding fume when exposed in PBS [3-96% of the total amount of Cr, of which up to 70% as Cr(VI)], followed by Mn, nickel, and iron. Duplex stainless steel welded with a flux-cored wire generated a welding fume that released most Cr(VI). Nano-sized particles released a significantly higher amount of nickel compared with micron-sized particle fractions. The welding fume did not contain any solitary known chromate compounds, but multi-elemental highly oxidized oxide(s) (iron, Cr, and Mn, possibly bismuth and silicon). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karina Donadel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra

  13. Effects of surface chemistry on coagulation of submicron iron oxide particles (α-Fe_2O_3) in water

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Liyuan

    1988-01-01

    Particles in the colloidal size range, i.e. smaller than 10^(-6) meter, are of interest in environmental science and many other fields of science and engineering. Since aqueous oxide particles have high specific surface areas they adsorb ions and molecules from water, and may remain stable in the aqueous phase with respect to coagulation. Submicron particles collide as a result of their thermal energy, and the effective collision rate is slowed by electric repulsion forces. A key to understan...

  14. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    Demands for a better drinking water quality, especially concerning arsenic, a compound with many adverse health effects, put a pressure on the utilities to ensure the best treatment technologies that meet nowadays and possible future quality standards. The aim of this paper is to introduce...... an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...

  15. Structural effects on the oxidation of soot particles by O2: Experimental and theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2013-09-01

    Soot particles are composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have either planar or curved structures. The oxidation behaviors of soot particles differ depending on their structures, arrangement of PAHs, and the type of surface functional groups. The oxidation rate of curved PAHs in soot is thought to be higher than that of planar ones. To understand the role that PAH structure plays in soot reactivity towards O2, experimental studies are conducted on two types of commercially produced soot, Printex-U and Fullerene soot, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The relative concentrations of active sites, oxygenated functional groups, aliphatics and aromatics present in soots are evaluated. The activation energies for soot oxidation at different conversion levels are determined. The average activation energies of the two soots are found to differ by 26kJ/mol. To understand the reason for this difference, quantum calculations using density functional (B3LYP) and Hartree-Fock theories are conducted to study the reaction pathways of the oxidation by O2 of planar and curved PAHs using 4-pyrenyl and 1-corannulenyl as their model molecules, respectively. The energetically preferred channels for curved PAH oxidation differ from the planar one. The addition of O2 on a radical site of a six-membered ring to form a peroxyl radical is found to be barrierless for both the model PAHs. For peroxyl decomposition, three pathways are suggested, each of which involve the activation energies of 108, 170 and 121kJ/mol to form stable molecules in the case of planar PAH, and 94, 155 and 125kJ/mol in the case of curved PAH. During the oxidation of a five-membered ring, to form stable molecules, the activation energies of 90kJ/mol for the curved PAH and 169kJ/mol for the planar PAH relative to the energy of the peroxyl radical are required. The low activation barriers of

  16. Strategies for processing diffraction data from randomly oriented particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elser, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The high intensity of free-electron X-ray light sources may enable structure determinations of viruses or even individual proteins without the encumbrance of first forming crystals. This note compares two schemes of non-crystalline diffraction data collection that have been proposed: serial single-shot data from individual particles, and averaged cross-correlation data from particle ensembles. The information content of these schemes is easily compared and we show that the single-shot approach, although experimentally more challenging, is always superior in this respect. In fact, for 3D structure determination a constraint counting argument shows that the cross-correlation scheme suffers from data deficiency. -- Research Highlights: →We compare two data collection schemes for imaging single particles with x-rays. →Cross-correlation data suffers an information deficit relative to single-shot data. →We recognize John Spence for his many contributions to single particle imaging.

  17. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Danielsen, Pernille H; Folkmann, Janne K

    2014-01-01

    exposure to 6.4mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because...... and subsequently incubated for another 18h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid...... there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes....

  18. Automation of the micro-arc oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, P. E.; Pecherskaya, E. A.; Karpanin, O. V.; Shepeleva, Y. V.; Zinchenko, T. O.; Artamonov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    At present the significantly increased interest in micro-arc oxidation (MAO) encourages scientists to look for the solution of the problem of this technological process controllability. To solve this problem an automated technological installation MAO was developed, its structure and control principles are presented in this article. This device will allow to provide the controlled synthesis of MAO coatings and to identify MAO process patterns which contributes to commercialization of this technology.

  19. Integrative device and process of oxidization, degassing, acidity adjustment of 1BP from APOR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chen; Zheng, Weifang, E-mail: wfazh@ciae.ac.cn; Yan, Taihong; He, Hui; Li, Gaoliang; Chang, Shangwen; Li, Chuanbo; Yuan, Zhongwei

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Previous (left) and present (right) device of oxidation, degassing, acidity adjustment of 1BP. - Highlights: • We designed an integrative device and process. • The utilization efficiency of N{sub 2}O{sub 4} is increased significantly. • Our work results in considerable simplification of the device. • Process parameters are determined by experiments. - Abstract: Device and process of oxidization, degassing, acidity adjustment of 1BP (The Pu production feed from U/Pu separation section) from APOR process (Advanced Purex Process based on Organic Reductants) were improved through rational design and experiments. The device was simplified and the process parameters, such as feed position and flow ratio, were determined by experiments. Based on this new device and process, the reductants N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine (DMHAN) and methylhydrazine (MMH) in 1BP solution could be oxidized with much less N{sub 2}O{sub 4} consumption.

  20. One new route to optimize the oxidation resistance of TiC/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect by increasing graphite particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Jian; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-09-01

    TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable thermal expansion and excellent electrical conductivity are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect. In this paper, the TiC/hastelloy composites are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration, and the oxidation resistance of composites is optimized by increasing graphite particle size. Results show that the increase of graphite particles size from 1 μm to 40 μm reduces TiC particle size from 2.68 μm to 2.22 μm by affecting the formation process of TiC. Moreover, the decrease of TiC particles size accelerates the fast formation of dense and continuous TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide layer, which bring down the mass gain (800 °C/100 h) from 2.03 mg cm-2 to 1.18 mg cm-2. Meanwhile, the coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from 11.15 × 10-6 °C-1 to 10.80 × 10-6 °C-1, and electrical conductivity maintains about 5800 S cm-1 at 800 °C. Therefore, the decrease of graphite particle size is one simple and effective route to optimize the oxidation resistance of composites, and meantime keeps suitable thermal expansion and good electrical conductivity.

  1. Optical investigations on indium oxide nano-particles prepared through precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Bharathi, S.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2009-01-01

    Visible light emitting indium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method. Sodium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol was used as a precipitating agent to obtain indium hydroxide precipitates. Precipitates, thus formed were calcined at 600 deg. C for 1 h to obtain indium oxide nanoparticles. The structure of the particles as determined from the X-Ray diffraction pattern was found to be body centered cubic. The phase transformation of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the analysis show cube-like aggregates of size around 50 nm. It was found that the nanoparticles have a strong emission at 427 nm and a weak emission at 530 nm. These emissions were due to the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies and the nature of the defect was confirmed through Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis.

  2. Switching and memory effects in composite films of semiconducting polymers with particles of graphene and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.; Komolov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Petrov, V. N.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of switching were investigated in composite films based on multifunctional polymers. i.e., derivatives of carbazole (PVK) and fluorene (PFD), as well as based on particles of graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO). The concentration of Gr and GO particles in the PVK(PFD) matrix was varied in the range of 2-3 wt %, which corresponded to the percolation threshold in these systems. The atomic composition of the composite films PVK: GO was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the effect of switching in structures of the form Al/PVK(PFD): GO(Gr)/ITO/PET manifests itself in a sharp change of the electrical resistance of the composite film from a low-conducting state to a relatively high-conducting state when applying a bias to Al-ITO electrodes of ˜0.1-0.3 V ( E ˜ 3-5 × 104 V/cm), which is below the threshold switching voltages for similar composites. The mechanism of resistance switching, which is associated with the processes of capture and accumulation of charge carriers by Gr (GO) particles introduced into the matrices of the high-molecular-weight (PVK) and relatively low-molecular-weight (PFD) polymers, was discussed.

  3. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  4. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J, E-mail: sjchoi@swu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women' s University, 126 Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  5. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  6. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. There is a need for non-combustion processes with a wide application range to treat the large majority of these waste forms. The non-combustion process should also be safe, effective, cost-competitive, permit-able, and preferrably mobile. This paper describes the DETOX process of organic waste oxidation

  7. Oxidation mechanism of nickel particles studied in an environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of nickel particles was studied in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope in 3.2 mbar of O2 between ambient temperature and 600°C. Several different transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy were...... diffusion of Ni2+ along NiO grain boundaries, self-diffusion of Ni2+ ions and vacancies, growth of NiO grains and nucleation of voids at Ni/NiO interfaces. We also observed the formation of transverse cracks in a growing NiO film in situ in the electron microscope....

  8. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Khandelwal, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm 2 observed before decontamination

  9. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V., E-mail: svn@igcar.gov.in [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Khandelwal, R.C. [Kakrapara Atomic Power Station, KAPS, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2010-07-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm{sup 2} observed

  10. Strengthening of Zircaloy-4 with Oxide Particles by Surface Treatment using Laser Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding is being developed globally after the Fukushima accident with the demands for the nuclear fuel having higher safety at normal operation conditions as well as even in a severe accident conditions. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. High-power laser beam was exposed on the zirconium surface previously coated by oxides. Various oxides such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the ODS treatment. In this study, the effect of strengthening by the ODS treatment was investigated. The oxide particles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were dispersed well in the Zr matrix at the surface region.

  11. Simple approach to detection and estimation of photoactivity of silver particles on graphene oxide in aqueous-organic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, D. V.; Vlasova, T. D.; Apresyan, L. A.; Krasovskiy, V. I.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of sediment flotation was observed in dispersion of graphene oxide flakes with Ag-particles deposited thereon in the aqueous-organic (containing dimethylformamide) under the visible light action, with subsequent stabilization of the dispersion, which does not occur in the absence of Ag-particles. The main reason for this laser light induced movement of sediment graphene oxide flakes may be associated with the appearance of small bubbles. The further development of this approach seem to be able to estimate the of graphene flakes photoactivity with different activating particles.

  12. Nanoparticle electrostatic loss within corona needle charger during particle-charging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenghsiung; Alonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation has been carried out to examine the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in a corona needle charger. Two-dimensional flow field, electric field, particle charge, and particle trajectory were simulated to obtain the electrostatic deposition loss at different conditions. Simulation of particle trajectories shows that the number of charges per particle during the charging process depends on the particle diameter, radial position from the symmetry axis, applied voltage, Reynolds number, and axial distance along the charger. The numerical results of nanoparticle electrostatic loss agreed fairly well with available experimental data. The results reveal that the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles increases with increasing applied voltage and electrical mobility of particles; and with decreasing particle diameter and Reynolds number. A regression equation closely fitted the obtained numerical results for different conditions. The equation is useful for directly calculating the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in the corona needle charger during particle-charging process.

  13. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Chen, Changlong, E-mail: chem.chencl@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Han, Liuyuan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Shao, Baiqi [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yuling [Instrumental Analysis Center, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on.

  14. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Chen, Changlong; Han, Liuyuan; Shao, Baiqi; Wei, Yuling; Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2 O 3 octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In 2 O 3 octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO 2 gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO 2 gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on

  15. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  16. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH· radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included

  17. Catalytic/non-catalytic combination process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luftglass, B.K.; Sun, W.H.; Hofmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing a nitrogenous treatment agent comprising urea, one or more of the hydrolysis products of urea, ammonia, compounds which produce ammonia as a by-product, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, or mixtures thereof into the effluent at an effluent temperature between about 1200 degrees F and about 2100 degrees F; and contacting the treated effluent under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides in the effluent with a catalyst effective for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia

  18. Exposure to 16O-particle radiation causes aging-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Bielinski, Donna F; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to HZE particles occurs at low fluence rates, the cumulative effects of long-term exposure result in molecular changes similar to those seen in aged animals. In the present study, we assessed markers of autophagy, a dynamic process for intracellular degradation and recycling of toxic proteins and organelles, as well as stress and inflammatory responses, in the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated at 2 months of age with 5 and 50 cGy and 1 Gy of ionizing oxygen particles ((16)O) (1000 MeV/n). Compared to nonirradiated controls, exposure to (16)O particles significantly inhibited autophagy function in the hippocampus as measured by accumulation of ubiquitin inclusion bodies such as P62/SQSTM1, autophagosome marker microtubule-associated protein 1 beta light chain 3 (MAP1B-LC3), beclin1 and proteins such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The molecular changes measured at short (36 h) and long (75 days) intervals after (16)O-particle exposure indicate that the loss of autophagy function occurred shortly after exposure but was recovered via inhibition of mTOR. However, HZE-particle radiation caused significant sustained loss of protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α), a key G protein modulator involved in neuronal survival and functions of neuronal trophic factors. Exposure to (16)O particles also caused substantial increases in the levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating glial cell activation 75 days after exposure. This is the first report to show the molecular effects of (16)O-particle radiation on oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy in the brain of young rats.

  19. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h -1 to 20 R . h -1 . They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000 decays per min and cm 2 observed

  20. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V. [BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Div.

    2011-06-15

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h{sup -1} to 20 R . h{sup -1}. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000

  1. Heterogeneous oxidation of saturated organic aerosols by hydroxyl radicals: uptake kinetics, condensed-phase products, and particle size change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and reaction mechanism for the heterogeneous oxidation of saturated organic aerosols by gas-phase OH radicals were investigated under NOx-free conditions. The reaction of 150 nm diameter Bis(2-ethylhexyl sebacate (BES particles with OH was studied as a proxy for chemical aging of atmospheric aerosols containing saturated organic matter. An aerosol reactor flow tube combined with an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS was used to study this system. Hydroxyl radicals were produced by 254 nm photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapour. The kinetics of the heterogeneous oxidation of the BES particles was studied by monitoring the loss of a mass fragment of BES with the ToF-AMS as a function of OH exposure. We measured an initial OH uptake coefficient of γ0=1.3 (±0.4, confirming that this reaction is highly efficient. The density of BES particles increased by up to 20% of the original BES particle density at the highest OH exposure studied, consistent with the particle becoming more oxidized. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis showed that the major particle-phase reaction products are multifunctional carbonyls and alcohols with higher molecular weights than the starting material. Volatilization of oxidation products accounted for a maximum of 17% decrease of the particle volume at the highest OH exposure studied. Tropospheric organic aerosols will become more oxidized from heterogeneous photochemical oxidation, which may affect not only their physical and chemical properties, but also their hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation activity.

  2. Analysis of clay particles behaviour during hydration-dehydration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maison, T.; Laouafa, F.; Delalain, P.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    with time. The major part of strain takes place for high value of relative humidity (more than 85%), either during swelling or shrinkage phase. A gap of surface deformation is observed between the end of swelling (point A) and the beginning of shrinkage (point B). This gap has no physical meaning; it is due to image processing perturbed by the water presence in the form of a layer around the particle, inducing a surface area larger than reality. The maximum of surface area strains (2D strain in the plane of observation) for swelling is about 25%. This value is similar to the swelling value measured with classical oedometric free swelling tests. Several ESEM analyses show that microscopic measurements, performed on clay powder and during a few days, are quite identical to macroscopic measurements, carried out on macroscopic samples during a few months. (authors)

  3. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests

  4. From basic processes to sensors: particle-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforge, Bertrand; Bourgeois, Christian

    2005-11-01

    This academic course aims at presenting and explaining techniques of detection of radiations displaying an energy higher that some tens of keV, such as those met in nuclear physics or in particle physics. In a first part, the author first analyses the operation of a biological sensor (the eye), and then presents some generalities about matter: Rutherford experiment, the atom, molecules and solids. The second part deals with interactions between radiations and matter. The author there addresses interactions of heavy charged particles (ionization with high or low energy transfer), interactions of electrons (ionization, Bremsstrahlung), multiple scattering and straggling, the Cherenkov effect, transition radiation, the interaction of γ radiations in matter (Compton effect, photoelectric effect), the interaction of neutrons in matter. Appendices address γ spectrometry, the radiation of a charged particle moving in a dielectric medium, and issues related to statistical fluctuations (distribution functions, fluctuation propagation, energy resolution, noises)

  5. Bayesian signal processing classical, modern, and particle filtering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Candy, James V

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to give readers a unified Bayesian treatment starting from the basics (Baye's rule) to the more advanced (Monte Carlo sampling), evolving to the next-generation model-based techniques (sequential Monte Carlo sampling). This next edition incorporates a new chapter on "Sequential Bayesian Detection," a new section on "Ensemble Kalman Filters" as well as an expansion of Case Studies that detail Bayesian solutions for a variety of applications. These studies illustrate Bayesian approaches to real-world problems incorporating detailed particle filter designs, adaptive particle filters and sequential Bayesian detectors. In addition to these major developments a variety of sections are expanded to "fill-in-the gaps" of the first edition. Here metrics for particle filter (PF) designs with emphasis on classical "sanity testing" lead to ensemble techniques as a basic requirement for performance analysis. The expansion of information theory metrics and their application to PF designs is fully developed an...

  6. Multiple particle production processes in the ''light'' of quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, E.M.

    1990-09-01

    Ever since the observation that high-energy ''nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a ''single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single ''hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s 1/4 dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the ''thermal'' shape of the P T spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations

  7. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  8. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiß, Adilka; Gminski, Richard; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-02-04

    Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was clearly demonstrated that the tested toner powders damage DNA and induce micronucleus (MN) formation. Here, we have studied the cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential of these three types of printer toner particles and the influence of ROS and NF-κB induction in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of printer toner particle suspensions for 24 h. The toner particles were observed to exert significant cytotoxic effects in the WST-1 and neutral red (NR)-assays, although to a varying extent. Caspase 3/7 activity increased, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not affected. Particles of all three printer toner powders induced concentration-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in the DCFH-DA assay. Furthermore, toner particle exposure enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production, which is in agreement with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in A549 cells shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure of A549 lung cells to three selected printer toner powders caused oxidative stress through induction of ROS. Increased ROS formation may trigger genotoxic effects and activate proinflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  10. Is emergent universe a consequence of particle creation process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2014-01-01

    A model of an emergent universe is formulated using the mechanism of particle creation. Here the universe is considered as a non-equilibrium thermodynamical system with dissipation due to particle creation mechanism. The universe is chosen as spatially flat FRW space–time and the cosmic substratum is chosen as perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state. Both first and second order deviations from equilibrium prescription are considered and it is found that the scenario of emergent universe is possible in both the cases.

  11. Impedimetric Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Poudyal, Shishir; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene oxide based material design. • Fabrication of a label-free dengue DNA and RNA impedimetric biosensor. • Design of a surface-based dengue sensor with good selectivity and detection limit. - Abstract: A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO 2 particles (SiO 2 @APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO 2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect dengue DNA and dengue RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 @APTES-GO electrode material led to enhanced dengue RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO 2 . The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO 2 @APTES-GO led to the successful design of a dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene embolization particles doped with tantalum oxide nanoparticles for X-ray contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Rachel; Thompson, James; Bird, Luke; Hill, Mark A; Townley, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Radiopaque and fluorescent embolic particles have been synthesized and characterised to match the size of vasculature found in tumours to ensure effective occlusion of the vessels. A literature search showed that the majority of vessels surrounding a tumour were less than 50 µm and therefore polydispersed polystyrene particles with a peak size of 50 µm have been synthesised. The embolic particles contain 5-8 nm amorphous tantalum oxide nanoparticles which provide X-ray contrast. Embolic particles containing up to 9.4 wt% tantalum oxide were prepared and showed significant contrast compared to the undoped polystyrene particles. The X-ray contrast of the embolic particles was shown to be linear (R(2) = 0.9) with respect to the concentration of incorporated tantalum nanoparticles. A model was developed which showed that seventy-five 50 µm embolic particles containing 10% tantalum oxide could provide the same contrast as 5 cm of bone. Therefore, the synthesized particles would provide sufficient X-ray contrast to enable visualisation within a tumour.

  13. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.

    2016-06-01

    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  14. Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation process for treatment of saline wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoos Dindarloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High concentration of salt makes biological treatment impossible due to bacterial plasmolysis. The present research studies the process of electrochemical oxidation efficiency and optimal levels as important factors affecting pH, salt concentration, reaction time and applied voltage. Methods: The sample included graphite electrodes with specifications of 2.5 cm diameter and 15 cm height using a reactor with an optimum capacity of 1 L. Sixty samples were obtained with the aid of the experiments carried out in triplicates for each factor at 5 different levels. The entire experiments were performed based on standard methods for water and waste water treatments. Results: Analysis of variance carried out on effect of pH, salt concentration, reaction time and flow intensity in elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that they are significant factors affecting this process and reduce COD with a coefficient interval of 95% and test power of 80%. Scheffe test showed that at optimal level, a reaction time of 1 hour, 10 g/L concentration, pH = 9 and 15 V electrical potential difference were obtained. Conclusion: Waste waters containing salt may contribute to the electro-oxidation process due to its cations and anions. Therefore, the process of electrochemical oxidation with graphite electrodes could be a proper strategy for the treatment of saline wastewater where biological treatment is not possible.

  15. Zinc oxide nano-particles as sealer in endodontics and its sealing ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Javidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of new experimental nano-ZOE-based sealer. Settings and Design: Three types of nano-ZOE-based sealer (calcined at different temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C with two other commercially available sealers (AH26 and micro-sized zinc oxide eugenol sealer were used. Materials and Methods: Zinc oxide nano-particles were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of the prepared powders were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The instrumented canals of 60 single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10, with the remaining ten used as controls. The canals were filled with gutta-percha using one of the materials mentioned above as sealer. After 3, 45 and 90 days, the samples were connected to a fluid filtration system. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using Student′s t-test. Results: The XRD patterns and TEM images revealed that all the synthesized powders had hexagonal wurtzite structures with an average particle size of about 30-60 nm at different calcination temperatures. Microleakage in AH26 groups was significantly more than that in three groups of ZnO nano-particles at all the three evaluation intervals. Apical microleakage of ZnO micro-powders was significantly more than that of all the materials, but the sealing ability of ZnO nano-powder sealers did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the synthesized ZnO nano-powder sealers are suitable for use as a nano-sealer in root canal therapy to prevent leakage; however, further studies should be carried out to verify their safety.

  16. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  17. Phagolysosomal pH and dissolution of cobalt oxide particles by alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, M.; Johansson, A.; Camner, P.; Falk, R.; Kreyling, W.

    1992-01-01

    We studied phagolysosomal pH in rabbit macrophages (AM) incubated with 0.-15 μM chloroquine. There was a dose-related increase in pH with chloroquine concentration. Electron microscopy showed that chloroquine increased lysosomal size. In a second experiment we studied dissolution of radiolabeled cobalt oxide particles by rabbit AM, phagolysosomal pH, and lysosomal size. The cells were incubated for 2 days with 0, 2, 5, and 10 μM chloroquine. Size and pH increased with chloroquine concentration. Dissolution of cobalt particles by the AM did not clearly change with pH. In a third experiment, dissolution in acetate buffer was faster than in the AM, and the dissolution appeared to decrease faster with increasing pH than in the AM. A simple model for dissolution of a particle in a phagolysosome was proposed. This model predicts the types of difference in dissolution between AM and buffered saline. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Strengthening of Zircaloy-4 using Oxide Particles by Laser Beam Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Oxide particles such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were dispersed homogeneously in a Zircaloy-4 plate surface using an LBS method. From the tensile test at 380 .deg. C, the strength of laser ODS alloying on the Zircaloy-4 sheet was increased more than 50% when compared to the initial state of the sheet, although the ODS alloyed layer was less than 20% of the specimen thickness. This technology showed a good opportunity to increase the strength without major changes in the substrates of zirconium-based alloys. Accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding is being developed globally after the Fukushima accident with the demands for the nuclear fuel having higher safety at normal operation conditions as well as even in a severe accident conditions. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) zirconium was proposed to increase the strength of the Zr-based alloy up to high temperatures.

  19. Industrial study of iron oxide reduction by injection of carbon particles into the electric arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conejo, A. N.; Torres, R.; Cuellar, E.

    1999-01-01

    An industrial study was conducted in electric arc furnaces (EAF) employing 100% direct reduced iron to evaluate the oxidation level of the slag-metal system. Energy consumption is decreased by injecting gaseous oxygen, however, slag oxidation also increases. In order to reduce the extent of oxidation while keeping a high volume of the oxygen injected , it is required: a) to optimize the carbon injection practice, b) to increase the carbon concentration of sponge iron, c) to operate with soluble carbon in both the metal and the slag beyond a critical level and d) to employ a low temperature profile, on average 1,650 degree centigrade. A method to define the proper amount of carbon in sponge iron which considers their metallization as well as the amount of oxygen injected is proposed. The position of the lance is critical in order to optimize the practice of carbon injection and assure a better residence time of the carbon particles within the furnace. (Author) 23 refs

  20. Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proell, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H.J.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 deg. C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. Enhanced permanganate in situ chemical oxidation through MnO2 particle stabilization: evaluation in 1-D transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Michelle; Quickel, Mark; Ko, Saebom

    2009-02-27

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate is an increasingly employed approach to organic contaminant remediation at hazardous waste sites. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) particles form as a by-product of the reaction of permanganate with contaminants and naturally-reduced subsurface materials. These particles are of interest because they have the potential to deposit in the subsurface and impact the flow regime in/around permanganate injection, including the well screen, filter pack, and the surrounding subsurface formation. Control of these particles can allow for improved oxidant injection and transport, and contact between the oxidant and contaminants of concern. Sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) has previously been identified as a promising aid to stabilize MnO2 in solution when included in the oxidizing solution, increasing the potential to inhibit particle deposition and impact subsurface flow. The goal of the experimental studies described herein was to investigate the ability of HMP to prevent particle deposition in transport studies using four different types of porous media. Permanganate was delivered to a contaminant source zone (trichloroethylene) located within four different media types with variations in sand, clay, organic carbon, and iron oxides (as goethite) content. Deposition of MnO2 within the columns was quantified with distance from the source zone. Experiments were repeated in replicate columns with the inclusion of HMP directly with the oxidant delivery solution, and MnO2 deposition was again quantified. While total MnO2 deposition within the 60 cm columns did not change significantly with the addition of HMP, deposition within the contaminant source zone decreased by 25-85%, depending on the specific media type. The greatest differences in deposition were observed in the goethite-containing and clay-containing columns. Columns containing these two media types experienced completely plugged flow in the oxidant-only delivery systems; however

  2. Lepton-pair production of a light pseudoscalar particle via the Bethe-Heitler process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.; Stamm, C.

    1983-01-01

    Bethe-Heitler processes of light pseudoscalar particles off nuclei are at present very important experimentally. For these processes we present our results which seem to differ from previous theoretical calculations found in the literature. (orig.)

  3. Associated multiplicity of γ-particles in processes of lepton pair production on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Gulkanyan, H.R.; Vartanyan, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    An expression has been obtained for mean multiplicity of g-particles accompanying the process of deep-inelastic lepton pair production on nuclei. The expression allows one to get information on structure peculiarities of leading hadron in this process

  4. Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Nianjia; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a promising biological nitrogen removal process, has been verified as an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than 110 full-scale anammox plants have been installed and are in operation, treating industrial NH 4 + -rich wastewater worldwide, and anammox-based technologies are flourishing. This review the current state of the art for engineering applications of the anammox process, including various anammox-based technologies, reactor selection and attempts to apply it at different wastewater plants. Process control and implementation for stable performance are discussed as well as some remaining issues concerning engineering application are exposed, including the start-up period, process disturbances, greenhouse gas emissions and especially mainstream anammox applications. Finally, further development of the anammox engineering application is proposed in this review.

  5. Fluidized bed reactor for processing particles coated with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschollek, M.; Simon, W.; Walter, C.

    1978-01-01

    The carbon coating of production returns of these particles first has to be removed before the heavy metal core released can be reprocessed. For reasons of criticality, removal of burnt-up particles downwards must be possible in the fluidized bed reactor even if the reactor diameter is greater than 800 mm, and the material temperatures must not exceed 650 0 C. It consists of an upper cylindrical and a lower conical part, where, according to the invention, the gas distributor heads in the conical part are situated in several planes above one another for the fluidisation and combustion gas and where they are evently distributed over the reactor crossection, so that an even flow profile is achieved over the reactor cross section. (HP) [de

  6. OMICRON, LLNL ENDL Charged Particle Data Library Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengoni, A.; Panini, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program has been designed to read the Evaluated Charged Particle Library (ECPL) of the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) and generate output in various forms: interpreted listing, ENDF format and graphs. 2 - Method of solution: A file containing ECPL in card image transmittal format is scanned to retrieve the requested reactions from the requested materials; in addition selections can be made by data type or incident particle. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The Reaction Property Designator I determines the type of data in the ENDL library (e.g. cross sections, angular distributions, Maxwellian averages, etc.); the program does not take into account the data for I=3,4 (energy-angle-distributions) since there are no data in the current ECPL version

  7. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorena, Rheo B.; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-01-01

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including α- and β-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments

  8. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. The process comprises introducing a treatment agent which comprises a composition selected from the group consisting of NH/sub 4/-lignosulfonate, calcium lignosulfonate, 2-furoic acid, 1,3 dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, furfurylamine, furfurylalcohol, gluconic acid, citric acid, n-butyl acetate, 1,3 butylene glycol, methylal, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, furan, fish oil, coumalic acid, furfuryl acetate, tetrahydrofuran 2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid, tetrahydrofurylamine, furylacrylic acid, tetrahydropyran, 2,5-furandimethanol, mannitol, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, acetic anhydride, oxalic acid, mucic acid and d-galactose.

  9. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  10. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  11. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Chol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm

  12. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Chol-Ho [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm.

  13. Processing and properties of silver-metal oxide electrical contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadežda M. Talijan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented study gives a brief overview of the experimental results of investigations of different production technologies of silver-metal oxide electrical contact materials in relation: processing method - properties. The two most common routes of production, i.e. internal oxidation/ingot metallurgy and powder metallurgy are demonstrated on the example of Ag-CdO and Ag-ZnO materials. For illustration of alternative processing routes that provide higher dispersion of metal-oxide particles in silver matrix more environmentally friendly Ag-SnO2 contact materials are used. Processing of electrical contact materials by mechanical mixing of starting powders in high energy ball mill is presented. The obtained experimental results of application of different methods of introduction of SnO2 nanoparticles in the silver matrix such as conventional powder metallurgy mixing and template method are given and discussed in terms of their influence on microstructure and physical properties (density, hardness and electrical conductivity of the prepared Ag-SnO2 electrical contact materials.

  14. Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetization Reversal Process of Single Crystal α-Fe Containing a Nonmagnetic Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi; Xu Ben; Li Qiu-Lin; Liu Wei; Hu Shen-Yang; Li Yu-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization reversal process and hysteresis loops in a single crystal α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated in this work based on the Landau—Lifshitz—Gilbert equation. The evolutions of the magnetic domain morphology are studied, and our analyses show that the magnetization reversal process is affected by the interaction between the moving domain wall and the existing nonmagnetic particles. This interaction strongly depends on the size of the particles, and it is found that particles with a particular size contribute the most to magnetic hardening. (paper)

  16. Comparative toxicity of copper oxide bulk and nano particles in Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus: Biochemical and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus are commonly used in the assessment of aquatic environment quality and also considered as useful bio-indicators during environmental pollution monitoring. The LC50/96 h of copper oxide (bulk & nano particles [CuO (BPs & NPs] were 2205 & 150 mg/l, respectively. Two tested concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs were selected: the first concentration was equivalent to (1/10 (220.5 & 15 mg/l, and the second was equivalent to (1/20 (110.25 & 7.5 mg/l LC50/96 h·CuO (BPs & NPs, respectively. While serum glucose, liver function tests (AST, ALT and ALP and kidney function tests (creatinine and uric acid showed a significant increase, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin and total lipids showed a significant decrease. Both liver and gill tissues of the studied fish showed a reduction in GSH content and an elevation in MDA and GPx activities. The present study also showed an elevation in liver CAT & SOD activities when exposed to both concentrations of CuO BPs and in the case of gills when exposed to both concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs, although activity of these enzymes showed an inhibition in the liver when exposed to both concentrations of CuO NPs. The present study investigated whether CuO NPs are more toxic than CuO BPs.

  17. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy

  18. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2015-03-01

    This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.

  19. Hydrodynamic limit of a nongradient interacting particle process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    A simple example of a nongradient stochastic interacting particle system is analyzed. In this model, symmetric simple exclusion in one dimension in a periodic environment, the dynamical term in the Green-Kubo formula contributes to the bulk diffusion constant. The law of large numbers for the density field and the central limit theorem for the density fluctuation field are proven, and the Green-Kubo expression for the diffusion constant is computed exactly. The hydrodynamic equation for the model turns out to be linear

  20. Nanosized Ni-Mn Oxides Prepared by the Citrate Gel Process and Performances for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin ZHOU; Xiangqian SHEN; Maoxiang JING

    2006-01-01

    Nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders have been successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of the Ni-Mn citrate gel precursors. The powder materials derived from calcination of the gel precursors with various molar ratios of nickel and manganese at different temperatures and time were characterized using thermal analysis (TG-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET).The optimized processing conditions of calcination at 400℃ for 1 h with Ni/Mn molar ratio 6 were proved to produce the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders with a high specific surface area of 109.62 m2/g and nanometer particle sizes of 15~30 nm. The capacitance characteristics of the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide electrode in various concentrations of KOH solutions were studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and exhibited both a doublelayer capacitance and a Faradaic capacitance which could be attributed to the electrode consisting of Ni-Mn oxides and residual carbons from the organic gel thermal decomposition. A specific capacitance of 194.8 F/g was obtained for the electrode at the sweep rate of 10 mV/s in 4 mol/L KOH electrolyte and the capacitor showed quite high cyclic stability and is promising for advanced electrochemical capacitors.

  1. Oxidative damage to DNA by diesel exhaust particle exposure in co-cultures of human lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Roursgaard, Martin; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2012-01-01

    Studies in mono-culture of cells have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress-related damage to DNA. However, the level of particle-generated genotoxicity may depend on interplay between different cell types, e.g. lung...... treatment with standard reference DEPs, SRM2975 and SRM1650b. The exposure to DEPs did not affect the colony-forming ability of A549 cells in co-culture with THP-1a cells. The DEPs generated DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA, measured using the alkaline comet assay as formamidopyrimidine...... relationship between levels of respiration and ROS production. In conclusion, exposure of mono-cultured cells to DEPs generated oxidative stress to DNA, whereas co-cultures with macrophages had lower levels of oxidatively damaged DNA than A549 epithelial cells....

  2. Effects of copper oxide wire particle bolus therapy on trichostrongyle fecal egg counts in exotic artiodactylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Deidre K; Kinney-Moscona, Allyson; Kaplan, Ray M; Miller, James

    2008-12-01

    Four species of artiodactylids (scimitar-horned oryx [Oryx dama]), roan antelope [Hippotragus equinus], blackbuck [Antilope cervicapra]), and blesbok [Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi]) totaling 13 animals were treated with a one-time 12.5-g dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) in a bolus form. Pretreatment, individual trichostrongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed using the McMaster technique. Individual posttreatment FECs were performed every 7 days for 35 days beginning 7 days after bolus administration, and FEC reduction ratios (FECRRs) expressed as percentage reductions from pretreatment values were calculated every 7 days. Mean FECRRs for the 13 animals were 93% +/- 16%, 98% +/- 7%, 91% +/- 28%, 94% +/- 16%, and 90% +/- 13% at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days posttreatment, respectively. These data demonstrate that COWPs in a bolus form were an effective method for reducing FEC in exotic artiodactylids. Based on this limited data, COWPs show promise as an anthelmintic alternative for exotic artiodactylids in zoologic collections.

  3. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells with particle size and porosity grading in anode electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Flesner, R.; Kim, G.Y.; Chandra, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to meet the critical energy needs of our modern civilization and minimize the adverse environmental impacts from excessive energy consumption. They are highly efficient, clean, and can run on variety of fuel gases. However, little investigative focus has been put on optimal power output based on electrode microstructure. In this work, a complete electrode polarization model of SOFCs has been developed and utilized to analyze the performance of functionally graded anode with different particle size and porosity profiles. The model helps to understand the implications of varying the electrode microstructure from the polarization standpoint. The work identified conditions when grading can improve the cell performance and showed that grading is not always beneficial or necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. DNA damage and defence gene expression after oxidative stress induced by x-rays and diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risom, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is one the most important environmental health factors for people living in cities. Especially the exhaust particles from traffic are possible causes for cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) by inducing oxidative stress and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Methods for determining oxidative stress, DNA damage, and gene expression were validated and calibrated in lung tissue by studying the dose response relations after ionizing radiation. The study showed the feasibility of partial-body x-ray irradiation as an in vivo model for induction and repair of oxidative DNA damage, of DNA repair enzymes expression, and antioxidant defense genes. A 'nose-only' mouse model for inhalation of ultra-fine particles showed that particles induce oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. The exposure increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 mRNA. The levels of 8-oxodG and OGG1 mRNA were mirror images. Colon and liver were analysed after administration of DEP in the diet with or without increasing doses of sucrose. This study indicated that DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress through formation of DNA strand breaks, DNA repair enzyme expression, apoptosis, and protein oxidisation in colon and liver at relatively low exposure doses. The thesis is based on four published journal articles. (ln)

  5. DNA damage and defence gene expression after oxidative stress induced by x-rays and diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risom, Lotte

    2004-07-01

    Particulate air pollution is one the most important environmental health factors for people living in cities. Especially the exhaust particles from traffic are possible causes for cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) by inducing oxidative stress and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Methods for determining oxidative stress, DNA damage, and gene expression were validated and calibrated in lung tissue by studying the dose response relations after ionizing radiation. The study showed the feasibility of partial-body x-ray irradiation as an in vivo model for induction and repair of oxidative DNA damage, of DNA repair enzymes expression, and antioxidant defense genes. A 'nose-only' mouse model for inhalation of ultra-fine particles showed that particles induce oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. The exposure increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 mRNA. The levels of 8-oxodG and OGG1 mRNA were mirror images. Colon and liver were analysed after administration of DEP in the diet with or without increasing doses of sucrose. This study indicated that DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress through formation of DNA strand breaks, DNA repair enzyme expression, apoptosis, and protein oxidisation in colon and liver at relatively low exposure doses. The thesis is based on four published journal articles. (ln)

  6. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Zachary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padilla Cintron, Cristina [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology creates monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.

  7. Observations concerning the particle-size of the oxidation products of uranium formed in air or in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Leclercq, D.

    1964-01-01

    This report brings together the particle-size analysis results obtained on products formed by the oxidation or the ignition of uranium in moist air or dry carbon dioxide. The results bring out the importance of the nature of the oxidising atmosphere, the combustion in moist air giving rise to the formation of a larger proportion of fine particles than combustion in carbon dioxide under pressure. (authors) [fr

  8. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R.; Sene, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β - emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  9. Process for the removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshout, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas generated by industrial power plants and boiler systems burning sulfur containing fossil fuels and for converting these contaminants, respectively, into recovered elemental liquid sulfur and nitrogen ammonia and mixtures thereof. It comprises removing at least a portion of the flue gas generated by a power plant or boiler system upstream of the stack thereof; passing the cooled and scrubbed flue gas through an adsorption system; combining a first portion of the reducing gas stream leaving the adsorbers of the adsorption system during regeneration thereof and containing sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants with a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream at a temperature of about 400 degrees F to about 600 degrees F and passing the combined gas streams through a Claus reactor-condenser system over a catalyst in the reactor section thereof which is suitable for promoting the equilibrium reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and the sulfur dioxide of the combined streams to form elemental sulfur

  10. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  11. Reaction Mechanism for m- Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. Reaction Mechanism for m- Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed S.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats.

  14. Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide in magnetic resonance imaging of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirrat CG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Colin G Stirrat,1 Alex T Vesey,1 Olivia MB McBride,1 Jennifer MJ Robson,1 Shirjel R Alam,1 William A Wallace,2 Scott I Semple,1,3 Peter A Henriksen,1 David E Newby1 1British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Department of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO are iron-oxide based contrast agents that enhance and complement in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI by shortening T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times. USPIO can be employed to provide immediate blood pool contrast, or to act as subsequent markers of cellular inflammation through uptake by inflammatory cells. They can also be targeted to specific cell-surface markers using antibody or ligand labeling. This review will discuss the application of USPIO contrast in MRI studies of cardiovascular disease. Keywords: cardiac, aortic, MRI, USPIO, carotid, vascular, molecular imaging

  15. Numerical and analytical simulation of the production process of ZrO2 hollow particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is addressed analytically and numerically. The important parameters affecting this process, in particular, the initial porosity level of particles and the plasma gun types are investigated. The analytical model adopts a combination of quasi-steady thermal equilibrium and mechanical balance. In the analytical model, the possibility of a solid core existing in agglomerated particles is examined. In this model, a range of particle diameters (50μm ≤ D_{p0} ≤ 160 μ m) and various initial porosities ( 0.2 ≤ p ≤ 0.7) are considered. The numerical model employs the VOF technique for two-phase compressible flows. The production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is simulated, considering an initial diameter of D_{p0} = 60 μm and initial porosity of p = 0.3, p = 0.5, and p = 0.7. Simulation results of the analytical model indicate that the solid core diameter is independent of the initial porosity, whereas the thickness of the particle shell strongly depends on the initial porosity. In both models, a hollow particle may hardly develop at small initial porosity values ( p disintegrates at high initial porosity values ( p > 0.6.

  16. Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} particle distribution in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} grains of melt growth processed YBCO oxides; Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}-Partikelverteilung in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y}-Koernern durch das Melt-Growth-Verfahren verarbeiteter YBCO-Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Park, Soon-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Neutron Science Div.; Park, Hai-Woong [Korea Univ. of Technology and Education, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). College of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) particle distribution within YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} (Y123) grains of YBCO samples melt growth (MG) processed was examined. To understand the processing variables on the Y211 distribution, a cooling rate (R{sub C}=1 K/h to R{sub C}=20 K/h) through a peritectic temperature (T{sub p} = 1010 C), a precursor powder size and composition were changed. Two different Y211 distributions (a linear x-like track and planar butterfly-like pattern) were observed, depending on the processing variables. The linear x-like Y211 tracks were observed in the Y123 samples prepared using a stoichiometric Y123 precursor, whereas the planar butterfly-like Y211 patterns were observed in the Y{sub 1.8}Ba{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 3.4}O{sub 7-d} (Y1.8) samples prepared using an Y211-excess composition precursor. The track and planar Y211 patterns were clearer at lower R{sub C} (slower growth rate of Y123 grains) and for the smaller Y211 particles. In contrast, the random Y211 distribution was dominant at the higher R{sub C} and for the larger Y211 particles. The Y211 distribution patterns in the Y123 grains were explained in terms of the interfacial energy difference among growing Y123 fronts. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of solid organic waste processing by oxidative pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibaba, O. B.; Sokolsky, A. I.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2017-11-01

    A thermal analysis of a mixture of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the average morphological composition and its individual components was carried out in order to develop ways to improve the efficiency of its utilization for energy production in thermal reactors. Experimental studies were performed on a synchronous thermal analyzer NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer QMC 403. Based on the results of the experiments, the temperature ranges of the pyrolysis process were determined as well as the rate of decrease of the mass of the sample of solid waste during the drying and oxidative pyrolysis processes, the thermal effects accompanying these processes, as well as the composition and volumes of gases produced during oxidative pyrolysis of solid waste and its components in an atmosphere with oxygen content of 1%, 5%, and 10%. On the basis of experimental data the dependences of the yield of gas on the moisture content of MSW were obtained under different pyrolysis conditions under which a gas of various calorific values was produced.

  18. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  19. A stochastic model of multiple scattering of charged particles: process, transport equation and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, L.; Moskvin, V.; Tulovsky, V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles can be described by a special case of Boltzmann integro-differential equation called Lewis equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process on the surface of the unit sphere. The significant portion of events that constitute compound Poisson process that describes multiple scattering have diffusional character. This property allows to analyze the process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles as combination of soft and hard collision processes and compute appropriately its transition densities. These computations provide a method of the approximate solution to the Lewis equation. (orig.)

  20. Process to decontaminate a superficial soil layer contaminated with radioactive particles and decontaminating solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Mary, N.

    1993-01-01

    The process consists to dissolve a micronised powder of anionic and crosslinked polyacrilamide, to spray the obtained decontamination solution on the floor to be traited allowing to dry to form a dry polyacrilamide film, to rehydrate the film by spraying with water and to recover the film bonded to the floor particles and the polluting particles by cleaning means. 1 fig

  1. Lagrangian Particle Tracking Simulation for Warm-Rain Processes in Quasi-One-Dimensional Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunishima, Y.; Onishi, R.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional cloud simulations are based on the Euler method and compute each microphysics process in a stochastic way assuming infinite numbers of particles within each numerical grid. They therefore cannot provide the Lagrangian statistics of individual particles in cloud microphysics (i.e., aerosol particles, cloud particles, and rain drops) nor discuss the statistical fluctuations due to finite number of particles. We here simulate the entire precipitation process of warm-rain, with tracking individual particles. We use the Lagrangian Cloud Simulator (LCS), which is based on the Euler-Lagrangian framework. In that framework, flow motion and scalar transportation are computed with the Euler method, and particle motion with the Lagrangian one. The LCS tracks particle motions and collision events individually with considering the hydrodynamic interaction between approaching particles with a superposition method, that is, it can directly represent the collisional growth of cloud particles. It is essential for trustworthy collision detection to take account of the hydrodynamic interaction. In this study, we newly developed a stochastic model based on the Twomey cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation for the Lagrangian tracking simulation and integrated it into the LCS. Coupling with the Euler computation for water vapour and temperature fields, the initiation and condensational growth of water droplets were computed in the Lagrangian way. We applied the integrated LCS for a kinematic simulation of warm-rain processes in a vertically-elongated domain of, at largest, 0.03×0.03×3000 (m3) with horizontal periodicity. Aerosol particles with a realistic number density, 5×107 (m3), were evenly distributed over the domain at the initial state. Prescribed updraft at the early stage initiated development of a precipitating cloud. We have confirmed that the obtained bulk statistics fairly agree with those from a conventional spectral-bin scheme for a vertical column

  2. High Temperature Oxidation of Nickel-based Cermet Coatings Composed of Al2O3 and TiO2 Nanosized Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-09-01

    New technological challenges in oil production require materials that can resist high temperature oxidation. In-Situ Combustion (ISC) oil production technique is a new method that uses injection of air and ignition techniques to reduce the viscosity of bitumen in a reservoir and as a result crude bitumen can be produced and extracted from the reservoir. During the in-situ combustion process, production pipes and other mechanical components can be exposed to air-like gaseous environments at extreme temperatures as high as 700 °C. To protect or reduce the surface degradation of pipes and mechanical components used in in-situ combustion, the use of nickel-based ceramic-metallic (cermet) coating produced by co-electrodeposition of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 have been suggested and earlier research on these coatings have shown promising oxidation resistance against atmospheric oxygen and combustion gases at elevated temperatures. Co-electrodeposition of nickel-based cermet coatings is a low-cost method that has the benefit of allowing both internal and external surfaces of pipes and components to be coated during a single electroplating process. Research has shown that the volume fraction of dispersed nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the nickel matrix which affects the oxidation resistance of the coating can be controlled by the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution, as well as the applied current density during electrodeposition. This paper investigates the high temperature oxidation behaviour of novel nanostructured cermet coatings composed of two types of dispersed nanosized ceramic particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) in a nickel matrix and produced by coelectrodeposition technique as a function of the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution and applied current density. For this purpose, high temperature oxidation tests were conducted in dry air for 96 hours at 700 °C to obtain mass changes (per unit of area) at specific time

  3. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  4. Ionizing radiation induced catalysis on metal oxide particles. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, S.A.; Daschbach, J.L.; Fryberger, T.; Henderson, M.A.; Peden, C.H.F.; Su, Y.; Wang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    'High-level radioactive waste storage tanks within DOE sites contain significant amounts of organic components (solid and liquid phases) in the form of solvents, extractants, complexing agents, process chemicals, cleaning agents and a variety of miscellaneous compounds. These organics pose several safety and pretreatment concerns, particularly for the Hanford tank waste. Remediation technologies are needed that significantly reduce the amounts of problem organics without resulting in toxic or flammable gas emissions, and without requiring thermal treatments. These restrictions pose serious technological barriers for current organic destruction methods which utilize oxidation achieved by thermal or chemical activation. This project focuses on using ionizing radiation (a,b,g) to catalytically destroy organics over oxide materials through reduction/oxidation (redox) chemistry resulting from electron-hole (e - /h + ) pair generation. Conceptually this process is an extension of visible and near-UV photocatalytic processes known to occur at the interfaces of narrow bandgap semiconductors in both solution and gas phases. In these processes, an electron is excited across the energy gap between the filled and empty states in the semiconductor. The excited electron does reductive chemistry and the hole (where the electron was excited from) does oxidative chemistry. The energy separation between the hole and the excited electron reflects the redox capability of the e - /h + pair, and is dictated by the energy of the absorbed photon and the bandgap of the material. The use of ionizing radiation overcomes optical transparency limitations associated with visible and near-UV illumination (g-rays penetrate much farther into a solution than UV/Vis light), and permits the use of wider bandgap materials (such as ZrO 2 ) which possess potentially greater redox capabilities than those with narrow bandgap materials. Experiments have been aimed at understanding the mechanism(s) of g

  5. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  6. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O(α s α), O(α 2 ) and O(α s 2 ) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  7. Spherical particle Brownian motion in viscous medium as non-Markovian random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Andrey N.; Skripkin, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a spherical particle in an infinite medium is described by the conventional methods and integral transforms considering the entrainment of surrounding particles of the medium by the Brownian particle. It is demonstrated that fluctuations of the Brownian particle velocity represent a non-Markovian random process. The features of Brownian motion in short time intervals and in small displacements are considered. -- Highlights: → Description of Brownian motion considering the entrainment of medium is developed. → We find the equations for statistical characteristics of impulse fluctuations. → Brownian motion at small time intervals is considered. → Theoretical results and experimental data are compared.

  8. Structural and morphological changes in pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide caused by irradiation with high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, M.A.; Belov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the structural and morphological changes, occurring under the electron beam in pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide, prepared in seven different solutions and irradiated beforehand by protons of x-rays, with the aim of elucidating the structure of anodic aluminum oxides. An increased stability of the pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide has been observed towards the action of the electron beam of an UEMV-100K microscope at standard working regimes (75 keV) as a result of irradiation with protons or x-rays. A difference has been found to exist between structural and morphological changes of anodic aluminum oxide films, prepared in different solutions, when irradiated with high-energy particles. A structural and phase inhomogeneity of amorphous pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide has been detected and its influence on the character of solid-phase transformations under the maximum-intensity electron beam

  9. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonenko, O P; Smirnov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies

  10. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics remain critical due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources to control Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Ka...

  11. Pressure analysis in the fabrication process of TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The pressure signals during the real TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle fabrication process. ► A new relationship about the pressure drop change and the coated fuel particles properties. ► The proposed relationship is validated by experimental results during successive coating. ► A convenient method for monitoring the fluidized state during coating process. - Abstract: The pressure signals in the coating furnace are obtained experimentally from the TRISO UO 2 -coated fuel particle fabrication process. The pressure signals during the coating process are analyzed and a simplified relationship about the pressure drop change due to the coated layer is proposed based on the spouted bed hydrodynamics. The change of pressure drop is found to be consistent with the change of the combination factor about particle density, bed density, particle diameter and static bed height, during the successive coating process of the buffer PyC, IPyC, SiC and OPyC layer. The newly proposed relationship is validated by the experimental values. Based on this relationship, a convenient method is proposed for real-time monitoring the fluidized state of the particles in a high-temperature coating process in the spouted bed. It can be found that the pressure signals analysis is an effective method to monitor the fluidized state on-line in the coating process at high temperature up to 1600 °C.

  12. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  13. Treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate using Fenton oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singa, Pradeep Kumar; Hasnain Isa, Mohamed; Ho, Yeek-Chia; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Fenton's oxidation was assessed in this study for hazardous waste landfill leachate treatment. The two major reagents, which are generally employed in Fenton's process are H2O2 as oxidizing agent and Fe2+ as catalyst. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of experimental conditions viz., reaction time, molar ratio, and Fenton reagent dosages, which are significant parameters that influence the degradation efficiencies of Fenton process were examined. It was found that under the favorable experimental conditions, maximum COD removal was 56.49%. The optimum experimental conditions were pH=3, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3 and reaction time = 150 minutes. The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide and iron were 0.12 mol/L and 0.04 mol/L respectively. High dosages of H2O2 and iron resulted in scavenging effects on OH• radicals and lowered degradation efficiency of organic compounds in the hazardous waste landfill leachate.

  14. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  15. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2009-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H 2 O 2 / Fe +2 ) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H 2O 2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe +2 /H 2 O 2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  16. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  17. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-07-22

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}), O({alpha}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  18. Solar photoassisted advanced oxidation process of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato-Garcia, D; Buitrón, G

    2009-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes assisted with natural solar radiation in CPC type reactors (parabolic collector compound), was applied for the degradation of three azo dyes: acid orange (AO7), acid red 151 (AR151) and acid blue 113 (AB113). Fenton, Fenton like and ferrioxalate-type complexes showed to be effective for degrade the azo linkage and moieties in different extensions. Initially, the best dose of reagents (Fe(3 + )-H(2)O(2)) was determined through a factorial experimental design, next, using response surface methodologies, the reagent consumption was reduced up to 40%, maintaining in all cases high decolourisation percentages (>98%) after 60 min. of phototreatment. In this work, it was also studied the effect of concentration changes of the influent between 100-300 mg/L and the operation of the photocatalytic process near neutral conditions (pH 6.0-6.5) by using ferrioxalate type complex (FeOx).

  19. Role of thermal analysis in uranium oxide fuel fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Yadav, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses the application of thermal analysis, particularly, differential thermal analysis (Dta) at various stages of fuel fabrication process. The useful role of Dta in knowing the decomposition pattern and calcination temperature of Adu along with de-nitration temperature is explained. The decomposition pattern depends upon the type of drying process adopted for wet ADU cake (ADU C). Also, the paper highlights the utility of DTA in determining the APS and SSA of UO 2+x and U 3 O 8 powders as an alternate technique. Further, the temperature difference (ΔT max ) between the two exothermic peaks obtained in UO 2+x powder oxidation is related to sintered density of UO 2 pellets. (author)

  20. 3D printing process of oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jiping; Jiang, Yani; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Hongcan; Liu, Dongfang

    2018-08-01

    For tissue engineering applications tissue scaffolds need to have a porous structure to meet the needs of cell proliferation/differentiation, vascularisation and sufficient mechanical strength for the specific tissue. Here we report the results of a study of the 3D printing process for composite materials based on oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin, that was optimised through measuring rheological properties of different batches of materials after different crosslinking times, simulation of the pneumatic extrusion process and 3D scaffolds fabrication with Solidworks Flow Simulation, observation of its porous structure by SEM, measurement of pressure-pull performance, and experiments aimed at finding out the vitro cytotoxicity and cell morphology. The materials printed are highly porous scaffolds with good mechanical properties.

  1. The quark-gluon model for particle production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitskij, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    The quark-gluon model for hadronization of strings produced in soft and hard processes is suggested. The model is based on the distribution functions of valence quarks in hadrons which have correct Regge behaviour. The simplest case is discussed in which only the longitudinal degrees of freedom are taken into account

  2. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  3. Process for depositing an oxide epitaxially onto a silicon substrate and structures prepared with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilizes an ultra high vacuum and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods to grow an epitaxial oxide film upon a surface of the substrate. As the film is grown, the lattice of the compound formed at the silicon interface becomes stabilized, and a base layer comprised of an oxide having a sodium chloride-type lattice structure grows epitaxially upon the compound so as to cover the substrate surface. A perovskite may then be grown epitaxially upon the base layer to render a product which incorporates silicon, with its electronic capabilities, with a perovskite having technologically-significant properties of its own.

  4. The effects of selected air pollutants on clearance of titanic oxide particles from the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, J; Leach, L J

    1975-09-01

    A procedure utilizing the lung clearance kinetics of titanic oxide (TiO2) particles was used to determine the effects of inhaled sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) on particle clearance. The procedure is reproducible and mainly tests clearance mechanisms involving alveolar macrophages and the mucociliary transport system at the alveolobronchial clearance pathway. At low SO2 or NOx exposures enhanced particle clearance was observed. Lung clearance was depressed at 15 and 24 ppm of NO2 after 22 exposures as well as at 20 ppm of SO2 after 11 exposures, and also at 1 ppm of SO2 after 25 exposures. Dose-response curves for the SO2 and NOx exposures showed differences explainable by the routes by which these gases reach the alveolar macrophages.

  5. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    DETOX SM is a catalyzed wet oxidation process which destroys organic materials in an acidic water solution of iron at 373 to 473 K. The solution can be used repeatedly to destroy great amounts of organic materials. Since the process is conducted in a contained vessel, air emissions from the process can be well controlled. The solution is also capable of dissolving and concentrating many heavy and radioactive metals for eventual stabilization and disposal. The Phase 2 effort for this project is site selection and engineering design for a DETOX demonstration unit. Site selection was made using a set of site selection criteria and evaluation factors. A survey of mixed wastes at DOE sites was conducted using the Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report. Sites with likely suitable waste types were identified. Potential demonstration sites were ranked based on waste types, interest, regulatory needs, scheduling, ability to provide support, and available facilities. Engineering design for the demonstration unit is in progress and is being performed by Jacobs Applied Technology. The engineering design proceeded through preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs), calculation of mass and energy balances for representative waste types, process and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs), preparation of component specifications, and a firm cost estimate for fabrication of the demonstration unit

  6. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H 2 O 2 , H 2 O 2 /UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4 L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6 L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily

  7. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  8. Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation process for chromium oxidation at graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yudong; Zheng, Shili; Sun, Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO 2 - . RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm -2 , %HO 2 - of 77.0% and onset potential of -0.15 V (vs. Hg/HgO). It was originated from the highly graphitized structure and good electrical conductivity as illustrated from the Raman, XRD and EIS characterizations, respectively. Large amount of reactive oxygen species (HO 2 - and ·OH) were in-situ electro-generated from the two-electron oxygen reduction and chromium-induced alkaline electro-Fenton-like reaction. The oxidation of Cr(III) was efficiently achieved within 90 min and the conversion ratio maintained more than 95% of the original value after stability test, offering an efficient and green approach for the utilization of Cr-containing wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  10. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  11. Characterization of Particles Created By Laser-Driven Hydrothermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    study for two reasons: (i) Both materials are compositionally high in SiO2 and (ii) form similarly to glass formed by a nuclear explosion, which...creates massive pressures and temperatures. As an example, trinitite is a glass formed by a post-nuclear event with SiO2 making up 50%-75% of its...processing, characterization, obsidian, tektite, natural glass 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nano-particles Embedded in Dielectric Medium for UV region: Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilli, S. M.; Willander, M.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles have been used by cosmetic industry for many years because they are extensively used as agents to attenuate (absorb and/or scatter) the ultraviolet radiation. In the most UV-attenuating agent is formulated in which the metal oxide nano-particles are incorporated into liquid media or polymer media are manufactured, such as sunscreens and skin care cosmetics. In this paper we study the wavelength dependence on the particle size (r eff = 10-100 nm) by solving the scattering problem of hexagonal ZnO particle for different shapes (plate, equal ratio, column) using the discrete dipole approximation method to find the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies for the UV region (30-400 nm). A new modified hexagonal shape is introduced to determine the scattering problem and it is assumed in this study that the wavelength is comparable to the particle size. From these results, we conclude that the optimum particle radius to block the UV radiation is between r eff = 40-80 nm

  14. Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nano-particles Embedded in Dielectric Medium for UV region: Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilli, S. M.; Willander, M.

    2006-02-01

    Zinc oxide nano-particles have been used by cosmetic industry for many years because they are extensively used as agents to attenuate (absorb and/or scatter) the ultraviolet radiation. In the most UV-attenuating agent is formulated in which the metal oxide nano-particles are incorporated into liquid media or polymer media are manufactured, such as sunscreens and skin care cosmetics. In this paper we study the wavelength dependence on the particle size ( r eff = 10-100 nm) by solving the scattering problem of hexagonal ZnO particle for different shapes (plate, equal ratio, column) using the discrete dipole approximation method to find the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies for the UV region (30-400 nm). A new modified hexagonal shape is introduced to determine the scattering problem and it is assumed in this study that the wavelength is comparable to the particle size. From these results, we conclude that the optimum particle radius to block the UV radiation is between r eff = 40-80 nm.

  15. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO 2 ). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g −1 , respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO 2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and detection

  16. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  17. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-06-27

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO2). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g(-1), respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption-elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200-250) and detection limits (0.084 and 0.27 ng mL(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Keiko, E-mail: keikot@belle.shiga-medac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Otani, Hideji, E-mail: otani@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi, E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi, E-mail: ieakusm@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Tyuoku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Syogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nohara, Satoshi, E-mail: s-nohara@meito-sangyo.co.jp [The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd., 25-5 Nishibiwajima-cho, Kiyosu, Aichi 452-0067 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO.

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai; Zhong, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. (paper)

  20. Microstructure evolution of the oxide dispersion strengthened CLAM steel during mechanical alloying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Liangliang [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Mao, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A nano-sized oxides dispersed ODS-CLAM steel was obtained by MA and HIP. • A minimum saturated grain size of down to 30 nm was achieved by varying the milling time from 0 to 100 h. • Solution of W in the MA powder could be significantly improved by increasing MA rotation speed. - Abstracts: Oxide dispersion strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic steel is considered as one of the most potential structural material for future fusion reactor, owing to its high mechanical properties and good irradiation resistance. The oxide dispersion strengthened China Low Activation Martensitic (ODS-CLAM) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The microstructural evolutions during the process of ball milling and subsequent consolidation were investigated by SEM, XRD and TEM. The results showed that increasing the milling time during the first 36 h milling could effectively decrease the grain size to a value of around 30 nm, over which grain sized remained nearly constant. Increasing the rotation speed promoted the solution of tungsten (W) element obviously and decreased the grain size to a certain degree. Observation on the consolidated and further heat-treated ODS-CLAM steel samples indicated that a martensite microstructure with a high density of nano-particles was achieved.

  1. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01 and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06, men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03, with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations (p = 0.07, with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  2. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Alexandra; Corneau, Louise; Lamarche, Benoît; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-05-15

    Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24-53 years) with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4-4.9 mmol/L) or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255-260 Å) (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01) and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å) (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06), men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  3. Nucleation and growth of lead oxide particles in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladinez, Kristof; Rosseel, Kris; Lim, Jun; Marino, Alessandro; Heynderickx, Geraldine; Aerts, Alexander

    2017-10-18

    Liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is an important candidate to become the primary coolant of future, generation IV, nuclear fast reactors and Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concepts. One of the main challenges with the use of LBE as a coolant is to avoid its oxidation which results in solid lead oxide (PbO) precipitation. The chemical equilibria governing PbO formation are well understood. However, insufficient kinetic information is currently available for the development of LBE-based nuclear technology. Here, we report the results of experiments in which the nucleation, growth and dissolution of PbO in LBE during temperature cycling are measured by monitoring dissolved oxygen using potentiometric oxygen sensors. The metastable region, above which PbO nucleation can occur, has been determined under conditions relevant for the operation of LBE cooled nuclear systems and was found to be independent of setup geometry and thus thought to be widely applicable. A kinetic model to describe formation and dissolution of PbO particles in LBE is proposed, based on Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) combined with mass transfer limited growth and dissolution. This model can accurately predict the experimentally observed changes in oxygen concentration due to nucleation, growth and dissolution of PbO, using the effective interfacial energy of a PbO nucleus in LBE as a fitting parameter. The results are invaluable to evaluate the consequences of oxygen ingress in LBE cooled nuclear systems under normal operating and accidental conditions and form the basis for the development of cold trap technology to avoid PbO formation in the primary reactor circuit.

  4. Nanoionics phenomenon in proton-conducting oxide: Effect of dispersion of nanosize platinum particles on electrical conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshige Matsumoto et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton conductors are oxides in which low-valence cations are doped as electron acceptors; the incorporation of water molecules into the oxides results in the formation of protonic defects that act as charge carriers. Since the protons thus formed are in equilibrium with other electronic defects, electrons and holes, the oxides possibly have different proton-conduction properties at and near boundaries when they are in contact with another phase. In this paper, we present our recent experimental observation of a marked change in the electrical properties of a proton conductor upon the dispersal of fine platinum particles in the oxide. First, the material shows extremely low electrical conductivity in comparison with the original proton-conducting perovskite. Second, there was a threshold amount of platinum at which such a drop in conductivity occurred. A percolation model is employed to explain these experimental results; the fine platinum particles dispersed in the proton-conducting oxide wears highly resistive skin that is formed due to shifts in defect equilibriums, which prevents ionic/electronic conduction. The experiments suggest that the ion-conducting properties of oxides can be varied by introducing interfaces at a certain density; nanoionics is a key to yielding enhanced and/or controlled ionic conduction in solids.

  5. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao; Pan, Haixia; Xu, Jianqiang; Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na_3MnPO_4CO_3 and MnCO_3 were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N_2 adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g"−"1 adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na_3MnPO_4CO_3_. Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  6. Improving technology and setting-up a production line for high quality zinc oxide (99.5%) with a capacity of 150 ton/year by evaporation-oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Dinh Thinh; Pham Minh Tuan; Luong Manh Hung; Tran Ngoc Vuong

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the technology improvement and a production line to produce high quality zinc oxide of purity upper than 99.5% ZnO by evaporation-oxidation method. Secondary zinc metal recovered from galvanizing industrial will undergo a pre-treatment to meet all requirements of standardized feed material for evaporation-oxidation process. Zinc metal is melted at a temperature of about 650"oC, some impurities and metallic oxides are separated preliminary, then zinc metal is converted into liquid in evaporation pot. Here the temperature is maintained around 1050"oC, zinc liquid is evaporated, zinc vapor is oxidized by air in the oxidation chamber naturally by oxygen in the air and then zinc vapor is converted to zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is passed through a product classification systems and then go to a product collection of filtering bag design. The whole process of melting, evaporation, oxidation, particles classification and product collection is a continuous process. The efficiency of the transformation of zinc metal into zinc oxide can reach the value of 1.1 to 1.2. ZnO product quality is higher than 99.5%. (author)

  7. Improved process for contacting finely divided solid particles with gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-07-30

    A process of contacting solids and gases of the type in which finely divided solids are maintained in a dense fluidized state in a treating zone by means of an upflowing gaseous fluidizing medium wherein solid packing in the form of a body static contiguous elements is maintained in the treating zone. The size, shape, and arrangement of the elements constituting the packing being such as to define a labyrinth of passageways in which the finely divided solids are maintained in a fluidized state, and the finely divided solids are adapted to flow freely downwardly through the passageways in the absence of a gaseous fluidizing medium.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow, Solidification, and Particle Transport Processes in Continuous-Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-07-01

    The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.

  9. Weight of Polyethylene Wear Particles is Similar in TKAs with Oxidized Zirconium and Cobalt-chrome Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Shik; Huh, Wansoo; Lee, Kwang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Background The greater lubricity and resistance to scratching of oxidized zirconium femoral components are expected to result in less polyethylene wear than cobalt-chrome femoral components. Questions/purposes We examined polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid and compared the weight, size (equivalent circle diameter), and shape (aspect ratio) of polyethylene wear particles in knees with an oxidized zirconium femoral component with those in knees with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Patients and Methods One hundred patients received an oxidized zirconium femoral component in one knee and a cobalt-chrome femoral component in the other. There were 73 women and 27 men with a mean age of 55.6 years (range, 44–60 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 5.5 years; range, 5–6 years). Polyethylene wear particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric methods and scanning electron microscopy. Results The weight of polyethylene wear particles produced at the bearing surface was 0.0223 ± 0.0054 g in 1 g synovial fluid in patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.0228 ± 0.0062 g in patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Size and shape of polyethylene wear particles were 0.59 ± 0.05 μm and 1.21 ± 0.24, respectively, in the patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.52 ± 0.03 μm and 1.27 ± 0.31, respectively, in the patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Knee Society knee and function scores, radiographic results, and complication rate were similar between the knees with an oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chrome femoral component. Conclusions The weight, size, and shape of polyethylene wear particles were similar in the knees with an oxidized zirconium and a cobalt-chrome femoral component. We found the theoretical advantages of this surface did not provide the actual advantage. Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete

  10. The Diffusion Process in Small Particles and Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, M.

    Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled ''INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT''. He investigated the process of diffusion in an undissociated dilute solution. The diffusion process is subject to Brownian motion. Furthermore, he elucidated the fact that the heat content of a substance will change the position of the single molecules in an irregular fashion. In this paper, I have shown that in order for the displacement of the single molecules to be proportional to the square root of the time, and for v/2 - v 1 Δ =dv/dx , (where v1 and v2 are the concentrations in two cross sections that are separated by a very small distance), ∫ - ∞ ∞ Φ (Δ) dΔ = I and I/τ ∫ - ∞ ∞Δ2/2 Φ (Δ) dΔ = D conditions to hold, then equation (7a) D =√{ 2 D }√{ τ} must be changed to Δ =√{ 2 D }√{ τ} . I have concluded that D =√{ 2 D }√{ τ} is an unintended error, and it has not been amended for almost 90 years in INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT, 1926 publication.

  11. Design and development on automated control system of coated fuel particle fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2013-01-01

    With the development trend of the large-scale production of the HTR coated fuel particles, the original manual control system can not meet the requirement and the automation control system of coated fuel particle fabrication in modern industrial grade is needed to develop. The comprehensive analysis aiming at successive 4-layer coating process of TRISO type coated fuel particles was carried out. It was found that the coating process could be divided into five subsystems and nine operating states. The establishment of DCS-type (distributed control system) of automation control system was proposed. According to the rigorous requirements of preparation process for coated particles, the design considerations of DCS were proposed, including the principle of coordinated control, safety and reliability, integration specification, practical and easy to use, and open and easy to update. A complete set of automation control system for coated fuel particle preparation process was manufactured based on fulfilling the requirements of these principles in manufacture practice. The automated control system was put into operation in the production of irradiated samples for HTRPM demonstration project. The experimental results prove that the system can achieve better control of coated fuel particle preparation process and meet the requirements of factory-scale production. (authors)

  12. A framework for shear driven dissolution of thermally stable particles during friction stir welding and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, S. [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Arora, A. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Palaj, Gandhinagar 382355, Gujarat (India); Doherty, K.J. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Science Division, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Mishra, R.S., E-mail: Rajiv.Mishra@unt.edu [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A framework is proposed to explain the dissolution and fragmentation of particles during friction stir welding and processing. Two major mechanisms dissolve the particle during the process: (i) thermally activated diffusion, and (ii) dislocation and grain boundary sweeping of atoms. We use a three-dimensional coupled viscoplastic flow and heat transfer model to quantify these mechanisms. For illustration purposes, calculations were done on a thermally stable Mg{sub 2}Y intermetallic that dissolved during processing. The framework is universal and applies to any second phase dissolution and fragmentation during friction stir welding and processing, thus enabling a science-based approach to tailor microstructures.

  13. Effect of particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites produced by ARB process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaati, Roohollah, E-mail: r.jamaatikenari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Microstructure of MMC with larger particles becomes completely uniform, sooner. {yields} When the number of cycles increased, tensile strength for both samples improved. {yields} Up to the seventh cycle, tensile strength of MMC with larger particles was bigger. {yields} First, the tensile elongation of MMCs was decreased, and then it was improved. - Abstract: In the present work, Al/10 vol.% SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) was manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. The silicon carbide particles with two various particle sizes of 40 and 2 {mu}m were used. Effect of particle size on microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) at various ARB cycles was investigated. It was found that the microstructural evolution in MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size was more salient compared to the MMCs with 2 {mu}m particle size. Also, the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size became uniform with high bonding quality and without any porosity sooner than the strip of 2 {mu}m particle size. Moreover, when the number of cycles was increased, the tensile strength for both samples was improved. The tensile strength of the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size was more than the composite strip with 2 {mu}m up to the seventh cycle. By increasing the number of cycles after the seventh cycle, the value of tensile strength of MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size became saturated and then decreased, and its tensile strength became less than that of the composite with 2 {mu}m particle size for the ninth and eleventh cycles. Up to the seventh cycle, when the number of ARB cycles was increased, the elongation of composite strips was decreased, but after the ninth cycle, the tensile elongation for both samples was improved.

  14. Effect of particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites produced by ARB process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaati, Roohollah; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure of MMC with larger particles becomes completely uniform, sooner. → When the number of cycles increased, tensile strength for both samples improved. → Up to the seventh cycle, tensile strength of MMC with larger particles was bigger. → First, the tensile elongation of MMCs was decreased, and then it was improved. - Abstract: In the present work, Al/10 vol.% SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) was manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. The silicon carbide particles with two various particle sizes of 40 and 2 μm were used. Effect of particle size on microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) at various ARB cycles was investigated. It was found that the microstructural evolution in MMC with 40 μm particle size was more salient compared to the MMCs with 2 μm particle size. Also, the composite strip with 40 μm particle size became uniform with high bonding quality and without any porosity sooner than the strip of 2 μm particle size. Moreover, when the number of cycles was increased, the tensile strength for both samples was improved. The tensile strength of the composite strip with 40 μm particle size was more than the composite strip with 2 μm up to the seventh cycle. By increasing the number of cycles after the seventh cycle, the value of tensile strength of MMC with 40 μm particle size became saturated and then decreased, and its tensile strength became less than that of the composite with 2 μm particle size for the ninth and eleventh cycles. Up to the seventh cycle, when the number of ARB cycles was increased, the elongation of composite strips was decreased, but after the ninth cycle, the tensile elongation for both samples was improved.

  15. Electrochromatographic performance of graphene and graphene oxide modified silica particles packed capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Wang, Yizhou; Zhang, Danyu; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao

    2018-04-01

    Graphene oxide functionalized silica microspheres (GO@SiO 2 ) were synthesized based on condensation reaction between amino from aminosilica particles and carboxyl groups from GO. Reduction of GO@SiO 2 with hydrazinium hydroxide generated graphene modified silica particles (G@SiO 2 ). GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 packed capillary columns for capillary electrochromatography were thereafter fabricated by pressure slurry packing with single-particle frits. GO of 0.3 mg/mL in dispersion solution for GO@SiO 2 synthesis was considered as a compromise between retaining and column efficiency whereas GO@SiO 2 of 20 mg/mL in slurries for column packing was chosen for a homogenous and tight bed. Optimum mobile phases were acquired considering both electroosmotic flow and resolution at an applied voltage of -6 kV as the following: acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.0), 75:25 (v/v) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 50:50 (v/v) for aromatic compounds. A comparison was made between electrochromatographic performances for three PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene) and three aromatic compounds of various polarities (toluene, aniline and phenol) on bare aminosilica, GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 packed columns, which proved the contribution of alone or combinational actions of solvophobic effect and π-π electron stacking as well as hydrogen bonds to retaining behaviors by GO@SiO 2 and G@SiO 2 . Well over-run, over-day and over-column precisions (retention time: 0.3-1.4, 1.1-3.8 and 2.8-5.2%, respectively; peak area: 2.6-6.5, 4.8-8.3 and 6.5-12.6%, respectively) of GO@SiO 2 packed columns were a powerful proof for good reproducibility. Analytical characteristics of GO@SiO 2 packed capillary columns in CEC analysis of fresh water were evaluated with respect to linearity (R 2 = 0.9961-0.9989) over the range 0.1 to 100 mg/L and detection limits of 9.5 for naphthalene, 12.6 for fluorene and 16.2 μg/L for phenanthrene. Further application to fresh water increased the

  16. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  17. The influence of Ac parameters in the process of micro-arc oxidation film electric breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the electric breakdown discharge process of micro-arc oxidation film on the surface of aluminum alloy. Based on the analysis of the AC parameters variation in the micro-arc oxidation process, the following conclusions can be drawn: The growth of oxide film can be divided into three stages, and Oxide film breakdown discharge occurs twice in the micro-arc oxidation process. The first stage is the formation and disruptive discharge of amorphous oxide film, producing the ceramic oxide granules, which belong to solid dielectric breakdown. In this stage the membrane voltage of the oxide film plays a key role; the second stage is the formation of ceramic oxide film, the ceramic oxide granules turns into porous structure oxide film in this stage; the third stage is the growth of ceramic oxide film, the gas film that forms in the oxide film’s porous structure is electric broken-down, which is the second breakdown discharge process, the current density on the oxide film surface could affect the breakdown process significantly.

  18. Nanosized-Particle Dispersion-Strengthened Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by the Double Mechanical Alloying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungseok

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process. The particle size of a Al3Ti phase was 30 nm or less, and the particles were uniformly distributed. These particles remained in a fine state in the matrix without growth and coarsening, even after the hot extrusion process. The microstructure of hot extruded alloys consisted of a uniform distribution of Al3Ti particles and other dispersoids in the Al matrix.

  19. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

  20. Oxide nano-rod array structure via a simple metallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanko, M; Do, D T M

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for fabricating oxide nano-rod array structure via metallurgical process is reported. Some dilute alloys such as Ni(Al) solid solution shows internal oxidation with rod-like oxide precipices during high-temperature oxidation with low oxygen partial pressure. By removing a metal part in internal oxidation zone, oxide nano-rod array structure can be developed on the surface of metallic components. In this report, Al 2 O 3 or NiAl 2 O 4 nano-rod array structures were prepared by using Ni(Al) solid solution. Effects of Cr addition into Ni(Al) solid solution on internal oxidation were also reported. Pack cementation process for aluminizing of Ni surface was applied to prepare nano-rod array components with desired shape. Near-net shape Ni components with oxide nano-rod array structure on their surface can be prepared by using the pack cementation process and internal oxidation,

  1. The limits of testing particle-mediated oxidative stress in vitro in predicting diverse pathologies; relevance for testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulumian Mary

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro studies with particles are a major staple of particle toxicology, generally used to investigate mechanisms and better understand the molecular events underlying cellular effects. However, there is ethical and financial pressure in nanotoxicology, the new sub-specialty of particle toxicology, to avoid using animals. Therefore an increasing amount of studies are being published using in vitro approaches and such studies require careful interpretation. We point out here that 3 different conventional pathogenic particle types, PM10, asbestos and quartz, which cause diverse pathological effects, have been reported to cause very similar oxidative stress effects in cells in culture. We discuss the likely explanation and implications of this apparent paradox, and its relevance for testing in nanotoxicology.

  2. Visualization of antigen-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes labeled with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Ambros J. [Technical University of Munich (TUM), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Holzapfel, Konstantin; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Neudorfer, Juliana; Kroenig, Holger; Peschel, Christian; Bernhard, Helga [TUM, Munich, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen [TUM, Munich, Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    New technologies are needed to characterize the migration and survival of antigen-specific T cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel technique for the labeling of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles and the subsequent depiction with a conventional 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Antigen-specific CD8{sup +} T lymphocytes were labeled with ferucarbotran by lipofection. The uptake of ferucarbotran was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a dextran-specific antibody, and the intracellular enrichment of iron was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The imaging of T cells was performed by magnetic resonance on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the labeling procedure. On day 0 and 2 post labeling, a pronounced shortening of T2*-relaxation times was observed, which diminished after 7 days and was not detectable anymore after 14 days, probably due to the retained mitotic activity of the labeled T cells. Of importance, the antigen-specific cytolytic activity of the T cells was preserved following ferucarbotran labeling. Efficient ferucarbotran labeling of functionally active T lymphocytes and their detection by magnetic resonance imaging allows the in vivo monitoring of T cells and, subsequently, will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. (orig.)

  3. Visualization of antigen-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes labeled with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Ambros J.; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Neudorfer, Juliana; Kroenig, Holger; Peschel, Christian; Bernhard, Helga; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    New technologies are needed to characterize the migration and survival of antigen-specific T cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a novel technique for the labeling of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes with superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles and the subsequent depiction with a conventional 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Antigen-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes were labeled with ferucarbotran by lipofection. The uptake of ferucarbotran was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a dextran-specific antibody, and the intracellular enrichment of iron was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The imaging of T cells was performed by magnetic resonance on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the labeling procedure. On day 0 and 2 post labeling, a pronounced shortening of T2*-relaxation times was observed, which diminished after 7 days and was not detectable anymore after 14 days, probably due to the retained mitotic activity of the labeled T cells. Of importance, the antigen-specific cytolytic activity of the T cells was preserved following ferucarbotran labeling. Efficient ferucarbotran labeling of functionally active T lymphocytes and their detection by magnetic resonance imaging allows the in vivo monitoring of T cells and, subsequently, will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. (orig.)

  4. Interaction between copper oxide wire particles and Duddingtonia flagrans in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Larsen, M; Terrill, T H

    2005-11-25

    An experiment was completed to determine if copper oxide wire particles (COWP) had any effect on the activity of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in growing lambs. COWP has been used recently as a dewormer in small ruminants because of nematode resistance to anthelmintics. D. flagrans has been used to control free-living stages of parasitic nematodes in livestock. Katahdin and Dorper lambs, 4 months of age, were administered no or 4 g COWP (n=24/dose) in early October 2003. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant gastrointestinal parasite during the trial, which was acquired naturally from pasture. Half the lambs from each COWP group were supplemented with corn/soybean meal with or without D. flagrans for 35 days. Fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined weekly between days 0 (day of COWP administration) and 35. Feces from lambs in each treatment group were pooled and three replicates per group were cultured for 14 days at room temperature. Larvae (L3) were identified and counted per gram of feces cultured. Treatment with COWP was effective in decreasing FEC, which remained low compared with FEC from lambs not treated with COWP. This led to an increase in PCV in these lambs (COWP x day, Pcopper on H. contortus, and the additional larval reducing effect exerted by the nematode destroying fungus D. flagrans, the expected result would be a much lower larval challenge on pasture when these two tools are used together in a sustainable control strategy.

  5. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Use of advanced oxidation processes for removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    photocatalysis when illuminated with UV light, and it may furthermore be arranged so the photocatalyst is immobilized on the UV quartz tubes by coating, which removes the need for a constant addition and subsequent removal of TiO2 to the system. The effect of the current system, and the TiO2 modified system...... was investigated by degradation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). EE2 was used as the model compound since it is a very potent endocrine disruptor that has been found to have endocrine effects on fish at ppt levels. Also, the disinfection capability with photocatalysis was investigated...... of the microorganisms, photocatalysis works by oxidizing the cell membrane for microorganism adsorbed to the coated surface, which is a more inefficient process per mole UV light....

  7. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  8. Synthesis of Uranium-di-Oxide nano-particles by pulsed laser ablation in ethanol and their characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Shail, Shailini

    2015-01-01

    The importance of actinide based nano-structures is well known in the area of biology, nuclear medicine, and nuclear industry. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid is recognised as an attractive technique for production of nano-structures of different metals and metal oxides with high purity. In this paper, we report synthesis of uranium-di-oxide nano particles by pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. The second harmonic emission of an electro- optically Q-switched nano-second Nd-YAG laser was used as the coherent source here. The structural and optical properties of the fabricated Uranium-di-oxide nano- particles were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and UV- Vis-NIR spectrophotometry. The mean size of the particles was found to be dependent on the laser ablation parameters. XRD and TEM analysis confirmed the phase of the synthesised material as pure crystalline Uranium-di- oxide with Face Centred Cubic structure. UV- Vis- NIR absorption spectra of the colloidal solution show high absorption in the UV regime. (author)

  9. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokitin, Oleg, E-mail: volokitin-oleg@mail.ru; Volokitin, Gennady, E-mail: vgg-tomsk@mail.ru; Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mai.ru; Shekhovtsov, Valentin, E-mail: shehovcov2010@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  10. Radiation cured coating containing glitter particles and process therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, P.R.; Sears, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation curable coatings for use on a variety of substrates and curable by exposure to ionizing irradiation of ultraviolet light are well known. The use of urethane type coatings cured with ultraviolet light to provide protective wear layers for wall or floor tile is for instance described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,180,615. U.S. Pat. No. 3,918,393 describes a method for obtaining a non-glossy coating on various substrates by curing radiation sensitive material with ionizing irradiation or ultraviolet light in two stages. In this process the coating is partially cured in an oxygen-containing atmosphere and the curing is completed in an inert atmosphere. U.S. Pat. No. 4,122,225 discloses a method and apparatus for coating tile which involves the application of one coat of radiation curable material to an entire substrate followed by partial curing and the subsequent application and curing of a second coat or radiation curable material only on high areas of the substrate which are subject to greater than average wear. Use of pigment in radiation cured coatings on products such as floor covering which are subject to wear during use has presented substantial difficulties. Incorporation of pigment, especially enough pigment to make the coating opaque, makes the coating hard to cure and substantially reduces the thicknesses of coating which can be cured relative to a clear coating cured under the same conditions

  11. Decomposition of 1,4-dioxane by advanced oxidation and biochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Seo, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Byung-Ryul

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the optimal decomposition conditions when 1,4-dioxane was degraded using either the AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes) or the BAC-TERRA microbial complex. The advanced oxidation was operated with H2O2, in the range 4.7 to 51 mM, under 254 nm (25 W lamp) illumination, while varying the reaction parameters, such as the air flow rate and reaction time. The greatest oxidation rate (96%) of 1,4-dioxane was achieved with H2O2 concentration of 17 mM after a 2-hr reaction. As a result of this reaction, organic acid intermediates were formed, such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids. Furthermore, the study revealed that suspended particles, i.e., bio-flocs, kaolin and pozzolan, in the reaction were able to have an impact on the extent of 1,4-dioxane decomposition. The decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in the presence of bio-flocs was significantly declined due to hindered UV penetration through the solution as a result of the consistent dispersion of bio-particles. In contrast, dosing with pozzolan decomposed up to 98.8% of the 1,4-dioxane after 2 hr of reaction. Two actual wastewaters, from polyester manufacturing, containing 1,4-dioxane in the range 370 to 450 mg/L were able to be oxidized by as high as 100% within 15 min with the introduction of 100:200 (mg/L) Fe(II):H202 under UV illumination. Aerobic biological decomposition, employing BAC-TERRA, was able to remove up to 90% of 1,4-dioxane after 15 days of incubation. In the meantime, the by-products (i.e., acetic, propionic and valeric acid) generated were similar to those formed during the AOPs investigation. According to kinetic studies, both photo-decomposition and biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, with k = 5 x 10(-4) s(-1) and 2.38 x 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. It was concluded that 1,4-dioxane could be readily degraded by both AOPs and BAC-TERRA, and that the actual polyester wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane could be successfully

  12. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa Exudate on the Formation and Reactivity of Iron Oxide Particles Following Fe(II) and Fe(III) Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Wang, Kai; Waite, T David

    2017-05-16

    Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation, and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture. The exudate also affects the reactivity of iron oxide particles formed with exudate coated particles undergoing faster dissolution than bare iron oxide particles. This has implications to iron availability, especially where algae procure iron via dissolution of iron oxide particles as a result of either reaction with reducing moieties, light-mediated ligand to metal charge transfer and/or reaction with siderophores. The increased reactivity of exudate coated particles is attributed, for the most part, to the smaller size of these particles, higher surface area and increased accessibility of surface sites.

  13. Volcano Relation for the Deacon Process over Transition-Metal Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2010-01-01

    We establish an activity relation for the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of HCI (the Deacon Process) over rutile transition-metal oxide catalysts by combining density functional theory calculations (DFT) with microkinetic modeling. Linear energy relations for the elementary reaction steps...

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the Fib

  15. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  16. Sintered indium-tin oxide particles induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, in part through inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Indium-tin oxide (ITO is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. As the demand for consumer electronics continues to increase, so does the concern for occupational exposures to particles containing these potentially toxic metal oxides. Indium-containing particles have been shown to be cytotoxic in cultured cells and pro-inflammatory in pulmonary animal models. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which ITO production materials may be the most toxic to workers and how they initiate pulmonary inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we examined four different particle samples collected from an ITO production facility for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. Tin oxide, sintered ITO (SITO, and ventilation dust particles activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB within 3 h of treatment. However, only SITO induced robust cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8 within 24 h in both RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Our lab and others have previously demonstrated SITO-induced cytotoxicity as well. These findings suggest that SITO particles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, which has been implicated in several immune-mediated diseases via its ability to induce IL-1β release and cause subsequent cell death. Inflammasome activation by SITO was confirmed, but it required the presence of endotoxin. Further, a phagocytosis assay revealed that pre-uptake of SITO or ventilation dust impaired proper macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli. Our results suggest that adverse inflammatory responses to SITO particles by both macrophage and epithelial cells may initiate and propagate indium lung disease. These findings will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind an emerging occupational health issue.

  17. Oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves an improvement to the reductive stripping process for recovering uranium values from wet-process phosphoric acid solution, where uranium in the solution is oxidized to uranium (VI) oxidation state and then extracted from the solution by contact with a water immiscible organic solvent, by adding sufficient oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, to obtain greater than 90 percent conversion of the uranium to the uranium (VI) oxidation state to the phosphoric acid solution and simultaneously extracting the uranium (VI)

  18. Low power loss and field-insensitive permeability of Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with manganese oxide-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junnan, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Wang, Xian; Xu, Xiaojun; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Feng, Zekun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-6.5%Si alloy powders coated with manganese oxides using an innovative in situ process were investigated. The in-situ coating of the insulating oxides was realized with a KMnO{sub 4} solution by a chemical process. The insulating manganese oxides with mixed valance state were verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the insulating layer on alloy particles was determined to be in a range of 20–210 nm, depending upon the KMnO{sub 4} concentration. The powder core loss and the change in permeability under a DC-bias field were measured at frequencies ranging from 50 to 100 kHz. The experiments indicated that the Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with a 210 nm-thick manganese oxide layer not only showed a low core loss of 459 mW/cm{sup 3} at 100 kHz but also showed a small reduction in permeability (μ(H)/μ(0) = 85% for μ = 42) at a DC-bias field of 80 Oe. This work has defined a novel pathway to realizing low core loss and field-insensitive permeability for Fe-Si powder cores.

  19. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS, northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3 might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10–30 nm in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those

  20. Process of diffractive scattering and disintegration of complex particles by nonspherical deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The differential and integral cross sections of diffractive elastic and inelastic scattering and of the disintegration of complex particles by axial and nonaxial deformed nuclei are investigated depending on the shape, deformability and diffuseness of nuclear boundary as well as on the structure of the incident particles and of the rescattering processes. It is shown that the complicated coincidence experiments and experimnts on inelastic scattering with excitation of the target nucleus collective states are satisfactorily described taking simultaneously into account all factors mentioned above and the final-state interaction between the disintegration products of the incident particle

  1. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Quantum theory of nonadiabatic heavy-particle transfer processes in polar media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    For the probability of nonadiabatic transfer of heavy particles, a calculating procedure is proposed which in the case of certain processes allows the interaction between motion of the particle undergoing transfer and motion along other degrees of freedom to be exactly accounted for. In the case of symmetric systems, explicit expressions are obtained for the free energy of activation of the transition and for the tunneling factor which allow for nonadiabaticity of motion of the particle undergoing transfer, both in the region beneath the barrier and in the region that is classically accessible

  3. Laser cladding in-situ carbide particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings with rare earth oxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝锋; 马明星; 刘文今; 钟敏霖; 张红军; 张伟明

    2009-01-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composite(PR-MMC) has excellent properties such as good wear resistance,corrosion resistance and high temperature properties.Laser cladding is usually used to form PR-MMC on metal surface with various volume fractions of ceramic particles.Recent literatures showed that laser melting of powder mixture containing carbon and carbide-forming elements,was favorable for the formation of in-situ synthesized carbide particles.In this paper,rare earth oxide(RE2O3) was added into t...

  4. Evaluation of Synthesizing Al2O3 Nano Particles in Copper Matrix by Mechanical Alloying of Cu-1% Al and Copper Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening of copper matrix by dispersion of metallic oxides particles as an efficient way to increase strength without losing thermal and electrical conductivities has been recognized for many years. Such a composite can withstand high temperatures and keep its properties. Such copper alloys have many applications especially in high temperature including resistance welding electrodes, electrical motors and switches. In the present work, at first, the Cu-1%Al solid solution was prepared by the mechanical alloying process via 48 hours of milling. Subsequently, 0.66 gr of copper oxide was added to Cu-1%Al solid solution and mechanically milled for different milling times of 0,16, 32, 48 hours. The milled powder mixtures were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The lattice parameter of Cu increased at first, but then decreased at longer milling times. The internal strain increased and the average Cu crystal size decreased during milling process.The particle size decreased during the whole process. With increasing annealing temprature from 450°C to 750°C, the microhardness values of samples decreased at the beginning but then increased. From these results, it can be concluded that nanosize aluminaparticles are formed in the copper matrix.

  5. Statistical relation between particle contaminations in ultra pure water and defects generated by process tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Wortelboer, Ronald; Mud, Auke

    2007-01-01

    Ultra pure water supplied inside the Fab is used in different tools at different stages of processing. Data of the particles measured in ultra pure water was compared with the defect density on wafers processed on these tools and a statistical relation is found Keywords— Yield, defect density,

  6. Preliminary comparison of three processes of AlN oxidation: dry, wet and mixed ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbutowicz R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of AlN layers oxidation: dry, wet and mixed (wet with oxygen were compared. Some physical parameters of oxidized thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN layers grown on silicon Si(1 1 1 were investigated by means Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE. Three series of the thermal oxidations processes were carried out at 1012 °C in pure nitrogen as carrying gas and various gas ambients: (a dry oxidation with oxygen, (b wet oxidation with water steam and (c mixed atmosphere with various process times. All the research methods have shown that along with the rising of the oxidation time, AlN layer across the aluminum oxide nitride transforms to aluminum oxide. The mixed oxidation was a faster method than the dry or wet ones.

  7. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L -1 ) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH -1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B