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Sample records for oxidative stress study

  1. A STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES

    Babu Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non - enzymatic free radical mediated oxidation of biological molecules, membranes and tissues is associated with a variety of pathological events such as cancer, aging and diabetes mellitus . [1] Increased oxidative stress is seen in both types of diabetes me llitus namely type 1 and type 2, irrespective of duration, complications and treatment. In diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress seems primarily due to both an increased plasma free radical concentration and a sharp decline in antioxidant defences . [1] Among the causes of enhanced free radical production, hyperglycemia and hyper insulinemia seem to play a major role , [2,3] Hyperglycemia is the more easily modifiable factor among the two and good glycemic control can reduce the oxidative stress. Controversy pers ists regarding the other possible mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and whether oxidative stress normalizes with adequate metabolic control alone. The role of oxidative stress and diabetic complications has been extensively investigated. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the genesis of both macro and micro angiopathy [4,5] Prospective trials are now underway addressing the controversial issues of possible role of pharmacological antioxidants in preventing or at least de laying the onset of diabetic complications.

  2. Oxidative stress

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  3. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  4. A study of oxidative stress in paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy

    Jyothi P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study and assessment of oxidative stress plays a significant role in the arena of leprosy treatment. Once the presence of oxidative stress is proved, antioxidant supplements can be provided to reduce tissue injury and deformity. Aim: To study oxidative stress in paucibacillary (PB and multibacillary (MB leprosy and to compare it with that in a control group. Methods: Fifty-eight untreated leprosy patients (23 PB and 35 MB cases were studied and compared with 58 healthy controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD level as a measure of antioxidant status; malondialdehyde (MDA level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation; and MDA/SOD ratio, an index of oxidative stress were estimated in the serum. Results: The SOD level was decreased in leprosy patients, especially in MB leprosy. The MDA level was increased in PB and MB leprosy. The MDA/SOD ratio was significantly elevated in MB patients. There was a steady increase in this ratio along the spectrum from tuberculoid to lepromatous leprosy (LL. Conclusion: There is increased oxidative stress in MB leprosy, especially in LL. This warrants antioxidant supplements to prevent tissue injury.

  5. Study on the serum oxidative stress status in silicosis patients

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... oxidative stress parameters were investigated in silicosis patients and controls group. 128 silicosis ... to help clinicians to further delineate the role of oxidative- stress .... in age, working duration smoking, total cholesterol, ALT,.

  6. Oxidative stress

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  7. Diethyl Phthalate Causes Oxidative Stress: An in Vitro Study

    Heena Prajapati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are a group of multifunctional chemicals. Diethyl phthalate (DEP is one of the most frequently used phthalates in solvents and fixatives for numerous industrial products. Method: The present experiment was designed to assess oxidative stress, if any, caused by diethyl phthalate. For this the homogenates of liver and kidney were treated with different concentrations ( 10-40 µg/mL of DEP. 10% liver and kidney homogenates were prepared in phosphate buffered saline and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation.In final step lipid peroxidation and total protein content were analyzed. Results: The result revealed significant and dose - dependent increase in lipid peroxidation, whereas protein content reduced significantly. Maximum increase in LPO and decrease in protein content was observed at 40 µg/mL of DEP concentration. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that different concentrations of DEP leads to dose- dependent significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease protein content.So at the different concentration of DEP cause oxidative stress.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  9. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    Seungyoun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP, a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH, and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04, but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05. However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  10. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses' Health Study.

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-09-21

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses' Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations ( p -trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p -trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  11. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  12. Study on radioprotective efficacy of indazolone derivative on γ-radiation induced oxidative stress

    Mohan, B.J.; Sarojini, B.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the potency of 6-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-indazol-3-one (IND) as radioprotective agent. Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model organism for the study. Oxidative stress was induced by irradiating the flies with 6 Gy γ-radiation.The control and irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely, lipid peroxidation (MDA), SOD and CATenzyme. (author)

  13. Depression and oxidative stress: results from a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J; Miller, Edgar R; Szanton, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen's d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen's d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen's d = -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.15). This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress.

  14. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective study.

    Yiyenoğlu, Özgür Bilgin; Uğur, Mete Gürol; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Can, Günay; Öztürk, Ebru; Balat, Özcan; Erel, Özcan

    2014-06-01

    To determine the levels of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel automated method. 30 pregnant women in their first trimester with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this prospective controlled study. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant level (TOL) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in maternal serum were measured using the more recently designated Erel method. We observed statistically significant increased TOL and OSI levels in patient group (p = 0.032, p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated statistically significant decreased TAC in pregnant women who had a history of RPL (p = 0.013). Our results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a central role in the etiopathogenesis of RPL. Further studies to evaluate the predictive role of TAC, TOL, OSI levels using Erel method are needed.

  16. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  17. Nanoscopic morphological changes in yeast cell surfaces caused by oxidative stress: an atomic force microscopic study.

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-06-01

    Nanoscopic changes in the cell surface morphology of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), due to their exposure to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration led to a decrease in cell viabilities and mean cell volumes, and an increase in the surface roughness of the yeasts. In addition, AFM studies revealed that oxidative stress caused cell compression in both S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe cells and an increase in the number of aged yeasts. These results confirmed the importance and usefulness of AFM in investigating the morphology of stressed microbial cells at the nanoscale. The results also provided novel information on the relative oxidative stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe.

  18. Short overview on metabolomics approach to study pathophysiology of oxidative stress in cancer

    Luka Andrisic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Association of oxidative stress with carcinogenesis is well known, but not understood well, as is pathophysiology of oxidative stress generated during different types of anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, recent findings indicate that cancer associated lipid peroxidation might eventually help defending adjacent nonmalignant cells from cancer invasion. Therefore, untargeted metabolomics studies designed for advanced translational and clinical studies are needed to understand the existing paradoxes in oncology, including those related to controversial usage of antioxidants aiming to prevent or treat cancer. In this short review we have tried to put emphasis on the importance of pathophysiology of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in cancer development in relation to metabolic adaptation of particular types of cancer allowing us to conclude that adaptation to oxidative stress is one of the main driving forces of cancer pathophysiology. With the help of metabolomics many novel findings are being achieved thus encouraging further scientific breakthroughs. Combined with targeted qualitative and quantitative methods, especially immunochemistry, further research might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients and respective malignant diseases, leading to individualized treatment approach, according to the concepts of modern integrative medicine. Keywords: Carcinogenesis, Cancer, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal, Glutathione, Metabolomics, Immunochemistry, Biomarkers, Omics science

  19. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    Muniz, Juan F.; McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects

  20. The Association Between Oxidative Stress and Depressive Symptom Scores in Elderly Population: A Repeated Panel Study

    Changwoo Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Previous epidemiological studies about oxidative stress and depression are limited by hospital-based case-control design, single-time measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and the small number of study participants. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between biomarker of oxidative stress and depressive symptom scores using repeatedly measured panel data from a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 478 elderly participants residing in Seoul, Korea, were evaluated three times. Participants underwent the Korean version of the Short Form Generic Depression Scale (SGDS-K test for screening depression, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. We used a generalized estimating equation with a compound symmetry covariance structure to estimate the effects of oxidative stress on depressive symptom scores. Results A two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with a 33.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.59% to 47.42% increase in total SGDS-K scores. In subgroup analyses by gender, a two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with increased SGDS-K scores in both men and women (men: 30.88%; 95% CI, 10.24% to 55.37%; women: 34.77%; 95% CI, 20.09% to 51.25%. In bivariate analysis after an SGDS-K score ≥8 was defined as depression, the third and the fourth urinary MDA quartiles showed a significantly increased odds ratio(OR of depression compared to the lowest urinary MDA quartile (third quartile OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 1.77 to 24.00; fourth quartile OR, 7.11; 95% CI, 1.99 to 25.42. Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in the elderly population.

  1. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  2. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  3. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    Sabitha Palazhy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects.

  4. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    Castro, Raimundo; Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid per...

  5. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  6. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Lucas, V.A.; Du, X.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H 2 O 2 or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that the mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses

  8. Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites

    Jeffrey G. Pelton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately

  9. Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites

    Liu, Jia; Litt, Lawrence; Segal, Mark R.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Kim, Myungwon

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case) greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately developing

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from Human Studies

    Hans-Joachim Eisele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a frequent disease mainly affecting obese people and caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The increased morbidity and mortality of OSA are mainly thought to be the consequence of its adverse effects on cardiovascular (CV health. In this context, oxidative stress induced by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia has been identified to play a major role. This is suggested by biomarker studies in OSA patients showing excessively generated reactive oxygen species from leukocytes, reduced plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate, increased lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant capacity. Biopsy studies complement these findings by demonstrating reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and increased nitrotyrosine immunofluorescence in the vasculature of these patients. Furthermore, oxidative stress in OSA correlates with surrogate markers of CV disease such as endothelial function, intima-media thickness, and high blood pressure. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy reverses oxidative stress in OSA. The same may be true for antioxidants; however, more studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  11. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: A preliminary prospective study

    G K Shakunthala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current scenario pathogenesis of majority of the diseases is deeply linked with the oxidative stress, irrespective of its etiology. Enumerable data suggests that reactive oxygen species play a key role in multistage carcinogenesis. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is considered as a potentially malignant disorder. Its increased incidence over recent years in the Indian subcontinent is a major health concern to oral physicians. However, the role of oxidative stress has not been widely investigated in OSMF. Aims: Is to evaluate both antioxidant and oxidant status in OSMF and to compare with controls. Settings and Design: Twenty patients and 20 controls of the same age group were enrolled in the study. Subjects and Methods: Five milliliters of blood were collected from each individual and serum was separated. Malondialdehyde (MDA estimation using thiobarbituric acid (TBA method, and antioxidant activity (AOA using principle of TBA reactive substances was done using this serum, with a calorimetric method. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test and ANOVA test. Results: The mean serum AOA status was seen to significantly decrease in OSMF patients, as compared to controls (P = 0.013. The increase in mean serum MDA level was highly significant in OSMF patients, as compared to controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The disparity between AOA and MDA levels in the patients clearly demonstrates the role of oxidative stress in the disease process. The results also suggest the use of antioxidants in the management of OSMF.

  12. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  13. Studies on the effects of aspartame on memory and oxidative stress in brain of mice.

    Abdel-Salam, O M E; Salem, N A; El-Shamarka, M E S; Hussein, J S; Ahmed, N A S; El-Nagar, M E S

    2012-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-Lphenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of aspartame in the working memory version of Morris water maze test, on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in brain of mice. Aspartame (0.625, 1.875 or 5.625 mg/kg) was administered once daily subcutaneously for 2 weeks and mice were examined four times a week for their ability to locate a submerged plate. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide levels (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) and glucose were determined in brain. Only at the highest dose of 5.625 mg/kg, did aspartame significantly impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) over 2 weeks was significantly delayed by aspartame 5.625 mg/kg, compared with the saline-treated control group. Significant differences occurred only on the first trial to find the escape platform. Significant increase in brain MDA by 16.5% and nitric oxide by 16.2% and a decrease in GSH by 25.1% and glucose by 22.5% occurred after treatment with aspartame at 1.875 mg/kg. Aspartame administered at 5.625 mg/kg significantly increased brain MDA by 43.8%, nitric oxide by 18.6% and decreased GSH by 32.7% and glucose by 25.8%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. These findings suggest impaired memory performance and increased brain oxidative stress by repeated aspartame administration. The impaired memory performance is likely to involve increased oxidative stress as well as decreased brain glucose availability.

  14. Study on the serum oxidative stress status in silicosis patients | He ...

    To determine whether oxidative-stress damage play an important role in the mechanism of silicosis, the oxidative stress parameters were investigated in silicosis patients and controls group. 128 silicosis patients and 130 healthy controls were included. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the levels of ...

  15. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  16. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Roger Colominas-Ciuró

    Full Text Available The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE, and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE. We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative

  17. Reproductive effort affects oxidative status and stress in an Antarctic penguin species: An experimental study.

    Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Santos, Mercedes; Coria, Néstor; Barbosa, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The oxidative cost of reproduction has been a matter of debate in recent years presumably because of the lack of proper experimental studies. Based on the hypothesis that different brood sizes produce differential reproductive costs, an experimental manipulation during breeding of Adélie penguins was conducted at Hope Bay, Antarctica, to study oxidative status and stress. We predict that a lower reproductive effort should be positively related to low oxidative and physiological stress. We randomly assigned nests with two chicks to a control reproductive effort group (CRE), and by removing one chick from some nests with two chicks, formed a second, low reproductive effort group (LRE). We examined how oxidative status in blood plasma (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs, and total antioxidant capacity, OXY) and stress (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, H/L) responded to a lower production of offspring total biomass. Our nest manipulation showed significant differences in offspring total biomass, which was lower in the LRE group. As predicted, the LRE group had higher antioxidant capacity than individuals in the CRE group. We have also found, although marginally significant, interactions between sex and treatment in the three variables analysed. Females had higher OXY, lower ROMs and lower H/L ratio when rearing one chick, whereas males did so when rearing two except for OXY which was high regardless of treatment. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the H/L ratio and OXY in females. Finally, we have found a negative and significant relationship between the duration of the experiment and OXY and ROMs and positive with H/L ratio which suggests that indeed breeding penguins are paying an effort in physiological terms in relation to the duration of the chick rearing. In conclusion, a reduction of the reproductive effort decreased oxidative stress in this long-lived bird meaning that a link exists between breeding effort and oxidative stress. However

  18. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  19. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  20. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study

    Hamed Enas A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and hemodialysis (HD on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total peroxide (TPX, pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI and lactate/pyruvate (L/P ratio were calculated. Results TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. Conclusions CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  1. Bartter/Gitelman syndromes as a model to study systemic oxidative stress in humans.

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Azzolini, Matteo; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Davis, Paul A; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intermediates in reduction-oxidation reactions that begin with the addition of one electron to molecular oxygen, generating the primary ROS superoxide, which in turn interacts with other molecules to produce secondary ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and peroxynitrite. ROS are continuously produced during metabolic processes and are deemed to play an important role in cardiovascular diseases, namely, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis and atherosclerosis, via oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and deoxyribonucleic acid. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent vasoactive agent that also exerts mitogenic, proinflammatory, and profibrotic effects through several signaling pathways, in part involving ROS, particularly superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, Ang II stimulates NADPH oxidases, leading to higher ROS generation and oxidative stress. Bartter/Gitelman syndrome patients, despite elevated plasma renin activity, Ang II, and aldosterone levels, exhibit reduced peripheral resistance, normal/low blood pressure, and blunted pressor effect of vasoconstrictors. In addition, notwithstanding the activation of the renin-angiotensin system and the increased plasma levels of Ang II, these patients display decreased production of ROS, reduced oxidative stress, and increased antioxidant defenses. In fact, Bartter/Gitelman syndrome patients are characterized by reduced levels of p22(phox) gene expression and undetectable plasma peroxynitrite levels, while showing increased plasma antioxidant power and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, multifarious data suggest that Bartter and Gitelman syndrome patients are a model of low oxidative stress and high antioxidant defenses. The contribution offered by the study of these syndromes in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this favorable status could offer chances for new therapeutic targets in disease characterized by high

  2. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  3. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  4. [Study on the oxidative stress in the ovaries of a rat model of polycystic ovary].

    Gong, Jin; Wu, Dong-bo; Zhang, Lan-lan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    with the control group. In a rat model of PCO achieved via letrozole, it was found that the levels of TOS, MDA, oxidative stress index (OSI) and intracellular ROS were significantly increased, while the TAS level, SOD content were significantly decreased in the ovary homogenates (Pmodel successfully induced via letrozole, and it is a suitable model for study of ovarian lesions. Oxidative stress also contributes to the PCO rat model, the protective effect of antioxidant might provide a new insight into the potential therapeutic solution to PCOS.

  5. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study.

    Aydemir, Ömer; Çubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Erdin, Soner; Taş, Cumhur; Onur, Ece; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502); household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501); participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414); hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667), and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450); and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597). There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  6. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  7. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Li, Wenyuan; Wilker, Elissa H; Dorans, Kirsten S; Rice, Mary B; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R; Keaney, John F; Lin, Honghuang; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-04-28

    Short-term exposure to elevated air pollution has been associated with higher risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, with systemic oxidative stress induced by air pollution hypothesized as an important underlying mechanism. However, few community-based studies have assessed this association. Two thousand thirty-five Framingham Offspring Cohort participants living within 50 km of the Harvard Boston Supersite who were not current smokers were included. We assessed circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress including blood myeloperoxidase at the seventh examination (1998-2001) and urinary creatinine-indexed 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α) at the seventh and eighth (2005-2008) examinations. We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, sulfate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone at the Supersite and calculated 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day moving averages of each pollutant. Measured myeloperoxidase and 8-epi-PGF2α were loge transformed. We used linear regression models and linear mixed-effects models with random intercepts for myeloperoxidase and indexed 8-epi-PGF2α, respectively. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, clinical and lifestyle factors, weather, and temporal trend. We found positive associations of PM2.5 and black carbon with myeloperoxidase across multiple moving averages. Additionally, 2- to 7-day moving averages of PM2.5 and sulfate were consistently positively associated with 8-epi-PGF2α. Stronger positive associations of black carbon and sulfate with myeloperoxidase were observed among participants with diabetes than in those without. Our community-based investigation supports an association of select markers of ambient air pollution with circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Prenatal nonylphenol exposure, oxidative and nitrative stress, and birth outcomes: A cohort study in Taiwan

    Wang, Pei-Wei; Chen, Mei-Lien; Huang, Li-Wei; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to nonylphenol (NP) and oxidative stress on neonatal birth outcomes from human studies are limited. A total of 146 pregnant women were studied (1) to investigate the association between prenatal NP exposure and maternal oxidative/nitrative stress biomarkers of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO 2 Gua)) and lipid peroxidation (8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-isoPF 2α ), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)) and (2) to explore the associations among oxidative stress biomarkers, NP exposure, and neonatal birth outcomes, including gestational age, birth weight, length, Ponderal index, and head and chest circumferences. NP significantly increased the 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. All infants born to mothers with urinary 8-OHdG levels above the median exhibited a significantly shorter gestational duration (B adjusted  = −4.72 days; 95% CI: −8.08 to −1.36 days). No clear association was found between NP levels and birth outcomes. Prenatal 8-OHdG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to NP exposure. - Highlights: • A cohort of pregnant women was established and followed until delivery. • NP significantly increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. • Maternal 8-OHdG levels were associated with significantly decreased gestational duration. • No clear association was observed between NP and birth outcomes. - NP increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels; high 8-OHdG levels significantly decreased gestation length.

  9. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  10. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  11. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  12. Functional characterization of novel genotypes and cellular oxidative stress studies in propionic acidemia.

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Pérez, Belén; Abia, David; Ugarte, Magdalena; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2013-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA), caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias in humans. PA is caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the α- and β-subunits of the PCC enzyme which are assembled as an α6β6 dodecamer. In this study we have investigated the molecular basis of the defect in ten fibroblast samples from PA patients. Using homology modeling with the recently solved crystal structure of the PCC holoenzyme and a eukaryotic expression system we have analyzed the structural and functional effect of novel point mutations, also revealing a novel splice defect by minigene analysis. In addition, we have investigated the contribution of oxidative stress to cellular damage measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis parameters in patient fibroblasts, as recent studies point to a secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as pathophysiological mechanism in this disorder. The results show an increase in intracellular ROS content compared to controls, correlating with the activation of the JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Highest ROS levels were present in cells harboring functionally null mutations, including one severe missense mutation. This work provides molecular insight into the pathogenicity of PA variants and indicates that oxidative stress may be a major contributing factor to the cellular damage, supporting the proposal of antioxidant strategies as novel supplementary therapy in this rare disease.

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  14. Polydatin administration improves serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers during chronic alcoholism: a pilot study.

    Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in older adults: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Duffy, Shantel L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Cockayne, Nicole; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-07-15

    Major depression is common in older adults and associated with greater health care utilisation and increased risk of poor health outcomes. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and can be measured via the neurometabolite glutathione using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). This study aimed to examine the relationship between glutathione concentration and depressive symptom severity in older adults 'at-risk' of depression. In total, fifty-eight older adults considered 'at-risk' of depression (DEP) and 12 controls underwent (1)H-MRS, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Glutathione was measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and calculated as a ratio to creatine. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Compared to controls, DEP patients had increased glutathione/creatine ratios in the ACC (t=2.7, p=0.012). In turn, these increased ratios were associated with greater depressive symptoms (r=0.28, p=0.038), and poorer performance on a verbal learning task (r=-0.28, p=0.040). In conclusion, depressive symptoms in older people are associated with increased glutathione in the ACC. Oxidative stress may be pathophysiologically linked to illness development and may represent an early compensatory response. Further research examining the utility of glutathione as a marker for depressive symptoms and cognitive decline is now required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of oxidative stress caused by anthracene and alkyl-anthracenes in

    Ji-Yeon Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA] in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1 the same external exposure concentration and 2 the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.

  17. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Bae, Insoo, E-mail: ib42@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2014-04-03

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.

  18. Oxidative Stress Evaluation in Patients Treated with Orthodontic Self-ligating Multibracket Appliances: An in Vivo Case-Control Study.

    Portelli, Marco; Militi, Angela; Cervino, Gabriele; Lauritano, Floriana; Sambataro, Sergio; Mainardi, Alberto; Nucera, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathologic event induced by a prevalence of oxidant agents on the antioxidant ones, with a consequent alteration of oxide-reducing balance. Freeradicals produce damages both in cellular and extra-cellular components; phospholipid membranes, proteins, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, are the target of the oxidative stress, that can finally cause cellular death due to apoptosis. Orthodontic appliances such as brackets, wires, resins and soldering have some components that can be considered as potential allergen, carcinogenic, cytotoxic and gene mutation factors. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate oxidative stress in the saliva of patients treated with multibracket self-ligating vestibular orthodontic appliances; the secondary purpose is to investigate the influence of orthodontic multibracket therapy on oral hygiene and the consequent effect on oxidative stress. Salivary specimens has been collected in a sample of 23 patients were enrolled (12 Female, 11 Male) between 12 and 16 years of age (mean age 14.2). For each patient has been collected a salivary specimen at the following time points; before orthodontic bonding (T1), five weeks (T2) and ten weeks (T3) after orthodontic appliance bonding. Samples has been analysed with a photometer due to SAT Test (Salivary Antioxidant Test). Data obtained show a mean of 2971 mEq/l of anti-oxidant agents before orthodontic treatment, and after five weeks from the bonding the mean was decreased to 2909 mEq/l, instead at ten weeks was increased to 3332 mEq/l. Repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal statistically significant differences between the time points ( P = 0.1697). The study did not reveal any correlation between the level of dental hygiene and that of oxidative stress (Pearson Correlation Coefficient R = 0). Orthodontic treatment with multibrackets vestibular metallic appliance seems to be not able to affect oxidative stress during the first ten weeks of therapy.

  19. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  20. Experimental and Clinical Studies of Oxidative Stress in Pre-Eclampsia

    Nash, Peppi

    2007-01-01

    Impaired placentation and oxidative stress are proposed to play major roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE). It has recently been pointed out that PE might be more than one disease and may have several different pathogeneses. This thesis describes a new animal model for PE and examines the role of oxidative stress in early respective late onset PE. The effects of Suramin injections on day 10 and 11 of pregnancy were investigated in normal and diabetic rats of two strains (U and H), ...

  1. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Takaaki Tomofuji; Koichiro Irie; Toshihiro Sanbe; Tetsuji Azuma; Daisuke Ekuni; Naofumi Tamaki; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Manabu Morita

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress). Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. Fo...

  3. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans: A Useful Model for Studying Metabolic Disorders in Which Oxidative Stress Is a Contributing Factor

    Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism that is invaluable for experimental research because it can be used to recapitulate most human diseases at either the metabolic or genomic level in vivo. This organism contains many key components related to metabolic and oxidative stress networks that could conceivably allow us to increase and integrate information to understand the causes and mechanisms of complex diseases. Oxidative stress is an etiological factor that influences numerous human diseases, including diabetes. C. elegans displays remarkably similar molecular bases and cellular pathways to those of mammals. Defects in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway or increased ROS levels induce the conserved phase II detoxification response via the SKN-1 pathway to fight against oxidative stress. However, it is noteworthy that, aside from the detrimental effects of ROS, they have been proposed as second messengers that trigger the mitohormetic response to attenuate the adverse effects of oxidative stress. Herein, we briefly describe the importance of C. elegans as an experimental model system for studying metabolic disorders related to oxidative stress and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their pathophysiology.

  5. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  6. Nutrigenetics and modulation of oxidative stress.

    Da Costa, Laura A; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress develops as a result of an imbalance between the production and accumulation of reactive species and the body's ability to manage them using exogenous and endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants obtained from the diet, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, have important roles in preventing and reducing oxidative stress. Individual genetic variation affecting proteins involved in the uptake, utilization and metabolism of these antioxidants may alter their serum levels, exposure to target cells and subsequent contribution to the extent of oxidative stress. Endogenous antioxidants include the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, paraoxanase, and glutathione S-transferase. These enzymes metabolize reactive species and their by-products, reducing oxidative stress. Variation in the genes coding these enzymes may impact their enzymatic antioxidant activity and, thus, the levels of reactive species, oxidative stress, and risk of disease development. Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic disease, including osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Indeed, polymorphisms in most of the genes that code for antioxidant enzymes have been associated with several types of cancer, although inconsistent findings between studies have been reported. These inconsistencies may, in part, be explained by interactions with the environment, such as modification by diet. In this review, we highlight some of the recent studies in the field of nutrigenetics, which have examined interactions between diet, genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  8. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    Kna?, M.; Maciejczyk, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Matczuk, J.; Ko?odziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; ?adny, J. R.; ?endzian-Piotrowska, M.; Zalewska, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14...

  9. Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Ahmad, Nur Syamsina; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Kong, Kin Weng; Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Hamzah, Sareena Hanim

    2017-12-01

    Tualang honey (TH) contains antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids that may be protective against oxidative stress of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial antioxidant activity and oxidative stress after ingestion of high and low dosages of TH in female athletes. Twenty female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) were randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10). Blood sample was collected at fasting and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h after TH consumption. Plasma was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]), and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and reactive oxygen species [ROS]). The 3-h area under the curve (AUC) for MDA was significantly lower in the LH group compared with HH group, suggesting less oxidative stress in the LH group. However, the AUCs for TPC, FRAP, and ROS were not affected by the dosages. The concentrations of TPC and FRAP increased from baseline to 2 and 1 h after TH consumption, respectively, and concentrations returned toward baseline at 3 h in both LH and HH groups. MDA concentration significantly decreased (p antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes. The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption.

  10. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  11. Paraquat administration in Drosophila for use in metabolic studies of oxidative stress.

    Rzezniczak, T Z; Douglas, L A; Watterson, J H; Merritt, T J S

    2011-12-15

    Paraquat (PQ) is widely used in the laboratory to induce in vivo oxidative stress, particularly in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. PQ administration to the fly traditionally involves feeding in a 1% sucrose solution; however, a diet high in sucrose can itself be stressful. We examined a novel method of PQ administration: incorporation into the fly's standard cornmeal-sucrose-yeast diet. This method successfully delivers PQ to the fly at concentrations similar to those of the traditional method but with fewer possibly confounding complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity, reproduction and oxidative stress

    Tamara V. Zhuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and overweight is one of the most pressing problems nowadays. Obesity as a comorbid condition affects all body systems. Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor not only for cardiovascular diseases and oncopathology, but also for fertility problems, many obstetric and perinatal complications worsening the maternal and infant health. The balance between the oxidative and antioxidant system is one of the indicators of the state of human homeostasis. Today it is proved that obesity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in antioxidant protection. This review reveals a close relationship between obesity, oxidative stress and reproductive problems.

  13. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  14. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  16. Intracellular photoinduced oxidative stress by zinc phthalocyanine photosensitization: a study of the early events in real time using confocal microscopy

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Handris, Panagiotis; Kletsas, Dimitris; Loukas, Spyros

    2003-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in several biological and pathological aspects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to act as signal transduction molecules activating reactions leading to cell rescue or to cell apoptosis/necrosis. In the present study, oxidative stress was induced by photosensitization of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in human fibroblasts using a photodynamic dose that did not lead to apoptosis or necrosis. The induction of oxidative stress was performed at the microscope stage in preassigned time. The cascade of phenomena evoked was studied in real time and at the single cell level using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using specific vital fluorescent probes, alterations induced by oxidative stress in mitochondria membrane potential, in intracellular pH and in calcium concentration were recorded. Image processing and analysis techniques were used to quantify the observed changes. Subcellular localization of the photosensitizer was studied in order to determine the primary and immediate ROS target. It was found that ZnPc is mainly localized in the mitochondria region.

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Rio Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy.

  18. Cognitive decline is associated with systemic oxidative stress: the EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Berr, C; Balansard, B; Arnaud, J; Roussel, A M; Alpérovitch, A

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether systemic oxidative stress status is associated with cognitive decline. A longitudinal population-based study. A cohort study of older subjects in Nantes, France. A total of 1166 high cognitive functioning subjects aged 60 to 70 in the Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel (EVA) cohort with a 4 year follow-up. Subjects completed a baseline interview and a global cognitive test (Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)). Blood samples were obtained at baseline to determine plasma levels of selenium, carotenoids, thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipoperoxidation, and red blood cell vitamin E. Risk of cognitive decline, defined as a loss of 3 points in MMSE score between baseline and the 4 year follow-up, was assessed by oxidative stress level. Subjects with the highest levels of TBARS show an increased risk of cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.26-4.02). This result is reinforced in the lower antioxidant status subgroup. Subjects with low levels of selenium have an increased risk of cognitive decline (OR = 1.58; CI 95% = 1.08-2.31) after adjustment for various confounding factors. These results suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress and/or antioxidant deficiencies may pose risk factors for cognitive decline. The direct implication of oxidative stress in vascular and neurodegenerative mechanisms that lead to cognitive impairment should be further explored.

  19. Oxidative Stress in Cystinosis Patients

    Maria Helena Vaisbich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephropathic cystinosis (NC is a severe systemic disease and cysteamine improves its prognosis. Lysosomal cystine accumulation is the hallmark of cystinosis and is regarded as the primary defect due to mutations in the CTNS gene. However, there is great evidence that cystine accumulation itself is not responsible for all abnormalities observed in NC. Studies have demonstrated altered ATP metabolism, increased apoptosis, and cell oxidation. An increased number of autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles have been observed in cystinotic fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells, suggesting that altered autophagy plays a role in NC, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cystinosis patients can be more susceptible to oxidative stress (OS and it can contribute to the progression of the renal disease. Our goal was to evaluate a marker of OS (serum TBARS in NC children, and to compare the results with those observed in healthy controls and correlated with renal function parameters. Methods: The study included patients aged under 18 years, with good adherence to the treatment and out of renal replacement therapy. The following parameters were evaluated: serum creatinine, BUN, creatinine clearance estimated by stature and serum TBARS levels. Results: We selected 20 patients aged 8.0 ±3.6 years and observed serum TBARS levels of 4.03 ±1.02 nmol/ml. Serum TBARS levels in the 43 healthy controls, aged 7.4 ±1.1 years, were 1.60 ±0.04 nmol/ml. There was a significant difference between the plasma TBARS levels among the 2 groups (p Conclusion: An increased level of serum TBARS in patients with NC was observed and this abnormality was not correlated with the renal function status degree. This is the first report that shows increased oxidative stress in serum of NC patients.

  20. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Methamphetamine-induced Toxicity and Sources of Variation in the Design of Animal Studies.

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of methamphetamine (MA) use has increased in recent years. In order to assess how this drug produces its effects, both clinical and preclinical studies have recently begun to focus on oxidative stress as an important biochemical mechanism in mediating these effects. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the variation in the design of preclinical studies investigating MA exposure on oxidative stress parameters in animal models. The experimental variables investigated and summarised include MA drug treatment, measurements of oxidative stress and antioxidant treatments that ameliorate the harmful effects of MA. These preclinical studies differ greatly in their experimental design with respect to the dose of MA (ranging between 0.25 and 20 mg/kg), the dosing regime (acute, binge or chronic), the time of measurement of oxidative stress (0.5 h to 2 wks after last MA administration), the antioxidant system targeted and finally the use of antioxidants including the route of administration (i.p. or p.o.), the frequency of exposure and the time of exposure (preventative or therapeutic). The findings in this paper suggest that there is a large diversity among these studies and so the interpretation of these results is challenging. For this reason, the development of guidelines and how best to assess oxidative stress in animal models may be beneficial. The use of these simple recommendations mean that results will be more comparable between laboratories and that future results generated will give us a greater understanding of the contribution of this important biochemical mechanism and its implications for the clinical scenario.

  1. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  2. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  3. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  4. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    M. Knaś

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM. Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, protein carbonyl (PC, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE, oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3 and 14 (groups 2 and 4 days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  5. Simvastatin and oxidative stress in humans

    Rasmussen, Sanne Tofte; Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Nielsen, Torben Kjær

    2016-01-01

    in mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II and might thereby reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that simvastatin may reduce oxidative stress in humans in vivo. We conducted a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which subjects were treated with either 40 mg of simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. The endpoints were six biomarkers for oxidative stress, which represent intracellular oxidative stress to nucleic acids, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidants, that were measured in urine.......1% in the placebo group for DNA oxidation and 7.3% in the simvastatin group compared to 3.4% in the placebo group. The differences in biomarkers related to plasma were not statistically significant between the treatments groups, with the exception of total vitamin E levels, which, as expected, were reduced...

  6. A study of oxidative stress induced by two polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, You; Sun, Kai-Ming; Fang, Kuan; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic mechanisms in marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain poorly understood. Two common congeners of PBDEs, tetrabrominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and decabrominated diphenyl ether-209 (BDE-209), were investigated. Their toxic mechanisms, with a focus on oxidative stress, were examined in rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by two PBDEs. The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA was increased, suggesting SOD play a main role in ROS-scavenging. The intercellular concentrations of calcium ([Ca 2+ ] in ) and the expression of calmodulin (CaM) mRNA were increased. This indicates the calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) signaling channel is involved in PBDEs stress. Further analysis showed that the reproductive system might be the target site for toxicity of PBDEs. Moreover, high value of detection indexes in BDE-47 experimental groups suggested BDE-47 might cause higher oxidative damage than BDE-209 in rotifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study

    Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Hongling; Geng, Qingshan; Ma, Qingling; Long, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM. Methods We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Results Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR), and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24–28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and reticulocytes (P = 0.029) at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002) and monocytes (P = 0.006) in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI. Conclusions Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited β-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM. PMID:25915047

  8. Association of oxidative stress biomarkers with gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    Chunyan Zhu

    Full Text Available The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM.We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress.Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR, and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24-28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003 and reticulocytes (P = 0.029 at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002 and monocytes (P = 0.006 in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI.Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited β-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM.

  9. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) in...

  10. Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study.

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Suarez, Guillaume; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. It has been shown to generate a large majority of particles at the nanoscale and to have low mass emission rates when compared to other types of welding. Despite evidence that TIG fume particles may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited data is available for the time course changes of particle-associated oxidative stress in exposed TIG welders. Twenty non-smoking male welding apprentices were exposed to TIG welding fumes for 60 min under controlled, well-ventilated settings. Exhaled breathe condensate (EBC), blood and urine were collected before exposure, immediately after exposure, 1 h and 3 h post exposure. Volunteers participated in a control day to account for oxidative stress fluctuations due to circadian rhythm. Biological liquids were assessed for total reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations at each time point. A linear mixed model was used to assess within day and between day differences. Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. At 3 h post exposure, we found a 24 % increase in plasma-H2O2 concentrations ([95%CI: 4 % to 46 %], p = 0.01); a 91 % increase in urinary-H2O2 ([2 % to 258 %], p = 0.04); a 14 % increase in plasma-8-OHdG ([0 % to 31 %], p = 0.049); and a 45 % increase in urinary-8-OHdG ([3 % to 105 %], p = 0.03). Doubling particle number concentration (PNC) exposure was associated with a 22 % increase of plasma-8-OHdG at 3 h post exposure (p = 0.01). A 60-min exposure to TIG welding fume in a controlled, well-ventilated setting induced acute oxidative stress at 3 h post exposure in healthy, non-smoking apprentice welders not chronically exposed to welding fumes. As mass concentration of TIG welding fume particles is very low when compared to other types of welding, it is

  11. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Nongenital Warts

    Sezai Sasmaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P<.05. However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress.

  13. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Asieh Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy (DN is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin, aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat, advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine, the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine, inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril. The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials.

  14. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

  15. Oxidative stress-induced metabolic changes in mouse C2C12 myotubes studied with high-resolution 13C, 1H, and 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O

    2010-01-01

    In this study, stress in relation to slaughter was investigated in a model system by the use of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for elucidating changes in the metabolites in C2C12 myotubes exposed to H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Oxidative stress resulted in lower...... to lower levels of the unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were identified in the (1)H spectra after stress exposure. These data indicate an increase in de novo synthesis of alanine, concomitant with a release of lactate from the myotubes to the medium at oxidative stress conditions. The changes in the metabolite...

  16. Study of Oxidative Stress in Vitiligo and Use of Narrow Band UVB-311 as a Method of Treatment

    Fawzy, N.; Rashed, L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disease characterized by circumscribed depigmenting macules devoid of identifiable melanocytes. The disease has uncertain aetiopathogenesis. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as antioxidants and Nitric oxide and superoxide anion as oxidants in vitiligo patients and evaluate the clinical effectiveness of narrow band UVB (NB-UVB-311) as a method of treatment and repairing the oxidative stress-induced damage. This study included twenty vitiligo patients and fifteen-age and sex matched control. There was statistically significant increase in the levels of SOD in active vitiligo lesions compared to control (P<0.001). There was statistically significant decrease in the level of CAT in vitiligo skin lesions compared to skin of control. After using NB-UVB- 311 the level of SOD was significantly decreased and CAT level was significantly increased (P<0.001). There was statistically significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and superoxide in vitiligo patients compared to control. After using NB-UVB-311 as treatment, the level of nitric oxide and superoxide anion was significantly decreased (P<0.001) in vitiligo patients. These results provide some evidence regarding the oxidant /antioxidant balance in vitiligo patients and the positive role of narrow band UVB- 311 as a treatment of vitiligo

  17. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  18. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oxidative Stress in Cataractogenesis

    Sonja Cekić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compeer levels of antioxidative agent -total SH groups and the finale product of lipid peroxidationmalondialdehyde (MDA in serum, and glutathione (GSH and MDA in nucleocortical parts of lens after extracapsular extraction of cataract. Patient were (38 with cataract and 38 controls matched by sex and years of life. Diagnosis of cataract was established by complete ocular examination. All results are expressed as mean ± S.D. A Student’s t-test was used to estimate differences between the groups. The level of significance was p<0,05. Total sulfhydryl groups were determined in serum by the method of Ellman as well as GSH content in nucleocortical parts of lenses using the method of Sedlak and Lindsay. Lipid peroxidation, evidenced by formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, was determined in nucleocortical parts of the lens and in serum. Our results show a statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups (225,37±82,19μmol/L, controls 311,03±60,37μm0l/L p<0,05 and MDA (20,24±8,12, and controls 8,73±2,53μmol/L, p<0,001 in serum among patients with age related cataract and controls. There was no statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups and MDA in serum among patients with different type of age related cataract and in nucleocortical parts of lens. The present study concludes that there is a statistical significance in concentration of total SH groups and MDA in serum among patients with age related cataract and controls, but there were no statistical significance in concentration of GSH and MDA in serum and nucleocortical parts of lens in patient with different type of cataract.

  20. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  1. Oxidative stress parameters in localized scleroderma patients.

    Kilinc, F; Sener, S; Akbaş, A; Metin, A; Kirbaş, S; Neselioglu, S; Erel, O

    2016-11-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) (morphea) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease with unknown cause that progresses with sclerosis in the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. We have aimed to determine the relationship of morphea lesions with oxidative stress. The total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paroxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) activity parameters of PON 1 enzyme levels in the serum were investigated in 13 LS patients (generalized and plaque type) and 13 healthy controls. TOC values of the patient group were found higher than the TOC values of the control group (p < 0.01). ARES values of the patient group was found to be higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). OSI was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to the control (p < 0.005). Oxidative stress seems to be effective in the pathogenesis. ARES levels have increased in morphea patients regarding to the oxidative stress and its reduction. Further controlled studies are required in wider series.

  2. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

    Liguori I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Liguori,1 Gennaro Russo,1 Francesco Curcio,1 Giulia Bulli,1 Luisa Aran,1 David Della-Morte,2,3 Gaetano Gargiulo,4 Gianluca Testa,1,5 Francesco Cacciatore,1,6 Domenico Bonaduce,1 Pasquale Abete1 1Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Internal Medicine, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi di Aragona, Salerno, Italy; 5Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy; 6Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Heart Transplantation Unit, Naples, Italy Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, including sarcopenia and frailty. Different types of oxidative stress biomarkers have been identified and may provide important information about the efficacy of the treatment, guiding the selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients and, if particularly relevant from a pathophysiological point of view, acting on a specific therapeutic target. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of

  3. Study on the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and the tenderness of yak meat.

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Yu, Qun-Li; Han, Ling; Ma, Xiu-Li; Song, Ren-De; Zhao, Suo-Nan; Zhang, Wen-Hua

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and tenderness of yak meat during postmortem ageing. Oxidative stress degree, Ca 2+ levels, membrane permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic factors and the shear force were examined. Results showed that the ROS generated by H 2 O 2 significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress by decreasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, oxidative stress enhanced Ca 2+ production and cytochrome c release, changed the levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and activated caspase-9 and -3 activities. Ultimately, oxidative stress increased the apoptosis rate and tenderness of yak meat. These observations confirmed that ROS-mediated oxidative stress participates in the activation of the apoptotic cascade reaction involving Ca 2+ and Bcl-2 family proteins. The results further suggested that ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant role in meat tenderization through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino ac....... The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker.......SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino...... acids. RECENT ADVANCES: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. CRITICAL ISSUES: The literature is very heterogeneous...

  5. Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological ...

    Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological Changes Induced By Nicotine In A Gender Based Study In Adult Rats. ... Antioxidant status was assessed in liver by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ...

  6. Comparative studies on the effects of clinically used anticonvulsants on the oxidative stress biomarkers in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice.

    Mazhar, Faizan; Malhi, Saima M; Simjee, Shabana U

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and contributes in underlying epileptogenesis process. Anticonvulsant drugs targeting the oxidative stress domain of epileptogenesis may provide better control of seizure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and oxidative stress markers in mice. Six mechanistically heterogeneous anticonvulsants: phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, and felbamate were selected and their redox profiles were determined. Diazepam was used as a drug control for comparison. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate days until seizure score 5 was evoked in the control kindled group. Anticonvulsants were administered daily. Following PTZ kindling, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in homogenized whole brain samples and estimated for the levels of nitric oxide, peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, and activities of nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species with a parallel decrease in endogenous anti-oxidants in PTZ-kindled control animals. Daily treatment with levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score as well as the levels of nitric oxide (panticonvulsant effect by the diversified mechanism of action such as levetiracetam, felbamate, and topiramate exhibited superior anti-oxidative stress activity in addition to their anticonvulsant activity.

  7. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  8. Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Obesity

    Azahara I. Rupérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  9. Genetics of oxidative stress in obesity.

    Rupérez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2014-02-20

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  10. The Influence of Urban Environments on Oxidative Stress Balance: A Case Study on the House Sparrow in the Iberian Peninsula

    Amparo Herrera-Dueñas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The House Sparrow is a globally distributed species and is closely associated with anthropised environments. They are well-adapted to urban life; therefore the decline of their populations in Europe represents an unexpected event that demands an investigation into its causes. Causes that have promoted this decline are not well-known, but one of the highlighted hypotheses is an increase of oxidative stress linked to the toxicity of pollution in urban areas. From an ecophysiological perspective, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, and oxidative balance are considered reliable indicators of environmental stressors such as pollutants. To carry out this study, blood samples were collected from House Sparrows in three different habitats that varied in terms of urbanization degree: urban, suburban, and rural; during the winter and breeding season. According to our results, urban sparrows showed higher levels of oxidative damage and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, but lower antioxidant capacity in comparison with the rural birds; and these differences especially increase during the breeding season. The maintenance of oxidative balance increases in an urban environment in comparison to a rural one; we suggest that the high level of pollution and the poor quality diet linked to urban environments. The breeding season is expected to be particularly challenging for the oxidative balance of urban birds, when the reallocation of resources between self-maintenance and reproduction may be critical due to the scarcity of antioxidants found in urban areas. This study may contribute to determining the causes of the population decrease of House Sparrows in cities.

  11. In vivo (1)H MRS study of potential associations between glutathione, oxidative stress and anhedonia in major depressive disorder.

    Lapidus, Kyle A B; Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Johnson, Amy; Murrough, James W; Mathew, Sanjay J; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2014-05-21

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are important mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant in human tissue, and a key index of antioxidant capacity and, hence, of oxidative stress. The aims of this investigation were to examine possible relationships between occipital GSH and dimensional measures of depressive symptom severity, including anhedonia - the reduced capacity to experience pleasure - and fatigue. We hypothesized that the magnitude of anhedonia and fatigue will be negatively correlated with occipital GSH levels in subjects with MDD and healthy controls (HC). Data for eleven adults with MDD and ten age- and sex-matched HC subjects were included in this secondary analysis of data from a previously published study. In vivo levels of GSH in a 3cm×3cm×2cm voxel of occipital cortex were obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) on a 3T MR system, using the standard J-edited spin-echo difference technique. Anhedonia was assessed by combining interest items from depression and fatigue rating scales, and fatigue by use of the multidimensional fatigue inventory. Across the full sample of participants, anhedonia severity and occipital GSH levels were negatively correlated (r=-0.55, p=0.01). No associations were found between fatigue severity and GSH in this sample. These preliminary findings are potentially consistent with a pathophysiological role for GSH and oxidative stress in anhedonia and MDD. Larger studies in anhedonic depressed patients are indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation reduces oxidative stress and upregulates autophagy in surgery patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: exploratory study

    Robert T. Mankowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV during a cardio-thoracic surgery contributes to diaphragm muscle dysfunction that impairs weaning and can lead to the ventilator- induced diaphragm dysfunction. Especially, it is critical in older adults who have lower muscle reparative capacity following MV. Reports have shown that the intraoperative intermittent hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation can maintain and/or improve post-surgery diaphragm function. In particular, from a molecular point of view, intermittent electrical stimulation (ES may reduce oxidative stress and increase regulatory autophagy levels, and therefore improve diaphragm function in animal studies. We have recently shown in humans that intraoperative ES attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and force decline in single diaphragm muscle fibers. The aim of this study was to investigate an effect of ES on oxidative stress, antioxidant status and autophagy biomarker levels in the human diaphragm during surgery. Methods One phrenic nerve was simulated with an external cardiac pacer in operated older subjects (62.4 ± 12.9 years (n = 8 during the surgery. The patients received 30 pulses per min every 30 min. The muscle biopsy was collected from both hemidiaphragms and frozen for further analyses. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, an oxidative stress marker, and autophagy marker levels (Beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, I and II-LC3 II/I protein concentrations were detected by the Western Blot technique. Antioxidant enzymatic activity copper-zinc (CuZnSOD and manganese (MnSOD superoxide dismutase were analyzed. Results Levels of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE were significantly lower in the stimulated side (p  0.05. Additionally, the protein concentrations of Beclin-1 and the LC3 II/I ratio were higher in the stimulated side (p < 0.05. Conclusion These results suggest that the intraoperative electrical stimulation decreases oxidative stress levels

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress causes hyperphosphorylation of tau.

    Simon Melov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related neurodegenerative disease has been mechanistically linked with mitochondrial dysfunction via damage from reactive oxygen species produced within the cell. We determined whether increased mitochondrial oxidative stress could modulate or regulate two of the key neurochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD: tau phosphorylation, and beta-amyloid deposition. Mice lacking superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 die within the first week of life, and develop a complex heterogeneous phenotype arising from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Treatment of these mice with catalytic antioxidants increases their lifespan and rescues the peripheral phenotypes, while uncovering central nervous system pathology. We examined sod2 null mice differentially treated with high and low doses of a catalytic antioxidant and observed striking elevations in the levels of tau phosphorylation (at Ser-396 and other phospho-epitopes of tau in the low-dose antioxidant treated mice at AD-associated residues. This hyperphosphorylation of tau was prevented with an increased dose of the antioxidant, previously reported to be sufficient to prevent neuropathology. We then genetically combined a well-characterized mouse model of AD (Tg2576 with heterozygous sod2 knockout mice to study the interactions between mitochondrial oxidative stress and cerebral Ass load. We found that mitochondrial SOD2 deficiency exacerbates amyloid burden and significantly reduces metal levels in the brain, while increasing levels of Ser-396 phosphorylated tau. These findings mechanistically link mitochondrial oxidative stress with the pathological features of AD.

  14. IGF-1, oxidative stress, and atheroprotection

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which early endothelial dysfunction and subintimal modified lipoprotein deposition progress to complex, advanced lesions that are predisposed to erosion, rupture and thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a critical role not only in initial lesion formation but also in lesion progression and destabilization. While growth factors are thought to promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, thereby increasing neointima, recent animal studies indicate that IGF-1 exerts pleiotropic anti-oxidant effects along with anti-inflammatory effects that together reduce atherosclerotic burden. This review discusses the effects of IGF-1 in vascular injury and atherosclerosis models, emphasizing the relationship between oxidative stress and potential atheroprotective actions of IGF-1. PMID:20071192

  15. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  16. The involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanisms of damaging cadmium action in bone tissue: A study in a rat model of moderate and relatively high human exposure

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Rogalska, Joanna; Kupraszewicz, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    It was investigated whether cadmium (Cd) may induce oxidative stress in the bone tissue in vivo and in this way contribute to skeleton damage. Total antioxidative status (TAS), antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), total oxidative status (TOS), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), lipid peroxides (LPO), total thiol groups (TSH) and protein carbonyl groups (PC) as well as Cd in the bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis and femoral diaphysis of the male rats that received drinking water containing 0, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 6 months were measured. Cd, depending on the level of exposure and bone location, decreased the bone antioxidative capacity and enhanced its oxidative status resulting in oxidative stress and oxidative protein and/or lipid modification. The treatment with 5 and 50 mg Cd/l decreased TAS and activities of antioxidative enzymes as well as increased TOS and concentrations of H 2 O 2 and PC at the distal femur. Moreover, at the higher exposure, the concentration of LPO increased and that of TSH decreased. The Cd-induced changes in the oxidative/antioxidative balance of the femoral diaphysis, abundant in cortical bone, were less advanced than at the distal femur, where trabecular bone predominates. The results provide evidence that, even moderate, exposure to Cd induces oxidative stress and oxidative modifications in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations noted between the indices of oxidative/antioxidative bone status, and Cd accumulation in the bone tissue as well as indices of bone turnover and bone mineral status, recently reported by us (Toxicology 2007, 237, 89-103) in these rats, allow for the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanisms of damaging Cd action in the skeleton. The paper is the first report from an in vivo study indicating that Cd may affect bone tissue through disorders in its oxidative/antioxidative balance resulting in oxidative stress.

  17. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-20

    Ar/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  18. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying; Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Ar/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  19. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  20. Influence of alcohol consumption on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cancer patients--case-control study from Western Nepal.

    Nagamma, T; Bhutia, Rinchen Doma; Pokharel, Daya Ram; Yadav, Saraswati; Baxi, J

    2012-01-01

    The present study assess the effect of consumption of alcohol on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients suffering from different types of cancer. This hospital based case control study conducted in the Western part of Nepal covered a total of 93 cancer patients with or without alcohol intake and smoking habits, along with 94 age, sex and habit-matched individuals serving as controls. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), total antioxidant activity (TAA), vitamin C, α-tocopherol and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated and compared. The TBARS level was found to be significantly higher (p≤0.001) in all types of cancer patients when compared to controls, being aggravated in alcoholics with a smoking habit. No statistical significance (p≥0.05) was observed in the level of vitamin C and α-tocopherol. GSH and TAA level were significantly decreased (p≤0.001) in all the groups except those who consumed both branded as well as homemade alcohol and non-alcoholics without smoking habit. Alcohol, irrespective of its commercial brand, increases oxidative stress in all types of cancer patients. This is even higher when alcohol intake is combined with a smoking habit. Decreased TAA and GSH are major risk factors for cancer development.

  1. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Thompson, Loren P.; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  2. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  3. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    K. Manasa; R. Vani

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platele...

  4. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

    Vanova, Nela; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Herman, David; Dlabkova, Alzbeta; Jun, Daniel

    2018-08-01

    Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Radioprotective potential of Decalepis hamiltonii: a study on gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Pasha, Muzeer; Shivanandappa, T.; Ramesh, S.R.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restricts the therapeutic use of radiation in clinical application for cancer treatment and thereby limits the efficacy of the treatment. The use of chemical compounds as radioprotectors is a desirable strategy to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown to have undesirable properties of toxicity. There is a need for safer, natural radioprotective agents without compromising efficacy of the treatment. We have investigated the radioprotective potential of Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) root extract which is rich in natural antioxidants by employing Drosophila melanogaster as a model. Irradiation of Drosophila with 100, 200, and 400 Gy of gamma radiation induced dose-dependent mortality. Elevation in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and depletion of glutathione (GSH) content suggested radiation-induced oxidative stress. Pretreatment of flies with Dh root extract protected them from radiation-induced mortality and oxidative stress as evidenced by reduction in TBARS and restoration of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT, and GSH to control levels. This is the first report of radioprotective action of Dh root extract in D. melanogaster. (author)

  6. Protective effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on oxidative stress-induced neuronal injuries: an in vitro study

    Yan, Xu; Jia, Mei; Li, Jiaxin; Yuan, Fang; Qiao, Yajun; Ouyang, Jiting

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) can produce biological active species for biomedical applications. This work proves direct evidence of the protective effects of APPJ against oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells, a commonly used cell model for the study of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, were treated with APPJ for different durations. Then, cells were exposed to 200 µ M H 2 O 2 for 24 h and cell viability was measured using a CCK-8 kit. Changes in cell apoptosis were further confirmed by calcein-AM fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Extracellular NO production was detected using the Griess method. The results showed that APPJ protected SH-SY5Y from H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, extracellular NO production was significantly increased with the APPJ treatment. The results show in vitro that APPJ treatment could protect SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative stress by reducing cell apoptosis, which might be related to the reactive nitrogen species induced by the APPJ treatment. Our results indicate that the APPJ may have therapeutic potential as a novel ‘NO donor drug’ in neuroprotection and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (paper)

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  8. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

  9. Detection and localization of markers of oxidative stress by in situ methods: application in the study of Alzheimer disease.

    Moreira, Paula I; Sayre, Lawrence M; Zhu, Xiongwei; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD), and it is well documented that free radical oxidative damage, particularly of neuronal lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and sugars, is extensive in brains of AD patients. The complex chemistry of peroxynitrite has been the subject of intense study and is now evident that there are two principal pathways for protein modification: the first one involves homolytic hydroxyl radical-like chemistry that results in protein-based carbonyls and the second involves electrophilic nitration of vulnerable side chains, in particular the electron-rich aromatic rings of Tyr and Trp. In the presence of buffering bicarbonate, peroxynitrite forms a CO(2) adduct, which augments its reactivity. Formation of 3-nitrotyrosine by this route has become the classical protein marker specifically for the presence of peroxynitrite. Protein-based carbonyls can be detected by two methods: (i) derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and detection of the protein-bound hydrazones using an enzyme-linked anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibody and (ii) derivatization with biotin-hydrazide and detection of the protein-bound acyl hydrazone with enzyme-linked avidin or streptavidin. Glycation of proteins by reducing sugars (Maillard reaction) results in a profile of time-dependent adduct evolution rendering susceptibility to oxidative elaboration. In addition, oxidative stress can result in oxidized sugar derivatives which can subsequently modify protein through a process known as glycoxidation. Of more general importance, oxidative stress results in lipid peroxidation and the production of a range of electrophilic and mostly bifunctional aldehydes that modify numerous proteins. The more important protein modifications are referred to as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs). Protein modification can result in both non-cross-link and cross-link AGEs

  10. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results.

  11. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine–Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine–induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg−1) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine–induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats. PMID:26011211

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats.

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg(-1)) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats.

  14. [Oxidative stress in station service workers].

    Basso, A; Elia, G; Petrozzi, M T; Zefferino, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify an oxidative stress in service station workers. Previous studies verified an increased incidence of leukemia and myeloma, however other authors haven't verified it. There are reports of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and lung cancer in service station workers. Our study wants to evaluate the oxidative balance in the fuel workers. We studied 44 subjects with gasoline exposure and 29 control subjects. We determined the blood concentrations of Glutathione reduced and oxidized, Protein sulfhydrylic (PSH) Vitamine E, Vitamine C, Malondialdehyde, Protein oxidized (OX-PROT) and beta carotene. The t test was performed to analyze the differences between the means, the Chi square was used to evaluate the statistical significance of associations between variable categorical (redox index). The Anova test excluded the confusing effect of age, smoke and alcohol habit. The mean age of the workers was 36.6 years, instead the control group was 38. In the workers Glutathione reduced, Vit. E and Beta carotene were lower than in the control subjects, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Malondialdehyde concentration was higher in the workers higher than in the control group, but this difference wasn't statistically significant. Our data demonstrated Glutathione, Vit. E, and Beta carotene are useful to verify a reduction of the antioxidant activity. The only marker of the presence of oxidative injury that correlated to work exposure was the malondialdehyde. The redox index was surest marker. The limit of our study is the number of control group, it was little and lower than workers. Conclusively we believe it's useful to continue our studies and, if our results are going to be confirmed, we retain that stress oxidative determination would be verified in occupational medicine using these markers, especially to study exposure of the fuel workers who were investigated less and, in our opinion, would receive more attention.

  15. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in permethrin neurotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was found to ...

  16. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  17. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  18. Control of antioxidant supplementation through interview is not appropriate in oxidative-stress sport studies: Analytical confirmation should be required.

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jeronimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casuso, Rafael A; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study. They denied taking any antioxidant supplementation at initial interview. After a HPLC analysis, abnormal α-tocopherol concentrations were detected, probably due to a hidden antioxidant supplementation. Participants were classified into two groups: no evidence of antioxidant supplementation (NS group = α-tocopherol values antioxidant supplementation (S group = α-tocopherol values >80 nmol/mL; n = 19). Lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nonenzymatic antioxidant content were analyzed according to this classification. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test. The α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in the S group than in the NS group (MD = 725.01 ± 39.01 nmol/mL; P = 0.001). The S group showed a trend toward lower hydroperoxides than the NS group (MD = 1.19 ± 0.72 nmol/mL; P = 0.071). The S group showed significantly lower catalase activity than the NS group (MD = 0.10 ± 0.02-seg-1 mg-1; P antioxidant supplementation in a personal interview, as they showed high plasmatic α-tocopherol concentrations after HPLC verification. Catalase activity seems to be affected by high α-tocopherol plasma levels. Therefore, we strongly recommend the HPLC analysis as a necessary tool to verify the antioxidant intake and preserve results in studies linking oxidative stress and sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study

    Sabrina Giacoppo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the last decades has widely investigated the anti-oxidant properties of natural products as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and the treatment of oxidative-stress related disorders. In this context, several studies were aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa. Here, we examined the anti-oxidant ability of Cannabigerol (CBG, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, still little known, into counteracting the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative stress in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, we tested selective receptor antagonists for cannabinoid receptors and specifically CB1R (SR141716A and CB2R (AM630 in order to investigate through which CBG may exert its action. Taken together, our in vitro results showed that CBG is able to counteract oxidative stress by activation of CB2 receptors. CB2 antagonist pre-treatment indeed blocked the protective effects of CBG in H2O2 stimulated macrophages, while CB1R was not involved. Specifically, CBG exhibited a potent action in inhibiting oxidative stress, by down-regulation of the main oxidative markers (iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP-1, by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation and translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and also via the modulation of MAP kinases pathway. On the other hand, CBG was found to increase anti-oxidant defense of cells by modulating superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1 expression and thus inhibiting cell death (results focused on balance between Bax and Bcl-2. Based on its antioxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.

  20. Aerobic exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in sedentary older middle-aged adults. A pilot study.

    Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2016-12-01

    Older individuals who exercise regularly exhibit greater resistance to oxidative stress than their sedentary peers, suggesting that exercise can modify age-associated loss of resistance to oxidative stress. However, we recently demonstrated that a single bout of exercise confers protection against a subsequent oxidative challenge in young, but not older adults. We therefore hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would be needed to increase resistance to an oxidative challenge in sedentary older middle-aged adults. Sedentary older middle-aged men and women (50-63 years, n = 11) participated in an 8-week exercise intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption was measured before and after the intervention. The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week, for 45 min at an intensity corresponding to 70-85 % maximal heart rate (HR max ). Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by F 2 -isoprostane response to a forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial before and after the exercise intervention. The intervention elicited a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) (P exercise intervention (time-by-trial interaction, P = 0.043). Individual improvements in aerobic fitness were associated with greater improvements in the F 2 -isoprostane response (r = -0.761, P = 0.011), further supporting the role of aerobic fitness in resistance to oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that regular exercise with improved fitness leads to increased resistance to oxidative stress in older middle-aged adults and that this measure is modifiable in previously sedentary individuals.

  1. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  2. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stress and inflammation mediate the effect of air pollution on cardio- and cerebrovascular disease: A prospective study in nonsmokers.

    Fiorito, Giovanni; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Polidoro, Silvia; Gulliver, John; Galassi, Claudia; Ranzi, Andrea; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Hoek, Gerard; Herceg, Zdenko; Vermeulen, Roel; Ghantous, Akram; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution is associated with a broad range of adverse health effects, including mortality and morbidity due to cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD), but the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. This study aims to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the causal chain, and to identify intermediate biomarkers that are associated retrospectively with the exposure and prospectively with the disease. We designed a case-control study on CCVD nested in a cohort of 18,982 individuals from the EPIC-Italy study. We measured air pollution, inflammatory biomarkers, and whole-genome DNA methylation in blood collected up to 17 years before the diagnosis. The study sample includes all the incident CCVD cases among former- and never-smokers, with available stored blood sample, that arose in the cohort during the follow-up. We identified enrichment of altered DNA methylation in "ROS/Glutathione/Cytotoxic granules" and "Cytokine signaling" pathways related genes, associated with both air pollution (multiple comparisons adjusted p for enrichment ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 depending on pollutant) and with CCVD risk (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). Also, Interleukin-17 was associated with higher exposure to NO 2 (P = 0.0004), NO x (P = 0.0005), and CCVD risk (OR = 1.79; CI 1.04-3.11; P = 0.04 comparing extreme tertiles). Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to air pollution can lead to oxidative stress, which in turn activates a cascade of inflammatory responses mainly involving the "Cytokine signaling" pathway, leading to increased risk of CCVD. Inflammatory proteins and DNA methylation alterations can be detected several years before CCVD diagnosis in blood samples, being promising preclinical biomarkers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:234-246, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui

    2018-01-01

    There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF- κ B-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  5. Oxidative stress in primary glomerular diseases

    Markan, Suchita; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sud, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure.......To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure....

  6. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  7. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  8. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Bee Ling Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF-κB- mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  9. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  10. Implantation of Neural Probes in the Brain Elicits Oxidative Stress

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical implantation of intracortical microelectrodes has been hindered, at least in part, by the perpetual inflammatory response occurring after device implantation. The neuroinflammatory response observed after device implantation has been correlated to oxidative stress that occurs due to neurological injury and disease. However, there has yet to be a definitive link of oxidative stress to intracortical microelectrode implantation. Thus, the objective of this study is to give direct evidence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation. This study also aims to identify potential molecular targets to attenuate oxidative stress observed postimplantation. Here, we implanted adult rats with silicon non-functional microelectrode probes for 4 weeks and compared the oxidative stress response to no surgery controls through postmortem gene expression analysis and qualitative histological observation of oxidative stress markers. Gene expression analysis results at 4 weeks postimplantation indicated that EH domain-containing 2, prion protein gene (Prnp, and Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1 were all significantly higher for animals implanted with intracortical microelectrode probes compared to no surgery control animals. To the contrary, NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1 relative gene expression was significantly lower for implanted animals compared to no surgery control animals. Histological observation of oxidative stress showed an increased expression of oxidized proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids concentrated around the implant site. Collectively, our results reveal there is a presence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation compared to no surgery controls. Further investigation targeting these specific oxidative stress linked genes could be beneficial to understanding potential mechanisms and downstream therapeutics that can be utilized to reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage

  11. Does prolonged pneumoperitoneum affect the kidney? Oxidative stress, stereological and electron microscopy study in a rat model

    Diogo B. de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pneumoperitoneum (Pp at 12 to 15 mmHg in rats is associated with kidney damage. However, Pp at 8 mmHg is now known to best correlate to working pressures used in humans. Thus the aim of this work was to study the kidney of rats submitted to prolonged Pp at 8 mmHg. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into a Sham group (n = 14, submitted to anesthesia, and a Pp group (n = 14, submitted to Pp at 8 mmHg, followed by deflation. In both groups, 7 animals were immediately killed and their kidneys were used for oxidative stress analyses. The remaining 7 rats in each group were evaluated after 6 weeks for the number of glomeruli and podocyte morphology. Results: For all analyzed parameters Sham and Pp groups presented no statistical difference. Conclusion: When submitted to adequate Pp pressures (8 mmHg, no kidney damage occurs in rats.

  12. Effects of dietary extra-virgin olive oil on oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle: a morphological study.

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Maria Trovato, Francesca; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress through production of reactive oxygen species and can cause damage to muscle tissue. Oxidative stress, resulting from exhaustive exercise is high and improvement of antioxidant defenses of the body may ameliorate damage caused by free radicals. Extra-virgin olive oil is widely considered to possess anti-oxidative properties. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-virgin olive oil improved the adaptive responses in conditions of oxidative stress. Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in three groups: (1) rats fed with standard chow and not subjected to physical exercise; (2) rats fed with standard chow and subjected to exhaustive exercise; (3) rats fed with a diet rich in oleic acid, the major component of extra-virgin olive oil, and subjected to exhaustive exercise. Exhaustive exercise consisted of forced running in a five-lane 10° inclined treadmill at a speed of 30 m/min for 70-75 min. We studied some biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidant defenses, histology and ultrastructure of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (Rectus femoris). We observed that, in rats of group 3, parameters indicating oxidative stress such as hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased, parameters indicating antioxidant defenses of the body such as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and Hsp70 expression increased, and R. femoris muscle did not show histological and ultrastructural alterations. Results of this study support the view that extra-virgin olive oil can improve the adaptive response of the body in conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Chrononutrition against Oxidative Stress in Aging

    M. Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated degenerative diseases. Antioxidant systems deteriorate during aging. It is, thus, considered that one way to reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress by strengthening antioxidant defences. Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components of foods possess biological activities which influence circadian rhythms in humans. Chrononutrition studies have shown that not only the content of food, but also the time of ingestion contributes to the natural functioning of the circadian system. Dietary interventions with antioxidant-enriched foods taking into account the principles of chrononutrition are of particular interest for the elderly since they may help amplify the already powerful benefits of phytochemicals as natural instruments with which to prevent or delay the onset of common age-related diseases.

  14. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  15. Is the Oxidative Stress Really a Disease?

    Fogarasi Erzsébet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals or other reactive species and the antioxidant activity of the organism. Oxidative stress can induce several illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson. The biomarkers of oxidative stress are used to test oxidative injury of biomolecules. The indicators of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy- 2-nonenal, 2-propenal, isoprostanes, of protein oxidation (carbonylated proteins, tyrosine derivatives, of oxidative damage of DNA, and other biomarkers (glutathione level, metallothioneins, myeloperoxidase activity are the most used oxidative stress markers. Diseases caused by oxidative stress can be prevented with antioxidants. In human body are several enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and spin traps. Antioxidants are synthetized in the organism (glutathione or arrive in the body by nutrition (ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, resveratrol, xanthones. Different therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress with the use of synthetic molecules such as nitrone-based antioxidants (phenyl-α-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN, 2,4-disulphophenyl- N-tert-butylnitrone (NXY-059, stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN, which scavenge a wide variety of free radical species, increase endogenous antioxidant levels and inhibits free radical generation are also tested in animal models.

  16. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  17. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  18. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  19. Protection from Oxidative Stress in Immunocytes of the Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri: Transcript Characterization and Expression Studies.

    Franchi, Nicola; Ballin, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-02-01

    Botryllus schlosseri is a cosmopolitan colonial ascidian that undergoes cyclical generation changes, or take-overs, during which adult zooids are resorbed and replaced by their buds. At take-over, adult tissues undergo diffuse apoptosis and effete cells are massively ingested by circulating phagocytes, with a consequent increase in oxygen consumption and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The latter are responsible for the death of phagocytes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and corpses by phagocytosis-induced apoptosis. However, the majority of phagocytes and hemocytes do not die, even if they experience oxidative stress. This fact suggests the presence of detoxification mechanisms assuring their protection. To test this assumption, we searched for transcripts of genes involved in detoxification in the transcriptome of B. schlosseri. We identified and characterized transcripts for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM), glutathione synthase (GS), and two glutathione peroxidases (i.e., GPx3 and GPx5), all involved in protection from ROS. We also carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the putative amino acid sequences, confirming their similarity to their vertebrate counterparts, and studied the location of their mRNAs by in situ hybridization on hemocyte monolayers. We also analyzed gene transcription during the colonial blastogenetic cycle, which is the interval of time between one take-over and the next, by qRT-PCR. In addition, we investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd), an inducer of oxidative stress, on gene transcription. Our results indicated that i) antioxidant gene expression is modulated in the course of the blastogenetic cycle and upon exposure to Cd, and ii) hemocytes synthesize both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, in line with the idea that they represent a major detoxification system for ascidians.

  20. Levodopa increases oxidative stress and repulsive guidance molecule A levels: a pilot study in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Müller, Thomas; Trommer, Isabel; Muhlack, Siegfried; Mueller, Bernhard K

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to free radicals influences synthesis, degradation and function of proteins, such as repulsive guidance molecule A. Decay of this protein is essential for neuronal maintenance and recovery. Levodopa elevates oxidative stress. Therefore levodopa may impact repulsive guidance molecule A metabolism. Objectives were to investigate plasma concentrations of repulsive guidance molecule A, levodopa, cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine before and 1 h after levodopa application in patients with Parkinson's disease. Cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine as biomarkers for oxidative stress exposure decreased, repulsive guidance molecule A and levodopa rose. Repulsive guidance molecule A remained unchanged in levodopa naïve patients, but particularly went up in patients on a prior chronic levodopa regimen. Decay of cysteine specifically cysteinyl-glycine results from an elevated glutathione generation with rising cysteine consumption respectively from the alternative glutathione transformation to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide after free radical scavenging. Repulsive guidance molecule A rise may inhibit physiologic mechanisms for neuronal survival.

  1. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of bench step exercise intervention on work ability in terms of cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled study.

    Ohta, Masanori; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Work ability is partly determined by physical and mental fitness. Bench step exercise can be practiced anywhere at any time. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a bench step exercise on work ability by examining cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress. Thirteen volunteers working in a warehousing industry comprised the bench step exercise group (n=7) and the control group (n=6). The participants in the step exercise group were encouraged to practice the step exercise at home for 16 weeks. The step exercise improved glucose metabolism and antioxidative capacity and increased work ability by reducing absences from work and improving the prognosis of work ability. The improvement in work ability was related to a reduction in oxidative stress. These results suggest that a bench step exercise may improve work ability by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress.

  3. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    L. C. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS. The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe and paraquat, (PQ in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%, our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  4. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia.

    Cruz, L C; Batista, J E S; Zemolin, A P P; Nunes, M E M; Lippert, D B; Royes, L F F; Soares, F A; Pereira, A B; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70-80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  5. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  6. Age and the effect of exercise, nutrition and cognitive training on oxidative stress - the Vienna Active Aging Study (VAAS), a randomized controlled trial

    Franzke, Bernhard; Schober-Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigated the effect of age - over or under life-expectancy (LE) - on six months resistance training alone or combined with a nutritional supplement, and cognitive training by analyzing markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in institutionalized...... elderly, living in Vienna. Three groups (n=117, age=83.1±6.1 years) - resistance training (RT), RT combined with protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS) or cognitive training (CT) - performed two guided training sessions per week for six months. Oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and DNA strand...

  7. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  8. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  10. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: ... Oxidative stress has been proposed as a pos- sible mechanism involved .... to the Natural Health Institute of Health Guidelines for. Animal Care and ..... Journal of American College of.

  11. Comparison of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness between incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients – an observational study

    Ratanjee Sharad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients on peritoneal and hemodialysis have accelerated atherosclerosis associated with an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The atherosclerosis is associated with increased arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of peritoneal and hemodialysis on arterial stiffness, vascular function, myocardial structure and function, oxidative stress and inflammation in incident patients with end stage kidney disease. Methods This is an observational study. Eighty stage five CKD patients will be enrolled and followed for one-year. Primary outcome measures will be changes in 1 arterial stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity, 2 oxidative stress assessed by plasma F2 isoprostanes and 3 inflammation measured by plasma pentraxin-3. Secondary outcomes will include additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, changes in vascular function assessed using the brachial artery reactivity technique, carotid artery intimal medial thickness, augmentation index and trans thoracic echocardiography to assess left ventricular geometry, and systolic and diastolic function. Patients will undergo these measures at baseline (6–8 weeks prior to starting dialysis therapy, then at six and 12 months after starting dialysis. Discussion The results of this study may guide the choice of dialysis modality in the first year of treatment. It may also lead to a larger study prospectively assessing the effect of dialysis modality on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000049279

  12. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pC18:2) ratios. Greater vitaminE/triglyceride (TG) ratio, however, appeared in the control group. The corresponding vitamin A ratios (vitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  13. Increased oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean ...

    0.05) comparing to HC group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of antioxidant vitamin levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated increased oxidative stress in patients with FMF during AP.

  14. ( Artemisia absinthium ) Extract On Oxidative Stress In Ameliorating ...

    exposure related disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) on oxidative stress in rats protractedly exposed to lead. Aqueous extract of wormwood plant was administered ...

  15. Alzheimer's disease: Cerebrovascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and advanced clinical therapies

    Marlatt, M.W.; Lucassen, P.J.; Perry, G.; Smith, M.A.; Zhu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Many lines of independent research have provided convergent evidence regarding oxidative stress, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical studies spurred by these findings engage basic and clinical communities with tangible results regarding molecular targets and

  16. Study on the Antiradiation role of Melatonin: An investigation on Induced Oxidative Stress Mice by Radiomimetic Drug Cyclophosphamide

    Manda, K.; Bhatia, A. L.

    2004-07-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an altered pineal function in cancer patients. Owing to the document antineoplastic activity of the pineal gland, these anomalies could have a prognostic significance. This study was carried out to monitor the effect of higher blood levels of melatonin, the most important pineal hormone, which could be applied in relation to the response to chemotherapy in human neoplasms. Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and well-known mutagen and clastogen. It is an alkylating agent, producing highly active carbonium ion, which the extremely electron-rich area of the nucleic acids and proteins. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against cyclophosphamide induced oxidative stress in mice tissues. Lipid perioxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione disulphide (GSSG), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum phosphatase level taken as endpoints. Twenty days oral administration with melatonin (0.25 mg/Kg body weight) followed by an acute treatment with cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg b. w.) inhibited the radiomimetic drug-induced augmented level of lipid peroxidation, Blood GSSG and acid phosphatase. Cyclophosphamide induced depletion in the level of GSH, GSH-Px and alkaline phosphatase is ameliorated significantly by melatonin administration. The findings support the results showing melatonin as a free radical scavenger, and singlet oxygen quencher. Results clearly indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin against the radiomimetic drug which could be effectively used selectively for the protection of normal tissue during chemotherapy. (Author) 34 refs.

  17. Study on the Antiradiation role of Melatonin: An investigation on Induced Oxidative Stress Mice by Radiomimetic Drug Cyclophosphamide

    Manda, K.; Bhatia, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an altered pineal function in cancer patients. Owing to the document antineoplastic activity of the pineal gland, these anomalies could have a prognostic significance. This study was carried out to monitor the effect of higher blood levels of melatonin, the most important pineal hormone, which could be applied in relation to the response to chemotherapy in human neoplasms. Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and well-known mutagen and clastogen. It is an alkylating agent, producing highly active carbonium ion, which the extremely electron-rich area of the nucleic acids and proteins. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against cyclophosphamide induced oxidative stress in mice tissues. Lipid perioxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione disulphide (GSSG), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum phosphatase level taken as endpoints. Twenty days oral administration with melatonin (0.25 mg/Kg body weight) followed by an acute treatment with cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg b. w.) inhibited the radiomimetic drug-induced augmented level of lipid peroxidation, Blood GSSG and acid phosphatase. Cyclophosphamide induced depletion in the level of GSH, GSH-Px and alkaline phosphatase is ameliorated significantly by melatonin administration. The findings support the results showing melatonin as a free radical scavenger, and singlet oxygen quencher. Results clearly indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin against the radiomimetic drug which could be effectively used selectively for the protection of normal tissue during chemotherapy. (Author) 34 refs

  18. Relationship between hyposalivation and oxidative stress in aging mice.

    Yamauchi, Yoshitaka; Matsuno, Tomonori; Omata, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tazuko

    2017-07-01

    The increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has been implicated in the abnormal advance of aging and in the onset of various systemic diseases. However, the details of what effects the increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has on saliva secretion are not known. In this study, naturally aging mice were used to examine the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, saliva and serum oxidative stress, antioxidant level, submandibular gland H-E staining, and immunofluorescence staining to investigate the effect of aging on the volume of saliva secretion and the relationship with oxidative stress, as well as the effect of aging on the structure of salivary gland tissue. The stimulated whole saliva flow rate decreased significantly with age. Also, oxidative stress increased significantly with age. Antioxidant levels, however, decreased significantly with age. Structural changes of the submandibular gland accompanying aging included atrophy of parenchyma cells and fatty degeneration and fibrosis of stroma, and the submandibular gland weight ratio decreased. These results suggest that oxidative stress increases with age, not just systemically but also locally in the submandibular gland, and that oxidative stress causes changes in the structure of the salivary gland and is involved in hyposalivation.

  19. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Improves Oxidative Stress, Functional Capacity, and Health-Related Psychological Status in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Preliminary Study.

    Rus, Alma; Molina, Francisco; Ramos, Manuel Miguel; Martínez-Ramírez, María Josefa; Del Moral, María Luisa

    2016-07-21

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that imposes physical, psychological, and social limitations. We have reported that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of FM. Olive oil has been shown to be effective treatment against the oxidative stress associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil on oxidative stress and health-related parameters in FM. This preliminary study was performed on blood samples of 23 women diagnosed with FM who consumed 50 ml of organic olive oil daily for 3 weeks. Subjects were randomized into two groups: one ingested extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the other refined olive oil (ROO), which have different antioxidant content. The patients' oxidative (lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation) and antioxidative (antioxidant enzyme activities and compounds) profiles were examined before and after the treatment period. Functional capacity and physical and mental health status were assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Physical Component (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summaries (MCS-12) of the Short Form-12 Health Survey, respectively. Significant differences were found in pre-post change between the EVOO and ROO groups for protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation, and FIQ and MCS-12 scores. Differences between groups approached statistical significance for oxidative DNA damage and levels of the antioxidant compound zinc. EVOO may protect women with FM against oxidative stress in addition to improving functional capacity and health-related psychological status. Findings suggest that olive oil may be a valuable therapeutic support in FM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    Fadime Kilinç; Ayse Akbas; Ahu Yorulmaz; Sertaç Sener; Salim Neselioglu; Özcan Erel; Ahmet Metin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:Alopecia areata (AA) is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calcu...

  1. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes: a study on the effect of antioxidant mixtures during intermittent exposures to high altitude

    Vani, R.; Shiva Shankar Reddy, C. S.; Asha Devi, S.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our study was to compare and assess the effectiveness of antioxidant mixtures on the erythrocytes (RBC) of adult male albino rats (Wister) subjected to simulated intermittent high altitudes—5,100 m (AL1) and 6,700 m (AL2)—to induce oxidative stress (OS). To achieve our objective, we pre-supplemented four sets of animals with different antioxidant mixtures [vitamin E (vit.E; 50 IU/kg BW), vitamin C (vit.C; 400 mg/kg) and l-carnitine (400 mg/kg)] in different combinations [M1 (vit.E+vit.C), M2 (vit.C+carnitine), M3 (vit.E+carnitine) and M4 (vit.C+vit.E+carnitine)] for 30 days prior to as well during exposure to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH). Membrane instability, in terms of osmotic fragility and hemolysis, decreased in RBCs of supplemented animals. There was a significant increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the RBCs of supplemented animals. We confirmed OS imposed by IHH with assays relating to lipid [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipofuscin (LF)] and protein (carbonyl, PrC) oxidation, and found a positive correlation between PrC and hemolysis, with a decrease in both upon supplementation with M3 and M4 mixtures. Fluorescence microscopic observation showed a maximum decrease in the LF content in rats administered M4 and M1 compared to those on M2 and M3 mixtures at both altitudes. We suggest that multiple antioxidant fortifications are effective in overcoming increased OS experienced by RBCs at high altitudes.

  2. Biochemical Study of Oxidative Stress Markers in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

    Noeman Saad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of diseases. Aim To induce rat obesity using high fat diet (HFD and to estimate oxidative stress markers in their liver, heart and kidney tissues in order to shed the light on the effect of obesity on these organs. Materials and methods Sixty white albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: received high fat diet for 16 weeks, and group II (control group: received only normal diet (rat chow for 16 weeks. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, tissue samples from liver, heart and kidney were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PCO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, and the activities of glutathione S- transferase (GST glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and paraoxonase1 (PON1 enzymes. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Also our results showed a significant increase MDA and PCO levels in the hepatic, heart and renal tissues of obese rats, as well as a significant decrease in the activity of GST, GPx and PON 1 enzymes. On the other hand CAT enzyme activity showed significant decrease only in renal tissues of obese rats with non significant difference in hepatic and heart tissues. GSH levels showed significant decrease in both renal and hepatic tissues of obese animals and significant increase in their heart tissues. Correlation studies in obese animals showed a negative correlation between MDA and PCO tissue levels and the activities of GPx, GST and PON1 in all tissues and also with CAT enzyme activity in renal tissues. Also a negative correlation was detected between MDA & PCO tissues levels and GSH levels in both hepatic and renal tissues. While positive correlation was found between them and GSH levels in heart tissues. Conclusion High fat

  3. Salivary Concentration of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in a Group of Patients with Peri-Implantitis: A Transversal Study.

    Sánchez-Siles, Mariano; Lucas-Azorin, Javier; Salazar-Sánchez, Noemi; Carbonell-Meseguer, Luis; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to know if peri-implantitis causes an increase in the total salivary concentration of oxidative stress markers. Seventy patients, 28 men and 42 women, 60 of them with dental implants, 30 of which had peri-implantitis and 30 were healthy. The remaining 10 were the control group: healthy subjects without implants. The average number of implants per patient was 4.70 ± 2.29 in the peri-implantitis group and 2 70 ± 2.11 in the control group. Periodontal/peri-implant variables were assessed, including bleeding index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, probing depth, presence of pockets larger than 4 and 6 mm, pain to percussion, suppuration, gingival hyperplasia or granuloma, crestal bone loss (both mesially and distally), evaluated through periapical radiography. Saliva samples from the 70 subjects were collected for measurement of malondialdehyde high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and myeloperoxidase (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis) concentrations. Implants affected with peri-implantitis had an average follow-up of 26.40 ± 7.97 months. 4.12% of implants with peri-implantitis had a painful response to percussion. 2.06% showed suppuration; 25.77% had granuloma. The mean crestal bone loss in implants wtih peri-implantitis was 3.78 ± 1.17 mm. Total salivary malondialdehyde concentration in the peri-implantitis group (0.52 ± 0.37 μM/l) was slightly higher than that in the group with healthy implants (0.40 ± 0.16 μM/l) and also slightly higher than that in the group of healthy patients without implants (0.41 ± 0.79 μM/l), although the difference was not statistically significant, p value = .442. Myeloperoxidase concentration was slightly higher in the peri-implantitis group (12.32 ± 2.17 ng/ml) than in the group with healthy implants (11.54 ± 2.80 ng/ml) and the group of healthy patients without implants (11.86 ± 2.67 ng/ml), without

  4. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  5. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  6. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  7. Investigations of botanicals on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress: study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Anton, Stephen D; Shuster, Jonathan; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2011-11-01

    Botanicals represent an important and underexplored source of potential new therapies that may facilitate caloric restriction and thereby may produce long-term weight loss. In particular, one promising botanical that may reduce food intake and body weight by affecting neuroendocrine pathways related to satiety is hydroxycitric acid (HCA) derived from Garcinia cambogia Desr. The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a clinical trial designed to directly test the effects of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss and oxidative stress levels, and to serve as a model for similar trials. A total of 48 healthy, overweight or obese individuals (with a body mass index range of 25.0 to 39.9 kg/m(2)) between the ages of 50 to 70 will participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study designed to examine the effects of two doses of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels. Food intake represents the primary outcome measure and is calculated based on the total calories consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals during each test meal day. This study can be completed with far fewer subjects than a parallel design. Of the numerous botanical compounds, the compound Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA is selected for testing in the present study because of its potential to safely reduce food intake, body weight, and oxidative stress levels. We will review potential mechanisms of action and safety parameters throughout this clinical trial. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01238887).

  8. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,

  9. Live-cell Imaging Approaches for the Investigation of Xenobiotic-Induced Oxidant Stress

    BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is arguably a universal feature in toxicology. Research studies on the role of oxidant stress induced by xenobiotic exposures have typically relied on the identification of damaged biomolecules using a variety of conventional biochemical and molecular t...

  10. Engineered myocardium model to study the roles of HIF-1α and HIF1A-AS1 in paracrine-only signaling under pathological level oxidative stress.

    Acun, Aylin; Zorlutuna, Pinar

    2017-08-01

    Studying heart tissue is critical for understanding and developing treatments for cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we fabricated precisely controlled and biomimetic engineered model tissues to study how cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions influence myocardial cell survival upon exposure to pathological level oxidative stress. Specifically, the interactions of endothelial cells (ECs) and cardiomyocytes (CMs), and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), with its novel alternative regulator, HIF-1α antisense RNA1 (HIF1A-AS1), in these interactions were investigated. We encapsulated CMs in photo-crosslinkable, biomimetic hydrogels with or without ECs, then exposed to oxidative stress followed by normoxia. With precisely controlled microenvironment provided by the model tissues, cell-cell interactions were restricted to be solely through the secreted factors. CM survival after oxidative stress was significantly improved, in the presence of ECs, when cells were in the model tissues that were functionalized with cell attachment motifs. Importantly, the cardioprotective effect of ECs was reduced when HIF-1α expression was knocked down suggesting that HIF-1α is involved in cardioprotection from oxidative damage, provided through secreted factors conferred by the ECs. Using model tissues, we showed that cell survival increased with increased cell-cell communication and enhanced cell-matrix interactions. In addition, whole genome transcriptome analysis showed, for the first time to our knowledge, a possible role for HIF1A-AS1 in oxidative regulation of HIF-1α. We showed that although HIF1A-AS1 knockdown helps CM survival, its effect is overridden by CM-EC bidirectional interactions as we showed that the conditioned media taken from the CM-EC co-cultures improved CM survival, regardless of HIF1A-AS1 expression. Cardiovascular diseases, most of which are associated with oxidative stress, is the most common cause of death worldwide. Thus, understanding

  11. Oxidative Stress and Anesthesia in Diabetic Patients

    Peivandi Yazdi A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radical and peroxide production lead to intracellular damage. On the other hand, free radicals are used by the human immune system to defend against pathogens. The aging process could be limited by oxidative stress in the short term. Chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM are full-stress conditions in which remarkable metabolic functional destructions might happen. There is strong evidence regarding antioxidant impairment in diabetes. Performing a particular method for anesthesia in diabetic patients might prevent or modify excessive free radical formation and oxidative stress. It seems that prescribing antioxidant drugs could promote wound healing in diabetics.  

  12. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    Anu Rahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.

  13. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    Carlos Burgos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6±1.6 years were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH training (n=6 and normobaric normoxic (NN training (n=6 groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid, plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX], arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE, and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and peak power output (PPO were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players.

  14. Biomarkers of oxidative stress study V: ozone exposure of rats and its effect on lipids, proteins, and DNA in plasma and urine.

    Kadiiska, Maria B; Basu, Samar; Brot, Nathan; Cooper, Christopher; Saari Csallany, A; Davies, Michael J; George, Magdalene M; Murray, Dennis M; Jackson Roberts, L; Shigenaga, Mark K; Sohal, Rajindar S; Stocker, Roland; Van Thiel, David H; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Hatch, Gary E; Mason, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Ozone exposure effect on free radical-catalyzed oxidation products of lipids, proteins, and DNA in the plasma and urine of rats was studied as a continuation of the international Biomarker of Oxidative Stress Study (BOSS) sponsored by NIEHS/NIH. The goal was to identify a biomarker for ozone-induced oxidative stress and to assess whether inconsistent results often reported in the literature might be due to the limitations of the available methods for measuring the various types of oxidative products. The time- and dose-dependent effects of ozone exposure on rat plasma lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, methionine oxidation, and tyrosine- and phenylalanine oxidation products, as well as urinary malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes were investigated with various techniques. The criterion used to recognize a marker in the model of ozone exposure was that a significant effect could be identified and measured in a biological fluid seen at both doses at more than one time point. No statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups at either ozone dose and time point studied could be identified in this study. Tissue samples were not included. Despite all the work accomplished in the BOSS study of ozone, no available product of oxidation in biological fluid has yet met the required criteria of being a biomarker. The current negative findings as a consequence of ozone exposure are of great importance, because they document that in complex systems, as the present in vivo experiment, the assays used may not provide meaningful data of ozone oxidation, especially in human studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of Uric Acid on Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress

    平井, 富弘

    2001-01-01

    We studied effects of uric acid on exercise― induced oxidative stress in humans based on a hypothesis that uric acid acts as an antioxidant to prevent from exercise―induced oxidative stress. Relation between uric acid level in plasma and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)after the cycle ergometer exercise was examined. Thiobarbituricacid reactive substance in plasma increased after the ergometer exercise. High uric acid in plasma did not result in low increase of TBARS...

  16. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Brandl, Anita [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Nerlich, Michael [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Angele, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Angele@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  17. A natural pharma standard supplement formulation to control treatment-related toxicity and oxidative stress in genitourinary cancer: a preliminary study.

    Ledda, A; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Hosoi, M; Feragalli, B; Cotellese, R; Cosentino, V; Cosentino, M; Eggenhoffner, R; Pellizzato, M; Fratter, A; Giacomelli, L

    2017-09-01

    Oncological treatments are associated with toxicities that may decrease compliance to treatment in most genitourinary cancer patients. Supplementation with pharmaceutical-standardized supplement may be a supplementary method to control the side effects after chemo- and radiotherapy and the increased oxidative stress associated to treatments. This registry study evaluated a natural combination of supplements containing curcumin, cordyceps, and astaxanthin (Oncotris™) used as supplementary management in genitourinary cancer patients who had undergone oncological therapy. Patients with genitourinary cancers (prostate or bladder malignancies) who had undergone and completed cancer treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or intravesical immunotherapy with increased oxidative stress and residual symptoms) were recruited in this registry, supplement study. Registry subjects (n = 61) freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) (control group = 35) or SM plus oral daily supplementation (supplement group = 26). Evaluation of severity of treatment-related residual side effects, blood count test, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and plasma free radicals (oxidative stress) were performed at inclusion and at the end of the observational period (6 weeks). Two patients dropped out during the registry. Therefore, the analysis included 59 participants: 26 individuals in the supplementation group and 33 in the control group. In the supplement group, the intensity of signs and symptoms (treatment-related) and residual side effects significantly decreased at 6 weeks: minimal changes were observed in controls. Supplementation with Oncotris™ was associated with a significant improvement in blood cell count and with a decreased level of plasmatic PSA and oxidative stress. Naturally-derived supplements, specifically Oncotris™ (patent pending), could support the body to overcome the treatment-related toxicities - and the relative oxidative stress in cancer patients.

  18. Comparisons of the oxidative stress biomarkers levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-GDM among Thai population: cohort study.

    Rueangdetnarong, Hathairat; Sekararithi, Rattanaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Kumfu, Sirinart; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Tongsong, Theera; Jatavan, Phudit

    2018-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers between pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normoglycemic pregnancies. A prospective study was conducted on pregnant women at average risk for GDM. The participants were screened for GDM with glucose challenge test and confirmed by 100 g, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test and categorized into the control (non-GDM) and GDM groups. Maternal blood was collected from all participants at gestational age (GA) 24-28 weeks and early labor and fetal cord blood was collected for measurements of 8 Isoprostane (8Isop) (oxidative stress marker), TNF-α (inflammatory marker) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory marker) and were followed up for maternal and neonatal outcomes. A total of 62 women, 30 in GDM and 32 in control group, met the inclusion criteria. At 24-28 weeks of gestation, maternal serum 8Isop and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in GDM group ( P  = 0.032 and P  = 0.047), in spite of good glycemic control. At early labor, maternal 8Isop levels were significantly higher in GDM ( P  = 0.001). The biomarkers in the cord blood as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes in both groups were not significantly different. GDM is significantly associated with inflammatory process when compared to normal pregnancy, as indicated by higher oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. However, such levels were not correlated with the pregnancy outcomes. An increase in oxidative stress could not be prevented by good glycemic control. Cord blood biomarker levels in pregnancy with GDM were not changed, suggesting that the placenta could be the barrier for the oxidative stress and cytokines. © 2018 The authors.

  19. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    Oxidative damage is often induced by abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a functional molecule in modulating antioxidant metabolism of plants. In the present study, effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the phenotype, antioxidant capacity and chloroplast ultrastructure of cucumber leaves were ...

  20. Role of sulfiredoxin in systemic diseases influenced by oxidative stress

    Asha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfiredoxin is a recently discovered member of the oxidoreductases family which plays a crucial role in thiol homoeostasis when under oxidative stress. A myriad of systemic disorders have oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species as the key components in their etiopathogenesis. Recent studies have evaluated the role of this enzyme in oxidative stress mediated diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a wide array of carcinomas. Its action is responsible for the normal functioning of cells under oxidative stress and the promotion of cell survival in cancerous cells. This review will highlight the cumulative effects of sulfiredoxin in various systemic disorders with a strong emphasis on its target activity and the factors influencing its expression in such conditions.

  1. Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review

    Ashok Shinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.

  2. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  3. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  4. Pathogenesis of Chronic Hyperglycemia: From Reductive Stress to Oxidative Stress

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overnutrition creates chronic hyperglycemia that can gradually induce insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. These disorders, if not intervened, will eventually be followed by appearance of frank diabetes. The mechanisms of this chronic pathogenic process are complex but have been suggested to involve production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. In this review, I highlight evidence that reductive stress imposed by overflux of NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the source of oxidative stress, which is based on establishments that more NADH recycling by mitochondrial complex I leads to more electron leakage and thus more ROS production. The elevated levels of both NADH and ROS can inhibit and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, respectively, resulting in blockage of the glycolytic pathway and accumulation of glycerol 3-phospate and its prior metabolites along the pathway. This accumulation then initiates all those alternative glucose metabolic pathways such as the polyol pathway and the advanced glycation pathways that otherwise are minor and insignificant under euglycemic conditions. Importantly, all these alternative pathways lead to ROS production, thus aggravating cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, reductive stress followed by oxidative stress comprises a major mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic syndrome.

  5. Laboratory assessment of oxidative stress in semen

    Ashok Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals and antioxidants; otherwise, excessive OS could lead to sperm damage and result in male infertility. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through a MedLine database search using the keywords ‘semen’ AND ‘oxygen reduction potential’. We also reviewed the references of retrieved articles to search for other potentially relevant research articles and additional book chapters discussing laboratory assessments for OS, ranging from 1994 to 2017. A total of 29 articles and book chapters involving OS-related laboratory assays were included. We excluded animal studies and articles written in languages other than English. Results: Direct laboratory techniques include: chemiluminescence, nitro blue tetrazolium, cytochrome C reduction test, fluorescein probe, electron spin resonance and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP. Indirect laboratory techniques include: measurement of Endtz test, lipid peroxidation, chemokines, antioxidants/micronutrients/vitamins, ascorbate, total antioxidant capacity, or DNA damage. Each of these laboratory techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion: Traditional OS laboratory assessments have their limitations. Amongst the prevalent laboratory techniques, ORP is novel and better option as it can be easily used in a clinical setting to provide a comprehensive review of OS. However, more studies are needed to evaluate its reproducibility across various laboratory centres. Keywords: Semen, male infertility, Oxidative stress, Chemiluminescence, Total antioxidant capacity, Oxidation-reduction potential

  6. In vitro studies on oxidative stress-independent, Ag nanoparticles-induced cell toxicity of Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen

    Radhakrishnan VS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan,1 Surya Prakash Dwivedi,2 Mohammed Haris Siddiqui,3 Tulika Prasad1 1Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 2School of Biotechnology, IFTM University, Moradabad, 3Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNps have attracted maximal attention among all metal nanoparticles, and the study of their biological properties has gained impetus for further medical adoption. This study evaluated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the action of AgNps against an opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Spherical, stable AgNp (average size 21.6 nm prepared by a chemical reduction method showed minimum inhibitory concentration (required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms at 40 µg/mL. AgNps have been reported to induce oxidative stress-mediated programmed cell death through the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, this study demonstrated that intracellular levels of AgNp-induced ROS could be reversed by using antioxidant ascorbic acid, but the sensitivity of AgNp-treated Candida cells could not be completely reversed. Moreover, in addition to the generation of ROS, the AgNps were found to affect other cellular targets resulting in altered membrane fluidity, membrane microenvironment, ergosterol content, cellular morphology, and ultrastructure. Thus, the generation of ROS does not seem to be the sole major cause of AgNp-mediated cell toxicity in Candida. Rather, the multitargeted action of AgNps, generation of ROS, alterations in ergosterol content, and membrane fluidity together seem to have potentiated anti-Candida action. Thus, this “nano-based drug therapy” is likely to favor broad-spectrum activity, multiple cellular targets, and minimum host toxicity. AgNps, therefore, appear to have the potential to address the challenges in multidrug

  7. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  8. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  9. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  10. Primary Neuron/Astrocyte Co-Culture on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films: A Template for Studying Astrocyte-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Neurons**

    Kidambi, Srivatsan; Lee, Ilsoon; Chan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    We engineered patterned co-cultures of primary neurons and astrocytes on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films without the aid of adhesive proteins/ligands to study the oxidative stress mediated by astrocytes on neuronal cells. A number of studies have explored engineering co-culture of neurons and astrocytes predominantly using cell lines rather than primary cells owing to the difficulties involved in attaching primary cells onto synthetic surfaces. To our knowledge this is the first demons...

  11. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (pOSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and potassium and sodium levels were

  12. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    of these proteins by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI MS/MS). As a result we obtained 24 different proteins which can be categorized into the following groups: chaperones, energy metabolism, cytoskeleton/intermediate filaments, and protein translation/ribosome biogenesis. The special set of identified......, ubiquitinated proteins confirm the thesis that ubiquitination upon oxidative stress is no random process to degrade the mass of oxidized proteins, but concerns a special group of functional proteins....

  13. Oxidative stress resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Henry, Leroy G; McKenzie, Rachelle ME; Robles, Antonette; Fletcher, Hansel M

    2012-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobe, is an important etiologic agent of periodontal disease. The harsh inflammatory condition of the periodontal pocket implies that this organism has properties that will facilitate its ability to respond and adapt to oxidative stress. Because the stress response in the pathogen is a major determinant of its virulence, a comprehensive understanding of its oxidative stress resistance strategy is vital. We discuss multiple mechanisms and systems that clearly work in synergy to defend and protect P. gingivalis against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. The involvement of multiple hypothetical proteins and/or proteins of unknown function in this process may imply other unique mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22439726

  14. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind

    Maria Pantelidou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress can be defined as the homeostatic, nonspecific defensive response of the organism to challenges. It is expressed by morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. In this review, we present biological and oxidative stress, as well as their interrelation. In addition to the mediation in biologic stress (central nervous, immune, and hormonal systems and oxidative stress, the effect of these phenomena on xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is also examined. It is concluded that stress decreases drug response, a result which seems to be mainly attributed to the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of mechanisms are presented. Structure-activity studies are also discussed. Vitamin E, as well as two synthetic novel compounds, seem to reduce both oxidative and biological stress and, consequently, influence drug response and metabolism.

  15. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  16. Implications of oxidative stress in the brain plasticity originated by fasting: a BOLD-fMRI study.

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle. Participants were allowed consuming food during evening and night time while fasting with self-prohibiting food and liquids during 14 hours/day from sunrise to sunset. All participants underwent identical brain BOLD-fMRI protocol. The images were acquired in the Department of Radiology and Clinical Imaging of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco. The anatomical brain and BOLD-fMRIs were acquired using a 1.5-Tesla scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, United States). BOLD-fMRI image acquisition was done using single-shot gradient echo echo-planer imaging sequence. BOLD-fMRI paradigm consisted of the motor task where volunteers were asked to perform finger taping of the right hand. Two BOLD-fMRI scan sessions were performed, the first one between the 5th and 10th days preceding the start of fasting and the second between days 25th and 28th of the fasting month. All sessions were performed between 3:30 PM and 5:30 PM. Although individual maps were originated from different individual participants, they cover the same anatomic area in each case. Image processing and statistical analysis were conducted with Statistical Parameter Mapping version 8 (2008, Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London UK). The maximal BOLD signal changes were calculated for each subject in the motor area M1; Activation maps were calculated and overlaid on the anatomical images. Group analysis of the data was performed, and the average volume

  17. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  18. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  19. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding...

  20. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    Soraya S. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  1. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    Background: Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism.

  2. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

    Jose Luis Martin-Ventura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.

  3. Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    Usharani P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pingali Usharani, Nishat Fatima, Nizampatnam Muralidhar Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, India Background: It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce endothelial dysfunction via increased oxidative stress and that it plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Phyllanthus emblica (Emblica officinalis, amla is known for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The present study compared the effects of an aqueous extract of P. emblica (highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolyzable tannins, ie, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, pedunculagin, and punigluconin versus those of atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Eligible patients were randomized to receive either P. emblica 250 mg twice daily, P. emblica 500 mg twice daily, atorvastatin 10 mg in the evening and matching placebo in the morning, or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in endothelial function identified on salbutamol challenge at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary efficacy parameters were changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, the lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. Laboratory safety parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Eighty patients completed the study. Treatment with P. emblica 250 mg, P. emblica 500 mg, or atorvastatin 10 mg produced significant reductions in the reflection index (-2.25%±1.37% to -9.13%±2.56% versus -2.11%±0.98% to -10.04%±0.92% versus -2.68%±1.13% to -11.03%±3.93%, respectively, suggesting improvement in endothelial function after 12 weeks of treatment

  4. Oxidative stress and inflammation in liver carcinogenesis

    Natalia Olaya

    2007-02-01

    series of transcription factors. Moreover, in addition to direct production of ROS by these pathogens, liver infiltration by activated phagocytic cells provides an additional source of ROS production that promotes oxidative stress via interleukin or NO production that can damage proteins, lipids and DNA.

    Nuclear MSI was demonstrated first in familial hereditary colorectal cancer (HNPCC and then in sporadic cancers, primarily digestive tract cancers such as colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers.In HCC, although nuclear MSI has been shown in some studies (15,18, there is as yet no direct evidence of alteration of the MMR genes and the biological and the clinicopathological significance of the lowlevel MSI seen in HCC is unclear. MSI has also been shown to occur in inflammatory tissues such as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis as well as in ulcerative colitis, chronic pancreatitis and in non digestive inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

    Recently, the role of mitochondria in carcinogenesis has been under numerous investigation, in part because their prominent role in apoptosis, ROS production and other aspects of tumour biology. The mitochondrial genome is particularly susceptible to mutations because of the high level of ROS generation in this organelle, coupled with a relatively low level of DNA repair. Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been shown in HCC as was also observed MSI. These findings suggest a potential role for mitochondrial genome instability in the early steps of tumorigenesis.

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury can occur in several situations and is a major cause of cell damage during surgery. Cells and tissues subjected to hypoxia by prolonged ischemia become acidic

  5. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  6. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  7. Are metallothioneins equally good biomarkers of metal and oxidative stress?

    Figueira, Etelvina; Branco, Diana; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Several researchers investigated the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) in the presence of metals, namely Cadmium (Cd). Fewer studies observed the induction of MTs due to oxidizing agents, and literature comparing the sensitivity of MTs to different stressors is even more scarce or even nonexistent. The role of MTs in metal and oxidative stress and thus their use as a stress biomarker, remains to be clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of MTs as a biomarker in Cerastoderma edule, a bivalve widely used as bioindicator, a laboratory assay was conducted aiming to assess the sensitivity of MTs to metal and oxidative stressors. For this purpose, Cd was used to induce metal stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), being an oxidizing compound, was used to impose oxidative stress. Results showed that induction of MTs occurred at very different levels in metal and oxidative stress. In the presence of the oxidizing agent (H2O2), MTs only increased significantly when the degree of oxidative stress was very high, and mortality rates were higher than 50 percent. On the contrary, C. edule survived to all Cd concentrations used and significant MTs increases, compared to the control, were observed in all Cd exposures. The present work also revealed that the number of ions and the metal bound to MTs varied with the exposure conditions. In the absence of disturbance, MTs bound most (60-70 percent) of the essential metals (Zn and Cu) in solution. In stressful situations, such as the exposure to Cd and H2O2, MTs did not bind to Cu and bound less to Zn. When organisms were exposed to Cd, the total number of ions bound per MT molecule did not change, compared to control. However the sort of ions bound per MT molecule differed; part of the Zn and all Cu ions where displaced by Cd ions. For organisms exposed to H2O2, each MT molecule bound less than half of the ions compared to control and Cd conditions, which indicates a partial oxidation of thiol groups in the cysteine

  8. Experimental studies on possible regulatory role of nitric oxide on the differential effects of chronic predictable and unpredictable stress on adaptive immune responses.

    Thakur, Tarun; Gulati, Kavita; Rai, Nishant; Ray, Arunabha

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic predictable stress (CPS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on immunological responses in KLH-sensitized rats and involvement of NOergic signaling pathways mediating such responses. Male Wistar rats (200-250g) were exposed to either CPS or CUS for 14days and IgG antibody levels and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was determined to assess changes in adaptive immunity. To evaluate the role of nitric oxide during such immunomodulation, biochemical estimation of stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NOx) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, a marker of peroxynitrite formation) were done in both blood and brain. Chronic stress exposure resulted in suppression of IgG and DTH response and elevated NOx and 3-NT levels, with a difference in magnitude of response in CPS vs CUS. Pretreatment with aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) caused further reduction of adaptive immune responses and attenuated the increased NOx and 3-NT levels in CPS or CUS exposed rats. On the other hand 7-NI (nNOS inhibitor) did not significantly affect these estimated parameters. The results suggest involvement of iNOS and lesser/no role of nNOS during modulation of adaptive immunity to stress. Thus, the result showed that predictability of stressors results in differential degree of modulation of immune responses and complex NO-mediated signaling mechanisms may be involved during responses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Oxidative stress markers imbalance in late-life depression.

    Diniz, Breno S; Mendes-Silva, Ana Paula; Silva, Lucelia Barroso; Bertola, Laiss; Vieira, Monica Costa; Ferreira, Jessica Diniz; Nicolau, Mariana; Bristot, Giovana; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Teixeira, Antonio L; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2018-03-20

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in young adults. However, there is few data to support its role in the elderly. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether subjects with late-life depression (LLD) presented with changes in oxidative stress response in comparison with the non-depressed control group. We then explored how oxidative stress markers associated with specific features of LLD, in particular cognitive performance and age of onset of major depressive disorder in these individuals. We included a convenience sample of 124 individuals, 77 with LLD and 47 non-depressed subjects (Controls). We measure the plasma levels of 6 oxidative stress markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonil content (PCC), free 8-isoprostane, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. We found that participants with LLD had significantly higher free 8-isoprostane levels (p = 0.003) and lower glutathione peroxidase activity (p = 0.006) compared to controls. Free 8-isoprostane levels were also significantly correlated with worse scores in the initiation/perseverance (r = -0.24, p = 0.01), conceptualization (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) sub-scores, and the total scores (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) on the DRS. Our study provides robust evidence of the imbalance between oxidative stress damage, in particular lipid peroxidation, and anti-oxidative defenses as a mechanism related to LLD, and cognitive impairment in this population. Interventions aiming to reduce oxidative stress damage can have a potential neuroprotective effect for LLD subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    Kreuz, Sarah; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences

  11. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Unknown

    581. Keywords. Apoptosis; D. discoideum; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation ..... multiple toxic effects of oxidative stress that is related to several pathological conditions ... culture. This work was supported by a grant to RB.

  12. Plant Polyphenol Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress

    INES URQUIAGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a remarkable increment in scientific articles dealing with oxidative stress. Several reasons justify this trend: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species metabolism; definition of markers for oxidative damage; evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress; identification of flavonoids and other dietary polyphenol antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and data supporting the idea that health benefits associated with fruits, vegetables and red wine in the diet are probably linked to the polyphenol antioxidants they contain.In this review we examine some of the evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress, the distribution and basic structure of plant polyphenol antioxidants, some biological effects of polyphenols, and data related to their bioavailability and the metabolic changes they undergo in the intestinal lumen and after absorption into the organism.Finally, we consider some of the challenges that research in this area currently faces, with particular emphasis on the contributions made at the International Symposium "Biology and Pathology of Free Radicals: Plant and Wine Polyphenol Antioxidants" held July 29-30, 1999, at the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile and collected in this special issue of Biological Research

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  14. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

    Carini, Francesco; Mazzola, Margherita; Rappa, Francesca; Jurjus, Abdo; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Al Kattar, Sahar; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Damiani, Provvidenza; Leone, Angelo; Tomasello, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic unpredictable stress deteriorates the chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway.

    Hasan, Shirin; Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlNohair, Sultan; Banu, Naheed

    2016-05-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) can influence the risk and progression of cancer through increased oxidative stress. Pomegranate is known to protect carcinogenesis through its anti-oxidative properties. This study is carried out to examine whether CUS affects the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway. Role of CUS on early stages of 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis, and its pre-exposure effect on chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) was examined in terms of in vivo antioxidant and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino rats. Rats were divided in various groups and were subjected to CUS paradigm, DMBA administration (65 mg/kg body weight, single dose), and PJ treatment. Exposure to stress (alone) and DMBA (alone) led to increased oxidative stress by significantly decreasing the antioxidant enzymes activities and altering the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. A significant increase in DNA damage demonstrated by comet assay was seen in the liver cells. Stress exposure to DMBA-treated rats further increased the oxidative stress and disturbed the biochemical parameters as compared to DMBA (alone)-treated rats. Chemoprevention with PJ in DMBA (alone)-treated rats restored the altered parameters. However, in the pre-stress DMBA-treated rats, the overall antioxidant potential of PJ was significantly diminished. Our results indicate that chronic stress not only increases the severity of carcinogenesis but also diminishes the anti-oxidative efficacy of PJ. In a broader perspective, special emphasis should be given to stress management and healthy diet during cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  17. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  18. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  19. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  20. Role of Magnesium in Oxidative Stress in Individuals with Obesity.

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Santos, Loanne Rocha Dos; de Sousa Melo, Stéfany Rodrigues; de Oliveira Santos, Raisa; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that promotes excessive production of reactive oxygen species when in excess, thus contributing to lipid peroxidation. Magnesium deficiency contributes to the development of oxidative stress in obese individuals, as this mineral plays a role as an antioxidant, participates as a cofactor of several enzymes, maintains cell membrane stability and mitigates the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to bring together updated information on the participation of magnesium in the oxidative stress present in obesity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the keywords 'magnesium', 'oxidative stress', 'malondialdehyde', 'superoxide dismutase', 'glutathione peroxidase', 'reactive oxygen species', 'inflammation' and 'obesity'. The studies show that obese subjects have low serum concentrations of magnesium, as well as high concentrations of oxidative stress marker in these individuals. Furthermore, it is evident that the adequate intake of magnesium contributes to its appropriate homeostasis in the body. Thus, this review of current research can help define the need for intervention with supplementation of this mineral for the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  1. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  2. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  3. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress

    Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. Thus oxidative stress constitutes a major threat to organisms living in aerobic environments.

  4. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  5. A Different Approach to Assess Oxidative Stress in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients Through The Calculation of Oxidative Stress Index

    Edi Hartoyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the involvement of Oxidative Stress (OS in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF through the analysis of oxidative stress Index (OSI. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, and OSI were measured in 61 child dengue patients and (aged 6 months–18 years with three different stages of DHF, i.e stage I, II, and III. The results show that the levels of MDA, SOD and CAT activity, and OSI significantly different between the group. The all parameters that investigated in this present study seems higher MDA level and OSI in the higher grade of DHF, except for SOD and CAT activity. From this result, it can be concluded that oxidative stress pathways might be involved in the pathomechanism of DHF and OSI might be used as a biomarker for OS and the severity in DHF patients.

  6. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  7. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    Javier eBlesa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, insecticides like rotenone, pesticides like Paraquat, dopamine itself and genetic mutations in Parkinson’s Disease related proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process.

  8. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

    Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis.

  9. Oxidative stress in obstructive nephropathy

    Dendooven, Amelie; Ishola, David A.; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Van der Giezen, Dionne M.; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Joles, Jaap A.

    P>Unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) is one of the most commonly applied rodent models to study the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. This model reflects important aspects of inflammation and fibrosis that are prominent in human kidney diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the

  10. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies.

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Mändar, Reet; Saag, Mare; Piir, Anneli; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material) were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to -80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI]) were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p =0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 75.0 pg/mL, p <0.001) and saliva (MPO 34.2 vs 117.5 ng/mg protein, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 112.8 pg/mL, p <0.001) compared to pain-free subjects. OxS is an important pathomechanism in endodontic pathologies that is evident at both the local (RC contents) and systemic (saliva) level. OxS is significantly associated with dental pain and bone

  11. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Anna eQuiroga-Varela; Vernice Ruffin Jackson-Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neuro...

  12. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging.Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction fol...

  13. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    Robert J Aitken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1. The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1 needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.

  14. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

    Masaaki Adachi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  15. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  16. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  17. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  18. [Biological consequences of oxidative stress induced by pesticides].

    Grosicka-Maciąg, Emilia

    2011-06-17

    Pesticides are used to protect plants and numerous plant products. They are also utilized in several industrial branches. These compounds are highly toxic to living organisms. In spite of close supervision in the use of pesticides there is a serious risk that these agents are able to spread into the environment and contaminate water, soil, food, and feedstuffs. Recently, more and more studies have been focused on understanding the toxic mechanisms of pesticide actions. The data indicate that the toxic action of pesticides may include the induction of oxidative stress and accumulation of free radicals in the cell. Long-lasting or acute oxidative stress disturbs cell metabolism and is able to produce permanent changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The proteins that are oxidized may lose or enhance their activity. Moreover, the proteins oxidized are able to form aggregates that inhibit the systems responsible for protein degradation and lead to alterations of proteins in the cell. Once oxidized, lipids have the capacity to damage and depolarize cytoplasmic membranes. Free oxygen radicals are harmful to DNA including damage to single nitric bases, DNA strand breaks and adduct production. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress may accelerate development of numerous diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and may also be responsible for infertility.

  19. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  20. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  1. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  2. Oxidative Metabolism Genes Are Not Responsive to Oxidative Stress in Rodent Beta Cell Lines

    Faer Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of oxidative metabolism genes has been described in the skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells contain low levels of antioxidant enzymes and are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the effect of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress on a panel of oxidative metabolism genes in a rodent beta cell line. We exposed INS-1 rodent beta cells to low (5.6 mmol/L, ambient (11 mmol/L, and high (28 mmol/L glucose conditions for 48 hours. Increases in oxidative stress were measured using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123. We then measured the expression levels of a panel of 90 oxidative metabolism genes by real-time PCR. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evident in INS-1 cells after 48 hours (P<0.05. TLDA analysis revealed a significant (P<0.05 upregulation of 16 of the 90 genes under hyperglycemic conditions, although these expression differences did not reflect differences in ROS. We conclude that although altered glycemia may influence the expression of some oxidative metabolism genes, this effect is probably not mediated by increased ROS production. The alterations to the expression of oxidative metabolism genes previously observed in human diabetic skeletal muscle do not appear to be mirrored in rodent pancreatic beta cells.

  3. Oxidative stress and pathology in muscular dystrophies: focus on protein thiol oxidation and dysferlinopathies.

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Lemckert, Frances A; Arthur, Peter G; Grounds, Miranda D

    2013-09-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise more than 30 clinical disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for pathogenesis generally remains unknown. It is considered that disturbed levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathology of many muscular dystrophies. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress may cause cellular damage by directly and irreversibly damaging macromolecules such as proteins, membrane lipids and DNA; another major cellular consequence of reactive oxygen species is the reversible modification of protein thiol side chains that may affect many aspects of molecular function. Irreversible oxidative damage of protein and lipids has been widely studied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and we have recently identified increased protein thiol oxidation in dystrophic muscles of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This review evaluates the role of elevated oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other forms of muscular dystrophies, and presents new data that show significantly increased protein thiol oxidation and high levels of lipofuscin (a measure of cumulative oxidative damage) in dysferlin-deficient muscles of A/J mice at various ages. The significance of this elevated oxidative stress and high levels of reversible thiol oxidation, but minimal myofibre necrosis, is discussed in the context of the disease mechanism for dysferlinopathies, and compared with the situation for dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  4. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in

    Toorn, Marco van der

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS

  6. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  7. Screening of drought oxidative stress tolerance in Serbian ...

    This study was designed to examine and compare antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of leaves of six different melliferous plant species (Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Euodia hupehensis, Tilia sp., Fraxinus sp.) from Serbia in order to evaluate their drought oxidative stress tolerance.

  8. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...

  9. Morin mitigates oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in ...

    Background: Morin is a flavanoid which exhibits potent antioxidant activity in various oxidative stress related diseases. The current study was attempted to scrutinize the preclinical bio-efficacy of morin on focal ischemia. Methods: The animal model of focal cerebral ischemic injury was done by midbrain carotid artery ...

  10. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  11. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in sportsmen two hours after ...

    This study was designed to investigate the serum lipid profile and non-enzymatic antioxidants markers (serum uric acid and albumin) as well as lipid hydroperoxide (a marker of oxidative stress) in 39 sportsmen after 2 h of strenuous training exercise and also in 24 sedentary age-matched males who served as controls ...

  12. Oxidative-stress-mediated teratogenesis and the role of folate

    Tran, Y.H.; Bergman, J.; Bakker, M.; Groen, H.; Wilffert, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the underlying teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Folate is indirectly involved in OS because of its role in the methylation steps in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the repair of OS-induced DNA damage. Our study was to explore the

  13. Oxidative Stress ‑a Phenotypic Hallmark of Fanconi Anemia and ...

    Keywords: Down syndrome, Oxidative DNA damage, Oxidative stress. Access this ... higher MDA levels (P < 0.01) and non significantly lower total antioxidant .... in their study that carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods can influence DNA ...

  14. Cytoprotective Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Fruit Extract against Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Stress.

    Shayesteh, Reyhaneh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Adiban, Hasan; Kardan, Azin; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  16. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and 10-year incidence (2002-2012) of diabetes: correlations with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in the ATTICA cohort study.

    Koloverou, E; Panagiotakos, D B; Pitsavos, C; Chrysohoou, C; Georgousopoulou, E N; Grekas, A; Christou, A; Chatzigeorgiou, M; Skoumas, I; Tousoulis, D; Stefanadis, C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the links between oxidative stress, inflammation and coagulation and their effect on Mediterranean diet-diabetes relationship. In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study, where Athens is the major metropolis. A validated questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle and dietary factors. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was recorded using MedDietScore. Among others, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were recorded. During 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Diabetes incidence was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. A total of 191 incident cases of diabetes were documented, yielding an incidence of 12.9% (13.4% in men and 12.4% in women). Medium and high adherence was found to decrease diabetes risk by 49% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.88) and 62% (95% CI: 0.16, 0.88), respectively, compared with low adherence. A logarithmic trend between Mediterranean diet and diabetes incidence was also revealed (p for trend = 0.042). Individuals with abnormal waist circumference (>94 for men, >80 for women) were benefited the most. Wholegrain cereals, fruits and legumes had the greatest predictive ability. The anti-diabetic effect of Mediterranean diet correlated with measurements of tumour necrosis factor-α, homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity. The reported results support the role of Mediterranean diet as a promising dietary tool for the primary prevention of diabetes, by attenuating inflammation and fostering total antioxidant capacity. This dietary pattern may have therapeutic potential for many cardiometabolic disorders associated with inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

    Carlos Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50% resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.

  19. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    Fadime Kilinç

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Alopecia areata (AA is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant capacity (TOC in patient and control group serum samples. Results:The TAC values of the patient group were found to be higher than the control group (p=0.036. A nonsignificant difference was found between the two groups statistically bordered by TOC (p=0.058. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OSI (p=0.270.

  20. Asymmetrical cross-talk between the endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress caused by dextrose.

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Haas, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses are implicated in premature cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of the interplay between the oxidative and ER stresses to facilitate the development of therapeutic agents that can ameliorate these stresses. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with varying concentrations of dextrose in the presence or absence of three antioxidants (alpha tocopherol, ascorbate and ebselen) and two ER stress modifiers (ERSMs) (4-phenylbutyrate and taurodeoxycholic acid). ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence. The SO generation was increased with increasing concentrations of dextrose. The ER stress was increased with both low (0 and 2.75 mM) and high (13.75 and 27.5 mM) concentrations of dextrose. The antioxidants inhibited the dextrose induced SO production while in high concentrations they aggravated ER stress. The ERSM reduced ER stress and potentiated the efficacy of the three antioxidants. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress was not associated with increased SO generation. Time course experiments with a high concentration of dextrose or by overexpressing glucose transporter one in endothelial cells revealed that dextrose induced SO generation undergoes adaptive down regulation within 2 h while the ER stress is sustained throughout 72 h of observation. The nature of the cross talk between oxidative stress and ER stress induced by dextrose may explain the failure of antioxidant therapy in reducing diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stress status in congenital hypogonadism: an appraisal.

    Haymana, C; Aydoğdu, A; Soykut, B; Erdem, O; Ibrahimov, T; Dinc, M; Meric, C; Basaran, Y; Sonmez, A; Azal, O

    2017-07-01

    Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21.7 ± 1.6 years) and 44 healthy male controls (mean age: 22.3 ± 1.4 years) with almost equal body mass index were enrolled. The demographic parameters, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total and free testosterone, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oxidative stress parameters, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were compared between both groups. Compared to the healthy controls, triglycerides (p = .02), insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, CAT activities and MDA levels (p treatment-naïve patients with congenital hypogonadism had an increased status of oxidative stress.

  2. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  3. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  5. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects

    Koylu Ahmet O; Aslan Mehmet; Bolukbas Filiz F; Bolukbas Cengiz; Horoz Mehmet; Selek Sahbettin; Erel Ozcan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Methods Sixteen hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Results T...

  6. Radioprotective efficacy of bisarylidene cyclopentanone on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sarojini, B.K.; Musthafa Khaleel, V.; Ramesh, S.R.; Ramakrishna, M.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Present study was carried out for evaluating the radioprotective effect of bischalcone (2E, 5E) - 2,5-bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene) cyclopentanone (curcumin analog (CA)), on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster adults. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants included superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The oxidative stress was induced at 1.5 Gy. (author)

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Aging and Dementia

    Joana Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biologic aging is a process, and oxidative stress theory, which is one of the most accepted biological theories for aging, states that oxidative stress causes cumulative damage to mitochondrial DNA resulting in cellular senescence. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major risk factor is aging. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, are not yet known, most recent studies suggest oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ role in the process.Objective: Literature review on the role of oxidative stress’ role in aging and dementia.Methods: Literature review of selected arti-cles and books deemed relevant by the authors, supplemented by Medline/Pubmed database search using combinations of the following key-words: “oxidative stress”, “de-mentia”, “aging” and “pathogenesis”, published between 1950 and 2013. References of the selected articles and books were also considered.Results: In the last five years new research has been undertaken that enlightens the relation between oxidative stress and aging. One of the considered hypotheses states that during aging, the homeostatic regulation of biogenesis, dynamics and autophagic turnover of mitochondria disturbs their functioning, resulting in cellular senescence. Consequently, the oxidative burden may reach a critical threshold above which apoptosis is triggered, leading to irreversible mitochondrial derangement and cellular death. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying dementias are not known, multiple studies have consistently found increased oxidative damage in brain of patients with Alzheimer disease and recent data suggests involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in dementia processes, such as in aging.Conclusions: Most recent studies suggest the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ in aging and dementia, either directly or

  8. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  9. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and its classification.

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-12-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress in ischemia and reperfusion

    Sinning, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk; Clemmensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates......, the different mechanisms through which myocardial protection can be addressed, like ischemic postconditioning in myocardial infarction or adjunctive measures like targeted temperature management as well as new theories, including the role of iron in I/R injury, will be discussed....

  11. Oxidative Stress and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Gennaro Scutiero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecologic diseases in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The women affected suffer from pelvic pain and infertility. The complex etiology is still unclear and it is based on three main theories: retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, and induction theory. Genetics and epigenetics also play a role in the development of endometriosis. Recent studies have put the attention on the role of oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidants, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis causing a general inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Reactive oxygen species are intermediaries produced by normal oxygen metabolism and are inflammatory mediators known to modulate cell proliferation and to have deleterious effects. A systematic review was performed in order to clarify the different roles of oxidative stress and its role in the development of endometriosis. Several issues have been investigated: iron metabolism, oxidative stress markers (in the serum, peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid, peritoneal environment, ovarian cortex, and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue, genes involved in oxidative stress, endometriosis-associated infertility, and cancer development.

  12. Resveratrol Ameliorates Experimental Alcoholic Liver Disease by Modulating Oxidative Stress

    He Peiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of resveratrol in alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Alcohol was administered to healthy female rats starting from 6% (v/v and gradually increased to 20% (v/v by the fifth week. After 16 weeks of intervention, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] were analyzed using a chemistry analyzer, while hepatic antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, and caspase 3 activity were assessed using ELISA kits. Furthermore, hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels and mRNA levels of antioxidant and inflammation-related genes were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that resveratrol significantly attenuated alcohol-induced elevation of liver enzymes and improved hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Resveratrol also attenuated alcohol-induced CYP2E1 increase, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity. Moreover, genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were regulated by resveratrol supplementation. Taken together, the results suggested that resveratrol alleviated ALD through regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, which was mediated at the transcriptional level. The data suggests that resveratrol is a promising natural therapeutic agent against chronic ALD.

  13. Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants

    Velid Unsal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world, and it is influenced by agents such as DEN, 2-AAF, phenobarbital, alcohol, aflatoxin B1 metabolite or hepatitis viruses (B and C. Oxidative stress is becoming recognized as a key factor in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species can play a leading role in initiation and promotion of hepatic carcinogenesis. The metabolites of DEN Diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediate the binding of tumour promoters by covalently binding to the DNA with one or two oxidation-providing electrons. 2-AAF is the inducer of DEN, and it is involved in tumour formation in the bladder and liver. Reactive Oxygen species (ROS; carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and enzymes, such as affect all important structures. Additionally, an excessive amount of ROS is highly toxic to cells. Antioxidants are protects against ROS, toxic substances, carcinogens. This review focuses on the literature on studies of Hepatic Carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    Vemanna S Ramu

    Full Text Available In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  15. Relationship between biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial/microcirculatory function in successful aging versus healthy youth: a transversal study.

    Bottino, Daniel Alexandre; Lopes, Flávia Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco José; Mecenas, Anete de Souza; Clapauch, Ruth; Bouskela, Eliete

    2015-04-08

    There is a functional decline of endothelial- dependent vasodilatation in the aging process. The aims of this study were to investigate if various microcirculatory parameters could correlate to anthropometrical variables, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in successful aging and compare the results to young healthy controls. Healthy elderly women (HE, 74.0 ± 8.7 years, n = 11) and young controls (YC, 23.1 ± 3.6 years, n = 24) were evaluated through nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC), venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) and laboratorial analysis. Functional capillary density (FCD) and diameters, maximum red blood cell velocity (RBCVmax) during the reactive hyperemia response/RBCVbaseline after 1 min arterial occlusion at the finger base, time to reach RBCVmax were determined by NVC, peak increment of forearm blood flow (FBF) during the reactive hyperemia response (%Hyper) and after 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin (%Nitro) by VOP and lipidogram, fibrinogen, fasting and postload glucose, oxidized LDL-cholesterol (oxLDL), sICAM, sVCAM, sE-Selectin, interleukines 1 and 6 and TNF-α by laboratorial analysis. Correlations and linear multiple regression (LMR) between %Hyper, %Nitro, microcirculatory parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were investigated. sVCAM, sE-Selectin and oxLDL were higher and RBCVmax/RBCVbaseline and %Hyper lower in HE, while %Nitro and FCD remained unchanged. Fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, oxLDL correlated negatively to %Hyper while sVCAM correlated negatively to %Hyper and RBCVmax/RBCVbaseline. Healthy aged women presented dilated capillaries with sustained perfusion and endothelial dysfunction with preserved vascular smooth muscle reactivity. Fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, oxidized-LDL and sVCAM correlated negatively to endothelial function but not to microcirculatory parameters. Oxidized-LDL and sVCAM could determine %Hyper through LMR. Oxidized-LDL and sVCAM might be used as endothelial

  16. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  17. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  19. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  20. The relationship between oxidative stress and exercise.

    Finkler, Maya; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2014-02-01

    Physical exercise has many benefits, but it might also have a negative impact on the body, depending on the training level, length of workout, gender, age and fitness. The negative effects of physical exercise are commonly attributed to an imbalance between the levels of antioxidants (both low molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to excessive production of free radicals during physical exercise. In this critical review, we look for answers for three specific questions regarding the interrelationship between physical exercise and oxidative stress (OS), namely, (i) the dependence of the steady-state level of OS on fitness, (ii) the effect of intensive exercise on the OS and (iii) the dependence of the effect of the intense exercise on the individual fitness. All these questions have been raised, investigated and answered, but the answers given on the basis of different studies are different. In the present review, we try to explain the reason(s) for the inconsistencies between the conclusions of different investigations, commonly based on the concentrations of specific biomarkers in body fluids. We think that most of the inconsistencies can be attributed to the difference between the criteria of the ill-defined term denoted OS, the methods used to test them and in some cases, between the qualities of the applied assays. On the basis of our interpretation of the differences between different criteria of OS, we consider possible answers to three well-defined questions. Possible partial answers are given, all of which lend strong support to the conclusion that the network responsible for homeostasis of the redox status is very effective. However, much more data are required to address the association between exercise and OS and its dependence on various relevant factors.

  1. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  2. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. Copyright

  3. Oxidative stress in normal hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia.

    Samimi, Azin; Kalantari, Heybatullah; Lorestani, Marzieh Zeinvand; Shirzad, Reza; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-04-01

    Leukemia is developed following the abnormal proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells in the blood when hematopoietic stem cells lose the ability to turn into mature cells at different stages of maturation and differentiation. Leukemia initiating cells are specifically dependent upon the suppression of oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow (BM) environment to be able to start their activities. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (2000-2017) of English-language literature using the terms 'oxidative stress,' 'reactive oxygen species,' 'hematopoietic stem cell,' and 'leukemia.' The generation and degradation of free radicals is a main component of the metabolism in aerobic organisms. A certain level of ROS is required for proper cellular function, but values outside this range will result in oxidative stress (OS). Long-term overactivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has harmful effects on the function of cells and their vital macromolecules, including the transformation of proteins into autoantigens and increased degradation of protein/DNA, which eventually leads to the change in pathways involved in the development of cancer and several other disorders. According to the metabolic disorders of cancer, the relationship between OS changes, the viability of cancer cells, and their response to chemotherapeutic agents affecting this pathway are undeniable. Recently, studies have been conducted to determine the effect of herbal agents and cancer chemotherapy drugs on oxidative stress pathways. By emphasizing the role of oxidative stress on stem cells in the incidence of leukemia, this paper attempts to state and summarize this subject. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  5. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: preliminary results of a randomised study.

    Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Aldemir, Mustafa; Özcan, Muhammet Fuat; Okulu, Emrah; Özayar, Asım; Ergin, Merve; Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Çakmak, Serdar; Erel, Özcan

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate oxidative stress in etiopathogenesis by analyzing serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), binding capacity of exogenous cobalt to human albumin (IMA), serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase, IgE, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). The study included 16 female patients diagnosed with BPS/IC and 25 healthy female subjects forming the control group. A bladder biopsy was performed on all patients in the BPS/IC group by carrying out cystoscopy with hydrodistention under general anesthesia. The results of serum TAC, TOS, IMA, AOPP, PON, arylesterase, IgE, and CRP of the subjects in both groups were compared. The mean age of the 16 female patients in the BPS/IC group was 43.6 ± 14.5 years, and the mean age of the 25 healthy subjects in the control group was 42.0 ± 10.3 years. According to the criteria of International Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC), eight patients were classified as Type 2A, three patients as Type 2B, four patients as Type 2C, and one patient as Type 3C. In the BPS/IC group, while TAC was found significantly lower than in the control group, IMA, IgE, and CRP were found significantly higher (P < 0.05). When binary logistic regression analysis was performed, the created model was determined to have 81.3 % sensitivity and 80 % specifity. In the etiology of BPS/IC, mechanism of oxidative damage comes into prominence. In the diagnosis of BPS/IC, IgE, CRP, and TAC are not specific markers when used separately; however, a higher specifity and sensitivity could be reached when used jointly in the suspected patients.

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  7. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  8. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  9. Effects of l-carnitine on oxidative stress parameters in ...

    Emel Peri Canbolat

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress .... Erel's method was used for measuring TOS.19 TOS was ..... antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS.

  10. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof ... seriously affects the quality of life and prognosis. [6]. ... balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant ..... original work is properly credited.

  11. Implication of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia G.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M.

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic background are well known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A third contributing factor is suboptimal fetal development, due to nutrient or oxygen deprivation, placental insufficiency, or exposure to toxic substances. The fetus adapts to adverse intrauterine conditions to ensure survival; the immediate consequence is low birth weight (LBW) and the long-term effect is an increased susceptibility to develop CVD in adult life. This process is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming of CVD. The influence of fetal life for the future cardiovascular health of the individual has been evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies in populations suffering from starvation during intrauterine life. Furthermore, experimental animal models have provided support and enabled exploring the underlying mechanisms. Oxidative stress seems to play a central role in fetal programming of CVD, both in the response of the feto-placental unit to the suboptimal intrauterine environment and in the alterations of physiologic systems of cardiovascular control, ultimately leading to disease. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the alterations in oxidative balance in response to fetal stress factors covering two aspects. Firstly, the evidence from human studies of the implication of oxidative stress in LBW induced by suboptimal conditions during intrauterine life, emphasizing the role of the placenta. In the second part we summarize data on specific redox alterations in key cardiovascular control organs induced by exposure to known stress factors in experimental animals and discuss the emerging role of the mitochondria. PMID:29875698

  12. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  13. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  14. Acetaminophen inhibits neuronal inflammation and protects neurons from oxidative stress

    Grammas Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a link between the inflammatory response, increased cytokine formation, and neurodegeneration in the brain. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, have been documented. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of acetaminophen on cultured brain neuronal survival and inflammatory factor expression when exposed to oxidative stress. Methods Cerebral cortical cultured neurons are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (5 μM. Cell survival is assessed by MTT assay and inflammatory protein (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES release quantitated by ELISA. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is assessed by western blots. Results Acetaminophen has pro-survival effects on neurons in culture. Menadione, a superoxide releasing oxidant stressor, causes a significant (p Conclusion These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on neurons and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  15. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  16. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  17. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  18. Evaluation of cytokines, oxidative stress markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with fibromyalgia - A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Ranzolin, Aline; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Bredemeier, Markus; da Costa Neto, Cláudio Antônio; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Xavier, Ricardo Machado

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies measuring serum levels of biomarkers of inflammation/oxidative stress and neurotrophins levels in fibromyalgia (FM) have rendered inconsistent results. In the present study, our aim was to explore the levels of interleukins, oxidative stress markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with FM in relation to depression and severity of disease. In a prospective controlled cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl and BDNF were measured in 69 FM patients and 61 healthy controls (all women). In the FM group, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied. Mann Whitney's and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analysis. The FM patients demonstrated a significant impact of the disease on quality of life (FIQ 70.2±17.8) and most of them had depression at some level (82.6% and 87.0% as assessed by BDI and HDRS, respectively). Most biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, TBARS and protein carbonyl) and BDNF did not differ significantly between patients and controls, but the IL-10 levels were higher in FM patients (adjusted p=0.041). Among FM patients, there was no correlation of HDRS, FIQ, and BDI scores with any biomarker tested here. We observed no significant differences in biomarkers between FM patients and controls, except for higher levels of IL-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) in patients. The levels of biomarkers were not correlated with parameters of disease and depression severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  20. Oxidative stress and mechanisms of ochronosis in alkaptonuria.

    Braconi, Daniela; Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2015-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare metabolic disease due to a deficient activity of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), involved in Phe and Tyr catabolism. Due to such a deficiency, AKU patients undergo accumulation of the metabolite homogentisic acid (HGA), which is prone to oxidation/polymerization reactions causing the production of a melanin-like pigment. Once the pigment is deposited onto connective tissues (mainly in joints, spine, and cardiac valves), a classical bluish-brown discoloration is imparted, leading to a phenomenon known as "ochronosis", the hallmark of AKU. A clarification of the molecular mechanisms for the production and deposition of the ochronotic pigment in AKU started only recently with a range of in vitro and ex vivo human models used for the study of HGA-induced effects. Thanks to redox-proteomic analyses, it was found that HGA could induce significant oxidation of a number of serum and chondrocyte proteins. Further investigations allowed highlighting how HGA-induced proteome alteration, lipid peroxidation, thiol depletion, and amyloid production could contribute to oxidative stress generation and protein oxidation in AKU. This review briefly summarizes the most recent findings on HGA-induced oxidative stress in AKU, helping in the clarification of the molecular mechanisms of ochronosis and potentially providing the basis for its pharmacological treatment. Future work should be undertaken in order to validate in vivo the results so far obtained in in vitro AKU models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and cardiac ageing.

    Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Gredilla, Ricardo

    According with different international organizations, cardiovascular diseases are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Although exposure to different risk factors, particularly those related to lifestyle, contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cardiac disorders, the increase in average lifespan and aging are considered major determinants of cardiac diseases events. Mitochondria and oxidative stress have been pointed out as relevant factors both in heart aging and in the development of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During aging, cellular processes related with mitochondrial function, such as bioenergetics, apoptosis and inflammation are altered leading to cardiac dysfunction. Increasing our knowledge about the mitochondrial mechanisms related with the aging process, will provide new strategies in order to improve this process, particularly the cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metformin protects primary rat hepatocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    Conde de la Rosa, Laura; Vrenken, Titia E; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    The majority of chronic liver diseases are accompanied by oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis in hepatocytes and liver injury. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and insulin resistance are important in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the

  4. Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David

    Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen

  5. Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption after high-intensity exercise

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

  6. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  8. Two-hit model of schizophrenia induced by neonatal immune activation and peripubertal stress in rats: Study of sex differences and brain oxidative alterations.

    Monte, Aline Santos; Mello, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira; Borella, Vládia Célia Moreira; da Silva Araujo, Tatiane; da Silva, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues; Sousa, Francisca Cléa F de; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Seeman, Mary V; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Lucena, David Freitas De; Macêdo, Danielle

    2017-07-28

    Schizophrenia is considered to be a developmental disorder with distinctive sex differences. Aiming to simulate the vulnerability of the third trimester of human pregnancy to the developmental course of schizophrenia, an animal model was developed, using neonatal poly(I:C) as a first-hit, and peripubertal stress as a second-hit, i.e. a two-hit model. Since, to date, there have been no references to sex differences in the two-hit model, our study sought to determine sex influences on the development of behavior and brain oxidative change in adult rats submitted to neonatal exposure to poly(I:C) on postnatal days 5-7 as well as peripubertal unpredictable stress (PUS). Our results showed that adult two-hit rats present sex-specific behavioral alterations, with females showing more pronounced deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and hyperlocomotion, while males showing more deficits in social interaction. Male and female animals exhibited similar working memory deficits. The levels of the endogenous antioxidant, reduced glutathione, were decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of both male and female animals exposed to both poly(I:C) and poly(I:C)+PUS. Only females presented decrements in GSH levels in the striatum. Nitrite levels were increased in the PFC of male and in the striatum of female poly(I:C)+PUS rats. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed in the PFC of females and in the striatum of males and females exposed to poly(I:C) and poly(I:C)+PUS. Thus, the present study presents evidence for sex differences in behavior and oxidative brain change induced by a two-hit model of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High Glucose Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Wei-Bin; Yang, Penghua; Dong, Daoyin; Sun, Winny; Yang, Peixin

    2018-06-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17.2 cell line) differentiation was examined. Neural stem cells were cultured in normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) differentiation medium for 3, 5, and 7 days. High glucose suppressed neural stem cell differentiation by significantly decreasing the expression of the neuron marker Tuj1 and the glial cell marker GFAP and the numbers of Tuj1 + and GFAP + cells. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol reversed high glucose-decreased Tuj1 and GFAP expression and restored the numbers of neurons and glial cells differentiated from neural stem cells. Hydrogen peroxide treatment imitated the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation. Both high glucose and hydrogen peroxide triggered ER stress, whereas Tempol blocked high glucose-induced ER stress. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate, abolished the inhibition of high glucose or hydrogen peroxide on neural stem cell differentiation. Thus, oxidative stress and its resultant ER stress mediate the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation.

  10. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  11. Influence of oxidative stress on disease development

    Božić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ever increasing data indicating the vmast contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and others. Thus, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis the primary role is held by reactive oxygen species that are synthetized by endothelial cells of arterial blood vessels, leukocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, native particles of lipoproteins of small density become atherogenic through oxidation caused by reactive oxygen species. The oxidation of small-density lipoproteins stimulates the inflammatory process, and it in turn steps up adhesion and the inflow of monocytes and affects the synthesis and release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines involved in the further course of the process. One of the reasons for the development of arterial hypertension is the simultaneous activation of NAD(PH oxidase and 12/15-lipoxygenase, since it results in the stepped up production of reactive oxygen species. These stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which lead to vascular remodelling and to increased apoptosis of heart muscle cells. Stepped up apoptosis is linked with myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies and the development of heart failure. The sensitivity of β-cells of the endocrine part of the pancreas to reactive oxygen species favor the naturally low concentrations of the collectors of free radicals in them, as well as an increase in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, glucosis and lipids that induce a reduction in the mass and function of β-cells. Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes tissue damage through non-enzyme glycosylation of intracellular and extracellular proteins, which results in: reduced enzyme activity, damaged nucleic acid, disrupted natural decomposition of proteins, and activation of cytotoxic pathways. These processes are the basis of the pathogenesis of numerous

  12. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Yao Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL, one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone1 (NQO1. However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  14. Are PTH levels related to oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis?

    Marcel Jaqueto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients at end stage renal disease have higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress than the general population. Many factors contribute to these issues, and the parathyroid hormone (PTH is also implicated. Objective: The study was conducted in order to assess the relationship between PTH levels and inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients of two hemodialysis facilities in Londrina, Brazil. Patients with other conditions known to generate oxidative stress and inflammation were excluded. Blood levels of PTH and biochemical parameters of inflammation (interleukins 1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oxidative stress (total plasma antioxidant capacity, malonic dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxidation, advanced oxidation protein products, quantification of nitric oxide metabolites, and 8-isoprostane were measured before a dialysis session. Then, we made correlation analyses between PTH levels - either as the continuous variable or categorized into tertiles-, and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results: PTH did not show any correlation with the tested inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, nor as continuous variable neither as categorical variable. Conclusion: In this descriptive study, the results suggest that the inflammation and oxidative stress of hemodialysis patients probably arise from mechanisms other than secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  15. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    Daniel Fudulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed.

  17. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  18. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    Ayşin Akıncı; Mukaddes Eşrefoğlu; Elif Taşlıdere; Burhan Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino...

  19. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    Ak?nc?, Ay?in; E?refo?lu, Mukaddes; Ta?l?dere, Elif; Ate?, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were...

  20. The effect of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: An experimental study

    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren’t clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e: Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group. For induction of polycystic ovary phenotype, testosterone enanthate 10 mg/kg was injected for 35 days subcutaneously. Then, resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 28 days to rats of the PCO-Resveratrol group. Ovarian sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The serum glucose and insulin and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in serum and liver were measured. Results: Control animals showed normal ovarian morphology and PCO-Control animals exhibited cystic follicles. There were no significant differences in liver TAC between groups. The serum MDA (p=0.034, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p=0.014 levels in PCO-Control rats were higher than the controls. The liver MDA in PCO-Control rats was more than that of controls (p=0.001. The HOMA-IR (p=0.008 and serum MDA (p=0.006 levels in PCO-Control rats were more than those of PCO-Resveratrol rats (p=0.008. In PCO-Resveratrol group, serum TAC was higher than that of PCO-Control group (p=0.022 and liver MDA was more than controls (p=0.01. Conclusion: Results indicated that the induction of PCOS in rats increased lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance and resveratrol improved these complications.

  1. Acridone derivative 8a induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells: application of metabolomics in mechanistic studies of antitumor agents.

    Yini Wang

    Full Text Available A new acridone derivative, 2-aminoacetamido-10-(3, 5-dimethoxy-benzyl-9(10H-acridone hydrochloride (named 8a synthesized in our lab shows potent antitumor activity, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we report the use of an UPLC/Q-TOF MS metabolomic approach to study the effects of three compounds with structures optimized step-by-step, 9(10H-acridone (A, 10-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl-9(10H-acridone (I, and 8a, on CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and to shed new light on the probable antitumor mechanism of 8a. Acquired data were processed by principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA to identify potential biomarkers. Comparing 8a-treated CCRF-CEM leukemia cells with vehicle control (DMSO, 23 distinct metabolites involved in five metabolic pathways were identified. Metabolites from glutathione (GSH and glycerophospholipid metabolism were investigated in detail, and results showed that GSH level and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly decreased in 8a-treated cells, while L-cysteinyl-glycine (L-Cys-Gly and glutamate were greatly increased. In glycerophospholipid metabolism, cell membrane components phosphatidylcholines (PCs were decreased in 8a-treated cells, while the oxidative products lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs were significantly increased. We further found that in 8a-treated cells, the reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA were notably increased, accompanied with decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-3. Taken together our results suggest that the acridone derivative 8a induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomic approach provides novel insights into the mechanistic studies of antitumor drugs from a point distinct from traditional biological investigations.

  2. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  3. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy | Kundu ...

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms; one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of acquired blindness. Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress have been attributed to the development of ...

  4. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  5. Progranulin causes adipose insulin resistance via increased autophagy resulting from activated oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Guo, Qinyue; Xu, Lin; Li, Huixia; Sun, Hongzhi; Liu, Jiali; Wu, Shufang; Zhou, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Progranulin (PGRN) has recently emerged as an important regulator for insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of progranulin in adipose insulin resistance associated with the autophagy mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, progranulin was administered to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BL/6 J mice with/without specific inhibitors of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy markers were assessed. Progranulin treatment increased iNOS expression, NO synthesis and ROS generation, and elevated protein expressions of CHOP, GRP78 and the phosphorylation of PERK, and caused a significant increase in Atg7 and LC3-II protein expression and a decreased p62 expression, and decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and glucose uptake, demonstrating that progranulin activated oxidative stress and ER stress, elevated autophagy and induced insulin insensitivity in adipocytes and adipose tissue of mice. Interestingly, inhibition of iNOS and ER stress both reversed progranulin-induced stress response and increased autophagy, protecting against insulin resistance in adipocytes. Furthermore, the administration of the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid reversed the negative effect of progranulin in vivo. Our findings showed the clinical potential of the novel adipokine progranulin in the regulation of insulin resistance, suggesting that progranulin might mediate adipose insulin resistance, at least in part, by inducing autophagy via activated oxidative stress and ER stress.

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Oxidative stress treatment for clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; LoGerfo, Annalisa; Carlesi, Cecilia; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a metabolic condition arising from imbalance between the production of potentially reactive oxygen species and the scavenging activities. Mitochondria are the main providers but also the main scavengers of cell oxidative stress. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is well documented. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this evidence, human experience with antioxidant neuroprotectants has generally been negative with regards to the clinical progress of disease, with unclear results in biochemical assays. Here we review the antioxidant approaches performed so far in neurodegenerative diseases and the future challenges in modern medicine.

  9. Oxidative stress participates in age-related changes in rat lumbar intervertebral discs.

    Hou, Gang; Lu, Huading; Chen, Mingjuan; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a major factor associated with lumber intervertebral disc degeneration, and oxidative stress is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress in intervertebral discs of Wistar rats in three different age groups: youth, adult, and geriatric. Age-related intervertebral disc changes were examined by histological analysis. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by assessing nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). Intervertebral disc, but not serum, NO concentrations significantly differed between the three groups. Serum and intervertebral disc SOD activity gradually decreased with age. Furthermore, both serum and intervertebral disc MDA and AOPP levels gradually increased with age. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress is associated with age-related intervertebral disc changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in neuropathic pain and disinhibition of the spinal nociceptive circuitry.

    Ge, Yanhu; Jiao, Yingfu; Li, Peiying; Xiang, Zhenghua; Li, Zhi; Wang, Long; Li, Wenqian; Gao, Hao; Shao, Jiayun; Wen, Daxiang; Yu, Weifeng

    2018-05-01

    The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen leads to ER stress, which is related to cellular reactive oxygen species production. Neuropathic pain may result from spinal dorsal horn (SDH) ER stress. In this study, we examined the cause-effect relationship between ER stress and neuropathic pain using the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model. We showed that ER stress was mutually promotive with oxidative stress during the process. We also tested the hypothesis that spinal sensitization arose from reduced activities of GABA-ergic interneurons and that spinal sensitization was mediated by SDH ER stress. Other important findings in this study including the following: (1) nociceptive behavior was alleviated in SNL rat as long as tauroursodeoxycholic acid injections were repeated to inhibit ER stress; (2) inducing SDH ER stress in healthy rat resulted in mechanical hyperalgesia; (3) blocking protein disulfide isomerase pharmacologically reduced ER stress and nociceptive behavior in SNL rat; (4) cells in the dorsal horn with elevated ER stress were mainly neurons; and (5) whole-cell recordings made in slide preparations revealed significant inhibition of GABA-ergic interneuron activity in the dorsal horn with ER stress vs in the healthy dorsal horn. Taken together, results of the current study demonstrate that coregulation of ER stress and oxidative stress played an important role in neuropathic pain process. Inhibiting SDH ER stress could be a potential novel strategy to manage neuropathic pain.

  11. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-04-01

    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Finite element modelling of the oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 with a controlled metal-oxide interface and the influence of growth stress

    Zumpicchiat, Guillaume; Pascal, Serge; Tupin, Marc; Berdin-Méric, Clotilde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: We developed two finite element models of zirconium-based alloy oxidation using the CEA Cast3M code to simulate the oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4: the diffuse interface model and the sharp interface model. We also studied the effect of stresses on the oxidation kinetics. The main results are: • Both models lead to parabolic oxidation kinetics in agreement with the Wagner’s theory. • The modellings enable to calculate the stress distribution in the oxide as well as in the metal. • A strong effect of the hydrostatic stress on the oxidation kinetics has been evidenced. • The stress gradient effect changes the parabolic kinetics into a sub-parabolic law closer to the experimental kinetics because of the stress gradient itself, but also because of the growth stress increase with the oxide thickness. - Abstract: Experimentally, zirconium-based alloys oxidation kinetics is sub-parabolic, by contrast with the Wagner theory which predicts a parabolic kinetics. Two finite element models have been developed to simulate this phenomenon: the diffuse interface model and the sharp interface model. Both simulate parabolic oxidation kinetics. The growth stress effects on oxygen diffusion are studied to try to explain the gap between theory and experience. Taking into account the influence of the hydrostatic stress and its gradient into the oxygen flux expression, sub-parabolic oxidation kinetics have been simulated. The sub-parabolic behaviour of the oxidation kinetics can be explained by a non-uniform compressive stress level into the oxide layer.

  13. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    Kreuz, Sarah

    2016-06-20

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation.

  14. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  15. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  16. Degradation of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide NMOSFETs under CVDT and SHE Stresses

    Shi-Gang, Hu; Yan-Rong, Cao; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Chi, Chen; Xiao-Feng, Wu; Qing-Jun, Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of device under substrate hot-electron (SHE) and constant voltage direct-tunnelling (CVDT) stresses are studied using NMOSFET with 1.4-nm gate oxides. The degradation of device parameters and the degradation of the stress induced leakage current (SILC) under these two stresses are reported. The emphasis of this paper is on SILC and breakdown of ultra-thin-gate-oxide under these two stresses. SILC increases with stress time and several soft breakdown events occur during direct-tunnelling (DT) stress. During SHE stress, SILC firstly decreases with stress time and suddenly jumps to a high level, and no soft breakdown event is observed. For DT injection, the positive hole trapped in the oxide and hole direct-tunnelling play important roles in the breakdown. For SHE injection, it is because injected hot electrons accelerate the formation of defects and these defects formed by hot electrons induce breakdown. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we used a novel reducing agent, betamercaptoethanol (BME), for synthesis of graphene to avoid the use of toxic materials. To uncover the impacts of GO and rGO on human health, the antibacterial activity of two types of graphene-based material toward a bacterial model P. aeruginosa was studied and compared. The synthesized GO and rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Further, to explain the antimicrobial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, we employed various assays, such as cell growth, cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, and DNA fragmentation. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples confirmed the transition of GO into graphene. Dynamic light-scattering analyses showed the average size among the two types of graphene materials. X-ray diffraction data validated the structure of graphene sheets, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene. Raman spectroscopy data indicated the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and the formation of graphene. The exposure of cells to GO and rGO induced the production of superoxide radical anion and loss of cell viability. Results suggest that the antibacterial activities are contributed to by loss of cell viability, induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. The antibacterial activities of GO and rGO against P. aeruginosa were compared. The loss of P. aeruginosa viability increased in a dose- and

  18. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  19. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

    L'ubomíra Tóthová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Celec, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status. PMID:29311982

  1. cis-Bifenthrin enantioselectively induces hepatic oxidative stress in mice.

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral synthetic pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests. In China, the commercial cis-BF contained two enantiomers including 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. However, the difference in oxidative stress induced by the two enantiomers in mice still remains unclear. In the present study, 4 week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered cis-BF, 1R-cis-BF or 1S-cis-BF daily for 2, 4 and 6 weeks at doses of 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. We found that the hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content both in the serum and liver increased significantly in the 4 or 6 weeks 1S-cis-BF treated groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) also changed significantly in the serum and liver of 1S-cis-BF treated mice. More importantly, the significant differences in MDA content and CAT activity both in the serum and liver, and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and SOD in serum were also observed between the 1S-cis-BF and 1R-cis-BF treated groups. Moreover, the transcription of oxidative stress response related genes including Sod1, Cat and heme oxygenase-1(Ho-1) in the liver of 1S-cis-BF treated groups were also significant higher than those in 1R-cis-BF treated group. Thus, it was concluded that cis-BF induced hepatic oxidative stress in an enantiomer specific manner in mice when exposed during the puberty, and that 1S-cis-BF showed much more toxic in hepatic oxidative stress than 1R-cis-BF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  3. Effects of pH on uranium uptake and oxidative stress responses induced in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Saenen, Eline; Horemans, Nele; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Biermans, Geert; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U) causes oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown at pH 5.5. However, U speciation and its toxicity strongly depend on environmental parameters, for example pH. It is unknown how different U species determine U uptake and translocation within plants and how they might affect the oxidative defense mechanisms of these plants. The present study analyzed U uptake and oxidative stress-related responses in A. thaliana (Columbia ecotype) under contrasted U chemical speciation ...

  4. Poststroke Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Relationships with IL-17 and Oxidative Stress

    W. Swardfager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke variably activates interleukin- (IL- 17 expression, reduces regulatory T cells, and induces oxidative stress, which may support neurodegeneration. Ischemic stroke patients were screened for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D and cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-23, and interferon- [IFN-] γ, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPH, a measure of oxidative stress, were assayed from fasting serum. Of 47 subjects (age 71.8 ± 14.4 years, 36% female, 19 had depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, which was associated with poorer cognitive status (F1,46=8.44, P=0.006. IL-17 concentrations did not differ between subjects with and without depressive symptoms (F1,46=8.44, P=0.572; however, IL-17 was associated with poorer cognitive status in subjects with depressive symptoms (F1,46=9.29, P=0.004. In those subjects with depressive symptoms, IL-17 was associated with higher LPH (ρ=0.518, P=0.023 and lower IL-10 (ρ=-0.484, P=0.036, but not in those without. In conclusion, poststroke depressive symptoms may be associated with cognitive vulnerability to IL-17 related pathways, involving an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity and increased oxidative stress.

  5. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy.

    Sharma, Rachana D; Katkar, Gajanan D; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2017-05-01

    Snakebite is a neglected health hazard. Its patho-physiology has largely been focused on systemic and local toxicities; whereas, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has long been ignored. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives, remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D. russelli and E. carinatus venoms induce strong oxidative stress that persists even after antivenom administration in mice model. Additionally, antivenoms also induce oxidative stress. Polyvalent antivenom induce more oxidative stress than monovalent antivenom. Strikingly, antivenom and melatonin together not only inhibit venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress but also significantly reduce the neutralizing antivenom dose. This study provides a therapeutic potential for enhancing the existing snakebite therapy. The combined treatment of antivenom+melatonin would prevent the upsurge of oxidative stress as well as minimize the antivenom load. Thus the investigation offers immense scope for physicians and toxinologists to reinvestigate, design new strategies and think beyond the conventional mode of antivenom therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A meta-analysis of biomarkers related to oxidative stress and nitric oxide pathway in migraine.

    Neri, Monica; Frustaci, Alessandra; Milic, Mirta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fini, Massimo; Bonassi, Stefano; Barbanti, Piero

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress are considered key events in the still unclear pathophysiology of migraine. Studies comparing the level of biomarkers related to nitric oxide (NO) pathway/oxidative stress in the blood/urine of migraineurs vs. unaffected controls were extracted from the PubMed database. Summary estimates of mean ratios (MR) were carried out whenever a minimum of three papers were available. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analyses, accounting for more than 1000 patients and controls, and compared with existing literature. Most studies measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed lower activity in cases, although the meta-analysis in erythrocytes gave null results. On the contrary, plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an aspecific biomarker of oxidative damage, showed a meta-MR of 2.20 (95% CI: 1.65-2.93). As for NOs, no significant results were found in plasma, serum and urine. However, higher levels were shown during attacks, in patients with aura, and an effect of diet was found. The analysis of glutathione precursor homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NO synthase inhibitor, gave inconclusive results. The role of the oxidative pathway in migraine is still uncertain. Interesting evidence emerged for TBARS and SOD, and concerning the possible role of diet in the control of NOx levels. © International Headache Society 2015.

  8. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects

    Koylu Ahmet O

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Methods Sixteen hepatitis C (+ hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Results Total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in controls than hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (all p 0.05/3. Conclusion Oxidative stress is increased in both hepatitis C (+ and hepatitis C (- hemodialysis subjects. However, hepatitis C infection seems to not cause any additional increase in oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects and it may be partly due to protective effect of dialysis treatment on hepatitis C infection.

  9. Beneficial effects of oral pure caffeine on oxidative stress

    Daniela Metro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of coffee (which is a mixture of over 1000 hydrosoluble substances is known to protect from type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, and other chronic disorders associated with increased oxidative damage in blood and tissues. This protection is generally attributed to polyphenols and melanoidins. Very few studies were conducted on the amelioration of classic blood markers of oxidative stress induced after a few days of caffeine administration, but results vary.To assess whether caffeine per se could account for antioxidant properties of coffee in the short-term, we tested the ability of pure caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg body weight/day in two daily doses for seven consecutive days to improve plasma levels of six biochemical indices in healthy male volunteers (n = 15. These indices were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, GSH to GSSG ratio, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and malondialdehyde (MDA.We found that all indices changed significantly (P < .05 or < .01 in a favourable manner, ranging from −41% for GSSG to −70% for LHP levels, and +106% for GSH levels to +249% for the GSG/GSSG ratio. Changes of any given index were uniform across subjects, with no outliers.We conclude that caffeine has unequivocal, consistent antioxidant properties. Keyword: Oxidative stress, Coffee, Caffeine, Lipid peroxidation, Gluthathione, Malondialdehyde

  10. Aspects of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pediatric Obesity and Type 1 Diabetes: An Overview of Ten Years of Studies

    Brian Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 1 diabetes (T1DM are the two most common conditions of altered metabolism in children and adolescents. In both, similar long-term cardiovascular complications are known to occur, mediated in large part by underlying inflammatory and oxidative processes whose biochemical details remain relatively unclear. Through a series of experiments in these patient populations, over the last decade our laboratory has clarified a number of key issues in this field. Interestingly, while obese and type 1 diabetic children often differed in the specific type and magnitude of molecular alterations, in both groups a clear exaggeration of inflammatory and oxidative activation was detected when compared to healthy, age-matched controls. Our main findings include definition of resting and exercise-induced cytokine patterns and leukocyte profiles, patterns of activation of immune cells in vitro, and correlation of the magnitude of observed alterations with severity of obesity and quality of glycemic control. Further, we have identified a series of alterations in growth factor profiles during exercise that parallel inflammatory changes in obese children. This paper offers a concise overview of the salient results from this decade-long research effort.

  11. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  12. Assess the environmental health status of macrophyte ecosystems using an oxidative stress biomarker. Case studies: The Gulf of Aqaba and the Lagoon of Venice

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Juhmani, Abdul-Salam; Buosi, Alessandro; Sfriso, Andrea; Sfriso, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Macrophytes play a fundamental role in structuring communities in aquatic environments. They contribute to maintaining the ecosystem services. Unfortunately, nowadays, they are threatened by different sources of pollution. The release of such potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to the environment may influence negatively the ecosystem health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies the ecosystem biodiversity. Indeed, the increasing concentration and distribution of PTEs in the marine ecosystem by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals, and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. The aim of this work is to describe the developing of an innovative early warning tool, based on the implementation of the lipid peroxidation oxidative stress biomarker for the assessment and monitoring of ecological status in response to PTEs in different marine environments. Six sites were selected along the Jordanian coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba and the lagoon of Venice in Italy according to different morphological, ecological conditions and anthropogenic impact. Our results indicated that the effect of PTEs causes oxidative stress to macrophytes; in particular: Ulva fasciata and Ulva lactuca collected from the lagoon of Venice and Gulf of Aqaba respectively. The oxidative stress by PTEs alters the biochemical processes, as it stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accordingly the oxidative degradation of lipids (LPO). The by-products of LPO, the organic compound malondialdehyde (MDA) is significantly correlated (pVenice, macrophytes, lipid peroxidation.

  13. Zearalenone altered the cytoskeletal structure via ER stress- autophagy- oxidative stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

    Zheng, Wanglong; Wang, Bingjie; Si, Mengxue; Zou, Hui; Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Guoqiang; Bai, Jianfa; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, ZongPing

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the destruction of cytoskeletal structure by Zearalenone (ZEA) in mouse-derived TM4 cells. In order to investigate the role of autophagy, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress in the process of destruction of cytoskeletal structure, the effects of ZEA on the cell viability, cytoskeletal structure, autophagy, oxidative stress, ER stress, MAPK and PI3K- AKT- mTOR signaling pathways were studied. The data demonstrated that ZEA damaged the cytoskeletal structure through the induction of autophagy that leads to the alteration of cytoskeletal structure via elevated oxidative stress. Our results further showed that the autophagy was stimulated by ZEA through PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in TM4 cells. In addition, ZEA also induced the ER stress which was involved in the induction of the autophagy through inhibiting the ERK signal pathway to suppress the phosphorylation of mTOR. ER stress was involved in the damage of cytoskeletal structure through induction of autophagy by producing ROS. Taken together, this study revealed that ZEA altered the cytoskeletal structure via oxidative stress - autophagy- ER stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

  14. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.

    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL before and after oxidation (oxMBL with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidinedihydrochroride (AAPH was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively. Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1 in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.

  15. Influence of Turmeric Rhizome Powder diets on decreasing oxidative stress caused by heat stress inbroiler model

    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS increases during oxidative stress conditions, which stimulates diabetes, inflammatory reactions, rheumatism and anemia. Some antioxidant properties of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP were revealed by previous researchers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of TRP on decreasing effects of oxidative stress resulted from heat stress in broiler chickens.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two-hundred-sixty-four 1-day-old broilers were divided into 3 dietary treatments. The dietary treatments involved 0(control, 0.4 and 0.8% turmeric rhizome powder (cases. In order to create oxidative stress, the ambient temperature was daily raised from 21 to 33oc for 5 hours (11a.m-4p.m throughout the 28th-42nd days. Blood lipids, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx ,superoxide dismutase (SOD, and Tiobarbituric acid reaction score (TBARS were determined at the end of the experiment.   Results: The results revealed that total cholesterol and triglyceride were not affected. The 0.4 TRP diet decreased blood LDL (46.7±3.01 compared to basal group (52.0±2.17. HDL increased in broilers fed 0.8% TRP (74.0 ± 3.87 compared to chickens with basal diet (63.7± 2.98. Enzyme activity of GPx improved in broilers fed TRP diets (225.9± 11.52 as compared to chickens with basal diet(183.1± 8.52 however, the TRP diet did not affect enzyme activity of SOD (P > 0.05. The TBARS index decreased in broilers fed TRP (0.76 ± 0.0052 in basal vs.0.49 ± 0.0032 in 0.8% TRP.   Conclusion: The major bioactive component of TRP is Curcumin that can improve the antioxidant properties under oxidative stress and high ambient temperature.

  16. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers.

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Santella, Regina M; Sram, Radim J

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with many diseases. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are believed to be two of the major sources of particulate matter (PM)-mediated adverse health effects. PM in ambient air arises from industry, local heating, and vehicle emissions and poses a serious problem mainly in large cities. In the present study we analyzed the level of oxidative and nitrosative stress among 50 bus drivers from Prague, Czech Republic, and 50 matching controls. We assessed simultaneously the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine and protein carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in blood plasma. For the analysis of all four markers we used ELISA techniques. We observed significantly increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers. The median levels (min, max) of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 8-oxodG: 7.79 (2.64-12.34)nmol/mmol versus 6.12 (0.70-11.38)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); 15-F(2t)-IsoP: 0.81 (0.38-1.55)nmol/mmol versus 0.68 (0.39-1.79)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); carbonyl levels: 14.1 (11.8-19.0)nmol/ml versus 12.9 (9.8-16.6)nmol/ml plasma (p<0.001); NT: 694 (471-3228)nmol/l versus 537 (268-13833)nmol/l plasma (p<0.001). 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels correlated with vitamin E (R=0.23, p<0.05), vitamin C (R=-0.33, p<0.01) and cotinine (R=0.47, p<0.001) levels. Vitamin E levels also positively correlated with 8-oxodG (R=0.27, p=0.01) and protein carbonyl levels (R=0.32, p<0.001). Both oxidative and nitrosative stress markers positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposure. In conclusion, our study indicates that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 results in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  17. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers in diabetes and hypertension

    Pouvreau C

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloé Pouvreau,1 Antoine Dayre,1 Eugene G Butkowski,2 Beverlie de Jong,2 Herbert F Jelinek2,3 1Faculty of Sciences, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France; 2School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia; 3Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors associated with chronic disease such as essential hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the association of inflammation and oxidative stress in HTN with T2DM as a comorbidity is inconclusive due to the multifactorial nature of these cardiometabolic diseases. Methodology: The influence of pathophysiological factors include genetics, age of patient, and disease progression change throughout the lifespan and require further investigation. The study population included 256 participants attending a rural health screening program who were tested for markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and coagulation/fibrinolysis. Demographic and clinical variables included, age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cholesterol profile. Data were tested for normality, and nonparametric statistics were applied to analyze the sample with significance set at p<0.05. Results: Of the inflammatory markers, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-10 were significantly different between the control and hypertensive group (p<0.03 and between the HTN+T2DM compared to the HTN group (p<0.05. Significant results for oxidative stress were observed for urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 between the control and the HTN+T2DM group (p<0.01. Glutathione (GSH was also significant between the HTN and HTN+T2DM group (p<0.05. Investigation of the progression of HTN also found significant changes in the inflammatory markers IGF-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, and

  18. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  19. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  20. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the oxidative stress induced by the electron beam radiation on various organs of Swiss Albino mice - in-vivo study

    Vishakh, R.; Moodithaya, Shailaja S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is one of the important threats in the modern world. Though the radiation injuries by natural means is very less common, advancement in the nuclear warfare research had increased the threat of radiation induced damage to biological system. Since years researchers are in search of a novel radio-protector, but without complete success. The reason behind may be its toxicity in higher doses. All the above research challenges lead many researchers to investigate radiation induced damage. Most of the studies had been done to investigate radiation induced damage in the lethal dose of radiation. But less work had been done to study the effect of radiation on tissues at sublethal dose. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the effect of radiation on the various organs in mice model. Swiss albino mice of 6 to 8 weeks old were divided into 2 groups i.e., Control, Radiation control with 6 mice in each group. 6 Gy sub lethal dose of electron beam radiation was used as radiation source. The liver, kidney and brain were dissected and used for biochemical analysis. The significant decrease in total antioxidant levels were observed in Liver and Kidney of irradiated mice, Glutathione levels were found to be decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain, Glutathione S - transferase levels were found to be significantly decreased in Liver and Brain, Catalase activity was found to be decreased in Liver, Super oxide dismutase activity was found to be significantly decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain homogenates when compared with the tissue homogenates of control group. From the results we can conclude that the liver is the most sensitive organ for the electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress when compared with Kidney and Brain. (author)

  2. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil against oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in mice exposed to noise stress.

    Sikandaner, Hu Erxidan; Park, So Young; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Shi Nae; Yang, Dong Won

    2017-02-15

    Noise exposure has been well characterized as an environmental stressor, and is known to have auditory and non-auditory effects. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors affect memory and hippocampus plasticity through various signaling cascades which are regulated by cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on memory deficiency, neuroprotection and oxidative stress in mice caused by chronic noise exposure. Mice were exposed to noise for 4h every day up to 14days at 110dB SPL of noise level. Sildenafil (15mg/kg) was orally administered 30min before noise exposure for 14days. Behavioral assessments were performed using novel object recognition (NOR) test and radial arm maze (RAM) test. Higher levels of memory dysfunction and oxidative stress were observed in noise alone-induced mice compared to control group. Interestingly, sildenafil administration increased memory performance, decreased oxidative stress, and increased neuroprotection in the hippocampus region of noise alone-induced mice likely through affecting memory related pathways such as cGMP/PKG/CREB and p25/CDK5, and induction of free radical scavengers such as SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, Prdx5, and catalase in the brain of stressed mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluation of oxidative stress in hunting dogs during exercise.

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Cardini, G

    2010-08-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses, to cause oxidative stress. The aim of our trials was to evaluate oxidative stress and recovery times in trained dogs during two different hunting exercises, with reactive oxygen metabolites-derivatives (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests. A group of nine privately owned Italian hounds were included. A 20-min aerobic exercise and a 4-h aerobic exercise, after 30 days of rest, were performed by the dogs. Our results show an oxidative stress after exercise due to both the high concentration of oxidants (d-ROMs) and the low level of antioxidant power (BAP). Besides, the recovery time is faster after the 4-h aerobic exercise than the 20-min aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress monitoring during dogs exercise could become an interesting aid to establish ideal adaptation to training. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Benoist d’Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Chronic glaucoma is a multifactorial disease among which oxidative stress may play a major pathophysiological role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma compared with a control group. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma and in healthy controls using the following keywords: “oxidative stress” or “oxidant stress” or “nitrative stress” or “oxidative damage” or “nitrative damage” or “antioxidative stress” or “antioxidant stress” or “antinitrative stress” and “glaucoma”. We stratified our meta-analysis on the type of biomarkers, the type of glaucoma, and the origin of the sample (serum or aqueous humor). We included 22 case-control studies with a total of 2913 patients: 1614 with glaucoma and 1319 healthy controls. We included 12 studies in the meta-analysis on oxidative stress markers and 19 on antioxidative stress markers. We demonstrated an overall increase in oxidative stress markers in glaucoma (effect size = 1.64; 95%CI 1.20–2.09), ranging from an effect size of 1.29 in serum (95%CI 0.84–1.74) to 2.62 in aqueous humor (95%CI 1.60–3.65). Despite a decrease in antioxidative stress marker in serum (effect size = –0.41; 95%CI –0.72 to –0.11), some increased in aqueous humor (superoxide dismutase, effect size = 3.53; 95%CI 1.20–5.85 and glutathione peroxidase, effect size = 6.60; 95%CI 3.88–9.31). The differences in the serum levels of oxidative stress markers between glaucoma patients and controls were significantly higher in primary open angle glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.7; 95%CI 8.78–16.6, P stress increased in glaucoma, both in serum and aqueous humor. Malonyldialdehyde seemed the best biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum. The increase of some

  6. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  7. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

    James Nathan Cobley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2 budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality. Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality. To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease.

  8. Genome-wide association analysis of oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Allison L Weber

    Full Text Available Aerobic organisms are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress resistance is a quantitative trait with population variation attributable to the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal system to study the genetics of variation for resistance to oxidative stress.We used 167 wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel for a genome-wide association study of acute oxidative stress resistance to two oxidizing agents, paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite. We found significant genetic variation for both stressors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in oxidative stress resistance were often sex-specific and agent-dependent, with a small subset common for both sexes or treatments. Associated SNPs had moderately large effects, with an inverse relationship between effect size and allele frequency. Linear models with up to 12 SNPs explained 67-79% and 56-66% of the phenotypic variance for resistance to paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite, respectively. Many genes implicated were novel with no known role in oxidative stress resistance. Bioinformatics analyses revealed a cellular network comprising DNA metabolism and neuronal development, consistent with targets of oxidative stress-inducing agents. We confirmed associations of seven candidate genes associated with natural variation in oxidative stress resistance through mutational analysis.We identified novel candidate genes associated with variation in resistance to oxidative stress that have context-dependent effects. These results form the basis for future translational studies to identify oxidative stress susceptibility/resistance genes that are evolutionary conserved and might play a role in human disease.

  9. Prebiotics, Prosynbiotics and Synbiotics: Can They Reduce Plasma Oxidative Stress Parameters? A Systematic Review.

    Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics on reducing serum oxidative stress parameters. PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched up to September 2016. English language randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of presybiotics, prosybiotics or synbiotic interventions on serum oxidative stress parameters in human adults were included. Twenty-one randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Two studies investigated prebiotics, four studies synbiotics and fifteen studies probiotics. According to our systematic review, prebiotic could decrease malondialdehyde and increase superoxidative dismutase, but evidence is not enough. In comparison with fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin is much more useful for oxidative stress reduction. Using probiotics with dairy products could reduce oxidative stress significantly, but probiotic in form of supplementation did not have any effect on oxidative stress. There is limited but supportive evidence that presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics are effective for reducing oxidative stress parameters. Further randomized clinical trials with longer duration of intervention especially on population with increased oxidative stress are needed to provide more definitive results before any recommendation for clinical use of these interventions.

  10. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    nabipour

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 2Department of Cardiology ... oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), may play a causative role in ... the oxidation of lipids in the cell membrane especially the oxidation of LDL.

  11. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms Linked to Exercise During Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Disorders

    Kelsey Fisher-Wellman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease.

  13. Stress studies in EFG

    1983-01-01

    Stress distributions were calculated for a creep law to predict a rate of plastic deformation. The expected reduction in stresses is obtained. Improved schemes for calculating growth system temperature distributions were evaluated. Temperature field modeling examined the possibility of using horizontal temperature gradients to influence stress distribution in ribbon. The defect structure of 10 cm wide ribbon grown in the cartridge system was examined. A new feature is identified from an examination of cross sectional micrographs. It consists of high density dislocation bands extending through the ribbon thickness. A four point bending apparatus was constructed for high temperature study of the creep response of silicon, to be used to generate defects for comparison with as grown defects in ribbon. The feasibility of laser interferometric techniques for sheet residual stress distribution measurement is examined. The mathematical formalism for calculating residual stress from changes in surface topology caused by an applied stress in a rectangular specimen was developed, and the system for laser interferometric measurement to obtain surface topology data was tested on CZ silicon.

  14. The role of allopurinol on oxidative stress in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Makay, O; Yenisey, C; Icoz, G; Genc Simsek, N; Ozgen, G; Akyildiz, M; Yetkin, E

    2009-09-01

    During hyperthyroidism, production of free oxygen radicals derives, where xanthine oxidase may also play an important role. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has a significant effect on thyrotoxicosis-related oxidative stress. However, the relationship between thyroid hormones, oxidative stress parameters and allopurinol remains to be explored. Forty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A served as negative controls, while group B had untreated thyrotoxicosis and group C received allopurinol. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily 0.2 mg/kg L-thyroxine intraperitoneally in groups B and C; 40 mg/kg allopurinol were given daily intraperitoneally. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed after 72 h and 21 days, by measuring serum xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitric oxide derivates (NO*x). In both time periods, serum XO, MDA, GSH and NO*x levels were significantly increased after thyroid hormone induction (p0.05). This study suggests an association between allopurinol and the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Allopurinol prevents the hyperthyroid state, which is mediated predominantly by triiodothyronine and not by XO. This issue has to be questioned in further studies where allopurinol is administered in control subjects.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Fish induced by Environmental Pollutants

    Anton Kováčik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants represent a risk factor for human and animals in all areas of occurrence. Environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activities is a major problem in many countries. Numbers of studies deals with cumulation of xenobiotics in tissues but not all respond to the real impact on living organisms. Freshwater fishes are exposed to several anthropogenic contaminants. The most commonly studied are three metals: mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd. These contaminants could have several impacts to oxidative stress. In the normal healthy cell, ROS and pro-oxidant products are detoxified by antioxidant defences. Redox-active or Redox-inactive metals may cause an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Mercury has a high affinity for thiol groups, and can non-specifically affect several enzymes, e. g. GSH (glutathione, which can induce GSH depletion and oxidative stress in tissue, also can induce lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The toxicity of Cd to aquatic species depends on speciation, with the free ion, Cd2+ concentration being proportional to bioavailability. Cadmium toxicity worsened of Ca, Na, and Mg ions homeostasis. Lead can be toxic to nervous and skeletal systems; at cellular level can cause apoptosis, also can affect mitochondria, neurotransmitters, and can substitute for Ca.

  16. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model.

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  17. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Semra Acer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1. From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2, 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3, and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05. The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05, whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001. Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  18. Relationships between Psychosocial Difficulties and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Women Subject to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Song, Hyang Joo; Kim, Dong Goo; Yim, Yeong Shin

    2017-02-01

    Women subject to violence by their intimate partners often experience a range of psychosocial problems such as depression, excessive alcohol use, and stressful life events that, in turn, lead to health issues. This study examined psychosocial difficulties and oxidative stress levels in abused and non-abused Korean women and analyzed the relationship between psychosocial outcomes and oxidative stress levels. Markers were determined in 16 women (seven abused, nine non-abused). The two groups of women (abused and non-abused) were compared with respect to scores in depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers were tested by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The abused women had significantly higher levels of oxidative stress markers and significantly lower levels of antioxidants than the non-abused women. Life stress events and oxidative biomarker levels were significantly correlated. These findings have implications for both social services providers and medical personnel when assessing abused women to ensure that they receive the most appropriate service. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  19. Anti-oxidative effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    In-Sun Hong

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea's ability to (i reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA, (ii prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO, (iii restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD, (iv regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and (v modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT.

  20. Zircaloy oxidation studies

    Prater, J.T.; Beauchamp, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.

    1985-06-01

    The oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 in steam have been determined at 1300-2400 0 C. Growth of the ZrO 2 and α-Zr layers display parabolic behavior over the entire temperature range studied. A discontinuity in the oxidation kinetics at 1510 0 C causes rates to increase above those previously established by the Baker-Just relationship. This increase coincides with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation in ZrO/sub 2-x/. No discontinuity in the oxide growth rate is observed upon melting of Zr(0). The effects of temperature gradients have been taken into account and corrected values representative of near-isothermal conditions have been computed

  1. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans

    Östman, Bengt; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The theoretically beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) on exercise-related oxidative stress and physical capacity have not been confirmed to our knowledge by interventional supplementation studies. Our aim was to investigate further whether Q10 supplementation at a dose recommended...... the groups were detected for hypoxanthine or uric acid (serum markers of oxidative stress) or creatine kinase (a marker of skeletal muscle damage). Conclusion: Although in theory Q10 could be beneficial for exercise capacity and in decreasing oxidative stress, the present study could not demonstrate...

  2. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 201203 (China); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 201203 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes death of human neurons in culture. • TD induces both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. • Alleviating ER stress and oxidative stress reduces TD

  3. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Luo, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes death of human neurons in culture. • TD induces both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. • Alleviating ER stress and oxidative stress reduces TD

  4. Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, bisphenol F and bisphenol AF induce different oxidative stress and damage in human red blood cells (in vitro study).

    Maćczak, Aneta; Cyrkler, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs are widely used in the production of various everyday use products, which leads to a common exposure of humans to these substances. The effect of bisphenols on oxidative stress parameters has not been described in detail in non-nucleated cells, therefore, we have decided to evaluate the impact of BPA and its analogs, i.e. bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with the compounds studied in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 or 24h. It has been found that bisphenols enhanced ROS (including • OH) formation, depleted GSH level, increased lipid peroxidation and changed the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. It has been noted that the strongest alterations in ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were induced by BPAF, which changed CAT and SOD activity even at 0.5μg/ml. It has also been shown that BPA caused the strongest changes in GSH level, while BPS, which is the main BPA substituent in the manufacture did not alter most parameters studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on Ameliorative Effects of Polyphenolic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress: an in vivo Assessment

    Mikhail O. NAFIU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the effects of polyphenolic extract from the leaf of Paullinia pinnata against CCl4 – induced oxidative stress and liver damage in female albino rats. Thirty albino rats were randomly distributed into six groups (A-F. Rats in group A were given 1 ml normal saline orally to serve as control. The rats in groups B, C, D, E, and F were respectively induced intraperitoneally with single administration of 1 ml/kg body weight (b. wt CCl4 dissolved in liquid paraffin (1:1. Thirty minutes after induction, the rats in the respective groups were orally treated with normal saline, 50 mg/kg b. wt. Silymarin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata respectively, once daily for 7 days.  Levels of liver function indices and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. Administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata significantly (p < 0.05 ameliorated CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity with respect to liver function indices, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters. The biochemical changes observed were also consistent with histopathological observations on the rat liver, as architectural degeneration and severe cellular necrosis were restored after the administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata in the treated groups. The study suggests that polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata is a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-mediated hepatic injury through fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  6. AGE-INDEPENDENT, GREY-MATTER-LOCALIZED, BRAIN ENHANCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE FISCHER 344 RATS,1,2

    While studies showed that aging is accompanied by increased exposure of the brain to oxidative stress, others have not detected any age-correlated differences in levels of markers of oxidative stress. Use of conventional markers of oxidative damage in vivo, which may be formed ex...

  7. Oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers.

    Dobrakowski, M; Pawlas, N; Kasperczyk, A; Kozłowska, A; Olewińska, E; Machoń-Grecka, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-07-01

    There are many discrepancies among the results of studies on the genotoxicity of lead. The aim of the study was to explore lead-induced DNA damage, including oxidative damage, in relation to oxidative stress intensity parameters and the antioxidant defense system in human leukocytes. The study population consisted of 100 male workers exposed to lead. According to the blood lead (PbB) levels, they were divided into the following three subgroups: a group with PbB of 20-35 μg/dL (low exposure to lead (LE) group), a group with a PbB of 35-50 µg/dL (medium exposure to lead (ME) group), and a group with a PbB of >50 μg/dL (high exposure to lead (HE) group). The control group consisted of 42 healthy males environmentally exposed to lead (PbB lead exposure induces DNA damage, including oxidative damage, in human leukocytes. The increase in DNA damage was accompanied by an elevated intensity of oxidative stress.

  8. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  9. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  10. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    Hadžović - Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with...

  11. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P 450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate

  12. Oxidative stress in the elderly with diabetes mellitus or hypertension

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, Aleida; Martínez-González, Katia Leticia; Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Grijalva, Israel; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes; Cuadros-Moreno, Juan; Ramírez-García, Eliseo; García-de la Torre, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Mexico City has the highest aging rate in the country, as well as a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). It is known that each one of these conditions increase oxidative stress (OS) independently. With this study we described changes in OS of 18 patients without DM or HT (controls), 12 with DM, 23 with HT, and 18 with DM and HT, all of them members of the COSFAMM (Cohorte de Obesidad, Sarcopenia y Fragilidad en Adultos Mayores de México). OS was measured by the quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), by the oxidation of diclorofluorosceine, and by determination of lipid peroxidation by product malondialdehyde (MDA). HT patients showed increased ROS levels, as did men with HT compared with the respective DM and HT groups. Also, women of control group showed higher levels of ROS compared with men. Generally, HT turned out to be the most influential factor for the increase of oxidative stress in the elderly while DM has no effect whatsoever.

  13. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Gharib Ola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichloroethylene (TCE may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Methods Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1 the control group treated with vehicle, (2 Kombucha (KT-treated group, (3 TCE-treated group and (4 KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities were also measured. Results TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. Conclusion The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  14. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid alterations. Epigenetics affects genetic regulation, cellular differentiation, embryology, aging, cancer, and other diseases. DNA methylation is perhaps the most extensively studied epigenetic modification, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin architecture, in association with histone modification and other chromatin-associated proteins. This review will provide a broad overview of the interplay of oxidative stress and DNA methylation, DNA methylation changes in regulation of gene expression, lifestyle changes for prostate cancer prevention, DNA methylation as biomarkers for prostate cancer, methods for detection of methylation, and clinical application of DNA methylation inhibitors for epigenetic therapy.

  15. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Gharib, Ola Ali

    2009-11-27

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  16. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  17. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  18. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Zapolski-Downar, Andrzej; Naruszewicz, Marek; Siennicka, Aldona; Krasnodebska, Barbara; Kołdziej, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    It is currently believed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in atherogenesis. Artichoke extract exhibits hypolipemic properties and contains numerous active substances with antioxidant properties in vitro. We have studied the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke on intracellular oxidative stress stimulated by inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha and LPS) and ox-LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes. Oxidative stress which reflects the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was followed by measuring the oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Agueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke were found to inhibit basal and stimulated ROS production in endothelial cells and monocytes in dose dependent manner. In endothelial cells, the ethanolic extract (50 microg/ml) reduced ox-LDL-induced intracellular ROS production by 60% (partichoke extracts have marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and ox-LDL in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

  19. Association of oxidative stress with the pathophysiology of depresion and bipolar disorder

    Lačković Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of free radicals in an organism is under the control of various antioxidant mechanisms. If their production overcomes the capacity of antioxidant protection, oxidative stress occurs which is capable of damaging different cellular structures and biomolecules, leading to various diseases. The importance of oxidative stress was proven in many psychiatric diseases among which are depression and bipolar disorder. Different studies show the significant improvement of clinical presentation when antioxidant substances are administered, suggesting that redox imbalance can influence their symptoms appearance and severity. In addition, oxidative stress is intercrossed with the different comorbidities that appear among depressive and bipolar patients. Beside the clinical presentation, oxidative stress influences the chronicity of depression, which was demonstrated in patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Better understanding of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and its role in the pathophysiology of depression and bipolar disorder could be useful for the development of a novel therapeutic approach to the management of these diseases.

  20. Limitations in Using Chemical Oxidative Potential to Understand Oxidative Stress from Particulate Matter

    Chan, A. W. H.; Wang, S.; Wang, X.; Kohl, L.; Chow, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is known to cause adverse cardiorespiratory health effects. It has been suggested that the ability of PM to generate oxidative stress leads to a proinflammatory response. In this work, we study the biological relevance of using a chemical oxidative potential (OP) assay to evaluate proinflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. Here we study the OPs of laboratory secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and metal mixtures, ambient PM from India, ash from the 2016 Alberta wildfires, and diesel exhaust particles. We use SOA derived from naphthalene and from monoterpenes as model systems for SOA. We measure OP using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, and cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BEAS-2B cell culture was measured using CellROX assay. We found that both SOA and copper show high OPs individually, but the OP of the combined SOA/copper mixture, which is more atmospherically relevant, was lower than either of the individual OPs. The reduced activity is attributed to chelation between metals and organic compounds using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. There is reasonable association between DTT activity and cellular ROS production within each particle type, but weak association across different particle types, suggesting that particle composition plays an important role in distinguishing between antioxidant consumption and ROS production. Our results highlight that while oxidative potential is a useful metric of PM's ability to generate oxidative stress, the chemical composition and cellular environment should be considered in understanding health impacts of PM.

  1. Simvastatin Attenuates Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Myeloperoxidase, and Nitric Oxide

    Ketab E. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media- (CM- induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori

    Simone ePelliciari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress.Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur towards apo-operators, while the binding towards holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur towards the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to

  3. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease

    Jomova, Klaudia; Valko, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  4. Oxidative stress and the effect of riboflavin supplementation in ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... erythrocytes. The results show that there is oxidative stress in malaria infection and that chloroquine ... virulent causing malaria to be life threatening (Kirk, 2001;. Mahajan et al. ..... lifecycle (Muller et al., 2004). However, the ...

  5. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.

  6. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    on oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating enzyme status, including superoxide dismutase. (SOD), catalase ... in both non-human primates and mice models. [12,13]. ..... Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin.

  7. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    JTEkanem

    effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as ..... on the brain and nervous system of humans as handlers and ... environment may be at higher health risk in that their internal ...

  8. HCV-Induced Oxidative Stress: Battlefield-Winning Strategy

    Khadija Rebbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 150 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. The persistence of the infection is controlled by several mechanisms including the induction of oxidative stress. HCV relies on this strategy to redirect lipid metabolism machinery and escape immune response. The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase (DHCR24 is one of the newly discovered host markers of oxidative stress. This protein, as HCV-induced oxidative stress responsive protein, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV chronic infection and associated liver diseases, when aberrantly expressed. The sustained expression of DHCR24 in response to HCV-induced oxidative stress results in suppression of nuclear p53 activity by blocking its acetylation and increasing its interaction with MDM2 in the cytoplasm leading to its degradation, which may induce hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  10. Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital ...

    Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital organs by the treatment of composite extract of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum and Zingiber officinalis in male rat. D Misra, B Maiti, D Ghosh ...

  11. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  12. Salvianolic acid B Relieves Oxidative Stress in Glucose Absorption ...

    Absorption and Utilization of Mice Fed High-Sugar Diet ... Salvianolic acid B, Blood glucose, Reactive oxygen species, Oxidative stress, Sugar diet. ... protein expression in human aortic smooth ... induced by glucose uptake and metabolism [8].

  13. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  14. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymorphism study of MTHFR 677C→T and its correlation with oxidative stress and their influence on female infertility in Erbil – Iraq

    Muthanna A. Thabit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research includes a study of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene’s allele 677C→T and its correlation with oxidative stress and their impact on female infertility. Fifty infertile women with the range age (23-42 years and twenty five fertile women with the range age (22-39 years as control group living in Erbil city were selected. The serum level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, prolactin hormone (PRL, Luteinizing hormone (LH, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, Triiodothyronine hormone (T3, and Thyroxine hormone (T4 were measured, also a body mass index (BMI was calculated. A restriction enzyme (Hinf1 was used to improve the mutation in DNA bands of infertile women. The results showed significant increases in MDA level, SOD activity, BMI, PRL, LH, TSH, and T4 in patients women compared with the control group. The results show non-significant differences in T3 hormone levels. The results also show a mutation in DNA bands of infertile women compared with fertile control group

  16. The role of cold work and applied stress on surface oxidation of 304 stainless steel

    Lozano-Perez, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.lozano-perez@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Kruska, Karen [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Iyengar, Ilya [Winchester College, College Street, Winchester SO23 9LX (United Kingdom); Terachi, Takumi; Yamada, Takuyo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS), 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FIB 3D sequential sectioning is an ideal technique to characterize surface oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D models of the oxide can be produced with nanometre resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of stress and cold work in grain boundary oxidation have been analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At least three different oxidation modes are observed when stress is applied. - Abstract: FIB 3-dimensional (3D) sequential sectioning has been used to characterize environmental degradation of 304 stainless steels in pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulated primary water. In particular, the effects of cold work and applied stress on oxidation have been studied in detail. It was found that a description of the oxidation behaviour of this alloy is only complete if it is treated statistically, since it can suffer from high variability depending on the feature described.

  17. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

    James Nathan Cobley; Maria Luisa Fiorello; Damian Miles Bailey

    2018-01-01

    The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood...

  18. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  19. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects.

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz F; Aslan, Mehmet; Koylu, Ahmet O; Selek, Sahbettin; Erel, Ozcan

    2006-07-14

    Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Sixteen hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in controls than hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (all p total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were significantly lower (all p total antioxidant capacity compared to hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects (all p Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was comparable between hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (p > 0.05/3). Oxidative stress is increased in both hepatitis C (+) and hepatitis C (-) hemodialysis subjects. However, hepatitis C infection seems to not cause any additional increase in oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects and it may be partly due to protective effect of dialysis treatment on hepatitis C infection.

  20. Inference of the oxidative stress network in Anopheles stephensi upon Plasmodium infection.

    Shrinet, Jatin; Nandal, Umesh Kumar; Adak, Tridibes; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of Anopheles midgut is a critical step for malaria transmission; the parasite numbers drop drastically and practically reach a minimum during the parasite's whole life cycle. At this stage, the parasite as well as the vector undergoes immense oxidative stress. Thereafter, the vector undergoes oxidative stress at different time points as the parasite invades its tissues during the parasite development. The present study was undertaken to reconstruct the network of differentially expressed genes involved in oxidative stress in Anopheles stephensi during Plasmodium development and maturation in the midgut. Using high throughput next generation sequencing methods, we generated the transcriptome of the An. stephensi midgut during Plasmodium vinckei petteri oocyst invasion of the midgut epithelium. Further, we utilized large datasets available on public domain on Anopheles during Plasmodium ookinete invasion and Drosophila datasets and arrived upon clusters of genes that may play a role in oxidative stress. Finally, we used support vector machines for the functional prediction of the un-annotated genes of An. stephensi. Integrating the results from all the different data analyses, we identified a total of 516 genes that were involved in oxidative stress in An. stephensi during Plasmodium development. The significantly regulated genes were further extracted from this gene cluster and used to infer an oxidative stress network of An. stephensi. Using system biology approaches, we have been able to ascertain the role of several putative genes in An. stephensi with respect to oxidative stress. Further experimental validations of these genes are underway.

  1. Persistent response of Fanconi anemia haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to oxidative stress.

    Li, Yibo; Amarachintha, Surya; Wilson, Andrew F; Li, Xue; Du, Wei

    2017-06-18

    Oxidative stress is considered as an important pathogenic factor in many human diseases including Fanconi anemia (FA), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with extremely high risk of leukemic transformation. Members of the FA protein family are involved in DNA damage and other cellular stress responses. Loss of FA proteins renders cells hypersensitive to oxidative stress and cancer transformation. However, how FA cells respond to oxidative DNA damage remains unclear. By using an in vivo stress-response mouse strain expressing the Gadd45β-luciferase transgene, we show here that haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from mice deficient for the FA gene Fanca or Fancc persistently responded to oxidative stress. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, particularly in oxidative damage-sensitive genes, was responsible for the long-lasting response in FA HSPCs. Furthermore, genetic correction of Fanca deficiency almost completely abolished the persistent oxidative stress-induced G 2 /M arrest and DNA damage response in vivo. Our study suggests that FA pathway is an integral part of a versatile cellular mechanism by which HSPCs respond to oxidative stress.

  2. Oxidative stress accumulates in adipose tissue during aging and inhibits adipogenesis.

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Pearson, Kevin J; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; de Cabo, Rafael; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-14

    Aging constitutes a major independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is accompanied by insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. One of the most important factors implicitly linked to aging and age-related chronic diseases is the accumulation of oxidative stress. However, the effect of increased oxidative stress on adipose tissue biology remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that aging in mice results in a loss of fat mass and the accumulation of oxidative stress in adipose tissue. In vitro, increased oxidative stress through glutathione depletion inhibits preadipocyte differentiation. This inhibition of adipogenesis is at least in part the result of reduced cell proliferation and an inhibition of G(1)→S-phase transition during the initial mitotic clonal expansion of the adipocyte differentiation process. While phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by cyclin/cdk complexes remains unaffected, oxidative stress decreases the expression of S-phase genes downstream of Rb. This silencing of S phase gene expression by increased oxidative stress is mediated through a transcriptional mechanism involving the inhibition of E2F recruitment and transactivation of its target promoters. Collectively, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of oxidative stress in the regulation of adipogenesis which may contribute to age-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.

  3. The etiology of oxidative stress in insulin resistance

    Samantha Hurrle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a prevalent syndrome in developed as well as developing countries. It is the predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most common end stage development of metabolic syndrome in the United States. Previously, studies investigating type 2 diabetes have focused on beta cell dysfunction in the pancreas and insulin resistance, and developing ways to correct these dysfunctions. However, in recent years, there has been a profound interest in the role that oxidative stress in the peripheral tissues plays to induce insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to focus on the mechanism of oxidative species generation and its direct correlation to insulin resistance, to discuss the role of obesity in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, and to explore the potential of antioxidants as treatments for metabolic dysfunction.

  4. Adaptive stress response to menadione-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377.

    Kim, Il-Sup; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Jin, Ingnyol

    2011-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the ability of yeast cells to adapt and respond to oxidative stress are of great interest to the pharmaceutical, medical, food, and fermentation industries. In this study, we investigated the time-dependent, cellular redox homeostasis ability to adapt to menadione-induced oxidative stress, using biochemical and proteomic approaches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377. Time-dependent cell viability was inversely proportional to endogenous amounts of ROS measured by a fluorescence assay with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFHDA), and was hypersensitive when cells were exposed to the compound for 60 min. Morphological changes, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation were also observed. To overcome the unfavorable conditions due to the presence of menadione, yeast cells activated a variety of cell rescue proteins including antioxidant enzymes, molecular chaperones, energy-generating metabolic enzymes, and antioxidant molecules such as trehalose. Thus, these results show that menadione causes ROS generation and high accumulation of cellular ROS levels, which affects cell viability and cell morphology and there is a correlation between resistance to menadione and the high induction of cell rescue proteins after cells enter into this physiological state, which provides a clue about the complex and dynamic stress response in yeast cells.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Aging: Advances in Proteomic Approaches

    Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual’s Quality of Life (QOL. Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS], which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8, naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber, and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress in aging.

  6. [Serum markers of oxidative stress in infertile women with endometriosis].

    Andrade, Aline Zyman de; Rodrigues, Jhenifer Kliemchen; Dib, Luciana Azôr; Romão, Gustavo Salata; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles

    2010-06-01

    to compare serum markers of oxidative stress between infertile patients with and without endometriosis and to assess the association of these markers with disease staging. this was a prospective study conducted on 112 consecutive infertile, non-obese patients younger than 39 years, divided into two groups: Endometriosis (n=48, 26 with minimal and mild endometriosis - Stage I/II, and 22 with moderate and severe endometriosis - Stage III/IV) and Control (n=64, with tubal and/or male factor infertility). Blood samples were collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the analysis of serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and total hydroxyperoxide levels by spectrophotometry and of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were compared between the endometriosis and control groups, stage I/II endometriosis and control, stage III/IV endometriosis and control, and between the two endometriosis subgroups. The level of significance was set at 5% (p Control Group (8.0 ± 2 µMol/g protein) and among patients with stage III/IV disease (9.7 ± 2.3 µMol/g protein) compared to patients with stage I/II disease (8.2 ± 1.0 µMol/g protein). No significant differences in serum malondialdehyde levels were observed between groups. we demonstrated a positive association between infertility related to endometriosis, advanced disease stage and increased serum hydroxyperoxide levels, suggesting an increased production of reactive species in women with endometriosis. These data, taken together with the reduction of serum vitamin E and glutathione levels, suggest the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress in women with infertility associated with endometriosis. The reproductive and metabolic implications of oxidative stress should be assessed in future studies.

  7. Effect of influenza vaccination on oxidative stress products in breath.

    Phillips, Michael; Cataneo, Renee N; Chaturvedi, Anirudh; Danaher, Patrick J; Devadiga, Anantrai; Legendre, David A; Nail, Kim L; Schmitt, Peter; Wai, James

    2010-06-01

    Viral infections cause increased oxidative stress, so a breath test for oxidative stress biomarkers (alkanes and alkane derivatives) might provide a new tool for early diagnosis. We studied 33 normal healthy human subjects receiving scheduled treatment with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Each subject was his or her own control, since they were studied on day 0 prior to vaccination, and then on days 2, 7 and 14 following vaccination. Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected with a breath collection apparatus, then analyzed by automated thermal desorption with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. A Monte Carlo simulation technique identified non-random VOC biomarkers of infection based on their C-statistic values (area under curve of receiver operating characteristic). Treatment with LAIV was followed by non-random changes in the abundance of breath VOCs. 2, 8-Dimethyl-undecane and other alkane derivatives were observed on all days. Conservative multivariate models identified vaccinated subjects on day 2 (C-statistic = 0.82, sensitivity = 63.6% and specificity = 88.5%); day 7 (C-statistic = 0.94, sensitivity = 88.5% and specificity = 92.3%); and day 14 (C-statistic = 0.95, sensitivity = 92.3% and specificity = 92.3%). The altered breath VOCs were not detected in live attenuated influenza vaccine, excluding artifactual contamination. LAIV vaccination in healthy humans elicited a prompt and sustained increase in breath biomarkers of oxidative stress. A breath test for these VOCs could potentially identify humans who are acutely infected with influenza, but who have not yet developed clinical symptoms or signs of disease.

  8. [Effect of occupational stress on oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses].

    Cao, Lili; Tian, Honger; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhu, Xinyun; Zhan, Yongguo; Su, Jingguo; Xu, Tian; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Ling

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of occupational stress on the oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses. A total of 131 nurses were included as study subjects. The occupational health information collection system (based on the Internet of things) was used for measurement of occupational stress. Levels of hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidant enzymes were determined. The serum level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the highest in nurses under the age of 30 and the lowest in those over 45 (P occupational stress factors for SOD. Job hazards were negative occupational stress factors for POD. Psychological satisfaction was negative occupational stress reaction for hydroxyl free radicals. Calmness was positive occupational stress reaction for SOD, and daily stress was a negative one. The positive occupational stress reactions for GSH-Px were psychological satisfaction and job satisfaction, and daily stress was negative reaction. Nurses with higher occupational stress have stronger oxidation and weaker antioxidant capacity, which intensifies oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and leads to oxidative stress damage.

  9. Aerobic Training Modulates the Effects of Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress on PON1 Activity: A Preliminary Study

    Aneta Otocka-Kmiecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME on paraoxonase (PON and arylesterase (ARE activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S and physically active (PA. All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  10. Aerobic training modulates the effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress on PON1 activity: a preliminary study.

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Lewandowski, Marek; Szkudlarek, Urszula; Nowak, Dariusz; Orlowska-Majdak, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME) on paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and physically active (PA). All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  11. The Roles of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Kung, Chia-Te; Su, Yu-Jih; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper aims to examine whether biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidants could be useful biomarkers in AD, which might form the bases of future clinical studies. Methods. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were systematically queried to obtain studies with available data regarding markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants from subjects with AD. Results and Conclusion. Although most ...

  12. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  13. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

    L'ubomíra Tóthová; L'ubomíra Tóthová; Peter Celec; Peter Celec; Peter Celec

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a...

  14. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in sarcopenia.

    Can, Busra; Kara, Ozgur; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Arik, Gunes; Aycicek, Gozde Sengul; Sumer, Fatih; Civelek, Ramazan; Demirtas, Canan; Ulger, Zekeriya

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the presence of low muscle mass and function. Possible mechanisms underlying sarcopenia include oxidative stress and elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and biomarkers that may be involved in its pathogenesis and hence early detection. A total of 72 patients (36 sarcopenic and 36 non-sarcopenic) were included in the study. An experienced geriatric team applied comprehensive geriatric assessment to all patients. Anthropometric measures, gait speed and handgrip strength were recorded. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess skeletal muscle mass. In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests, serum adiponectin, thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older Adults as the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function or muscle performance. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be functionally dependent and had lower scores on comprehensive geriatric assessment tools. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the sarcopenic group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3. Sarcopenic patients had lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, calcium, triglycerides, uric acid and adiponectin (p sarcopenia whereas ESR was positively correlated. The present study demonstrated an association of sarcopenia with inflammatory markers CRP, ESR and adiponectin. Long-term prospective studies are warranted to confirm the relationship between markers oxidative stress and age related muscle decline.

  15. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Apoptosis In Breast Cancer ...

    were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants

  16. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic prote...

  17. Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke

    Rachel Shirley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient or permanent interruption of cerebral blood flow by occlusion of a cerebral artery gives rise to an ischaemic stroke leading to irreversible damage or dysfunction to the cells within the affected tissue along with permanent or reversible neurological deficit. Extensive research has identified excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death as key contributory pathways underlying lesion progression. The cornerstone of treatment for acute ischaemic stroke remains reperfusion therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA. The downstream sequelae of events resulting from spontaneous or pharmacological reperfusion lead to an imbalance in the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS over endogenous anti-oxidant protection strategies. As such, anti-oxidant therapy has long been investigated as a means to reduce the extent of injury resulting from ischaemic stroke with varying degrees of success. Here we discuss the production and source of these ROS and the various strategies employed to modulate levels. These strategies broadly attempt to inhibit ROS production or increase scavenging or degradation of ROS. While early clinical studies have failed to translate success from bench to bedside, the combination of anti-oxidants with existing thrombolytics or novel neuroprotectants may represent an avenue worthy of clinical investigation. Clearly, there is a pressing need to identify new therapeutic alternatives for the vast majority of patients who are not eligible to receive rt-PA for this debilitating and devastating disease.

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress in D-serine induced nephrotoxicity

    Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores Javier; Martinez-Martinez, Claudia Maria; Floriano-Sanchez, Esau; Santamaria, Abel; Ramirez, Victoria; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress is involved in D-serine-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess if oxidative stress is involved in this experimental model using several approaches including (a) the determination of several markers of oxidative stress and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in kidney and (b) the use of compounds with antioxidant or prooxidant effects. Rats were sacrificed at several periods of time (from 3 to 24 h) after a single i.p. injection of D-serine (400 mg/kg). Control rats were injected with L-serine (400 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h after. The following markers were used to assess the temporal aspects of renal damage: (a) urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in blood serum, (b) kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) mRNA levels, and (c) tubular necrotic damage. In addition, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were measured 24 h after D-serine injection. Protein carbonyl content, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) content, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression were measured as markers of oxidative stress in the kidney. Additional experiments were performed using the following compounds with antioxidant or pro-oxidant effects before D-serine injection: (a) α-phenyl-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN), a spin trapping agent; (b) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato iron(III) (FeTPPS), a soluble complex able to metabolize peroxynitrite; (c) aminotriazole (ATZ), a catalase (CAT) inhibitor; (d) stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ), an HO-1 inductor; (e) tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO inhibitor. In the time-course study, serum creatinine and BUN increased significantly on 15-24 and 20-24 h, respectively, and KIM-1 mRNA levels increased significantly on 6-24 h. Histological analyses revealed tubular necrosis at 12 h. The activity of antioxidant enzymes

  19. Systemic oxidative stress and cognitive performance in the population-based EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Berr, C; Richard, M J; Roussel, A M; Bonithon-Kopp, C

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between cognitive functioning and blood levels of antioxidants and lipoperoxidation products in an elderly population. In 1991-1992, 1389 volunteers (574 men and 815 women aged 59 to 71 years) were recruited from the general population. Levels of selenium, carotenoids, and thiobarbituric-reactive substances in plasma and of vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase in red blood cells were measured. Cognitive functioning was assessed with various psychometric tests. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of poor cognitive functioning (< 25th percentile of the score distribution) associated with low values of each antioxidants (< 25th percentile) including potential confounding factors. A low level of total carotenoids (< 1.86 mumol/l) was associated with poor cognitive performance in two tests assessing visual attention and logical reasoning: the Trail-Making Test part B [OR = 1.34 IC95% (0.99-1.81), p = .055] and the Digit Symbol Substitution from the WAIS-R [OR = 1.38 IC95% (1.02-1.89), p = .04]. Low levels of other antioxidants and high levels of thiobarbituric-reactive substances were not related to poor cognitive functioning. Results observed with plasma carotenoids are in accordance with previous data obtained mostly from dietary records.

  20. Impact of diabetes on gingival wound healing via oxidative stress.

    Daisuke Kido

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms linking high glucose to gingival wound healing. Bilateral wounds were created in the palatal gingiva adjacent to maxillary molars of control rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. After evaluating postsurgical wound closure by digital imaging, the maxillae including wounds were resected for histological examinations. mRNA expressions of angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers in the surgical sites were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Primary fibroblast culture from the gingiva of both rats was performed in high glucose and normal medium. In vitro wound healing and cell proliferation assays were performed. Oxidative stress marker mRNA expressions and reactive oxygen species production were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated via PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk signaling following insulin stimulation using Western blotting. To clarify oxidative stress involvement in high glucose culture and cells of diabetic rats, cells underwent N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment; subsequent Akt activity was measured. Wound healing in diabetic rats was significantly delayed compared with that in control rats. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, p-47, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels were significantly higher at baseline in diabetic rats than in control rats. In vitro study showed that cell proliferation and migration significantly decreased in diabetic and high glucose culture groups compared with control groups. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and p47 expressions and reactive oxygen species production were significantly higher in diabetic and high glucose culture groups than in control groups. Akt phosphorylation decreased in the high glucose groups compared with the control groups. Erk1/2 phosphorylation increased in the high glucose groups, with or without insulin treatment, compared with the control groups. Impaired Akt phosphorylation partially normalized after antioxidant N

  1. Compensatory responses induced by oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease

    PAULA I MOREIRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease, significantly before the development of the pathologic hallmarks, neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. In the first stage of development of the disease, amyloid-β deposition and hyperphosphorylated tau function as compensatory responses and downstream adaptations to ensure that neuronal cells do not succumb to oxidative damage. These findings suggest that Alzheimer disease is associated with a novel balance in oxidant homeostasis.

  2. Oxidative stress upregulates the NMDA receptor on cerebrovascular endothelium.

    Betzen, Christian; White, Robin; Zehendner, Christoph M; Pietrowski, Eweline; Bender, Bianca; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W

    2009-10-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in a variety of neuropathological diseases. Although some interactions between both phenomena have been elucidated, possible influences of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the NMDA-R itself have so far been neglected. The objective of this study was to examine how the cerebroendothelial NMDA-R is affected by exposure to oxidative stress and to assess possible influences on BBB integrity. RT-PCR confirmed several NMDA-R subunits (NR1, NR2B-D) expressed in the bEnd3 cell line (murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells). NR1 protein expression after exposure to ROS was observed via in-cell Western. The functionality of the expressed NMDA-R was determined by measuring DiBAC fluorescence in ROS-preexposed cells upon stimulation with the specific agonist NMDA. Finally, the effects on barrier integrity were evaluated using the ECIS system to detect changes in monolayer impedance upon NMDA-R stimulation after exposure to ROS. The expression of NR1 significantly (p<0.001) increased 72 h after 30 min exposure to superoxide (+33.8+/-7.5%), peroxynitrite (+84.9+/-10.7%), or hydrogen peroxide (+92.8+/-7.6%), resulting in increased cellular response to NMDA-R stimulation and diminished monolayer impedance. We conclude that oxidative stress upregulates NMDA-R on cerebrovascular endothelium and thus heightens susceptibility to glutamate-induced BBB disruption.

  3. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  4. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response Related Genetic Variants, Pro-oxidants, Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer

    Nicole Lavender

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and detoxification mechanisms have been commonly studied in Prostate Cancer (PCa due to their function in the detoxification of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS and carcinogens. However, findings have been either inconsistent or inconclusive. These mixed findings may, in part, relate to failure to consider interactions among oxidative stress response related genetic variants along with pro- and antioxidant factors. Methods: We examined the effects of 33 genetic and 26 environmental oxidative stress and defense factors on PCa risk and disease aggressiveness among 2,286 men from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project (1,175 cases, 1,111 controls. Single and joint effects were analyzed using a comprehensive statistical approach involving logistic regression, multi-dimensionality reduction, and entropy graphs. Results: Inheritance of one CYP2C8 rs7909236 T or two SOD2 rs2758331 A alleles was linked to a 1.3- and 1.4-fold increase in risk of developing PCa, respectively (p-value = 0.006-0.013. Carriers of CYP1B1 rs1800440GG, CYP2C8 rs1058932TC and, NAT2 (rs1208GG, rs1390358CC, rs7832071TT genotypes were associated with a 1.3 to 2.2-fold increase in aggressive PCa [p-value = 0.04-0.001, FDR 0.088-0.939]. We observed a 23% reduction in aggressive disease linked to inheritance of one or more NAT2 rs4646247 A alleles (p = 0.04, FDR = 0.405. Only three NAT2 sequence variants remained significant after adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing, namely NAT2 rs1208, rs1390358, and rs7832071. Lastly, there were no significant gene-environment or gene-gene interactions associated with PCa outcomes. Conclusions: Variations in genes involved in oxidative stress and defense pathways may modify PCa. Our findings do not firmly support the role of oxidative stress genetic variants combined with lifestyle/environmental factors as modifiers of PCa and disease progression. However, additional multi

  5. Effects of Vildagliptin or Pioglitazone on Glycemic Variability and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy: A 16-Week, Randomised, Open Label, Pilot Study

    Nam Hoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications through the activation of oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, or a thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, on glycemic variability and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsIn this open label, randomised, active-controlled, pilot trial, individuals who were inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy were assigned to either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily, n=17 or pioglitazone (15 mg once daily, n=14 treatment groups for 16 weeks. Glycemic variability was assessed by calculating the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, which was obtained from continuous glucose monitoring. Urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α, serum oxidised low density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were used as markers of oxidative stress or inflammation.ResultsBoth vildagliptin and pioglitazone significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin and mean plasma glucose levels during the 16-week treatment. Vildagliptin also significantly reduced the MAGE (from 93.8±38.0 to 70.8±19.2 mg/dL, P=0.046, and mean standard deviation of 24 hours glucose (from 38±17.3 to 27.7±6.9, P=0.026; however, pioglitazone did not, although the magnitude of decline was similar in both groups. Markers of oxidative stress or inflammation including urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α did not change after treatment in both groups.ConclusionIn this 16-week treatment trial, vildagliptin, but not pioglitazone, reduced glycemic variability in individuals with type 2 diabetes who was inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy, although a reduction of oxidative stress markers was not observed.

  6. A review: oxidative stress in fish induced by pesticides.

    Slaninova, Andrea; Smutna, Miriam; Modra, Helena; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge in oxidative stress in fish has a great importance for environmental and aquatic toxicology. Because oxidative stress is evoked by many chemicals including some pesticides, pro-oxidant factors' action in fish organism can be used to assess specific area pollution or world sea pollution. Hepatotoxic effect of DDT may be related with lipid peroxidation. Releasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after HCB exposure can be realized via two ways: via the uncoupling of the electron transport chain from monooxygenase activity and via metabolism of HCB major metabolite pentachlorophenol. Chlorothalonil disrupts mitochondrial metabolism due to the impairment of NADPH oxidase function. Activation of spleen macrophages and a decrease of catalase (CAT) activity have been observed after endosulfan exposure. Excessive release of superoxide radicals after etoxazole exposure can cause a decrease of CAT activity and increase phagocytic activity of splenocytes. Anticholinergic activity of organophosphates leads to the accumulation of ROS and resulting lipid peroxidation. Carbaryl induces changes in the content of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activities. The antioxidant enzymes changes have been observed after actuation of pesticides deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Bipyridyl herbicides are able to form redox cycles and thereby cause oxidative stress. Low concentrations of simazine do not cause oxidative stress in carps during sub-chronic tests while sublethal concentrations of atrazin can induce oxidative stress in bluegill sunfish. Butachlor causes increased activity of superoxide dismutase -catalase system in the kidney. Rotenon can inhibit the electron transport in mitochondria and thereby increase ROS production. Dichloroaniline, the metabolite of diuron, has oxidative effects. Oxidative damage from fenpyroximate actuation is related to the disruption of mitochondrial redox respiratory chain. Low concentration of glyphosate can cause mild oxidative stress.

  7. Brain imaging for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases

    Okazawa, H.; Tsujikawa, T.; Kiyono, Y.; Ikawa, M.; Yoneda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, one of the most probable molecular mechanisms for neuronal impairment, is reported to occur in the affected brain regions of various neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, many studies showed evidence of a link between oxidative stress or mitochondrial damage and neuronal degeneration. Basic in vitro experiments and postmortem studies demonstrated that biomarkers for oxidative damage can be observed in the pathogenic regions of the brain and the affected neurons. Model animal studies also showed oxidative damage associated with neuronal degeneration. The molecular imaging method with positron emission tomography (PET) is expected to delineate oxidatively stressed microenvironments to elucidate pathophysiological changes of the in vivo brain; however, only a few studies have successfully demonstrated enhanced stress in patients. Radioisotope copper labeled diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) may be the most promising candidate for this oxidative stress imaging. The tracer is usually known as a hypoxic tissue imaging PET probe, but the accumulation mechanism is based on the electron rich environment induced by mitochondrial impairment and/or microsomal over-reduction, and thus it is considered to represent the oxidative stress state correlated with the degree of disease severity. In this review, Cu-ATSM PET is introduced in detail from the basics to practical methods in clinical studies, as well as recent clinical studies on cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Several other PET probes are also introduced from the point of view of neuronal oxidative stress imaging. These molecular imaging methods should be promising tools to reveal oxidative injuries in various brain diseases

  8. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  9. Oxidative stress and the effect of parasites on a carotenoid-based ornament.

    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Blount, J D; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-02-01

    Oxidative stress, the physiological condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences, causes damage to key bio-molecules. It has been implicated in many diseases, and is proposed as a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. Whether oxidative stress mediates the expression of carotenoid-based signals, which are among the commonest signals of many birds, fish and reptil