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Sample records for ovarian follicular epithelium

  1. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  2. Expression of Pluripotency and Oocyte-Related Genes in Single Putative Stem Cells from Human Adult Ovarian Surface Epithelium Cultured In Vitro in the Presence of Follicular Fluid

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    Irma Virant-Klun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trigger the expression of genes related to oocytes in putative ovarian stem cells scraped from the ovarian surface epithelium of women with premature ovarian failure and cultured in vitro in the presence of follicular fluid, rich in substances for oocyte growth and maturation. Ovarian surface epithelium was scraped and cell cultures were set up by scrapings in five women with nonfunctional ovaries and with no naturally present mature follicles or oocytes. In the presence of donated follicular fluid putative stem cells grew and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells. A detailed single-cell gene expression profiling was performed to elucidate their genetic status in comparison to human embryonic stem cells, oocytes, and somatic fibroblasts. The ovarian cell cultures depleted/converted reproductive hormones from the culture medium. Estradiol alone or together with other substances may be involved in development of these primitive oocyte-like cells. The majority of primitive oocyte-like cells was mononuclear and expressed several genes related to pluripotency and oocytes, including genes related to meiosis, although they did not express some important oocyte-specific genes. Our work reveals the presence of putative stem cells in the ovarian surface epithelium of women with premature ovarian failure.

  3. Energy status and ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular

  4. Dynamics and mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion in women of fertile age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Andersen, Claus Yding; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2010-01-01

    To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels.......To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels....

  5. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  6. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

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    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  7. Ovarian Surface Epithelium in Patients with Severe Ovarian Infertility: A Potential Source of Cells Expressing Markers of Pluripotent/Multipotent Stem Cells

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    Irma Virant-Klun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of stem cells in the ovarian surface epithelium of patients with premature ovarian failure and no mature follicles and oocytes. In these patients, small round cells of unknown origin expressing SOX-2 marker of pluripotency were observed among the epithelial cells just after the ovarian surface epithelium scraping. These cells were an integral part of the ovarian surface epithelium. When the scraped cells were cultured in a medium with added follicular fluid to provide some ovarian niche, primitive oocyte-like cells and typical round-shaped cell clusters positively stained on alkaline phosphatase, and markers of pluripotency, such as SOX-2 and SSEA-4, were developed. These markers were expressed early and also later in the culture. Single oocyte-like cells expressed genes OCT4A, SOX-2, NANOG, NANOS, STELLA, CD9, LIN28, KLF4, GDF3, and MYC, characteristic for pluripotent stem cells. The results of this study confirmed the presence of putative stem cells in the ovarian surface epithelium of these patients and provided some basis to create a stem cell line in the future.

  8. Peritoneal and mediastinal highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Kathleen; Jain, Manoj; Krishna, Murli; Accurso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old female patient presented to her primary care doctor with persistent elevated alkaline phosphatase of suspected metastatic etiology. Computed tomography demonstrated epicardial and peritoneal nodules. Biopsy of one of the peritoneal nodules revealed thyroid tissue and extraovarian struma ovarii was considered. The patient had a history of remote total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 31 years prior for endometriosis with no available pathology from that surgery. The patient recalls being told that she had a left ovarian cyst. A thyroid ultrasound was performed that demonstrated multiple nodules without concerning features; however, due to high clinical suspicion, a total thyroidectomy was performed. Upon full histological evaluation a 0.5 cm papillary microcarcinoma was found. Given the rarity of metastatic papillary cancer to the peritoneum and the small size and grade of the tumor, a diagnosis of highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin was favored. The patient was subsequently treated with radioiodine therapy

  9. Transcriptomes of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells

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    Sarah M. Romereim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs and theca cells (TCs of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs and small luteal cells (SLCs of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524. Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more or decreased (≤−2 fold less in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in enriched expression in both follicular cell types (GCs and TCs or in both luteal cells types (LLCs and SLCs are also reported in tables. The standard deviation of the analyzed array data in relation to the log of the expression values is shown as a figure. These data have been further analyzed and interpreted in the companion article “Gene expression profiling of ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions” (Romereim et al., 2017 [1].

  10. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  11. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

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    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  12. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

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    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  13. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of TGF-ß Isoforms in Cases with Ovarian Endometriosis and Follicular Cyst

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    Abdulmuttalip Şentaş

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Ovarian tissue TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in endometriosis cases when compared with follicular cyst. There are needed further studies to elucidate the importance of this finding in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  14. Cell kinetic changes in the follicular epithelium of pig skin after irradiation with single and fractionated doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in cell kinetics of the follicular epithelium of the pig were studied after x-irradiation with single and fractionated doses (30 fractions/39 days) and compared with previous epidermal data. In the follicular epithelium there was an initial degenerative phase, when the rate of cell depletion was independent of radiation dose and mode of administration. Repopulation was seen between the 14th and 18th days after single doses (15 or 20 Gy) and by the 28th day after the start of irradiation with fractionated doses (52.3-80.0 Gy). The degree of cell depletion and subsequent rate of repopulation were independent of dose. The regenerative phase was characterized by an increased cell proliferation. Islands of cells with appearance similar to cells in the normal follicular epithelium, were seen 18 days after a single dose of 20 Gy and 42 days after the start of fractionated irradiation. Compared with the epidermis, the follicular epithelium exhibited considerably less evidence of damage after both single and fractionated doses. There was a lower incidence of degenerate cells and reduced levels of cell depletion in the follicular epithelium. (author)

  15. The Significance Ultrasonography on the Evaluation of Ovarian Follicular Maturity and Growth

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    Kim, Kab Tae; Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Seok Hong; Kim, Tae Seon; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Ovarian follicular diameter was measured using real time ultrasound in 21 hyperstimulated patients from April to September 1986. And we analyzed the relation between the size measured with ultrasonography and maturity observed under the phased microscopy, the correlation between aspirated dominant follicular volume and the dominant follicular volume calculated by the size measured with ultrasonography. Also we experienced the conditions which showed the ultrasonographic finding similar to that of follicle. The results were as follows: 1. The mean follicular diameter increased in a linear fashion from 7 days after LMP (9.4mm+2.8)to the one day before ovum pick up(18.2+2.8). 2. The mean diameter of the most appropriate dominant follicle was 19.08+1.23mm 3. The correlation between the dominant follicular volume measured with ultrasonography and aspirated follicular volume during ovum pick up was highly significant(r=0.94;0<0.001). 4. during follicular growth and maturity monitoring the conditions which misdiagnosed of follicle were simple ovarian cyst(1 case), hydrosalpinx (1 case), endometriosis(1 case), tubo-ovarian abscess(1 case), Hydatid of Morgagni(1 case)

  16. Follicular fluid placental growth factor is increased in polycystic ovarian syndrome: correlation with ovarian stimulation.

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    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Grazi, Richard V; Malter, Henry E

    2014-08-20

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by increased ovarian angiogenesis and vascularity. Accumulating evidence indicates that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in PCOS and may play an important role in these vascular changes and the pathogenesis of this disease. Placental growth factor (PlGF), a VEGF family member, has not been previously characterized in PCOS women. We investigated levels and temporal expression patterns of PlGF and its soluble receptor sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase) in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of women with PCOS during controlled ovarian stimulation. This was a prospective cohort study of 14 PCOS women (Rotterdam criteria) and 14 matched controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Serum was collected on day 3, day of hCG and day of oocyte retrieval. FF was collected on retrieval day. PlGF, sFlt-1 and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) protein concentrations were measured using ELISA. Since sFlt-1 binds free PlGF, preventing its signal transduction, we calculated PlGF bioavailability as PlGF/sFlt-1 ratio. Serum PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were constant throughout controlled ovarian stimulation, and no significant differences were observed in either factor in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls at all three measured time points. However, FF PlGF levels were increased 1.5-fold in PCOS women compared with controls (p ovarian reserve marker anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and negatively with age. In addition, FF sFlt-1 levels were decreased 1.4-fold in PCOS women compared to controls (p = 0.04). PlGF bioavailability in FF was significantly greater (2-fold) in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls (p ovarian stimulation and that its bioavailability is increased in women with PCOS undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. This suggests that PlGF may play a role in PCOS pathogenesis and its angiogenic dysregulation.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Last, J.T.; Boed, E.A. de; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of

  18. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the interovulatory interval in Najdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated the presence of either four (n = 2 estrus cycles) or five (n = 3 estrus cycles) waves of follicular growth during the interovulatory interval. Each wave was characterized by the development of at least 1 large follicle (dominant) and a variable number of small follicles (subordinate). The mean number of follicular ...

  19. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

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    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.

  20. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  1. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

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    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  2. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

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    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  3. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... purebred Boran cattle, adapted to Ethiopian conditions for centuries and ... fertility than crossbreds, would exhibit a different pattern of ovarian ..... Influence of dietary supplementation and partial suckling on body weight and ...

  4. Bovine ovarian follicular growth and development correlate with lysophosphatidic acid expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderewicz, Emilia; Grycmacher, Katarzyna; Boruszewska, Dorota; Kowalczyk-Zięba, Ilona; Staszkiewicz, Joanna; Ślężak, Tomasz; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

    2018-01-15

    The basis of successful reproduction is proper ovarian follicular growth and development. In addition to prostaglandins and vascular endothelial growth factor, a number of novel factors are suggested as important regulators of follicular growth and development: PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC. This study focuses on examining the expression of these factors in granulosa and thecal cells that originate from different ovarian follicle types and their link with the expression of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), known local regulator of reproductive functions in the cow. Ovarian follicles were divided into healthy, transitional, and atretic categories. The mRNA expression levels for PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC in granulosa and thecal cells in different follicle types were measured by real-time PCR. The correlations among expression of enzymes synthesizing LPA (autotaxin, phospholipase A2), receptors for LPA and examined factors were measured. Immunolocalization of PGES, TFG, CD36, RABGAP1, DBI and BTC was examined by immunohistochemistry. We investigated follicle-type dependent mRNA expression of factors potentially involved in ovarian follicular growth and development, both in granulosa and thecal cells of bovine ovarian follicles. Strong correlations among receptors for LPA, enzymes synthesizing LPA, and the examined factors in healthy and transitional follicles were observed, with its strongest interconnection with TFG, DBI and RABGAP1 in granulosa cells, and TFG in thecal cells; whereas no correlations in atretic follicles were detected. A greater number of correlations were found in thecal cells than in granulosa cells as well as in healthy follicles than in transitional follicles. These data indicate the role of LPA in the growth, development and physiology of the bovine ovarian follicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian follicular development in the hawksbill turtle (Cheloniidae: Eretmochelys imbricata L.).

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    Pérez-Bermúdez, Emir; Ruiz-Urquiola, Ariel; Lee-González, Idania; Petric, Benjamin; Almaguer-Cuenca, Nilda; Sanz-Ochotorena, Ana; Espinosa-López, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    Ovarian follicular development is an essential process in the determination of maturation stages associated with size. This association acquires importance when managing populations of threatened species. We histologically processed 11 prepubescent ovaries, four pubescent ovaries, and one breeding adult ovary with vitellogenic follicles using specific staining techniques to identify the follicular stages of Eretmochelys imbricata. Follicular stages were compared with maturation stages [including straight carapace length (SCL)]. The ovary presented several germinal beds and a lacunar system less histochemically and morphologically heterogeneous than that of crocodiles. During previtellogenesis (four stages), the oocyte grows rapidly due to the strong transcriptional activity of lampbrush chromosomes and numerous nucleoli, and the strong metabolism associated with lipid synthesis. The Stage III ooplasm showed a Sudan positive band. This stage was the most frequent in all ovarian sections and it was independent of maximal follicular stage. Stage IV, more frequent in pubescent and adult ovaries, presented a lipid vacuole-rich ooplasm and a broadening of the zona pellucida and the theca. The vitellogenesis begins with the penetration and accumulation of spherical glycoprotein yolk platelets and chemically neutral lipid droplets which are observed to be mixed, but spatially and chemically segregated. Both the yolk platelets and lipid droplets increase in size, density, and proximity to the periphery of the oocyte due to their coalescence. The SCL of the immature females did not determine the maximal follicular stage nor its frequency in the ovaries. Straight carapace length turned out to be an imprecise measure in identifying the presence of follicular stages in females larger than the minimum legal size limit in Cuba. Consequently, for a national conservation program to be successful, it must emphasize the critically endangered status of E. imbricata, as well as the

  6. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muraco, Holley; Clough, Pat; Teets, Valerie; Arn, Dennis; Muraco, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between ovarian follicular dynamics and the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) requires detailed daily monitoring due to the transitory nature of LH and ovulation. Utilizing conditioned dolphins and non-invasive sampling techniques, such as urine collection and trans-abdominal ultrasound exams, provides the means to accurately monitor these fleeting processes. Urine samples and ultrasound exams used in this study were ...

  7. Follicular aspiration versus coasting for ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaqer, Nayla J.; Dayoub, Nawal M.; AlHattali, Khalsa K.; Ayyoub, Hisham A.; AlFaraj, Samaher S.; Hassan, Samar N.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To compare follicular reduction prior to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger and coasting in terms of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective study. The setting was the IVF unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 39 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles, who were at risk of OHSS, 20 were put into a coasting group and 19 had follicular reduction instead. This occurred between October 2010 and January 2011. Our main outcome was OHSS reduction. Results: Six (30%) women developed OHSS in the coasting group and 2 (10.5%) women developed OHSS in the follicular group (p-value=0.235). The pregnancy rates in the cycles were similar for both groups: 4/20 (20%) in the coasting group and 3/19 (15.8%) in the follicular group (p-value=1.000). The cancellation rate of the cycles was similar for both groups, 6/20 (30%) in the coasting group and 1/19 (5.3%) in the follicular group (p-value=0.09). The median number of punctured follicles was significantly lower in the follicular group (16 follicles, interquartile range (IQR)=21-12) compared to the coasting group (29 follicles, IQR=37.8-19.8, p-value=0.001). The retrieved, fertilized, and cleaved oocytes, as well as the number of embryos transferred, were similar amongst both groups. Conclusion: There was no difference between follicular reduction prior to HCG and coasting, in terms of OHSS reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in both the IVF and ICSI cycles. PMID:29543308

  8. Preconception folic acid use modulates estradiol and follicular responses to ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigt, John M; Hammiche, Fatima; Sinclair, Kevin D; Beckers, Nicole G; Visser, Jenny A; Lindemans, Jan; de Jong, Frank H; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P

    2011-02-01

    Folate is a methyl donor. Availability of folate affects DNA methylation profiles and thereby gene expression profiles. We investigated the effects of low-dose folic acid use (0.4 mg/d) on the ovarian response to mild and conventional ovarian stimulation in women. In a randomized trial among subfertile women, 24 and 26 subjects received conventional and mild ovarian stimulation, respectively. Blood samples were taken during the early follicular phase of the cycle prior to treatment and on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration for determination of serum total homocysteine, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), estradiol, and folate. Folic acid use was validated by questionnaire and serum folate levels. Preovulatory follicles were visualized, counted, and diameters recorded using transvaginal ultrasound. The relation between folic acid use and ovarian response was assessed using linear regression analysis. Folic acid use modified the ovarian response to ovarian stimulation treatment. The estradiol response was higher in nonfolic acid users receiving conventional treatment [β(interaction) = 0.52 (0.07-0.97); P = 0.03], and this effect was independent of serum AMH levels and the preovulatory follicle count. In the conventional treatment, the mean follicle number was also greater in nonusers compared with the users group (14.1 vs. 8.9, P = 0.03). Low-dose folic acid use attenuates follicular and endocrine responses to conventional stimulation, independent of AMH and follicle count. The nature of this observation suggests that the effect of folic acid is most prominent during early follicle development, affecting immature follicles. Deleterious effects of folate deficiency, like DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress, can help to explain our observations.

  9. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  10. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  11. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of estrous cycle, as well as CL development and functionality, was not affected by number of follicular waves.

  12. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mouse ovarian surface epithelium does not alter MIS driven Smad2-dominant negative epithelium-lined inclusion cysts or teratomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Quartuccio

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. The etiology of this disease, although poorly understood, may involve the ovarian surface epithelium or the epithelium of the fallopian tube fimbriae as the progenitor cell. Disruptions in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway and p53 are frequently found in chemotherapy-resistant serous ovarian tumors. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of Smad2 (Smad2DN, a downstream transcription factor of the TGFβ signaling pathway, targeted to tissues of the reproductive tract were created on a FVB background. These mice developed epithelium-lined inclusion cysts, a potential precursor lesion to ovarian cancer, which morphologically resembled oviductal epithelium but exhibited protein expression more closely resembling the ovarian surface epithelium. An additional genetic "hit" of p53 deletion was predicted to result in ovarian tumors. Tissue specific deletion of p53 in the ovaries and oviducts alone was attempted through intrabursal or intraoviductal injection of Cre-recombinase expressing adenovirus (AdCreGFP into p53 (flox/flox mice. Ovarian bursal cysts were detected in some mice 6 months after intrabursal injection. No pathological abnormalities were detected in mice with intraoviductal injections, which may be related to decreased infectivity of the oviductal epithelium with adenovirus as compared to the ovarian surface epithelium. Bitransgenic mice, expressing both the Smad2DN transgene and p53 (flox/flox, were then exposed to AdCreGFP in the bursa and oviductal lumen. These mice did not develop any additional phenotypes. Exposure to AdCreGFP is not an effective methodology for conditional deletion of floxed genes in oviductal epithelium and tissue specific promoters should be employed in future mouse models of the disease. In addition, a novel phenotype was observed in mice with high expression of the Smad2DN transgene as validated

  13. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  14. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  15. Hypoxia induces miR-210, leading to anti-apoptosis in ovarian follicular cells of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan; Li, Jing-Woei; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wu, Rudolf Shiu-Sun; Lai, Keng-Po

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate hypoxia induced miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells. • We show anti-apoptotic roles of miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells under hypoxia. • Apoptotic genes (DLC1, SLK, TNFRSF10B, RBM25, and USP7) are target of miR-210. • MiR-210 is vital for ovarian follicular cells proliferation in response to hypoxia. - Abstract: Hypoxia is a major global problem that impairs reproductive functions and reduces the quality and quantity of gametes and the fertilization success of marine fish. Nevertheless, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced female reproductive impairment remains largely unknown. There is increasing evidence that miRNA is vital in regulating ovarian functions and is closely associated with female fertility in humans. Certain miRNAs that regulate apoptotic genes can be induced by hypoxia, resulting in cell apoptosis. Using primary ovarian follicular cells of the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, as a model, we investigated the response of miR-210 to hypoxic stress in ovarian tissues to see if it would interrupt reproductive functions. A significant induction of miR-210 was found in primary ovarian follicular cells exposed to hypoxia, and gene ontology analysis further highlighted the potential roles of miR-210 in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. A number of miR-210 target apoptotic genes, including Deleted in liver cancer 1 protein (DLC1), STE20-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SLK), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10B), RNA binding motif protein 25 (RBM25), and Ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), were identified. We further showed that ectopic expression of miR-210 would result in down-regulation of these apoptotic genes. On the other hand, the inhibition of miR-210 promoted apoptotic cell death and the expression of apoptotic marker – caspase 3 in follicular cells under hypoxic treatment, supporting the regulatory role of mi

  16. Hypoxia induces miR-210, leading to anti-apoptosis in ovarian follicular cells of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Jing-Woei; Chan, Ting-Fung [School of Life Sciences, Hong Kong Bioinformatics Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wu, Rudolf Shiu-Sun [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lai, Keng-Po, E-mail: balllai@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate hypoxia induced miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells. • We show anti-apoptotic roles of miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells under hypoxia. • Apoptotic genes (DLC1, SLK, TNFRSF10B, RBM25, and USP7) are target of miR-210. • MiR-210 is vital for ovarian follicular cells proliferation in response to hypoxia. - Abstract: Hypoxia is a major global problem that impairs reproductive functions and reduces the quality and quantity of gametes and the fertilization success of marine fish. Nevertheless, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced female reproductive impairment remains largely unknown. There is increasing evidence that miRNA is vital in regulating ovarian functions and is closely associated with female fertility in humans. Certain miRNAs that regulate apoptotic genes can be induced by hypoxia, resulting in cell apoptosis. Using primary ovarian follicular cells of the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, as a model, we investigated the response of miR-210 to hypoxic stress in ovarian tissues to see if it would interrupt reproductive functions. A significant induction of miR-210 was found in primary ovarian follicular cells exposed to hypoxia, and gene ontology analysis further highlighted the potential roles of miR-210 in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. A number of miR-210 target apoptotic genes, including Deleted in liver cancer 1 protein (DLC1), STE20-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SLK), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10B), RNA binding motif protein 25 (RBM25), and Ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), were identified. We further showed that ectopic expression of miR-210 would result in down-regulation of these apoptotic genes. On the other hand, the inhibition of miR-210 promoted apoptotic cell death and the expression of apoptotic marker – caspase 3 in follicular cells under hypoxic treatment, supporting the regulatory role of mi

  17. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  18. Therapeutic Ultrasound Examination of Follicular Reserve, and Ovarian Tissue Angiogenesis in Mice, 14 Days after Heterotopic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Abtahi

    2014-06-01

    Results: The study results showed that the CD31 angiogenic factor was expressed more in the irradiated animals than in control group animals and ultrasound-therapy resulted in better follicular preservation. Conclusion: The ultrasound therapy can improve preservation of ovarian follicle .This is probably due to acceleration of angiogenesis and increase in production of growth factors by low intensity pulse ultrasound.

  19. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  20. Role of Scrib and Dlg in anterior-posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingzhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2giant larvae (lgl, a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the posterior follicle cell (PFC fate induction at mid-oogenesis. Here we explore the role of another two tumor suppressor genes, scribble (scrib and discs large (dlg, in the epithelial patterning. Results We found that removal of scrib or dlg function from the follicle cells at posterior terminal of the egg chamber causes a complete loss of the PFC fate. Aberrant specification and differentiation of the PFCs in the mosaic clones can be ascribed to defects in coordinated activation of the EGFR, JAK and Notch signaling pathways in the multilayered cells. Meanwhile, the clonal analysis revealed that loss-of-function mutations in scrib/dlg at the anterior domains result in a partially penetrant phenotype of defective induction of the stretched and centripetal cell fate, whereas specification of the border cell fate can still occur in the most anterior region of the mutant clones. Further, we showed that scrib genetically interacts with dlg in regulating posterior patterning of the epithelium. Conclusion In this study we provide evidence that scrib and dlg function differentially in anterior and posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicates that scrib and dlg act in a common pathway to regulate PFC fate induction. This study may open another window for elucidating role of scrib/dlg in controlling epithelial polarity and cell proliferation during development.

  1. Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL, ... to Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lewars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that characteristically presents as follicular papules and/or indurated plaques. The face, neck, and scalp are the most frequently affected sites, although lesions may occur on any site of the body. Histologically, the disorder is characterized by mucin deposition in the follicular epithelium. The condition is frequently divided into primary and secondary forms, with the latter form frequently associated with mycosis fungoides. In this case report, we describe a child with follicular mucinosis of the back and trunk and discuss the clinical variants, histopathological pattern, and treatment options.

  3. Glutathione S-transferase activity in follicular fluid from women undergoing ovarian stimulation: role in maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Susana; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ferrando, Marcos; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    Female infertility involves an emotional impact for the woman, often leading to a state of anxiety and low self-esteem. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are used to overcome the problem of infertility. In a first step of the in vitro fertilization therapy women are subjected to an ovarian stimulation protocol to obtain mature oocytes, which will result in competent oocytes necessary for fertilization to occur. Ovarian stimulation, however, subjects the women to a high physical and psychological stress, thus being essential to improve ART and to find biomarkers of dysfunction and fertility. GSH is an important antioxidant, and is also used in detoxification reactions, catalysed by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present work, we have investigated the involvement of GST in follicular maturation. Patients with fertility problems and oocyte donors were recruited for the study. From each woman follicles at two stages of maturation were extracted at the preovulatory stage. Follicular fluid was separated from the oocyte by centrifugation and used as the enzyme source. GST activity was determined based on its conjugation with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and the assay was adapted to a 96-well microplate reader. The absorbance was represented against the incubation time and the curves were adjusted to linearity (R(2)>0.990). Results showed that in both donors and patients GST activity was significantly lower in mature oocytes compared to small ones. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the follicle maturation by detoxifying xenobiotics, thus contributing to the normal development of the oocyte. Supported by FIS/FEDER (PI11/02559), Gobierno Vasco (Dep. Educación, Universiades e Investigación, IT687-13), and UPV/EHU (CLUMBER UFI11/20 and PES13/58). The work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (CEISH/96/2011/RUIZLARREA), and performed according to the UPV/EHU and IVI-Bilbao agreement (Ref. 2012/01). Copyright © 2014. Published by

  4. Expression of FK506 binding protein 65 (FKBP65) is decreased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells compared to benign tumor cells and to ovarian epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Rudi; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Orntoft, Torben Falck

    2011-01-01

    to be followed by a strongly increased risk of ovarian cysts. We performed the present study to reveal how FKBP65 is expressed in the ovary and in ovarian tumors and to see if this expression might be related to ovarian tumor development, a relationship we have found in colorectal cancer. Biopsies from...... prospectively collected samples from ovaries and benign, borderline, and invasive ovarian tumors were analyzed for expression of FKBP65 by immunohistochemistry. The expression was compared to survival and several clinicopathological parameters. FKBP65 is strongly expressed in ovarian epithelium and in benign...... ovarian tumor cells. In the ovary, a positive staining was also found in endothelial cells of blood vessels. In non-invasive and in invasive malignant tumor cells, a decreased staining was observed, which was not correlated to stage, histology, or survival. A significant inversed correlation to expression...

  5. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol amplifies ovarian follicular defects induced by fetal exposure to excess testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Wurst, A K; Steckler, T L; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-04-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ≥8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event.

  6. Externally placed vs intravaginally positioned radio frequency coils for quantitative spin-spin relaxometry of ovarian follicular fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarty, G.E.; Baerwald, A.R.; Loewy, J.; Pierson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate different imaging protocols, especially with respect to radio frequency (RF) receiver coil location, for Their suitability in providing least squares derived quantitative T 2 values of ovarian follicular fluid for investigations of basic ovarian physiology. Methods: The ovaries of 10 women were imaged via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using externally positioned and intravaginally placed RF receiver coils. Half-Fourier acquisition with single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), multiple-echo T 2 , Dixon, turbo spin-echo, and 3-dimensional (3D) fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) and time-reversed FISP (PSIF) sequences were used. Quantitative T 2 nuclear spin relaxation rate information from the ovarian follicles between data acquired with the external and intravaginal coils were compared. Additionally, the amount of ovarian follicle and corpora lutea structural detail visible was qualitatively assessed. Results: The T 2 computations indicated that there was no difference in the follicular fluid T 2 values or in the heterogeneity (spatial variance) of the T 2 values between data acquired with the external RF coil and date acquired with the intravaginal RF coil. The best sequences for the visualization of ovarian internal structure were the 3D PSIF sequences and the multiple-echo T 2 -weighted images, confirming our earlier imaging work on excised cow ovaries. Conclusion: It is best to use an externally placed RF coil for quantitative MRI study of ovarian physiology given the lack of difference in quantitative T 2 information and the difficulty associated with imaging the ovaries using an intravaginal RF probe. (author)

  7. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  8. Effect of follicular flushing on reproductive outcomes in patients with poor ovarian response undergoing assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Anna L M; Sampaio, Marcos; Noronha, Graciele B; Coster, Ludiana G R; de Oliveira, Roberta S G; Geber, Selmo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of follicular flushing on the number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, embryo development, and pregnancy rate of poor ovarian responders (POR). Retrospective study of 524 cycles of 384 patients with POR submitted to assisted reproductive technology (ART) and who had follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval was used in the study. We included patients with <5 oocytes at oocyte retrieval (POR group) and matching the Bologna criteria. POR patients had a mean age of 38.2 ± 4.2 years. A total of 1355 follicles (mean = 3.5 ± 1.6) were aspirated and 1040 oocytes recovered, with 709 (68.2%) obtained by direct aspiration and 331 (31.8%) by follicular flushing. We found a difference between the total number of oocytes and the number of aspirated oocytes. Overall pregnancy rate was 22%. Association was observed between pregnancy rate and the number of oocytes retrieved, the number of MII oocytes, and the number of embryos transferred. The patients matching the Bologna criteria had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.9 years. A total of 309 follicles were aspirated (mean = 3.1 ± 1.5) and 242 oocytes recovered, with 156 (64.5%) obtained by direct aspiration and 86 (35.5%) by follicular flushing. There was a significant difference between the total number of oocytes and the number of aspirated oocytes. Overall pregnancy rate was 12.1%. There was no association between the pregnancy rate and the number of oocytes retrieved, the number of MII, and the number of embryos. Follicular flushing might be a suitable alternative to increase the number of oocytes and pregnancy rates in patients with POR.

  9. LEVEL OF ESTRADIOL 17-β SERUM AND OVARIAN FOLLICULARE DYNAMICS IN SHORT ESTROUS CYCLE OF BALI CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M Airin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to confirm the short estrous cycles and determine the blood level ofestradiol 17-β and ovarian follicukar dynamics in these cases. The research was conducted using sevenBali cattle, approximately 2 years of age, kept in healthy condition with normal estrous cycles.Observation of estrus symptoms was performed daily. Ovarian follicles was examined and measuredusing ultrasonography started at the estrus day. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, bloodsample collection and ultrasonographical examination of the ovaries were performed daily in the sametime. Serum level of estradiol 17-β was performed using EIA. The short cycle estrus were observed in 4Bali cattle (n=7 among natural estrous cycle. They have only one wave ovarian follicular developmentwhereas the maximal size of ovarian follicles ovulation likes the normal cycle The duration of shortestrous cycle was 7-10 days with normal usual estrus behavior. The peak of blood serum level was107.77 ± 55.94 pg/ml when the diameter dominant follicle of short estrous cycle was reached 10.5 ±0.38 mm. It can be concluded that the short estrous cycles may occur in Bali cattle after puberty amongnormal cycles.

  10. Retrograde trafficking of tracer protein by the internal ovarian epithelium in gravid goodeid teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, J F

    1990-02-01

    Gravid goodeid females harbor embryos in a preformed ovarian cavity for prolonged periods of gestation. Various nutrients for embryonic growth are provided by the internal ovarian epithelium (IOE). Its cells flatten during late stages of gestation and form an attenuated layer of cytoplasm covering a dense network of protruding capillaries, with the nuclear domains mostly recessing between the vascular meshes. The IOE in both Xenotoca eiseni and Girardinichthys viviparus exhibit morphological features associated with vesicular transport of macromolecules. The amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the IOE cells seem insufficient to effectively synthesise proteinaceous secretions. Apparently, it rather serves as a transit route for serum-derived products. Cationized ferritin (CF) was injected into the ovarian cavity of gravid females. The electrostatic ligand spotwise attached to the luminal surface of the IOE and gained access by adsorptive micropinocytosis. Many tracer molecules were sequestered into lysosome-like vacuoles that became increasingly swollen after prolonged incubation intervals. In addition, CF traversed the IOE within small vesicles. At the basal pole of the cells the contents of transcytotic vesicles were evacuated, and localization of small CF-clusters was regularly in the basement lamina, in the underlying connective tissue, in vacuoles within migrant cells, in vesicular compartments of the capillary endothelia, in capillary lumina, and in intravascular leucocytes. Tracer molecules were never observed to enter stacked Golgi cisternae. Since the cationic marker probably follows retrograde pathways of the protein secretion, the experimental data support the morphologically derived conclusions that postulate a major role for the IOE in transepithelial transport.

  11. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  12. Data on endogenous bovine ovarian follicular cells peptides and small proteins obtained through Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

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    Valérie Labas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous peptides and small proteins extracted from bovine ovarian follicular cells (oocytes, cumulus and granulosa cells were identified by Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (TD-HR-MS/MS in order to annotate peptido- and proteoforms detected using qualitative and quantitative profiling method based on ICM-MS (Intact Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The description and analysis of these Top-down MS data in the context of oocyte quality biomarkers research are available in the original research article of Labas et al. (2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.03.027 [1]. Raw data derived from this peptidomic/proteomic analysis have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (dataset identifier PXD004892. Here, we described the inventory of all identified peptido- and proteoforms including their biochemical and structural features, and functional annotation of correspondent proteins. This peptide/protein inventory revealed that TD-HR-MS/MS was appropriate method for both global and targeted proteomic analysis of ovarian tissues, and it can be further employed as a reference for other studies on follicular cells including single oocytes.

  13. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

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    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  14. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decoding the Proteome of In-Vitro Fertilization Ovarian Follicular Fluid for Women Over 35 Years

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    Mohamed Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study of follicular fluid using proteomic techniques could provide a useful tool for understanding follicular fluid components and their effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study is to identify and catalog follicular fluid proteins in women 35 years of age or older. Material and Method: Follicular fluid was collected from 21 couples, of which 11 couples achieved successful pregnancy and 10 couples failed to get pregnant. Samples were analyzed by multidimensional chromatography coupled with in-line nano-spray ionization mass spectrometry on an LTQ XL ion trap mass spectrometer. We used the Biomarker Analysis Program from PDQuest software to identify protein constituents in pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Results: In total, 1024 protein specimens were identified. The proteins identified were consistent throughout the experiment and within each of the analyzed specimens. Discussion: A compiled listing of follicular fluid proteins could be a potential starting point for the identification and evaluation of important proteins involved in the development of oocytes; the results of our study may fill a noticeable knowledge-gap in the understanding of follicular fluid proteome.

  16. Comparison of follicular fluid and serum levels of Inhibin A and Inhibin B with calculated indices used as predictive markers of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in IVF patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moos, J.; Řežábek, K.; Filová, V.; Moosová, M.; Pavelková, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 7 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome - OHSS * inhibin A * inhibin B * follicular fluid Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2009

  17. Pituitary Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Growth Hormone Differentially Regulate AQP1 Expression in the Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells

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    Mariusz T. Skowronski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present in vitro study analyzed whether the hormones that affect the ovarian follicular steroidogenesis process also participate in the regulation of AQP1 mRNA and protein expression. Granulosa (Gc and theca cells (Tc of medium and large porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and growth hormone (GH for 24 h in separated cells and co-cultures of these cells. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and volumetric analysis were then performed. Gonadotropins, PRL and GH had a stimulatory impact on AQP1 mRNA and protein expression in Gc and Tc of medium and large ovarian cells. Moreover, swelling assays, in response to a hypotonic environment, demonstrated the functional presence of AQPs in porcine Gc and Tc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP1 protein was mainly localized in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, endosomes and cell membranes of Gc and Tc from medium and large follicles. It seems possible that AQP1 present in Gc and Tc cells may be implicated not only in the regulation of water homeostasis required for follicle development but also in cell proliferation and migration.

  18. FSH-FSHR3-stem cells in ovary surface epithelium: basis for adult ovarian biology, failure, aging, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Singh, Jarnail

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, genetic basis of premature ovarian failure (POF) and ovarian cancer still remains elusive. It is indeed paradoxical that scientists searched for mutations in FSH receptor (FSHR) expressed on granulosa cells, whereas more than 90% of cancers arise in ovary surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of stem cells including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and ovarian stem cells (OSCs) exist in OSE, are responsible for neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult life, and are modulated by FSH via its alternatively spliced receptor variant FSHR3 (growth factor type 1 receptor acting via calcium signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway). Any defect in FSH-FSHR3-stem cell interaction in OSE may affect folliculogenesis and thus result in POF. Ovarian aging is associated with a compromised microenvironment that does not support stem cell differentiation into oocytes and further folliculogenesis. FSH exerts a mitogenic effect on OSE and elevated FSH levels associated with advanced age may provide a continuous trigger for stem cells to proliferate resulting in cancer, thus supporting gonadotropin theory for ovarian cancer. Present review is an attempt to put adult ovarian biology, POF, aging, and cancer in the perspective of FSH-FSHR3-stem cell network that functions in OSE. This hypothesis is further supported by the recent understanding that: i) cancer is a stem cell disease and OSE is the niche for ovarian cancer stem cells; ii) ovarian OCT4-positive stem cells are regulated by FSH; and iii) OCT4 along with LIN28 and BMP4 are highly expressed in ovarian cancers. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. Serous papillary adenocarcinoma possibly related to the presence of primitive oocyte-like cells in the adult ovarian surface epithelium: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virant-Klun Irma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presence of oocytes in the ovarian surface epithelium has already been confirmed in the fetal ovaries. We report the presence of SSEA-4, SOX-2, VASA and ZP2-positive primitive oocyte-like cells in the adult ovarian surface epithelium of a patient with serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Case presentation Ovarian tissue was surgically retrieved from a 67-year old patient. Histological analysis revealed serous papillary adenocarcinoma. A proportion of ovarian cortex sections was deparaffinized and immunohistochemically stained for the expression of markers of pluripotency SSEA-4 and SOX-2 and oocyte-specific markers VASA and ZP2. The analysis confirmed the presence of round, SSEA-4, SOX-2, VASA and ZP2-positive primitive oocyte-like cells in the ovarian surface epithelium. These cells were possibly related to the necrotic malignant tissue. Conclusion Primitive oocyte-like cells present in the adult ovarian surface epithelium persisting probably from the fetal period of life or developed from putative stem cells are a pathological condition which is not observed in healthy adult ovaries, and might be related to serous papillary adenocarcinoma manifestation in the adult ovarian surface epithelium. This observation needs attention to be further investigated.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME PATIENTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING OVARIAN FOLLICULAR SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    S.Prathyusha , Syed Umar Farooq , Dr.A.Narsimha Reddy , Dr.D.Sudheer kumar , Dr.P.Kishore*

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is defined as the presence of hyperandrogenism (clinically and/or biochemically) chronic anovulation in the absence of specific adrenal pituitary gland abnormality. The clinical features of PCOS are Hyperandrogens, Hirsutism, Acne, Obesity, Insulin resistance. The impact of these symptoms on a woman quality of life may be profound and can results in psychological distress that threatens her feminine identity. The study shows factors impacting quality of life...

  1. Expression of activated PIK3CA in ovarian surface epithelium results in hyperplasia but not tumor formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Liang

    Full Text Available The Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase is a key regulator in various cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Genetic alterations of its catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, have been identified in ovarian cancer. Our in vivo data suggests that PIK3CA activation is one of the early genetic events in ovarian cancer. However, its role in malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is largely unclear.Using the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISIIR promoter, we generated transgenic mice that expressed activated PIK3CA in the Müllerian epithelium. Overexpression of PIK3CA in OSE induced remarkable hyperplasia, but was not able to malignantly transform OSE in vivo. The consistent result was also observed in primary cultured OSEs. Although enforced expression of PIK3CA could not induce OSE anchorage-independent growth, it significantly increased anchorage-independent growth of OSE transformed by mutant K-ras.While PIK3CA activation may not be able to initiate OSE transformation, we conclude that activation of PIK3CA may be an important molecular event contributing to the maintenance of OSE transformation initiated by oncogenes such as K-ras.

  2. Effect of first line cancer treatment on the ovarian reserve and follicular density in girls under the age of 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Issaoui, Meryam; Giorgione, Veronica; Mamsen, Linn S

    2016-01-01

    the age of 18 years who underwent OTC before (group 1: 31 patients) and after (group 2: 32 patients) their initial cancer treatment. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular densities (follicles/mm(3)) measured from an ovarian cortical biopsy before OTC. The ovarian volume (mL) of entire...... to have little effect on the follicle pool. This information will improve counseling of young female cancer patients in deciding whether to undergo fertility preservation treatment.......OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of first-line antineoplastic treatment on ovarian reserve in young girls returning for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in connection with a relapse. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University hospitals. PATIENT(S): Sixty-three girls under...

  3. Novel use of the ovarian follicular pool to postpone menopause and delay osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy has increased by more than 30 years during the last century and continues to increase. Many women already live decades in menopause deprived of naturally produced oestradiol and progesterone, leading to an increasing incidence of menopause-related disorders such as osteoporosis......, cardiovascular diseases and lack of general well-being. Exogenous oestradiol has traditionally been used to alleviate menopause-related effects. This commentary discusses a radical new method to postpone menopause. Part of the enormous surplus of ovarian follicles can now be cryostored in youth for use after...... menopause. Excision of ovarian tissue will advance menopause marginally and will not reduce natural fertility. Grafted tissue restores ovarian function with circulating concentrations of sex steroids for years in post-menopausal cancer survivors. Future developments may further utilize the enormous store...

  4. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  5. Melanins as biomarkers of ovarian follicular atresia in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: biochemical and histochemical characterization, seasonal variation and hormone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2015-06-01

    Follicular atresia is a common feature of the vertebrate ovary that occurs at different stages of folliculogenesis and ovarian regression. It has physiological significance to maintain homeostasis and control fecundity, and ensure removal of post-ovulatory follicular remnants for preparing the ovary for the next cycle. Pigments appear late in the atretic process as indigestible waste formed out of the degradation of the oocytes, follicle wall and granulocytes. In the present study, pigment accumulation was demonstrated by Schmorl's and Perls' staining methods in the atretic ovarian follicles of Heteropneustes fossilis during follicular development and regression. Melanins were characterized spectrophotometrically for the first time in fish ovary. The predominant form is eumelanin, followed by pheomelanin and alkali-soluble melanin. Melanins showed significant seasonal variations with levels low in gonad resting phase, increasing to the peak in the post-spawning phase. The concentration of melanins increased time-dependently in post-ovulated ovary after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. In the spawning phase, in vitro incubation of ovary slices with estradiol-17β or dexamethasone for 8 or 16 h decreased both eumelanin and pheomelanin levels time-dependently. The alkali-soluble melanin showed a significant decrease only in the dexamethasone group at 16 h. The results show that melanin assay can be used as a biomarker of follicular atresia in fish ovary, natural or induced by environmental toxicants.

  6. Lipidomics analysis of follicular fluid by ESI-MS reveals potential biomarkers for ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Cataldi, Thais Regiani; Perkel, Kayla Jane; do Vale Teixeira da Costa, Lívia; Rochetti, Raquel Cellin; Stevanato, Juliana; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Turco, Edson Guimarães Lo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the lipid profile of follicular fluid from patients with endometriosis and endometrioma who underwent in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF). The control group (n = 10) was composed of women with tubal factor or minimal male factor infertility who had positive pregnancy outcomes after IVF. The endometriosis group consisted of women with endometriosis diagnosed by videolaparoscopy (n = 10), and from the same patients, the endometriomas fluids were collected, which composed the endometrioma group (n = 10). From the follicular fluid and endometriomas, lipids were extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method, and the samples were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. We observed phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylnositol bisphosphate in the control group. In the endometriosis group, sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines were more abundant, while in the endometrioma group, sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines with different m/z from the endometriosis group were found in high abundance. This analysis demonstrated that there is a differential representation of these lipids according to their respective groups. In addition, the lipids found are involved in important mechanisms related to endometriosis progress in the ovary. Thus, the metabolomic approach for the study of lipids may be helpful in potential biomarker discovery.

  7. [Expansion of secretory cells in the fallopian tubal epithelium in the early stages of the pathogenesis of ovarian serous carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Adamyan, L V; Khabas, G N; Sannikova, M V

    to investigate the frequency of the types of fallopian tubal secretory cell expansion (SCE) in diseases of the reproductive organs and to determine the immunophenotype and biological role of the cells in the early stages of the pathogenesis of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas (HGOSC). The investigation enrolled 287 patients with extraovarian diseases and ovarian serous tumors varying in grade, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined using p53, Ki-67, PAX2, Bcl-2, beta-catenin, and ALDH1 markers. The material was statistically processed applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ2 test. The rate of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) (more than 10 consecutive secretory cells) and that of secretory cell overgrowth (SCO) (more than 30 consecutive secretory cells) increase with age in all investigated reproductive system diseases. The rate of SCP in the corpus fimbriatum of the patients with HGOSC was 5.9 times higher than that in those with extraovarian disease (pepithelium (2.8), in SCP (1.3), in SCO (1.2), in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) (1.0), and in HGOSC (0.9); Bcl-2 was in the intact epithelium (2.2), in SCP (2.1), STIC (0.9), and in HGOSC (0.6), β-catenin was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.85), in SCO (2.95), in STIC (0.6), and in HGOSC (0.5); ALDH1 was in the intact epithelium (0.5), in SCP (2.91), in SCO (2.92), in STIC (1.2), and in HGOSC (0.6). There were statistically significant differences with a 95% confidence interval (pepithelium and pathology (fallopian tube lesions and HGOSC); 2) Bcl-2 between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO) and between SCE and HGOSC; 3) beta-catenin between the intact epithelium and SCE (SCP and SCO) and between SCE and HGOSC; 4) ALDH1 between the intact epithelium and SCE, between and SCE and STIC, and between STIC and HGOSC. SCE was shown to be an independent intraepithelial lesion. The incidence of this abnormality increased with age and significantly

  8. Copper nanoparticle-induced ovarian injury, follicular atresia, apoptosis, and gene expression alterations in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yang,1,* Shifu Hu,1,* Meng Rao,1 Lixia Hu,2 Hui Lei,1 Yanqing Wu,1 Yingying Wang,1 Dandan Ke,1 Wei Xia,1,3 Chang-hong Zhu1,3 1Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Preclinical Medicine College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan Province, Xinxiang, 3Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous studies have reported the accumulation of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs in organs and the corresponding damage, although whether Cu NPs can be translocated to the ovaries and their ovarian toxicity are still unknown. In this study, three groups of female rats were injected with 3.12, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/kg Cu NPs for 14 consecutive days. The pathological changes, hormone levels, apoptosis and apoptotic proteins, oxidative stress, and gene expression characteristics in the ovaries were then investigated. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs exhibited obvious accumulation in the rat ovaries, leading to ovarian injury, an imbalance of sex hormones, and ovarian cell apoptosis. Cu NP exposure activated caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, and tBid, decreased the protein levels of Bcl-2, increased the expression levels of the proteins Bax and cytochrome c, and promoted malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation and superoxide dismutase (SOD reduction. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that Cu NPs (12.5 mg/kg/d caused 321 differentially expressed genes. Of these, 180 and 141 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Hsd17b1, Hsd3b1, Hsd3b6, and Hsd3b were involved in steroid and hormone metabolism, whereas Mt3 and Cebpb were associated with apoptosis. Overall, these findings provide strong evidence that Cu NPs trigger both intrinsic and extrinsic

  9. Perlecan and Dystroglycan act at the basal side of the Drosophila follicular epithelium to maintain epithelial organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Martina; Khalil, Ashraf A; Poulton, John

    2006-01-01

    and the cytoskeleton. Disruption of this linkage in skeletal muscle leads to various types of muscular dystrophies. In epithelial cells, reduced expression of Dg is associated with increased invasiveness of cancer cells. We have previously shown that Dg is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila......, but the mechanisms of this polarizing activity and upstream/downstream components are largely unknown. Using the Drosophila follicle-cell epithelium (FCE) as a model system, we show that the ECM molecule Perlecan (Pcan) is required for maintenance of epithelial-cell polarity. Follicle cells that lack Pcan develop...... polarity defects similar to those of Dg mutant cells. Furthermore, Dg depends on Pcan but not on Laminin A for its localization in the basal-cell membrane, and the two proteins bind in vitro. Interestingly, the Dg form that interacts with Pcan in the FCE lacks the mucin-like domain, which is thought...

  10. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Bonnet

    Full Text Available The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments.We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9 and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe(WEE2 which play critical roles in follicular development but other biomarkers

  11. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  12. Conditional inactivation of Brca1 in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium results in an increase in preneoplastic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Garson, Kenneth; Jonkers, Jos; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE); however, the molecular events underlying this transformation are poorly understood. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene result in a significantly increased risk of developing EOC and a large proportion of sporadic EOCs display some sort of BRCA1 dysfunction. Using mice with conditional expression of Brca1, we inactivated Brca1 in the murine OSE and demonstrate that this inactivation results in the development of preneoplastic changes, such as hyperplasia, epithelial invaginations, and inclusion cysts, which arise earlier and are more numerous than in control ovaries. These changes resemble the premalignant lesions that have been reported in human prophylactic oophorectomy specimens from women with BRCA1 germline mutation. We also report that inactivation of Brca1 in primary cultures of murine OSE cells leads to a suppression of proliferation due to increased apoptosis that can be rescued by concomitant inactivation of p53. These observations, along with our finding that these cells display an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin, indicate that loss of function of Brca1 in OSE cells impacts both cellular growth control and DNA-damage repair which results in altered cell behavior manifested as morphological changes in vivo that arise earlier and are more numerous than what can be attributed to ageing

  13. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Tumor Epithelium-Targeted Molecular Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    successful pregnancy outcome. *PIF Proprietary G-12 IL-33-responsive group 2 innate lymphoid cells are present in mouse uterine tissue and may play roles in... innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that are responsive to IL-33 drive helminth immunity, type 2 immune responses, and tissue pathology and homeostasis in...16 (IL-16) secreted by immune cells . Inflammation of the ovary and tubal epithelium due to frequent ovulation leads to the development of oxidative

  14. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  15. Differential expression of the P2X7 receptor in ovarian surface epithelium during the oestrous cycle in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Cruz-Rico, A; Garay, E; García-Carrancá, A; Pérez-Montiel, D; Juárez, B; Arellano, R O

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signalling has been proposed as an intraovarian regulatory mechanism. Of the receptors responsible for purinergic transmission, the P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cationic channel that displays a broad spectrum of cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the functional expression of P2X7 receptors in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). P2X7 protein was detected in the OSE layer of the mouse, both in situ and in primary cultures. In cultures, 2'(3')-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) activation of P2X7 receptors increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced apoptosis. The functionality of the P2X7 receptor was investigated in situ by intrabursal injection of BzATP on each day of the oestrous cycle and evaluation of apoptosis 24h using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Maximum effects of BzATP were observed during pro-oestrus, with the effects being blocked by A438079, a specific P2X7 receptor antagonist. Immunofluorescence staining for P2X7 protein revealed more robust expression during pro-oestrus and in OSE regions behind the antral follicles, strongly supporting the notion that the differences in apoptosis can be explained by increased receptor expression, which is regulated during the oestrous cycle. Finally, P2X7 receptor expression was detected in the OSE layer of human ovaries, with receptor expression maintained in human ovaries diagnosed with cancer, as well as in the human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line.

  16. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  17. Effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation and peripheral hormone levels in the prepubertal rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, G.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; van den Hurk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prepubertal hypothyroidism on ovarian development in rats. Therefore, from birth up to day 40 postpartum, rats were given 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) via the drinking water of mothers and pups. At ages ranging from 12 to 40 days, ovarian weights

  18. Comparison of follicular fluid and serum levels of Inhibin A and Inhibin B with calculated indices used as predictive markers of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelkova Jana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS is a severe health complication observed in some patients undergoing hormonal stimulation during IVF. Presence of OHSS is often associated with a high count of growing follicles responding to FSH hyperstimulation. However, the number of responding follicles may not be sufficient enough to predict the onset and severity of OHSS. The aim of this study was to find whether follicular fluid (FF and serum concentrations of Inhibin A and Inhibin B in patients undergoing IVF treatment may serve as a predictor of OHSS status independent of the growing follicles count. Methods Serum and follicular fluid of fifty-three women undertaking the IVF program were separated into four groups according to their OHSS status and growing follicles count and analyzed for serum and FF concentrations of Inhibin A and Inhibin B. The resulting data were combined with clinical and demographic data to calculate indices independent of the growing follicles count. Results Serum Inhibin A and Inhibin B concentrations showed no significant difference between the severe OHSS group and the control group without OHSS. Moreover, the serum concentrations of Inhibin A and Inhibin B were strongly correlated with the growing follicles count. Their concentrations in the high responders group (>18 follicles were significantly higher (p Conclusion These observations demonstrated that while neither serum nor FF concentrations of Inhibin A nor Inhibin B can be used as an OHSS predictor independent of the growing follicle count, calculated indices may meet the criteria.

  19. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C W; Korsen, T; van Kessel, H; van Dop, P A; Caron, F J; Schoemaker, J

    1985-12-01

    To characterize the oscillations of plasma LH in normally cycling and amenorrheic women, three groups of women were studied: I, normal women during the follicular phase of the cycle (n = 9); II, women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD; n = 11); and III, women with non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained at 10-min intervals for 6 h on 2 separate days. A pulse was defined as an increase in LH at least 20% over the preceding lowest value (nadir). Since LHRH release immediately follows the nadir of the LH levels, the nadir interval (NI) was used for analysis. For analysis, the results from 1 day were selected at random from each subject, and from each day, the same number of NIs also were randomly selected. When two NIs from each patient were selected, the median NI was 75 min in group I, 45 min in group II, and 45 min in group III. When three or four NIs were chosen, the median NI was 60 min in group I, 50 min in group II, and 40 min in group III. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. When three NIs were selected, the mean of the corresponding LH amplitudes was 2.8 U/liter in group I, 6.0 U/liter in group II, and 1.5 U/liter in group III. The differences between these groups were statistically significant. Thus, the NI in PCOD patients was shorter than that during the follicular phase of the cycle, but this short NI is not unique for PCOD, since the NI in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea patients was even smaller. The LH amplitude was higher in PCOD and lower in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea compared to that during the follicular phase of the cycle. The decrease in NI in PCOD and/or non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea vs. the NI of the follicular phase could be explained by either a higher frequency of LHRH pulses from the hypothalamus or an increased sensitivity of the pituitary leading to a greater response of the pituitary to LHRH pulses.

  20. Nitric oxide and thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 contribute to ovarian follicular development in immature hyper- and hypo-thyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaizhi; Sulieman, Fedail Jaafar; Li, Junrong; Wei, Quanwei; Xu, Mulin; Shi, Fangxiong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid dysfunction can cause ovarian cycle and ovulatory disturbances, however, the molecular link(s) between these two disorders remains largely unknown. In the current study, we examined the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) in these disorders using immature hyper-thyroid (hyper-T) and hypo-thyroid (hypo-T) rats. In comparison to controls, hyper-T rats had higher serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), whereas hypo-T rats had lower serum T3 and T4. Serum estradiol (E2) level was decreased in both hyper-T and hypo-T animals and serum E2 in hyper-T rats were lower than in hypo-T rats. We found that neuronal NOS (nNOS) and TRα1 were present in oocytes, granulosa cells and theca cells of all examined rat groups. Ovarian nitric oxide (NO) content and the constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity in hyper-T rats were significantly decreased compared with control or hypo-T rats. Moreover, the number of large antral follicles was reduced in hyper-T rats, and number of primordial follicles was decreased in hypo-T rats compared with control rats. In conclusion, we observed an association between thyroid hormone and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular development in immature rats. In hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormones induced an estrogen deficiency that inhibited the function of nNOS, resulting in the inhibition of NO synthesis and suppressed development of large antral follicles, while in hypothyroidism only development of primordial follicles was inhibited. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. [Concentration of steroid hormones in the follicular fluid of mature and immature ovarian follicles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome submitted to in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Luciana Ochuiuto Teixeira; dos Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Vireque, Alessandra Aparecida; Santana, Laura Ferreira; de Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; Martins, Wellington de Paula

    2010-09-01

    to evaluate the concentration of steroid hormones in follicular fluid (FF) of small (10-14 mm) and large (> 18 mm) follicles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. a case-control study was conducted on 13 infertile women with PCOS (17 cycles) and 31 infertile women due to male factor - Control Group (31 cycles). FF was aspirated individually and divided into four groups: G1 (FF of small follicles of the Control Group), G2 (FF of small follicles of the PCOS group), G3 (FF of large follicles of the Control Group) and G4 (FF of large follicles of the PCOS group). Estrogen, progesterone and β-hCG were determined by chemiluminescence, and testosterone and androstenedione by radioimmunoassay. The unpaired t-test was used to compare the hormone determinations in the FF of the PCOS and Control Groups, and the four groups were compared by ANOVA. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the pregnancy rates. the small follicles of the two groups had lower progesterone levels (8,435 ± 3,305 ng/mL) than large follicles (10,280 ± 3,475 ng/mL), p-value Control (9,824 ± 3,128 ng/mL), p-value =0.03. Testosterone differed between G1 (326.6 ± 124.4 ng/dL) and G3 (205.8 ± 98.91 ng/dL), p-value Control groups (9/31, 40.9%), p-value =072. women with PCOS had high testosterone concentrations in the FF, regardless of the stage of follicle development, and reduced progesterone levels, suggesting that paracrine factors may inhibit the secretion of the latter by follicular cells. The pregnancy rates showed that treatment with COH and IVF is a good option for women with infertility secondary to PCOS.

  2. Quercetin supplemented diet improves follicular development, oocyte quality, and reduces ovarian apoptosis in rabbits during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Epikmen, Erkmen Tuğrul; Uçan, Uğur; Boyacioğlu, Murat; İpek, Emrah; Akosy, Melih

    2017-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the modulatory effect of dietary quercetin on follicle population, apoptosis, in vitro maturation rate and quality of oocytes in heat stressed female rabbits. A total of thirty-four New Zealand White heat stress (HS) exposed female rabbits were either fed with quercetin supplemented diet (QU-HS) or non-supplemented (HS) diet. Firstly, laparotomy was performed for oocyte retrieval and then, oocyte grading and COCs dimensional assessments were conducted. The A and B-grade oocytes were submitted for in vitro maturation. Thereafter, the ovaries were collected from rabbits and were processed for follicular population estimation and granulosa cells apoptosis. The results showed that follicle number, retrieved oocytes and A-grade oocytes were higher in QU-HS, comparatively. A significant difference was observed in A-grade oocytes dimensions between QU-HS and HS treatment groups. The oocyte maturation rate was same across the groups. The quercetin supplementation significantly improved primordial and antral stage follicles. A greater number of apoptotic cells were observed in primary and antral follicles in the HS group. In conclusion, the quercetin provision improves the follicular development, minimize granulosa cells apoptosis, and maintain the oocyte competence in HS rabbits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Unilateral follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with unique KRAS mutation in struma ovarii in bilateral ovarian teratoma: a rare case report

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    Stanojevic Boban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Struma ovarii (SO is a rare form of ovarian mature teratoma in which thyroid tissue is the predominant element. Because of its rarity, the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant SO has not been clearly defined. It is believed that malignant transformation of SO has similar molecular features with and its prognosis corresponds to that of malignant tumors originating in the thyroid. Case presentation We report 35-year-old woman with bilateral ovarian cysts incidentally detected by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. Four months after delivery of a healthy child without complication she was admitted to the hospital for acute abdominal pain. Laparoscopic left adnexectomy was performed initially in a regional hospital; right cystectomy was done later in a specialized clinic. Intraoperative frozen section and a final pathology revealed that the cyst from the left ovary was composed of mature teratomatous elements, normal thyroid tissue (>50% and a non-encapsulated focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were tested for BRAF and RAS mutations by direct sequencing, and for RET/PTC rearrangements by RT-PCR/Southern blotting. A KRAS codon 12 mutation, the GGT → GTT transversion, corresponding to the Gly → Val amino acid change was identified in the absence of other genetic alterations commonly found in PTC. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation is described in a papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma in the ovarii. This finding provides further evidence that even rare mutations specific for PTC may occur in such tumors. Molecular testing may be a useful adjunct to common differential diagnostic methods of thyroid malignancy in SO.

  4. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

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    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  6. Follicular development and hormonal levels following highly purified or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone administration in ovulatory women undergoing ovarian stimulation after pituitary suppression for in vitro fertilization: implications for implantation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J; Fábregues, F; Creus, M; Peñarrubia, J; Vidal, E; Carmona, F; Puerto, B; Vanrell, J A

    2000-01-01

    The main goal in the present study was to compare follicular development and estradiol levels after ovarian stimulation in pituitary suppressed normally ovulating women undergoing IVF, using highly purified urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (u-FSH-HP) and recombinant FSH (rec-FSH). A secondary variable in our study was embryo implantation potential, which is closely related to appropriate follicular development and oocyte competence. For the main purpose of this study, 30 IVF patients (group 1) were treated during IVF consecutive cycles, using the same stimulation protocol, with u-FSH-HP in the first treatment study cycle and rec-FSH in the second one. As a control group (group 2) for implantation rates obtained in cycles treated with rec-FSH, 30 additional IVF patients were included who underwent a second IVF attempt again with u-FSH-HP. The total dose of FSH used and ovarian response obtained in terms of estradiol plasma levels and the total number of growing follicles on the day of human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) injection were similar in both treatment cycles in group 1 but better follicular dynamics and oocyte maturity were obtained with rec-FSH. The implantation rate was significantly higher in rec-FSH treated cycles in patients in group 1 than in control women (group 2). rec-FSH is more efficacious than u-FSH-HP when used in the same patient in inducing multiple follicular development in down-regulated cycles as indicated by ovarian performance and oocyte maturity. In addition, rec-FSH yields significantly higher implantation rates than u-FSH-HP when used in patients undergoing their second IVF attempt.

  7. Histopathological and Follicular Atresia Assessment of Rat’s Ovarian Tissue Following Experimental Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

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    Sam Zarbakhsh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the important side effects in spinal cord injuries in both genders is sexual dysfunction. This study aimed at investigating histopathological changes of ovaries in the chronic phase after spinal cord injury. Methods Animals (adult female rats were divided to the following groups, Control (Co, Sham (Sh, and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI; each group contained 18 rats. The spinal cord of SCI animals was transected by the bilateral laminectomy method on level T9, while the rats of the sham group were incised in the same location without any spinal cord injury. Animals were sacrified at 7th, 14th and 21st day postsurgical intervention, then the body weight, and the weight and volume of ovaries were measured. The slices were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff methods. The histomorphometric changes of the diameter of the follicle and ovum, and the thickness of granulosa layer were measured in different kinds of follicles including, Unilaminar Primary Follicle (UPF, Multilaminar Primary Follicle (MPF, Secondary Follicle (SF, and Tertiary Follicle (TF. Results The results showed that the animal weights were decreased in three SCI groups (P = 0.018. In the SCI groups, the diameter of follicle and ovum and the thickness of granulosa layer were significantly decreased in different kinds of follicles (P = 0.012. Also the thickness of zona pellucida and theca interna were significantly decreased in UPF, SF, and TF in the SCI groups on 14th and 21st day (P = 0.024. The histopathologic examination revealed widespread ovarian follicle atresia in the SCI groups on the 14th and 21st day, including numerous cell debris and inflammatory cells in the antrum atretic follicles. The ovarian stroma showed edema, fibrosis, hypercellularity, and vasodilation in the SCI group, compared to the sham or control groups. Conclusions The histopathlogic data indicated that after spinal cord injury many histologic parameter changes occurred and

  8. Targeted metabolomics reveals reduced levels of polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and a smaller dimethylarginine/arginine ratio in the follicular fluid of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, J M Chao; Boueilh, T; Simard, G; Boucret, L; Ferré-L'Hotellier, V; Tessier, L; Gadras, C; Bouet, P E; Descamps, P; Procaccio, V; Reynier, P; May-Panloup, P

    2017-11-01

    Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence. Studies of the FF have allowed identification of biomarkers and metabolic pathways involved in various pathologies affecting oocyte quality, but no large metabolomic analysis in the context of ovarian ageing and DOR has been undertaken so far. This was an observational study of the FF retrieved from 57 women undergoing in vitro fertilization at the University Hospital of Angers, France, from November 2015 to September 2016. The women were classified in two groups: one including 28 DOR patients, and the other including 29 NOR patients, serving as controls. Patients were enrolled in the morning of oocyte retrieval after ovarian stimulation. Once the oocytes were isolated for fertilization and culture, the FF was pooled and centrifuged for analysis. A targeted quantitative metabolomic analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit. The FF levels of 188 metabolites and several sums and ratios of metabolic significance were assessed by multivariate and univariate analyses. A total of 136 metabolites were accurately quantified and used for calculating 23 sums and ratios. Samples were randomly divided into training and validation sets. The training set, allowed the construction of multivariate statistical models with a projection-supervised method, i.e. orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), applied to the full set of metabolites, or the penalized

  9. The Effects of Administrated Sildenafil Citrate on Uterine Luminal Epithelium Height Associated with Ovarian Angiogenesis: An Experimental Animal Study

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    Mohammad Hosein Golkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian angiogenesis (OA remains in lifetime and normal ovarian function depends to this continual remodeling of a complex vascular system. Endometrial thickness (ET is one of the strongest predictors of successful implantation and pregnancy. Appropriate OA effects on ET by facilitating of ovarian hormone delivery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult female mice and twenty adult male mice were purchased. The female mice were divided into three groups: (1 control group without any intervention (n = 10, (2 gonadotropin group: receiving human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG and human chorionic gonadotropin (n = 10, and (3 gonadotropin and sildenafil citrate (SC group: receiving HMG and SC administration (n = 10. After mating, animals were deeply anesthetized, and the ovary and uterus was rapidly removed for histology and immunohistochemistry process. Results: Four days after ovarian induction, all three layers of the uterus with specified thickness can be clearly seen. The heights of endometrial epithelial cells in gonadotropin group were not significantly different than those in control group. In gonadotropin and SC group, heights of the cells were significantly (P 0.05 each. Our results of immunohistochemistry survey for ovarian CD31 demonstrated that administrated SC increased OA but not significantly (P > 0.05 each. Conclusion: It may finally conclude that administration of SC does not cause notable alterations in OA and ET; although for realistic decision about the SC effects on aforementioned parameters, more molecular investigations and longer drug consumption period are necessary.

  10. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of estradiol trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses in oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Palma-Vera

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid hormones (mainly E2 and P4 regulate oviduct physiology. Serum-E2 acts on the oviduct epithelium from the basolateral cell compartment. Upon ovulation, the apical compartment of the oviduct epithelium is temporarily exposed to follicular fluid, which contains much higher levels of E2 than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of human periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 on oviduct epithelial cells using two porcine in vitro models.A cell line derived from the porcine oviductal epithelium (CCLV-RIE270 was characterized (lineage markers, proliferation characteristics and transformation status. Primary porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC were cultured in air-liquid interface and differentiation was assessed histologically. Both cultures were exposed to E2 (10 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Proliferation of CCLV-RIE270 and POEC was determined by real-time impedance monitoring and immunohistochemical detection of Ki67. Furthermore, marker gene expression for DNA damage response (DDR and inflammation was quantified.CCLV-RIE270 was not transformed and exhibited properties of secretory oviduct epithelial cells. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 (200 ng/ml upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes in CCLV-RIE270 but not in POEC (except for IL8. Expression of DDR genes was elevated in both models. A significant increase in cell proliferation could not be detected in response to E2.CCLV-RIE270 and POEC are complementary models to evaluate the consequences of oviduct exposure to follicular fluid components. Single administration of periovulatory follicular fluid E2 levels trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses, but not proliferation in oviduct epithelial cells.

  11. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  12. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín; Caudle, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, Nov 23 (2012), č. článku 97. ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Fetal neo-oogenesis * Follicular selection * Follicular renewal in mammals Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  13. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Gabała, Elżbieta; Kuczer, Mariola

    2014-01-01

    Background The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. Results We tested Neb-col...

  14. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  15. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  16. Development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: interrogation of key proteins and biological processes in human follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Skalníková, Helena; Halada, Petr; Hrabáková, Rita; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2011), s. 679-692 ISSN 1360-9947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * computer modelling * human follicular fluid Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 3.852, year: 2011

  17. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  18. Follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is considered as a disease of the elderly with a higher incidence in females as compared to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Some studies have reported its occurrence at an early age, which may be attributed to early diagnosis because of the availability of advanced techniques. The prognosis of the disease is considered poor as compared to that of PTC. The conclusions drawn in this review are based on 663 cases in whom adequate data was available for meaningful analysis followed for a mean period of 9.2 years, median, 7.8 years; range, 1-32 years

  19. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  20. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  1. Ciclo ovárico y jerarquía folicular de Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Testudines: Podocnemididae Ovarian cycle and follicular hierarchy of Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Testudines: Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime De La Ossa Velasquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron cuarenta pares de ovarios de hembras adultas de Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Schweigger 1812, para establecer los cambios morfológicos mensuales producidos durante un año. Se llevaron a cabo exámenes macroscópicos de los oviductos y de los ovarios de especímenes que los habitantes ribereños del municipio de Barcelos, Amazonas, Brasil, utilizaron para su consumo, usando metodológicamente la medida del diámetro y conteo de los folículos ováricos y de los cuerpos lúteos. Los resultados muestran la presencia gradual de folículos acorde con la época reproductiva, resaltando que durante el último tercio del proceso, justo antes de la postura se hacen más evidentes; se analiza la relación existente entre el tamaño de la hembra y la masa ovárica, la cual es estadísticamente significativa (F (10,29=3,655, p Forty pairs of ovaries of mature female Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Schweigger 1812 were analyzed, to establish the morphologic monthly changes that take place during one year; we examined macroscopically the oviducts and the ovaries of specimens that the riverside inhabitants of the municipality of Barcelos, Amazons, Brazil, used for their consumption. We measured the diameter and recorded the number of enlarged ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. The results show the gradual enlargement of follicles in agreement with the reproductive period, observing that during the last third of the process; just before oviposition they become more evident. The positive relationship between the size of the female and the ovarian mass, is statistically significant (F (10.29=3.655, p < 0.05. Follicullar sizes suggest that this species nests only once a year.

  2. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Gabała, Elżbieta; Kuczer, Mariola

    2014-01-30

    The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and viability of follicular cells, and

  3. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. Results We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Conclusion Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and

  4. Mechanisms and Chemoprevention of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cvetkovic, Dusica

    2008-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that DMBAinduced mutagenesis in the rat ovary, combined with gonadotropin hormone-mediated enhanced mitogenesis of the ovarian surface epithelium, produces lesions ranging...

  5. In Vitro Exposure of Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells to PCB 153 Alters Steroid Secretion But Not Their Viability—Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous paper[1], we demonstrated that porcine follicles collected during the early stage of development are the most sensitive to the toxic action of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153. Follicles of this type were collected to test the effect of PCB 153 on cell steroidogenesis and viability. Cocultures of granulosa and theca cells were grown in M199 medium at 37ºC. Control cultures were maintained in that medium alone, while experimental ones were supplemented with PCB 153 at doses of 5, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml. After 48, 96, and 144 h, media were collected for steroid analysis and cell viability was measured using an LDH (lactate dehydrogenase activity cytotoxicity test. A 2-day exposure of follicular cells to all the investigated doses of PCB 153 caused a statistically significant decrease in progesterone (P4 secretion, while in doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml there was also a decrease in testosterone (T secretion. No effect on estradiol (E2 secretion was observed. The observed decrease in P4 and T secretion, and lack of any statistically significant effect on E2 secretion by cells from small follicles exposed for 48 h to PCB, suggests that PCB 153 acts before P4 formation. Longer exposures caused an increase in P4 secretion, with a concomitant drastic decrease in T secretion and a tendency to decrease the E2 secretion, suggesting inhibition of P450 17α hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that converts P4 to T. The observed PCB 153–induced increase in P4 secretion by cells collected from small antral follicles, with a concomitant decrease in E2 secretion, accounts for the induction of luteinization and, in this case, inhibition of aromatization process in the follicles. However, in all doses tested and at all times of exposure, PCB 153 had no effect on cell viability. These findings suggest different time of exposure–dependent action of PCB 153 on particular steps of steroidogenesis but not action on cell viability. These results

  6. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  7. Premature ovarian failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José

    2011-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is characterized by secondary amenorrhea affecting a woman before the age of 40, leading to hypoestrogenism, infertility, and consequences of premature menopause, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurovegetative alterations, and others. Follicular exhaustion is due to either follicles shortage or oocytes accelerated destruction. Main causes are genetic, autoimmune and iatrogenic. Among genetic causes Xq and Xp deletions, translocations, numeric aberratio...

  8. Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophia H L; Milea, Anca; Shaw, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    Women who have inherited germline mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 are at increased risk of developing high-grade serous carcinoma, and many of these cancers arise in the distal fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We have previously shown that the fallopian tube epithelia of BRCA1 mutation carriers (FTE-BRCA) have altered signaling pathways compared to nonmutation carriers. In this study, we sought to determine whether these differences result in a proliferative advantage to the epithelia in this high-risk patient population and to investigate whether the postovulation environment of the FTE-BRCA compared to FTE from nonmutation carriers experiences a differential abundance of immune cells. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CD3, CD8, CD20, and CD68 was performed on histologically normal tubal epithelium (ampulla, n = 83), fimbria (n = 18) with known ovarian cycle status and germline mutation status and for Ki67 on fimbrial epithelium from women (n = 144) with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) with concomitant cancer (n = 15) were also analyzed for presence of immune infiltrates. All slides were digitized and analyzed using automated image analysis software. There was no significant difference in the proliferative index in histologically normal FTE between BRCA1/BRCA2 and non-BRCA, in 144 fimbriae and 83 ampullae. The FTE-BRCA1 epithelia did not exhibit a differential presence of lymphocytes or macrophages, however more macrophages were present in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase epithelia. In STICs macrophages were more abundant than lymphocytes with an incremental increase noted with disease progression. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers exhibited no significant increase in proliferation in the fallopian tube epithelial cells either in the ampulla or fimbriated ends of the tube. Rather, a significant proliferative increase was defined in the cases determined

  9. Epigenetic Characterization of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Susan K

    2005-01-01

    .... The approach is to use normal ovarian surface epithelium (NOSE) and malignant cells obtained directly from surgically removed specimens in order to most closely approximate the methylation status in vivo...

  10. Progesterone Prevents High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Necroptosis of p53-Defective Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Yiyuan Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC originates mainly from the fallopian tube (FT epithelium and always carries early TP53 mutations. We previously reported that tumors initiate in the FT fimbria epithelium because of apoptotic failure and the expansion of cells with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB caused by bathing of the FT epithelial cells in reactive oxygen species (ROSs and hemoglobin-rich follicular fluid (FF after ovulation. Because ovulation is frequent and HGSOC is rare, we hypothesized that luteal-phase progesterone (P4 could eliminate p53-defective FT cells. Here we show that P4, via P4 receptors (PRs, induces necroptosis in Trp53−/− mouse oviduct epithelium and in immortalized human p53-defective fimbrial epithelium through the TNF-α/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. Necroptosis occurs specifically at diestrus, recovers at the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle, and can be augmented with P4 supplementation. These results reveal the mechanism of the well-known ability of progesterone to prevent ovarian cancer.

  11. Progenitor Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  12. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  13. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Novel approaches to quantify estradiol-induced loss of ERβ1 protein in older mouse ovarian surface epithelium: new tools to assess the role of ER protein subtypes in predisposing to ovarian epithelial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Linda S M; Hurst, Peter R

    2011-08-01

    Loss of estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) occurs in ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC), a cancer of mainly older women. OEC is linked epidemiologically to hormone replacement therapy, predominantly with estrogen-only formulations. This study introduces a novel, non-biased method to quantify levels of estradiol-induced loss of ERβ1 protein, and defines, for the first time, normal OSE expression patterns for ERα and ERβ1 with advancing age. Older (7-10 months) Swiss Webster mice were injected with estradiol valerate (EV) while age-matched diestrous controls received oil. Mice were culled after 48 h, and blood and one ovary were frozen for estradiol RIA. Contralateral ovaries were paraffin-embedded for immunohistochemistry. Subsets of serial sections, triple-labeled with immunofluroescent tags, were imaged with confocal microscopy to provide optimal visualization of ER protein subtype expression in OSE. Immunofluorescence emission profiles distinct to ERβ1 in OSE were standardized and quantified in control mice then compared to profiles from EV-exposed mice. Estradiol levels were significantly elevated in EV-treated mice, both in blood (p < 0.0001) and ovarian tissue (p < 0.001), resulting in 11-fold reduction in OSE expression of ERβ1 protein (p < 0.0001). In aging OSE, expression patterns of both ER subtypes varied within cells and with cell shape. ER co-localization appeared predominantly cytoplasmic and was infrequent in columnar compared to cuboidal-shaped OSE cells. Immunofluorescence emission profiling and multiple-label immunofluorescent tagging of ER using confocal microscopy, provides sharp definition of ER locus enabling concurrent qualitative and quantitative analysis of ER protein. It offers significant potential for assessing ER protein subtype status in predisposition to OEC.

  15. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  16. STUDY OF OVARIAN CHANGES IN RATS WITH MAMMARY CARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zečević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate ovarian changes in 7,12 dimethylbenz (α anthracene (DMBA induced rat mammary carcinomas. The study was carried out on female virgin albino Wistar rats (n=35, age=35-37days, body mass 120-140g, divided into control (n=10 and experimental group (n=25. Anesthetised animals of experimental group were inoculated with 2 mg mixture (1 mg of DMBA and 1 mg of cholesterol-buffer into the fifth left mammary gland. The animals were sacrificed 90 days after implantation, and ovaries and mammary glands were investigated. Mammary gland carcinomas (in situ and/or invasive were pathohistologically verified in 19 experimental animals. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical (cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and PCNA studies of ovaries were performed.Besides non-neoplastic changes, such as decrease in ovary’s volume, reduction in the rate of follicular development and numerous corpora lutea formation were found in the vicinity of preneoplastic changes: papillomatous epithelial hyperplasia and inclusion cysts, microglandular formations with dysplasia and seromucinous microcystic formation. Intensive diffuse PCNA expression was present in the epithelium of glandlike structures, follicular and inclusion cysts.These morphological changes confirmed that DMBA is a pluripotent carcinogen capable to induce a wide spectrum of preneoplastic lesions in the ovaries. The present dilemma is whether the changes described are the consequence of the direct effects of DMBA or of hormonal activity of the induced breast carcinomas, or both.

  17. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  18. Histological exploration of follicular population of the Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological study of the ovary revealed that the ovarian cortex is composed of different areas (from the periphery to the medulla), the non stratified epithelium of the ovary, the tunica albuginea composed of two areas rich of collagen fibers directed into different ways white variable thickness. The primordial and antral ...

  19. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  20. Relação entre os níveis séricos do hormônio anti-Mulleriano, inibina B, estradiol e hormônio folículo estimulante no terceiro dia e o status folicular ovariano Relationship of serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, estradiol and FSH on day 3 with ovarian follicular status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Brum Scheffer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar a hipótese de que o nível sérico do hormônio anti-Mülleriano (HAM reflete o status folicular ovariano. MÉTODOS: Desenho: estudo prospectivo. Pacientes: foram incluídas 101 candidatas à FIV-TE submetidas à estimulação ovariana controlada com agonista de GnRH e FSH. Depois de atingir a supressão da hipófise e antes da administração de FSH (dia basal, os níveis séricos de HAM, inibina B e FSH foram avaliados. O número de folículos antrais foi determinado pela ultra-sonografia (dia basal (folículo antral precoce; 3-10 mm. RESULTADOS: as médias do nível sérico de HAM, inhibina B, E2, P4 e FSH (dia basal foram 3,4±0,14 ng/mL, 89±4,8 pg/mL, 34±2,7 pg/mL, 0,22±0,23 ng/mL e 6,6±0,1 mUI/mL, respectivamente, e a média do número de folículos antrais precoces foi 17±0,39. O nível sérico do HAM foi negativamente correlacionado com a idade (r= -0,19, pPURPOSE: to examine the hypothesis that serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels reflect the ovarian follicular status. METHODS: Design: prospective study. Patients: we studied 101 IVF-ET candidates undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with GnRH agonist and FSH. After the achievement of pituitary suppression and before FSH administration (baseline, serum AMH, inhibin B, and FSH levels were measured. The number of antral follicles was determined by ultrasound at baseline (early antral follicles; 3-10 mm. RESULTS: at baseline, median serum levels of AMH, inhibin B, E2, P4 and FSH were 3.42±0.14 ng/mL, 89±4.8 pg/mL, 34±2.7 pg/mL, 0.22±0.23 ng/mL and 6.6±0.1 mIU/mL, respectively, and the mean number of early antral follicles was 17±0.39. Serum levels of AMH were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.19, p<0.04, and positively correlated with number of antral follicles (r=0.65, p<0.0001, but this did not apply to serum levels of either inhibin B, E2 or FSH. CONCLUSION: the data demonstrate an association between AMH and antral follicular counts

  1. Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, D.; Lee, J.C.; Devenney-Cakir, B.; Zaim, S.; Ounadjela, S.; Solal-Celigny, P.; Juweid, M.; Guermazi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a unique subtype of NHL, which is indolent, incurable with a high prevalence of residual mass after treatment, and may transform to more aggressive NHL. The aim of this review is to (1) describe the histological and flow cytometry characteristics of follicular NHL; (2) introduce the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index 2 (FLIPI-2), which allows better treatment selection and patient stratification for clinical trials; (3) illustrate the classic and atypical ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT appearance of follicular NHL; and (4) characterize the appearance of nodal and extranodal follicular NHL with pathological correlation. Imaging is essential in every step of the management of patients with follicular lymphoma. Overall survival is improved with better predictive tools and new targeted biological therapies. Radiologists should be aware of possible active residual mass, indolent recurrence, transformation, and association with other primary cancers in patients treated for follicular lymphoma.

  2. Steroid hormones content and proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid during the preovulatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Karine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicular fluid contains substances involved in follicle activity, cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. Studies of its components may contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. The canine species is characterized by several ovarian activity features that are not extensively described such as preovulatory luteinization, oocyte ovulated at the GV stage (prophase 1 and poly-oocytic follicles. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the preovulatory LH surge is associated with changes in steroid and protein content of canine follicular fluid prior to ovulation. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from canine ovaries during the preovulatory phase, before (pre-LH; n = 16 bitches and after (post-LH; n = 16 the LH surge. Blood was simultaneously collected. Steroids were assayed by radioimmunoassay and proteomic analyses were carried out by 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone at the pre-LH stage were 737.2 +/- 43.5 ng/ml and 2630.1 +/- 287.2 ng/ml in follicular fluid vs. 53 +/- 4.1 pg/ml and 3.9 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in plasma, respectively. At that stage, significant positive correlations between follicular size and intra-follicular steroid concentrations were recorded. After the LH peak, the intrafollicular concentration of 17beta-estradiol decreased significantly (48.3 +/- 4.4 ng/ml; p Proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid identified 38 protein spots, corresponding to 21 proteins, some of which are known to play roles in the ovarian physiology. The comparison of 2D-PAGE patterns of follicular fluids from the pre- and post-LH stages demonstrated 3 differentially stained single spot or groups of spots. One of them was identified as complement factor B. A comparison of follicular fluid and plasma protein patterns demonstrated a group of 4 spots that were more concentrated in plasma than

  3. Progress in understanding human ovarian folliculogenesis and its implications in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Zi; Yang, Wan; Li, Yu; He, Zuanyu

    2013-02-01

    To highlight recent progress in understanding the pattern of follicular wave emergence of human menstrual cycle, providing a brief overview of the new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular physiological waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve. Literature review and editorial commentary. There has been increasing evidence to suggest that multiple (two or three) antral follicular waves are recruited during human menstrual cycle. The treatment regimens designed based on the theory of follicular waves, to promote increased success with assisted reproduction technology (ART) and fertility preservation have been reported. These new options for human ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval by making full use of follicular waves of the patients either with normal or abnormal ovarian reserve lead to new thinking about the standard protocols in ART and challenge the traditional theory that a single wave of antral follicles grows only during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The understanding of human ovarian folliculogenesis may have profound implications in ART and fertility preservation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal regimens in ART based on the theory of follicular waves and to identify non-invasive markers for predicting the outcome and the potential utilities of follicles obtained from anovulatory follicular waves in ART.

  4. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  5. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  6. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  7. Histopathologic Evaluation of Follicular Tissues Associated with Impacted Third Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to histopathologically evaluate follicular tissues of third molars with pericoronal radiolucenciesof less than 2 millimeters.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, 100 impacted third molars with normal follicular spaces were removed and their pericoronaltissues submitted for histopathologic examination. Different characteristicsof the epithelium and connective tissue were evaluated in all cases. Statisti-cal analysis was performed using chi square and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: In our study sample, 74% of the patients were female and 26% were male, ranging in age from 13 to 54 years (mean, 25.3 years. Lining epithelium was observed in 69% of the specimens of which 31%, 23% and 14% was cuboidal, squamous and columnar, respectively. A significant re-lationship was found between the presence of squamous epithelium and pa-tient age (P<0.05. Nonspecific chronic inflammation was the only patho-logic finding observed in 44% of the specimens. Inflammation was signifi-cantly associated with age and squamous metaplasia (P<0.05.Conclusion: Considering that pathologic lesions were not observed in anyof the studied cases, unerupted third molars should not be removed unless there is a clinical indication to do so, or in case the impacted molar shows evidence of pathological changes. Follow-up is suggested for asympto-matic impacted third molars.

  8. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. [Explore microcosmic connection between autophagy mechanism and follicular development based on "kidney governing reproduction" theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jun; Wu, Ke-Ming; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2018-03-01

    In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi. Autophagy almost exists in different cells stages and all various of mammalian cells. Many studies have found that autophagy not only participates in the formation of follicles, but also in every phase of the follicles development, and is involved in the occurrence and development of ovarian diseases. Recently, more and more scholars believe that autophagy is a new field to explore the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and TCM. Kidney-nourishing TCM could promote follicular growth and improve variety clinical symptoms by inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and reducing follicular atresia. Meanwhile, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is closely related to autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. In order to provide some theoretical foundation for kidney-nourishing therapy's promoting effect on follicular growth and improving effect on ovarian function, also to further explore the molecular mechanism of kidney-nourishing medicine in promoting follicular development, this paper would explain the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and follicular development based on the theory of "kidney governing reproduction". All of these would be of great significance to prevent and intervene the diseases of reproductive system timely and effectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective cryopreservation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Voskuilen-Gonzalez, Anna; Hancock, Kolbe; Lekovich, Jovana P; Schattman, Glenn L; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-10-01

    The current study investigates the utility of random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Women in the study cohort underwent random-start ovarian stimulation, and were subdivided based on the phase of the menstrual cycle that ovarian stimulation began, i.e. early follicular, late follicular or luteal phase. Women undergoing conventional cycle day (CD) 2/3 ovarian stimulation start were controls. A total of 1302 women were included - 859 (66.0%) conventional CD 2/3, 342 (26.3%) early follicular, 42 (3.2%) late follicular and 59 (4.5%) luteal ovarian stimulation starts. There was no difference in the demographics or baseline ovarian stimulation characteristics. The duration of ovarian stimulation (11 versus 9 days; P start group. The number of total and MII oocytes in the control and random-start groups was similar. A non-significant trend towards increased cycle cancellation was noted in the late follicular start group (7.1%). Study findings indicate the number of total and MII oocytes derived from random-start protocols initiated during any phase of the menstrual cycle is similar to conventional CD 2/3 ovarian stimulation start protocols in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Follicular Fluid of Tianzhu White Yak during Diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the follicular fluid of Tianzhu white yak during diestrus. Follicles obtained from female yak were divided into four groups according to their diameter: 0–2, 2–4, 4–6 mm, and greater than 6 mm. The follicular fluid was directly aspirated from the follicles and mixed according to follicular size, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was carried out on the crude follicular fluid samples. Thirty-four differentially expressed spots were generated from these four sizes of follicles. Fourteen of these spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and identified as: AS3MT, VDP, ANKRD6, C10orf107 protein, MRP4, MAPKAP1, AGO3, profilin-β-actin, SPT2 homolog, AGP, AR, RNF20, obscurin-like-1, and one unnamed protein. These proteins were first reported in follicular fluid, in addition to VDP and AGP. Based on existing knowledge of their function and patterns of expression, we hypothesize that most of these differentially expressed proteins play a role in ovarian follicular growth and development, dominant follicle selection, or follicular atresia and development of oocytes; however, the function of the other differentially expressed proteins in reproduction remains ambiguous.

  12. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  13. miR-26b promotes granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting ATM during follicular atresia in porcine ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    Full Text Available More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro.

  14. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  15. Transcriptome and gene expression profile of ovarian follicle tissue of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo N.; Logullo, Raquel; Ramos, Isabela B.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Coutinho, Maria Alice; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Capurro, Margareth L.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Cardoso Braz, Glória Regina; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-01-01

    Insect oocytes grow in close association with the ovarian follicular epithelium (OFE), which escorts the oocyte during oogenesis and is responsible for synthesis and secretion of the eggshell. We describe a transcriptome of OFE of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, to increase our knowledge of the role of FE in egg development. Random clones were sequenced from a cDNA library of different stages of follicle development. The transcriptome showed high commitment to transcription, protein synthesis, and secretion. The most abundant cDNA was a secreted (S) small, proline-rich protein with maximal expression in the vitellogenic follicle, suggesting a role in oocyte maturation. We also found Rp45, a chorion protein already described, and a putative chitin-associated cuticle protein that was an eggshell component candidate. Six transcripts coding for proteins related to the unfolded protein response (UPR) by were chosen and their expression analyzed. Surprisingly, transcripts related to UPR showed higher expression during early stages of development and downregulation during late stages, when transcripts coding for S proteins participating in chorion formation were highly expressed. Several transcripts with potential roles in oogenesis and embryo development are also discussed. We propose that intense protein synthesis at the FE results in reticulum stress (RS) and that lowering expression of a set of genes related to cell survival should lead to degeneration of follicular cells at oocyte maturation. This paradoxical suppression of UPR suggests that ovarian follicles may represent an interesting model for studying control of RS and cell survival in professional S cell types. PMID:21736942

  16. Keratosis Pilaris Revisited: Is It More Than Just a Follicular Keratosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is characterized by keratinous plugs in the follicular orifices and varying degrees of perifollicular erythema. The most accepted theory of its pathogenesis proposes defective keratinization of the follicular epithelium resulting in a keratotic infundibular plug. We decided to test this hypothesis by doing dermoscopy of patients diagnosed clinically as keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of KP seen between September 2011 and December 2011 were included in the study. A clinical history was obtained and examination and dermoscopic evaluation were performed on the lesions of KP. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6-38 years. Sixteen patients had history of atopy. Nine had concomitant ichthyosis vulgaris. All the 25 patients were found to have coiled hair shafts within the affected follicular infundibula. The hair shafts were extracted with the help of a sterile needle and were found to retain their coiled nature. Perifollicular erythema was seen in 11 patients; perifollicular scaling in 9. Conclusion: Based on our observations and previously documented histological data of KP, we infer that KP may not be a disorder of keratinization, but caused by the circular hair shaft which ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization. PMID:23766609

  17. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  18. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  19. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  20. Light-sheet microscopy for quantitative ovarian folliculometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Chun Amy; Dutta, Rahul; Mandal, Subhamoy; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Determination of ovarian status and follicle monitoring are common methods of diagnosing female infertility. We evaluated the suitability of selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) for the study of ovarian follicles. Owing to the large field of view and fast acquisition speed of our newly developed SPIM system, volumetric image stacks from entire intact samples of pig ovaries have been rendered demonstrating clearly discernible follicular features like follicle diameters (70 μm - 2.5 mm), size of developing Cumulus oophorus complexes (COC ) (40 μm - 110 μm), and follicular wall thicknesses (90 μm-120 μm). The observation of clearly distinguishable COCs protruding into the follicular antrum was also shown possible, and correlation with the developmental stage of the follicles was determined. Follicles of all developmental stages were identified, and even the small primordial follicle clusters forming the egg nest could be observed. The ability of the system to non-destructively generate sub-cellular resolution 3D images of developing follicles, with excellent image contrast and high throughput capacity compared to conventional histology, suggests that it can be used to monitor follicular development and identify structural abnormalities indicative of ovarian ailments. Accurate folliculometric measurements provided by SPIM images can immensely help the understanding of ovarian physiology and provide important information for the proper management of ovarian diseases.

  1. Isolation of pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Rasmussen, Annette; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation is based on the ovarian cortex that contains the vast majority of the follicular reserve, while the remaining tissue, the medulla is discarded. The present study describes the development of a gentle method for isolating pre...

  2. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  3. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Ovarian Cell Proliferation and Apoptotic Factors in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Salvetti, Natalia R.; Ortega, Hugo H.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developme...

  4. Ovarian Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pregnancy can occur. Ovaries also make the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When a woman goes through menopause, her ovaries stop making those hormones and releasing eggs. Problems with the ovaries include Ovarian cancer Ovarian ...

  5. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  6. Tubal origin of ovarian cancer - the double-edged sword of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiou-Fu; Gerry, Emily; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the gynaecological tract. While the origins of many human malignant neoplasms are clear, the origin of HGSC remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge limits our understanding of its pathogenesis and compromises efforts devoted to developing better early detection tools and effective preventative interventions. The paradigm of the tubal origin of HGSC has been advanced since the initial report of dysplastic lesions (now known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas or STICs) that morphologically resemble HGSC in the Fallopian tube. These were observed in a group of patients with a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer who were undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Since then, a series of clinico-pathological and molecular studies have characterized STICs and their concurrent HGSCs, and the results support the new paradigm of a tubal origin of many 'ovarian' HGSCs. Reactive oxygen species-containing ovulatory follicular fluid has been thought to be the major culprit behind DNA damage in tubal epithelial cells, leading to either cell death or, if the cells survive, mutagenesis. A recent report from this journal demonstrates that ferryl haemoglobin (Hb) in peritoneal fluid could prevent cell death from DNA-damaged fimbrial epithelial cells, facilitating ovulation-induced carcinogenesis of tubal epithelium. This timely study provides new insight into the tumour initiation event in HGSC. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P rate in goats. Furthermore, this study described for the first time that goat ovarian biopsy fragments have a high heterogeneity in follicular density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian torsion: Echographic discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana R, Gustavo; Navas O, Claudia

    1994-01-01

    Patient of 31 years who consulted to the even service of urgencies to present of two hours of evolution intense pain in flank and region lumbar left, associated to vomit, present square similar 5 previous days to the entrance in the right side. Go Po, plans with DIU FUR, 8 previous days to the square. It is practiced Tran abdominal pelvic echography that shows left ovary of 6 x 5 x 3 cms, with multiple follicular images, of thick walls, with I liquidate free abdominal, highly suggestive of ovarian torsion although the patient didn't present square of sharp abdomen. It decides to suspend analgesic and to value it, presented sharp abdominal pain, reason why laparotomy was practiced, finding mass of 6 x 6 cms. of necrotic aspect, corresponding to the left ovary, which presented three turns on their axis. It is taken finish left salpingooferectomy

  9. Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Roy, Pascal; Colombat, Philippe; White, Josephine; Armitage, Jim O.; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Au, Wing Y.; Bellei, Monica; Brice, Pauline; Caballero, Dolores; Coiffier, Bertrand; Conde-Garcia, Eulogio; Doyen, Chantal; Federico, Massimo; Fisher, Richard I.; Garcia-Conde, Javier F.; Guglielmi, Cesare; Hagenbeek, Anton; Haïoun, Corinne; LeBlanc, Michael; Lister, Andrew T.; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; McLaughlin, Peter; Milpied, Noël; Morel, Pierre; Mounier, Nicolas; Proctor, Stephen J.; Rohatiner, Ama; Smith, Paul; Soubeyran, Pierre; Tilly, Hervé; Vitolo, Umberto; Zinzani, Pier-Luigi; Zucca, Emanuele; Montserrat, Emili

    2004-01-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evaluating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were collected from 4167 patients with FL diagnosed between 1985 and 1992.

  10. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  11. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  12. Ovarian Stem Cell Niche and Follicular Renewal in Mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 8 (2011), s. 1284-1306 ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : ovary * stem cell niche * neo-oogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2011

  13. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  14. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  15. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2017-07-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.

  16. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neme Leandro G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  17. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  18. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  19. Decreased levels of sRAGE in follicular fluid from patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BiJun; Li, Jing; Yang, QingLing; Zhang, FuLi; Hao, MengMeng; Guo, YiHong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels in follicular fluid and the number of oocytes retrieved and to evaluate the effect of sRAGE on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. In part one, sRAGE and VEGF protein levels in follicular fluid samples from 39 patients with PCOS and 35 non-PCOS patients were measured by ELISA. In part two, ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from an additional 10 patients with PCOS and cultured. VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as pAKT levels, were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting after cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of sRAGE. Compared with the non-PCOS patients, patients with PCOS had lower sRAGE levels in follicular fluid. Multi-adjusted regression analysis showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose, more oocytes retrieved, and a better IVF outcome in the non-PCOS group. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher sRAGE levels predicted favorably IVF outcomes in the non-PCOS group. Multi-adjusted regression analysis also showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose in the PCOS group. Treating granulosa cells isolated from patients with PCOS with recombinant sRAGE decreased VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein expression and pAKT levels in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Successful ovarian autotransplant with no vascular reanastomosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio S V; de Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Alves, Felipe M T; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2008-12-15

    Preservation of ovarian functions in woman with premature ovarian failure remains an issue in reproductive medicine. Hormone replacement therapy for maintaining endocrine functions, and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes for those who wish pregnancy, are some of the choices. However, ovarian transplantation is a more physiological alternative, although problems related to ovarian ischemia have been reported. Herein, we investigated the viability of autologous transplantation of the ovarian tissue into the rat peritoneum, without vascular reanastomosis. Twenty animals in the study group had both ovaries excised, and each ovary was dissected into two halves. A half of an ovary was autotransplanted to the peritoneal surface, closely located to the left epigastric vessels. This simple procedure does not require surgical vascular reanastomosis while it maintains appropriate follicular growth and therefore should be further considered as an alternative for women undergoing oophorectomy, not only to maintain endocrine functions but also for fertility preservation.

  1. Daily treatment with α-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of α-naphthoflavone (αNF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with αNF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg αNF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of αNF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of αNF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  2. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  3. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Fonseca, Ivan; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Francis, Tabu

    2012-01-01

    50 % of pediatric oncologic pathology corresponds to mass or solid tumors, reaching about 20 % of total abdomen. The tumors that most frequently occur in the abdomen are nephroblastoma or Wilms tumor, Burkitts lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and ovarian germ cell tumors

  5. Ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal, or IP). Radiation therapy is rarely used to treat ovarian ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  7. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  8. Evaluation of follicular synchronization caused by estrogen administration and its reproductive outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10 μg/gBW leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation.

  9. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is a negative regulator of DHT-induced rat preantral follicular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Liu, Jia-yin; Murphy, Bruce D; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member1 (NR4A1), an orphan nuclear receptor, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of thecal cell androgen biosynthesis and paracrine factor insulin-like 3 (INSL3) expression. Androgens are known to play an important regulatory role in ovarian follicle growth. Using a chronically androgenized rat model, a preantral follicle culture model and virus-mediated gene delivery, we examined the role and regulation of NR4A1 in the androgenic control of preantral follicular growth. In the present study, Ki67 staining was increased in preantral follicles on ovarian sections from 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats. Preantral follicles from DHT-treated rats cultured for 4 d exhibited increased growth and up-regulation of mRNA abundance of G(1)/S-specific cyclin-D2 (Ccnd2) and FSH receptor (Fshr). Similarly, DHT (1 μm) increased preantral follicular growth and Ccnd2 and Fshr mRNA abundance in vitro. The NR4A1 expression was high in theca cells and was down-regulated by DHT in vivo and in vitro. Forced expression of NR4A1 augmented preantral follicular growth, androstenedione production, and Insl3 expression in vitro. Inhibiting the action of androgen (with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide) or INSL3 (with INSL3 receptor antagonist INSL3 B-chain) reduced NR4A1-induced preantral follicular growth. Furthermore, NR4A1 overexpression enhanced DHT-induced preantral follicular growth, a response attenuated by inhibiting INSL3. In conclusion, DHT promotes preantral follicular growth and attenuates thecal NR4A1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Our findings are consistent with the notion that NR4A1 serves as an important point of negative feedback to minimize the excessive preantral follicle growth in hyperandrogenism.

  10. Serum and follicular anti-Mullerian hormone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS under metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falbo Angela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data regarding metformin effects on follicular fluid anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels were to date available in literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS whether metformin administration affects serum and follicular AMH levels, and whether this is related to ovarian response to the treatment. Methods Twenty young patients with PCOS who had received metformin were enrolled. Ten patients were anovulatory (Met-anov group, whereas the other 10 were ovulatory (Met-ov group but had failed to conceive. Further untreated PCOS (PCOS controls, n. 10 and healthy controls (non-PCOS controls, n. 10 who were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. In each subjects, clinical and biochemical evaluations were performed. AMH concentrations in blood and antral follicular fluid were assayed. Results In both Met-anov and Met-ov groups, and without difference between them, serum androgens and AMH, and indices of insulin resistance were significantly (p p Conclusions Metformin administration in patients with PCOS exerts a differential action on the ovarian AMH levels on the basis of ovulatory response. Changes in AMH levels in antral follicular fluid during metformin treatment could be involved in the local mechanisms mediating the ovulatory restoration.

  11. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  13. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Manning, David A.; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Krausert, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between bcl-2, bax, beclin-1, and cathepsin-D proteins during postovulatory follicular regression in fish ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Roberto D V S; Thomé, Ralph G; Santos, Hélio B; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-04-01

    In fish ovaries, postovulatory follicles (POFs) are key biomarkers of breeding and provide an interesting model for studying the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of autophagic and apoptotic proteins to improve the knowledge on the mechanisms regulating ovarian remodeling after spawning. Females from three neotropical fish species kept in captivity were submitted to hormonal induction. After ova stripping, ovarian sections were sampled daily until 5 days postspawning (dps). Similar events of POF regression were detected by histology, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and electron microscopy in the three species: follicular cells hypertrophy, progressive disintegration of the basement membrane, gradual closing of the follicular lumen, theca thickening, and formation of large autophagic vacuoles preceding apoptosis of the follicular cells. Autophagic and apoptotic proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric analysis of the immunolabeling revealed a more intense reaction for bcl-2 and beclin-1 (BECN1) in POFs at 0 to 1 dps and for bax at 2 to 3 dps (P family, BECN1, and cathepsin-D can be involved in the regulation of ovarian remodeling in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovarian toxicity and carcinogenicity in eight recent national toxicology program studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronpot, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    Ovarian toxicity and/or carcinogenicity has been documented for at least eight chemicals recently tested in National Toxicity Program prechronic and chronic rodent studies. The chemicals that yielded treatment-related ovarian lesions were 1,3-butadiene, 4-vinylcyclohexene, vinylcylohexene deipoxide, nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, benzene, ..delta..-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and tricresylphosphate. Typical nonneoplastic ovarian changes included hypoplasia, atrophy, follicular necrosis, and tubular hyperplasia. The most commonly observed treatment-related neoplasms were granulosa cell tumors and benign mixed tumors. A relationship between antecedent ovarian hypoplasia, atrophy, and hyperplasia and subsequent ovarian neoplasia is supported by some of these National Toxicology Program studies. Pathologic changes in other tissues such as the adrenal glands and uterus were associated with the treatment-related ovarian changes.

  17. Follicular dynamics around the recruitment of the first follicular wave in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Gadella, B.M.; Vos, P.; Mullaart, E.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the generally accepted view that a follicular wave starts with follicles newly recruited from the population smaller than 3 mm, which later compete for dominance. According to this view, subordinate follicles are expected to be too atretic to join the next follicular

  18. Superovulatory Ovarian Response in Mangalica Gilts is Not Influenced by Feeding Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egerszegi, I.; Hazeleger, W.; Rátky, J.; Sarlós, P.; Kemp, B.; Bouwman, E.; Solti, L.; Brüssow, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare how different feeding levels affect the ovarian potential of follicular development and oocyte maturation in response to superovulatory treatment in native Mangalica (M, n = 17) compared with Landrace (L, n = 20) pigs. Gilts of both breeds were fed high-energy

  19. Effect of different hormonal combinations on follicular wave emergence and superovulatory response in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; da Rosa, Rômulo Mendonça; Balaro, Mário Felipe Alvarez; Pinto, Pedro Henrique Nicolau; Dos Santos, Gustavo Bervian; Arashiro, Eduardo Kenji Nunes; da Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2017-11-01

    associated) follicular wave emergence was less synchronized. The SOV protocol proposed had a similar ovarian response; however, it resulted in less transferable embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  1. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A Marker of Ovarian Reserve and its Association with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil Kumar; Rajbhar, Sarita; Mishra, Jyoti; Gupta, Mayank; Sharma, Mratunjai; Deshmukh, Geeta; Ali, Wahid

    2016-12-01

    Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a useful endocrine marker for assessing the ovarian reserve. AMH serum level reflects the number of follicles that have made the transition from the primordial pool into the growing follicle pool, and it is not controlled by gonadotropins. The present study was conducted to correlate serum AMH levels with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and type of treatment protocol. Serum AMH levels were performed in the early follicular phase (on 2 nd day of menstrual cycle) both in infertile females including PCOS and control women. The results were analyzed in relation to age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ovarian volume, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels, Antral Follicle Count (AFC), type of treatment protocols and also in association with PCOS patients. The serum levels of AMH were measured in all the participants on 2 nd day of menstrual cycle using ultra sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The plasma AMH levels were significantly higher in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The significant association was seen between FSH and AFC with AMH. However, no significant association was observed between AMH levels with age, BMI, ovarian volume and type of treatment protocols. The serum AMH measurement was significantly higher in PCOS patients. No association with type of treatment protocol was obtained.

  2. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  3. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation increases the number of mature oocytes in older women with severe diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtian, Justin; Zhang, John

    2018-03-22

    In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included. Women underwent ovarian stimulation in FPS using clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotropins followed by oocyte retrieval. The next day following oocyte retrieval, women underwent a second ovarian stimulation (LPS) using the same medications followed by a second oocyte retrieval. T-test was performed in order to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome in the same participant between FPS and LPS. Although antral follicle count at the start of FPS tended to be higher than at the start of the LPS cycle, there was no statistically significant difference between the duration of ovarian stimulation, peak estradiol levels, number of small (FPS alone. The addition of LPS to the conventional FPS increases the number of mature oocytes retrieved in the same IVF cycle, thus potentially increasing the chances of pregnancy in older women with severe DOR. AFC: antral follicle count; BMI: body mass index; DOR: diminished ovarian reserve; E2: estradiol; FPS: follicular-phase stimulation; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LPS: luteal-phase stimulation; MII: metaphase II.

  4. Recovery of ovarian function after postradiation menopause. Do FSH levels have a definitive prognostic value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letur-Konirsch, H.; Guis, F.

    1996-01-01

    Menopause, conventionally defined as the permanent cessation as a result of loss of ovarian follicular activity, is biologically expressed by the collapse of plasma levels and increased plasma levels of the gonadotrophins FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). At present, estimation of the ovarian follicle reserve is based on endocrine capacity tests of the ovaries, with increased FSH representing the first sign of exocrine ovarian failure. We report the case of one of our amenorrhoeic patients after chemotherapy, total body radiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute immuno-blastic leukaemia. This patient was included in an in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) programme for iatrogenic premature ovarian failure with increased FSH levels. Instead of high levels of gonadotrophins, this young woman recovered spontaneous follicular developments, benefited from standard IVF with her own oocytes and brought a twin pregnancy to term. This observation shows that a high FSH level is not a definitive prediction of ovarian exocrine capacity. In young women of child-bearing age such as these wanting a child and showing signs of endogenous estrogen impregnation, evaluation of the existence and quality of follicular development is an important factor. (author)

  5. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  6. Impact of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy ovarian drilling on ovarian stromal blood flow and ovarian volume in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Morra, Ilaria; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Pellicano, Massimiliano; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in gynecology. In PCOS patients vascularization parameters are altered. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) is a mini-invasive approach for ovarian drilling in PCOS patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of ovarian drilling using THL on ovarian volume (OV) and vascularization index (VI) using 3D power Doppler ultrasonography in CC-resistant PCOS patients. A case-control study on 123 CC-resistant PCOS women who underwent THL ovarian drilling was performed. Patients underwent 3D ultrasound and power Doppler to measure VI, flow index (FI), vascularization flow index (VFI) and to evaluate OV before and after the procedure, at six months, and on the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After THL ovarian drilling, OV and power Doppler flow indices were significantly reduced compared to pre-operative values (OV: 7.85 versus 11.72 cm 3 , p drilling seems to reduce OV and 3D power Doppler indices, and could therefore be a viable alternative to LOD in PCOS patients resistant to medical therapy.

  7. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Expression of thymidine 459 phosphorylase in epithelial ovarian cancer: correlation with angiogenesis, apoptosis , and 460 ultrasound-derived peak...trafficking, activation of S1P1 can promote or inhibit apoptosis of 41 immune cells depending on the balance of cytokines [7]. Knockout of S1P1 (LP(B1...EDG-1) in 42 mice is embryologically lethal [8]. S1P1 also has a role in inflammatory disease such as graft 43 versus host disease and multiple

  8. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peroxidação lipídica e vitamina E no soro e no fluido folicular de mulheres inférteis com endometriose submetidas à estimulação ovariana controlada Lipid peroxidation and vitamin E in serum and follicular fluid of infertile women with endometriosis submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Campos Petean

    2007-06-01

    pacientes com endometriose, cujo consumo poderia estar contribuindo para a manutenção de níveis séricos de MDA similares ao Grupo Controle. Depois da indução da ovulação com gonadotrofinas exógenas, o grupo de pacientes com endometriose apresentou não somente aumento nos níveis séricos de MDA, mas também manteve status antioxidante inferior ao Grupo Controle. Contudo, no dia da captação oocitária, ambos os níveis séricos de MDA e de vitamina E foram semelhantes nos dois grupos.PURPOSE: to assess the level of lipid peroxidation (LP and vitamin E in the follicular fluid and serum of infertile patients, with or without endometriosis, submitted to induction of ovulation for assisted reproduction procedures. METHODS: infertile patients aged 20 to 38 years old were selected prospectively and consecutively and divided into Endometriosis Group (17 patients with pelvic endometriosis and Control Group (19 patients with previous tubal ligation or with male factor. Blood samples were collected on: D1 (before the beginning of the use of gonadotrophins, D2 (day of human chorionic gonadotrofin application and D3 (day of oocyte retrieval. On D3, follicular fluid samples free from blood contamination were also collected and stored. LP was assessed for malondialdehyde (MDA quantification by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant status by measurement of vitamin E by HLPC. RESULTS: on D1, no significant difference in LP was observed between groups. However, vitamin E levels were significantly higher in the Control Group. On D2, LP levels were significantly higher in the Endometriosis Group compared to Control and vitamin E levels continued to be significantly higher in the Control Group. On D3, there was no significant difference in both serum and follicular fluid levels of LP or vitamin E between groups. However, on D3, vitamin E levels were found to be significantly higher in serum than in follicular fluid in both groups, whereas MDA levels were significantly lower in

  10. Dopamine in human follicular fluid is associated with cellular uptake and metabolism-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in granulosa cells: implications for physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, S; Kunz, L; Berg, D; Berg, U; Lara, H; Urra, J; Hecht, S; Pavlik, R; Thaler, C J; Mayerhofer, A

    2014-03-01

    Is the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the human ovary involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)? Human ovarian follicular fluid contains DA, which causes the generation of ROS in cultured human granulosa cells (GCs), and alterations of DA levels in follicular fluid and DA uptake/metabolism in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are linked to increased levels of ROS. DA is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, and the metabolism of DA results in the generation of ROS. DA was detected in human ovarian homogenates, but whether it is present in follicular fluid and plays a role in the follicle is not known. We used human follicular fluid from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), GCs from patients with or without PCOS and also employed mathematical modeling to investigate the presence of DA and its effects on ROS. DA in follicular fluid and GCs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GC viability, apoptosis and generation of ROS were monitored in GCs upon addition of DA. Inhibitors of DA uptake and metabolism, an antioxidant and DA receptor agonists, were used to study cellular uptake and the mechanism of DA-induced ROS generation. Human GCs were examined for the presence and abundance of transcripts of the DA transporter (DAT; SLC6A3), the DA-metabolizing enzymes monoamine oxidases A/B (MAO-A/B) and catechol-O-methyltransferase and the vesicular monoamine transporter. A computational model was developed to describe and predict DA-induced ROS generation in human GCs. We found DA in follicular fluid of ovulatory follicles of the human ovary and in GCs. DAT and MAO-A/B, which are expressed by GCs, are prerequisites for a DA receptor-independent generation of ROS in GCs. Blockers of DAT and MAO-A/B, as well as an antioxidant, prevented the generation of ROS (P human follicular compartment, functions of DA could only be studied in IVF-derived GCs, which can be viewed as a cellular model for the

  11. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  12. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovarian maldescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, Carmen; Tardaguila, Francisco; Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Martinez, Concepcion; Chavarri, Elena; Rivas, Isabel [Departments of Radiology and Gynecology, Povisa Medical Center, Salamanca St. 5, 36211, Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    Undescended ovary is a rare disorder that can be associated with muellerian malformations. There is an unclear association with infertility and malignant disease. When an ovary is not in its normal location, it is sought in other locations above the pelvic brim. This is important in cases of undetermined cyclical abdominal pain, follicle aspiration and surgical castration. MRI has proven to be the best imaging method for finding an ovary in an anomalous position and for disregarding associated malformations. We report two patients with unilateral ovarian maldescent, one of them with Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome. A review of the literature is included. (orig.)

  14. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number ...

  15. A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF: a multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M A; van Wely, M; Al-Inany, H; Madani, T; Jahangiri, N; Khodabakhshi, S; Alhalabi, M; Akhondi, M; Ansaripour, S; Tokhmechy, R; Zarandi, L; Rizk, A; El-Mohamedy, M; Shaeer, E; Khattab, M; Mochtar, M H; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    In subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF does a mild ovarian stimulation strategy lead to comparable ongoing pregnancy rates in comparison to a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy? A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates as a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Women diagnosed with poor ovarian reserve are treated with a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal start GnRH-agonist protocol. Previous studies comparing a conventional strategy with a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist have been under powered and their effectiveness is inconclusive. This open label multicenter randomized trial was designed to compare one cycle of a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins (150 IU FSH) and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist to one cycle of a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins (450 IU HMG) and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal GnRH-agonist in women of advanced maternal age and/or women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF between May 2011 and April 2014. Couples seeking infertility treatment were eligible if they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: female age ≥35 years, a raised basal FSH level >10 IU/ml irrespective of age, a low antral follicular count of ≤5 follicles or poor ovarian response or cycle cancellation during a previous IVF cycle irrespective of age. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate per woman randomized. Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. We randomly assigned 195 women to the mild ovarian stimulation strategy and 199 women to the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 12.8% (25/195) for mild

  16. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  17. Connexin 43 Communication Channels in Follicular Dendritic Cell Development and in Follicular Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular dendritic cells (FDC show homo- and heterocellular metabolic coupling through connexin 43 (Cx43 gap junctions and support B cell selection and maturation in germinal centers. In follicular lymphomas B cells escape apoptosis while FDC develop abnormally. Here we tested Cx43 channels in reactive FDC development and follicular lymphomas. In culture, the treatment of FDC-B cell clusters (resembling to “ex vivo” germinal centers with Gap27 peptide, mimicking the 2nd extracellular loop of Cx43 protein, significantly impaired FDC-B cell cluster formation and cell survival. In untreated cultures of intact clusters, cell proliferation showed a moderate reduction. In tissues, Cx43 protein levels run parallel with the density of FDC both in reactive germinal centers and in malformed follicles of follicular lymphomas and showed strong upregulation in newly generated and/or degrading bi-/multinuclear FDC of rudimentary processes. However, the inverse correlation between Cx43 expression and B cell proliferation seen in reactive germinal centers was not detected in follicular lymphomas. Furthermore, Cx43 levels were not associated with either lymphoma grade or bone marrow involvement. Our results suggest that Cx43 channels are critical in FDC and “ex vivo” germinal center development and in the persistence of FDC in follicular lymphomas but do not affect tumor progression.

  18. Natural history of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency in patients with Addison's disease: from normal ovarian function to overt ovarian dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Annamaria; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Falorni, Alberto; Aitella, Ernesto; Barrasso, Mariluce; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bizzarro, Elio; Bellastella, Antonio; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    Women with autoimmune Addison's disease with normal ovulatory cycles but positive for steroid cell antibodies (StCA) have been considered at risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Thirty-three women younger than 40 years, with subclinical-clinical autoimmune Addison's disease but with normally ovulatory menses, were followed up for 10 years to evaluate the long-term time-related variations of StCA, ovarian function and follicular reserve. All patients and 27 control women were investigated at the start and every year for the presence and titre of StCA (by indirect immunofluorescence), serum concentrations of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian function at four consecutive menses every year. At the start of the study StCA were present in 16 women (group 1), at low/middle titres (≤1:32) in seven of them (43.8%, group 1A), at high titres (>1:32) in the remaining nine patients (group 1B, 56.2%), while they were absent from 17 patients (group 2). During the follow-up period, all women in group 1A remained StCA-positive at low/middle titres with normal ovulatory menses and normal gonadotrophin and AMH levels, while all patients in group 1B showed a further increase of StCA titres (1:128-1:256) and progressed through three stages of ovarian function. None of the patients in group 2 and controls showed the appearance of StCA or ovarian dysfunction during the follow-up. The presence of StCA at high titres can be considered a good predictive marker of subsequent development of autoimmune POI. To single out the stages of autoimmune POI may allow a timely therapeutic choice in the subclinical and early clinical stages. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Seasonal variations in sexual activity and endocrine changes associated with follicular maturation and development in the Peulh ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenikoye, A.

    1988-01-01

    Annual variations in sexual activity (oestrus and ovulation) and in the endocrine balances which govern follicular maturation and ovulation (the ovarian hormones progesterone and oestradiol-17β, and the pituitary hormones FSH, LH and PRL) were studied in the Peulh ewes of Niger. It was found that two types of disturbances in ovarian function limited the fertility of ewes in semi-arid environment: (a) persistent corpora lutea which occurred in 14% of animals and affected 2.2% of oestrous cycles in the course of the year. Their appearance coincided with increasing humidity (in June and July) or daily temperature (December to April); and (b) seasonal anoestrus, observed in 67% of animals from December to April, and coinciding with maximum daily temperatures. These ovarian anomalies were associated with a weak endogenous rhythm of LH secretion without any change in feedback from the ovarian steroids progesterone and oestradiol-17β on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A study of seasonal variations in levels of the gonadotrophic hormones indicated that there may be a weaker than usual dependence between the ovary and the pituitary during periods of anomalous sexual activity in Peulh ewes. The results presented suggest that both types of ovarian dysfunction observed in certain Peulh ewes may reflect poorer adaptation to the semi-arid climate. (author). 54 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  20. The role of mTOR in ovarian cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Wu, Dai-Chao; Qu, Li-Hua; Liao, Hong-Qing; Li, Mei-Xiang

    2018-05-12

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a serine-threonine protein kinase downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT axis. The pathway can regulate cell growth, proliferation, and survival by activating ribosomal kinases. Recent studies have implicated the mTOR signaling pathway in ovarian neoplasms, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF). Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in the control of various ovarian functions. mTOR allows cancer cells to escape the normal biochemical system and regulates the balance between apoptosis and survival. Some recent studies have suggested that involvement of the mTOR signaling system is an important pathophysiological basis of PCOS. Overexpression of the mTOR pathway can impair the interaction of cumulus cells, lead to insulin resistance, and affect the growth of follicles directly. The roles of mTOR signaling in follicular development have been extensively studied in recent years; abnormalities in this process lead to a series of pathologies such as POF and infertility. To improve understanding of the role of the mTOR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis and development of ovarian diseases, here we review the roles of mTOR signaling in such diseases and discuss the corresponding therapeutic strategies that target this pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Is the stripping technique a tissue-sparing procedure in large simple ovarian cysts in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Francesco; Romeo, Carmelo; Castagnetti, Marco; Scalfari, GianFranco; Cimador, Marcello; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Villari, Daniela; Zimbaro, Fabrizio; DeGrazia, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    Stripping of the cystic wall is performed by gynecologists to treat large ovarian cysts. Information in the pediatric population is poor. We prospectively evaluated the pathologic specimens of large ovarian cyst to determine whether the stripping technique is a tissue-sparing procedure even in this age. We evaluated 5 patients. Samples were taken from the intermediate part of the cystic wall and from the layer covering the cyst during excision. The presence of ovarian tissue adjacent to the cyst wall, and the morphological features of the surrounding tissue were both evaluated. Pelvic ultrasound follow-up was also performed. Patients' mean age was 4.5 years (7 days to 12 years). All cysts were removed because all were symptomatic. The mean diameter was 86.6 mm (74-100 mm). Cysts were follicular in 2 cases, serous in other two, and endometriotic in 1 case. Adjacent ovarian tissue was present in 1 of 5 specimens and was approximately 1 to 2 mm in thickness. The layer adjacent to the cystic wall always appeared as normal ovarian tissue. Ultrasound scans at follow-up revealed presence of ovarian tissue. The stripping procedure for large ovarian cyst excision allows to spare the adjacent normal ovarian tissue even in pediatric age because ovarian tissue is rarely excised with the cyst wall during the procedure.

  2. Ovarian ageing: the role of mitochondria in oocytes and follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Panloup, Pascale; Boucret, Lisa; Chao de la Barca, Juan-Manuel; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré-L'Hotellier, Véronique; Morinière, Catherine; Descamps, Philippe; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures. Ovarian ageing is characterized by quantitative and qualitative alteration of the ovarian oocyte reserve. Mitochondria play a central role in follicular atresia and could be the main target of the ooplasmic factors determining oocyte quality adversely affected by ageing. Indeed, the oocyte is the richest cell of the body in mitochondria and depends largely on these organelles to acquire competence for fertilization and early embryonic development. Moreover, the oocyte ensures the uniparental transmission and stability of the mitochondrial genome across the generations. This review focuses on the role played by mitochondria in ovarian ageing and on the possible consequences over the generations. PubMed was used to search the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed original articles and reviews concerning mitochondria and ovarian ageing, in animal and human species. Searches were performed using keywords belonging to three groups: 'mitochondria' or 'mitochondrial DNA'; 'ovarian reserve', 'oocyte', 'ovary' or 'cumulus cells'; and 'ageing' or 'ovarian ageing'. These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. References from these articles were used to obtain additional articles. There is a close relationship, in mammalian models and humans, between mitochondria and the decline of oocyte quality with ageing. Qualitatively, ageing-related mitochondrial (mt) DNA instability, which leads to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the oocyte, plays a key role in

  3. Chemoprotection of ovarian follicles of mice against gamma irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Uma Devi, P.

    1982-01-01

    Adult virgin female Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 2.5, 5 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation in the presence and absence of the drug MPG and changes in the ovarian follicular population were scored at various post irradiation intervals of 3 hours to 14 days. The results indicate that the drug has partially prevented the rapid reduction in the follicular number. Primordial follicles are protected to a greater extent than the growing and large follicles. The difference between the number of follicles of drug treated and non-drug treated animals is greater at low dose group. (author)

  4. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  5. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Choi, Mi

    2002-01-01

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  6. Primary ovarian leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Marian; Krolikowski, Anderzj; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Nirmala, Vadakkepat

    2005-01-01

    Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare and incidentally detected neoplasm, clinically indistinguishable from subserous leiomyomas and ovarian fibromas, until histopathological confirmation. We present a case of leiomyoma arising primarily from the ovary in a 35 year old woman. (author)

  7. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  8. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-10-25

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients.

  9. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  10. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao, E-mail: zcwang@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  11. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 19/01/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pediatric -Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis 6. AUTHOR(S...lymphoma is common in older adults but rare in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatric follicular lymphoma comprises a only 6.5% of childhood... Pediatric follicular lymphoma is defined by a localized high grade appearing lymphoma that lacks these gene rearrangements. Other diagnoses to rule out

  12. Alginate: A Versatile Biomaterial to Encapsulate Isolated Ovarian Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Julie; Amorim, Christiani A

    2017-07-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian follicles isolated or enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments and grafting of isolated ovarian follicles represent a potential alternative to restore fertility in cancer patients who cannot undergo cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes or transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In this regard, respecting the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of isolated follicles is crucial to maintaining their proper follicular physiology. To this end, alginate hydrogel has been widely investigated using follicles from numerous animal species, yielding promising results. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an overview of alginate applications utilizing the biomaterial as a scaffold for 3D encapsulation of isolated ovarian follicles. Different methods of isolated follicle encapsulation in alginate are discussed in this review, as its use of 3D alginate culture systems as a tool for in vitro follicle analysis. Possible improvements of this matrix, namely modification with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide or combination with fibrin, are also summarized. Encouraging results have been obtained in different animal models, and particularly with isolated follicles encapsulated in alginate matrices and grafted to mice. This summary is designed to guide the reader towards development of next-generation alginate scaffolds, with enhanced properties for follicle encapsulation.

  13. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma as the Basis for Immunologic Directed Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Co[ýVr/ lgbt t A eic , n Sc t 1t’.jar lni ttItrtii, I’alogy Review Ovarian Tumorigenesis A Proposed Model Based on Morphological and Molecular...surface epithelium. We tested muliplex detection of antibodies to candidate ovarian TAAs and statistical modeling for discrimination of sera of ovarian...cancer patients and controls. The best model generated an AUC of 0.86 (0.78-0.90) for discrimination of sera of EOC patients and healthy patients using

  14. Does the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinoma recapitulate the follicular connective tissue sheath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellheyer, Klaus; Krahl, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    There are compelling embryologic and anatomic relationships within adnexal tumors. However, these are mostly perceived within the epithelial component while the stromal component of the tumors is frequently overlooked. In postnatal skin, nestin is almost exclusively expressed in the perifollicular mesenchyme. This study examines the expression of this neuroepithelial stem cell protein in trichoblastoma/trichoepithelioma and in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which is increasingly being viewed as follicular in nature. We employed standard immunohistochemical methods with three different antibodies to examine the expression of nestin in 25 BCCs and compared the staining pattern with that of 7 trichoblastomas and 11 trichoepitheliomas. Nestin is expressed in the peritumoral stroma of all tumors examined and is limited to the immediate layer of mesenchymal cells surrounding the tumor epithelium. In BCC, nestin-immunoreactive cells are found as a sheath of thin, spindled fibroblasts, while reactive cells are plump in trichoepitheliomas/trichoblastomas. We postulate that the peritumoral stroma of BCC imitates the perifollicular connective tissue sheath, while in contrast that of trichoepithelioma/trichoblastoma is similar to the papillary and immediate peripapillary follicular mesenchyme. Further functional and animal experimental studies are needed to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Induced by Fanconi Anemia E Mutation in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Overbeek, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    In most cases of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), the cause of the depletion of ovarian follicles is unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play important roles in follicular development. Using random insertional mutagenesis with a lentiviral transgene, we identified a family with reduced fertility in the homozygous transgenic mice. We identified the integration site and found that the lentivirus had integrated into intron 8 of the Fanconi E gene (Fance). By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we found that Fance transcript levels were significantly reduced. The Fance homozygous mutant mice were assayed for changes in ovarian development, follicle numbers and estrous cycle. Ovarian dysplasias and a severe lack of follicles were seen in the mutant mice. In addition, the estrous cycle was disrupted in adult females. Our results suggest that POI has been induced by the Fance mutation in this new mouse model.

  16. Individualized controlled ovarian stimulation in expected poor-responders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Thor; Esteves, Sandro C; Humaidan, Peter

    2018-03-09

    Controlled ovarian stimulation with subsequent multi-follicular development continues to be a keystone in ART. Evidence supports an individualized approach to ovarian stimulation, usually involving combinations of ovarian reserve tests, body mass index and age to tailor the exogenous gonadotropin dose, and potentially adjuvant treatment aiming for high safety and a shortening of time to live birth. While stimulation and trigger concepts have been developed successfully in normo- and hyperresponder patients, the poor responder patient remains difficult to manage. However, recent advances in definition and classification of the expected poor ovarian responder patient might enable a more accurate and clinically useful interpretation of new treatment concepts in a more homogenous study population. In the present review, we discuss the classification of the expected poor ovarian responder patient as well as clinically useful measurements of efficacy for controlled ovarian stimulation, and finally, we discuss the evidence for clinical management of patients with expected poor ovarian response, including adjuvant treatments such as growth hormone, androgens, and LH activity.In conclusion, the best available evidence supports that the treatment of the expected poor ovarian response patient should be individualized in all steps of ART, including the choice of GnRH analogue, the gonadotropin type and dose, ovulation trigger, and the possible use of adjuvant therapies.

  17. Acupuncture for polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Hyangsook

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This systematic review aimed at summarizing and evaluating the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), specifically focusing on ovulation rate, menstrual rate, and related hormones. Methods: Fifteen databases were searched electronically through February 2016. Our review included RCTs of women with PCOS; these RCTs compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, medication, or no treatment. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Data were pooled and expressed as mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. Results: We found a low level of evidence that acupuncture is more likely to improve ovulation rate (MD 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14–0.56) and menstruation rate (MD 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32–0.68) compared with no acupuncture. We found statistically significant pooled benefits of acupuncture treatment as an adjunct to medication in luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, testosterone, fasting insulin, and pregnancy rates, but the level of evidence was low/very low. Conclusion: There is limited evidence to judge the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on key reproductive outcomes in women with PCOS. Large-scale, long-term RCTs with rigorous methodological input are needed. PMID:28591042

  18. Influence of follicular fluid and cumulus cells on oocyte quality: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Broi, M G; Giorgi, V S I; Wang, F; Keefe, D L; Albertini, D; Navarro, P A

    2018-03-02

    An equilibrium needs to be established by the cellular and acellular components of the ovarian follicle if developmental competence is to be acquired by the oocyte. Both cumulus cells (CCs) and follicular fluid (FF) are critical determinants for oocyte quality. Understanding how CCs and FF influence oocyte quality in the presence of deleterious systemic or pelvic conditions may impact clinical decisions in the course of managing infertility. Given that the functional integrities of FF and CCs are susceptible to concurrent pathological conditions, it is important to understand how pathophysiological factors influence natural fertility and the outcomes of pregnancy arising from the use of assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs). Accordingly, this review discusses the roles of CCs and FF in ensuring oocyte competence and present new insights on pathological conditions that may interfere with oocyte quality by altering the intrafollicular environment.

  19. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  20. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients' BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001). The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03) and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02). MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  1. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  2. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E

    2016-07-21

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility.

  3. IMP3 expression in human ovarian cancer is associated with improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noske, Aurelia; Faggad, Areeg; Wirtz, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein IMP3 plays an important role in embryogenesis and recent reports suggest an involvement in tumorigenesis. Although IMP3 expression has been well studied in mouse and human fetal and adult gonads, its role in ovarian cancer is unknown. We...... investigated the expression of IMP3 at protein and mRNA levels in a cohort of primary ovarian carcinomas and in 11 ovarian cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed an expression of IMP3 in all ovarian cancer cell lines and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic staining in 32 of 68...... carcinomas (47%). In contrast, epithelium of borderline tumors, as well as, benign ovarian lesions and normal ovaries exhibited only weak or no IMP3 expression. In univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, IMP3 protein expression was significantly associated with better overall survival (P=0.048). To confirm...

  4. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  5. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  6. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  7. Prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Ferri, Belén; Martínez-Barba, Enrique; Torregrosa, Núria M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Most prognostic studies in differentiated carcinoma have included a high number of papillary carcinomas and few follicular carcinomas, and not all of their conclusions therefore apply to the latter. To analyze the prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma who had undergone potentially curative surgery, had no disseminated disease at diagnosis, and had been followed up for at least 5 years. Tumor recurrence was defined as: 1) tumor lesions with cytological analysis suggesting malignancy and/or 2) patients with total thyroidectomy with thyroglobulin levels >2 ng/mL. Clinical, therapeutic, and histological parameters were analyzed to assess prognostic factors. Recurrence was found in 25 (38%) of the 66 study patients during a follow-up period of 99 ± 38 months. Most patients with recurrence (n=20) had increased Tg levels without anatomical location, and were initially treated with radioactive I131. In the remaining 5 cases, surgical excision of the lesion was performed, and three patients required surgery during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to the disease (3%), and two other patients (3%) currently have distant metastases. Mean disease-free interval was 154 ± 14 months, and rates of disease-free patients at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 71, 58, 58, and 58% respectively. Clinical factors influencing recurrence included 1) age (p=0.0035); 2) sex (p=0.0114); and 3) cervical pain (p=0.0026). Histological/surgical factors associated with recurrence included 1) infiltration into neighboring structures (p=0.0000); 2) type of carcinoma (p=0.0000); 3) size (p=0.0162); 4) vascular invasion (p=0.0085); and 5) adenopathies (p=0.046). In the multivariate study, cervical pain (p=0.018) and extrathyroid invasion (p=0.045) continued to be significant factors. In follicular carcinoma, rates of disease-free patients are 71% at 5 years and 58% at 10 years, and the main predictive factors are presence

  8. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  9. Hormonal Changes After Laparoscopic Ovarian Diathermy in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Elsayed A; Elwan, Youssef Abo; Ibrahim, Safaa A; Abdalla, Mena M

    2016-10-01

    To assess the changes in hormonal profile (serum FSH, LH, prolactin and total testosterone) following laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Fifty patients with PCOS have been included in this study. Serum prolactin, total testosterone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels have been used as biochemical markers, before and after procedures. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling was successfully employed without any surgical complications and on an average follow-up time of 24 weeks after the procedure. During the follow-up serum values for prolactin, total testosterone and LH have decreased significantly and FSH levels remained unchanged after the procedure. The LOD in patients with PCOS may avoid or reduce the risk of OHSS and the multiple pregnancy rate induced by gonadotropin therapy. The high pregnancy rate and the economic aspect of the procedure offer an attractive management for patients with PCOS. However, LOD can be considered as second-line treatment after clomiphene citrate treatment failure and/or resistance.

  10. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Candidate Tumor-Suppressor Gene DLEC1 Is Frequently Downregulated by Promoter Hypermethylation and Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of ovarian tumor growth by chromosome 3p was demonstrated in a previous study. Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1 on 3p22.3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in lung, esophageal, and renal cancers. The potential involvement of DLEC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer remains unknown. In the present study, DLEC1 downregulation was found in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors. Focus-expressed DLEC1 in two ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in 41% to 52% inhibition of colony formation. No chromosomal loss of chromosome 3p22.3 in any ovarian cancer cell line or tissue was found. Promoter hypermethylation of DLEC1 was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines with reduced DLEC1 transcripts, whereas methylation was not detected in normal ovarian epithelium and DLEC1-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with demethylating agent enhanced DLEC1 expression in 90% (9 of 10 of ovarian cancer cell lines. DLEC1 promoter methylation was examined in 13 high-grade ovarian tumor tissues with DLEC1 downregulation, in which 54% of the tumors showed DLEC1 methylation. In addition, 80% of ovarian cancer cell lines significantly upregulated DLEC1 transcripts after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Therefore, our results suggested that DLEC1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells and that its downregulation was closely associated with promoter hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

  12. [A transportation vehicle for laparoscopically obtained follicular specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, F R; Sudik, R

    1984-01-01

    Structure, function and first results with a vehicle for transportation were described. This apparatus allows to store laparoscopic harvested follicular fluids for a while in constant temperature and in air condition with 5% CO2 in compressed air. Simultaneously the follicular fluids were transported in this vehicle from operating theatre to the laboratory.

  13. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top......-quality embryos after IVF/ICSI....

  14. Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rible, Radhika D; Taylor, DeShawn; Wilson, Melissa L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mishell, Daniel R

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per COC cycle. This study evaluates differences in follicular development during a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval in a COC regimen with 20 mcg EE and 1 mg norethindrone acetate. Forty-one healthy women were randomized in an open-label fashion to this formulation in either a 24/4 or a 21/7 day regimen for three cycles. Estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and inhibin B were measured daily from Cycle 2, Day 21 to Cycle 3, Day 3 and on Day 7 of Cycle 3. Follicular diameter and Hoogland score were calculated on Cycle 2, Days 21, 24 and 28 and Cycle 3, Days 3 and 7. Sixty-six percent of subjects in the 21/7 group and 70% of the subjects in the 24/4 group developed a follicle greater than 10 mm diameter. Ovarian steroid hormone levels, Hoogland scores and bleeding patterns were not statistically significant between the groups. In contrast to prior studies, this analysis suggests no difference in follicle development or bleeding patterns among women receiving a 21/7 or 24/4 regimen of a 20-mcg EE/1-mg norethindrone acetate COC.

  15. Molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D. Yakushina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. In the most cases thyroid cancer arises from follicular cells. Diagnosis of the cancer is based on the cytological analysis of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodes. But the accuracy of the cytological diagnosis is about 80% that leads to the false positive and false negative cases and wrong strategy of treatment. Identification of genetic and epigenetic markers in the biopsies will allow to improve diagnostic accuracy. This article describes mutations, aberrant DNA methylation and abnormal microRNA expression constituting the core of molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid cancer. The mutations given in the article includes point mutations, fusions and copy number variation. Besides frequent and well described driver mutations in genes of МАРK, PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as TP53 and TERT genes, we introduce here less frequent mutations appeared in the literature during the past two years. In addition the article contains examples of diagnostic panels applying these markers.

  16. Relationship between growth hormone concentrations in bovine oocytes and follicular fluid and oocyte developmental competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Modina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several works suggest that Growth Hormone (GH is involved in follicular development and oocyte maturation. These actions may reflect endocrine roles of pituitary GH and also account for local autocrine or paracrine activities of GH produced in reproductive tissue. This study was aimed to verify whether the developmental competence of bovine female gametes might be related to ovarian GH.We evaluated the localisation and distribution of GH in the cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs and the concentration of GH in the oocytes and in the follicular fluids (FF from ovaries classified on the basis of the follicles number. Oocytes retrieved from ovaries with more than 10 follicles of 2 to 5 mm in diameter (High ovaries, Hi show higher rate of maturation and blastocyst formation than those retrieved from ovaries with less than 10 follicles (Low ovaries, Lo. At the same time we measured Estrogen (E2 and Progesterone (P4 concentrations in FF, to relate oocytes quality, GH concentration and follicle health. GH localization in COCs and oocytes was performed by indirect immunofluorescence and its concentration within the ooplasm was evaluated by microspectrophotometer analysis. GH, E2 and P4 concentrations in FF were measured by an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent assay (ELISA.We observed a positive, diffuse signal at cytoplasmic level in most of the cumulus cells, with no differences between COCs collected from Hi and Lo ovaries. On the contrary, GH level was significantly higher in the oocytes collected from Lo ovaries than in those recovered from Hi ovaries. Finally we found that also GH level in the FF was inversely related to the oocytes developmental capability. We suggest that the increase of GH in the oocytes and in the FF derived from Lo ovaries might be interpreted as attempt of the follicular environment to improve ovarian activity and in turn oocytes developmental competence in a autocrineparacrine manner. Moreover, E2, and P4 levels

  17. Minimally Invasive Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in Pediatric Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Alfredo; Diaz, Julio; Messa Oscar; Chinchilla, Sandra; Gomez, Constanza; Restrepo, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare during childhood and adolescence. They have increased recently probably due to a higher frequency radiation over the head, neck and mediastinum. The papillary carcinoma is the most common and true follicular carcinoma is far less common. Follicular thyroid carcinoma is associated with endemic goiter, genetic disorders, and increased TSH levels. Its morphological characteristics are peculiar and have been recently redefined, thus helping the diagnosis. A minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma in 13 years old girl is described, presenting a hypocaptant thyroid nodule in the left lobe lower pole. The fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed a follicular cell lesion suspicious of malignancy. Thyroid lobectomy was performed reporting minimally invasive follicular carcinoma.

  18. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid concentrations of ovarian follicles long after infections had self

  19. Quantitative trait locus analysis of ovarian cysts derived from rete ovarii in MRL/MpJ mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shin-hyo; Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    MRL/MpJ (MRL) is a model mouse for autoimmune diseases that shows dermatitis, vasculitis, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis. In addition to these immune-associated disorders, we found that aged MRL mice develop ovarian cysts originating from the rete ovarii, which is lined by ciliated or nonciliated epithelium and considered remnants of mesonephric tubules. Ovarian cysts, which are reported to have several sources, are associated with female infertility, but information regarding the genetic ...

  20. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  1. Follicular fluid lipid fingerprinting from women with PCOS and hyper response during IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Cataldi, Thaís Regiani; do Vale Teixeira da Costa, Lívia; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Stevanato, Juliana; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Turco, Edson Guimarães Lo

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disorder that leads to lower natural reproductive potential and presents a challenge for assisted reproductive medicine because patients may exhibit immature oocyte retrieval and a higher risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. This study aimed to identify potential lipid biomarkers for women with PCOS and a hyper response to controlled ovarian stimulation. Follicular fluid samples were collected from patients who underwent IVF, including normal responder women who became pregnant (control group, n = 11), women with PCOS and a hyper response to gonadotropins (PCOS group, n = 7) and women with only hyper response to gonadotropins (HR group, n = 7). A lipidomic analysis was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and candidate biomarkers were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry experiment. The lipid profiles indicated particularities related to differences in phosphatidylcholine (PCOS and HR), phosphatidylserine, phosphatydilinositol and phosphatidylglycerol (control), sphingolipids (PCOS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (control and HR). These findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with lipid metabolism in the PCOS-related hyper response, and strongly suggest that these lipids may be useful as biomarkers, leading to the development of more individualized treatment for pregnancy outcome.

  2. Purification and characterization of lutropin receptor from membranes of pig follicular fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarney, T.A.; Sairam, M.R.; Bhargavi, G.N.; Mohapatra, S.K. (Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-04-10

    Membranes derived from free floating granulosa cells in porcine ovarian follicular fluid were used as a starting material for structural characterization of both LH/hCG and FSH receptors. The receptors were highly hormone-specific and showed single classes of high-affinity binding sites. Their molecular weights as determined by affinity cross-linking with their respective {sup 125}I-ligands were similarly 70,000. The membrane-localized receptors could be solubilized with reduced Triton X-100 in the presence of 20% glycerol with good retention of hormone binding activity. The purified receptor exhibited a high specificity for hCG and hLH but not for hFSH bTSH. The purified receptor was iodinated and visualized to be composed of a major protein of M{sub r} 70,000 and other minor proteins of molecular weights ranging from 14,000 to 40,000. Except for the M{sub r} 14,000 protein, all other protein species bound to the concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The data suggest that the ovarian LH/hCG and FSH receptors are structurally similar and consist of a single polypeptide chain, as recently documented for the LH/hCG receptor.

  3. Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Related Genes and Plasticity of Aspirated Follicular Cells Obtained from Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Dzafic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After removal of oocytes for in vitro fertilization, follicular aspirates which are rich in somatic follicular cells are discarded in daily medical practice. However, there is some evidence that less differentiated cells with stem cell characteristics are present among aspirated follicular cells (AFCs. The aim of this study was to culture AFCs in vitro and to analyze their gene expression profile. Using the RT2 Profiler PCR array, we investigated the expression profile of 84 genes related to stemness, mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs, and cell differentiation in AFCs enriched by hypoosmotic protocol from follicular aspirates of infertile women involved in assisted reproduction programme in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and fibroblasts. Altogether the expression of 57 genes was detected in AFCs: 16 genes (OCT4, CD49f, CD106, CD146, CD45, CD54, IL10, IL1B, TNF, VEGF, VWF, HDAC1, MITF, RUNX2, PPARG, and PCAF were upregulated and 20 genes (FGF2, CASP3, CD105, CD13, CD340, CD73, CD90, KDR, PDGFRB, BDNF, COL1A1, IL6, MMP2, NES, NUDT6, BMP6, SMURF2, BMP4, GDF5, and JAG1 were downregulated in AFCs when compared with BM-MSCs. The genes which were upregulated in AFCs were mostly related to MSCs and connected with ovarian function, and differed from those in fibroblasts. The cultured AFCs with predominating granulosa cells were successfully in vitro differentiated into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, and pancreatic-like cells. The upregulation of some MSC-specific genes and in vitro differentiation into other types of cells indicated a subpopulation of AFCs with specific stemness, which was not similar to those of BM-MSCs or fibroblasts.

  4. Anti-Muellerian hormone concentration in bitches with histopathologically diagnosed ovarian tumours and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B; Coelfen, A; Jäger, K; Reese, S; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Aupperle-Lellbach, H

    2018-06-01

    Increased concentrations of Anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH) can indicate a granulosa cell tumour as shown in women, mares and cows. To investigate AMH to differentiate canine granulosa cell tumour from other ovarian pathologies, we evaluated the ovaries of 63 bitches. Blood serum samples were collected before surgery for AMH analysis. Ovaries were submitted for histopathological examination. Fourteen bitches showed normal ovaries. These bitches had AMH values between 0.12 and 0.99 ng/ml. In 20 bitches ovarian cysts i.e., follicular cysts (n = 8), corpora lutea cysts (n = 7), subsurface cysts (n = 5) were diagnosed. These dogs had AMH values of 0.11-2.09 ng/ml. Bitches with small luteinized follicular cysts had slightly higher AMH values than those without ovarian alteration. In 29 cases ovarian neoplasms i.e., granulosa cell tumour (n = 9), epithelial tumours (n = 16), dysgerminomas (n = 3) and one sarcoma were identified. Anti-Muellerian hormone values of bitches with an ovarian neoplasm except granulosa cell tumour ranged from 0.18 to 1.18 ng/ml. The AMH values of bitches with granulosa cell tumour ranged from 1.12 to ≤23 ng/ml and were significantly higher (p < .05) than in all of the other bitches. The cut-off of 0.99 ng/ml gave a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.44% to diagnose granulosa cell tumour. In conclusion, markedly elevated AMH concentrations in bitches are indicative for a granulosa cell tumour. However, negative testing does not rule out the existence of small one. Differentiation of GCT from luteinized follicular cysts may especially be difficult. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Impact of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on plasma chemistry values in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela E; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2018-03-01

    Normative data for plasma chemistry values in pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive age ewes are scant. Availability of data would aid monitoring of ewe health for both research and veterinary medicine. We determined specific plasma chemistry 95% confidence reference intervals (RIs) in non-pregnant and pregnant ewes. Mixed Western-breed ewes were grouped based on phase of ovarian cycle: luteal ( n = 15), follicular ( n = 17), or late-gestation pregnant ( n = 102). Plasma samples were collected for analysis on a commercial biochemical analyzer. For RIs, chemistry panels for the 3 groups of ewes included nutrients and metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and bilirubin), enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and micronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and chloride). Sample chemistry values for glucose and total protein in pregnant ewes were lower than in follicular ewes; cholesterol was lower in pregnant and luteal ewes than in follicular ewes. In addition, total bilirubin in pregnant ewes differed from that in luteal ewes, and that in follicular ewes also differed from luteal ewes. ALP in pregnant ewes was higher than other groups; phosphorus in pregnant ewes was lower than in luteal ewes. Iron was higher in pregnant ewes than in luteal ewes, with iron in luteal ewes lower than in follicular ewes. These data provide clinical RIs comparing pregnant and non-pregnant ewes for use in monitoring ewe health in both human research and veterinary medicine.

  6. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Effects of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Ferreira, Daniela Parreiras; Spyer Prates, Luis Felipe Víctor; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 2-50% of women at reproductive age. Surgery is an option for treatment, but there is no convincing evidence that it promotes a significant improvement in fertility. Also, the removal of ovarian endometrioma might lead to a reduction in the follicular reserve and response to stimulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the ovarian response in assisted reproduction treatment cycles and its pregnancy outcome. A total of 61 women, with primary infertility and previously having undergone ovarian surgery for endometriosis, who had received 74 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, were studied (study group). A further 74 patients with primary infertility who underwent 77 IVF/ICSI cycles within#10; the same period of time, at the same clinic and without previous ovarian surgery or endometriosis were studied as a control group. Patients were matched for age and treatment performed. Patients 35 years with previous ovarian surgery needed more ampoules for ovulation induction (P = 0.017) and had fewer follicles and oocytes than women in the control group (P = 0.001). Duration of folliculogenesis was similar in both groups, as was fertilization rate. A total of 10 patients achieved pregnancy in the study group (34.5%) and 14 (48.3%) in the control group. Although a lower pregnancy rate was observed in patients who had undergone previous ovarian surgery, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.424). In conclusion, ovarian surgery for the treatment of endometriosis reduces the ovarian outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles in women >35 years old, and might also decrease pregnancy rates. Therefore, for infertile patients, non-surgical treatment might be a better option to avoid reduction of the ovarian response.

  8. Ovarian volume and antral follicle count assessed by MRI and transvaginal ultrasonography: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Gull, Berit; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hellström, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonographic measurements of ovarian volume and antral follicle count are of clinical importance as diagnostic features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and as a parameter in estimation of ovarian follicular reserve in infertility care. To compare two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of ovarian volume and antral follicle count, and to assess reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of MRI measurements. Volumes of 172 ovaries in 99 women aged 21-37 years were calculated (length x width x height x 0.523) with conventional 2D TVUS and 2D MRI. Semi-automatic estimates of ovarian volumes were obtained by 3D MRI. Antral follicles were counted manually on 2D MRI and automatically by 3D TVUS (SonoAVC), and stratified according to follicle size. Mean ovarian volume assessed by 2D TVUS (13.1 ± 6.4 mL) was larger than assessed by 2D MRI (9.6 ± 4.1) and 3D MRI (11.4 ± 4.5) (P 0.77. 2D MRI reveals more antral follicles, especially of small size, than 3D TVUS. Ovarian volume estimation by MRI provides smaller volumes than by the reference standard 2D TVUS. Ovarian volume estimation by 3D MRI, allowing independence of non-ellipsoid ovarian shape measurement errors, provides volumes closer to 2D TVUS values than does 2D MRI. Reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of 2D MRI measurements of ovarian volume and total follicle count are good.

  9. Hyperthyroidism with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Bower, B.F.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 70-yr-old woman presented with hyperthyroidism and metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. The blood level of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSIg) was elevated. A total thyroidectomy was performed. One month later she remained hyperthyroid. Three weeks after therapy with 218 mCi of I-131 sodium iodide, the patient was euthyroid. Six months after the initial radioiodide therapy, she was again hyperthyroid and was given a second oral treatment dose of I-131 (220 mCi). Five months later, the patient had again become euthyroid. It is likely that initially the woman's metastases were producing sufficient hormone to render her hyperthyroid. After thyroidectomy and two large doses of radioiodide, she has remained euthyroid without having to take exogenous hormone

  10. FDG-PET in Follicular Lymphoma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bodet-Milin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG PET/CT is commonly used in the management of patients with lymphomas and is recommended for both initial staging and response assessment after treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite the FDG avidity of follicular lymphoma (FL, FDG PET/CT is not yet applied in standard clinical practice for patients with FL. However, FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for initial staging, often prompting significant management change, and allows noninvasive characterization to guide assessment of high-grade transformation. For restaging, FDG PET/CT assists in distinguishing between scar tissue and viable tumors in residual masses and a positive PET after induction treatment would seem to predict a shorter progression-free survival.

  11. Advances in the management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Till M; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Antibody-based therapy has revolutionized treatment strategies in follicular lymphoma. This review focuses on current standards and recent innovations in the management of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of action of antibodies led to the development of next generation CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other molecules and bispecific antibodies. With obinutuzumab, a promising next generation of CD20 antibodies has entered phase III of clinical trials. The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab combines targeted therapy with immunologic activation of T cells exerting cytotoxic activity on the target cells. Apart from antibodies, small molecules targeting key pathways in lymphoma have shown promising activity in vitro and are currently in clinical development. A wealth of new substances has entered various stages of clinical trials and has yet to show superiority over rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. Intelligent therapeutic regimens containing these drugs have to be developed. Large randomized trials comparing promising treatment options are urgently needed.

  12. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  13. Reproductive endocrine profiles and follicular growth after estrus induction in the riverine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 and riverine-swamp hybrid buffalo (2n = 49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. BonDurant

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult female water buffalo were used in the present study (5 x [2n = 50] and 5 x [2n= 49] hybrids. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography between two consecutive ovulations. Observed follicular wave numbers were: 1 (n=1, 2 (n=4, and 3 (n=5. The interovulatory interval ranged 17 to 23 days. Differences in mean follicular diameter between follicles of the normal karyotype (2n=50 and buffalo hybrids (2n=49 were found on the second subordinate group of follicles (P0.05, whereas inhibin profiles were significantly higher in the hybrid group (P<0.05. Understanding the biological meaning of the difference in inhibin concentrations in B. bubalis female reproductive performance will require further investigation.

  14. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  15. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  16. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus...... is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature......, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system...

  17. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Luo, Yuqian; Yoshihara, Aya; Ishido, Yuko; Sekihata, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tg can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.

  18. Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Serous Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous subtype of ovarian cancer is considered to originate from fallopian epithelium mucosa that has been exposed to physiological changes resulting from ovulation. Ovulation influences an increased in inflammation of epithelial ovarian cells as results of constant exposure of cells to ROS. The imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, as well as a disruption of redox signaling, causes a wide range of damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. This study applied spectrophotometric, dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analyses to assess the levels of oxidatively modified proteins in 100 primary serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and normal/surrounding tissues. These samples were obtained from 56 Caucasian and 44 African-American patients within the age range of 61±10 years. Analyses showed that the levels of reactive protein carbonyl groups increased as stages progressed to malignancy. Additionally, the levels of protein carbonyls in serous ovarian carcinoma among African Americans are 40% (P<0.05 higher relative to Caucasian at similar advanced stages. Results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the modification of carbonyl protein groups, leading to increased aggressiveness of epithelial ovarian tumors and may contribute to the disease's invasiveness among African Americans.

  19. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  20. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  1. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  2. Impaired insulin signaling pathway in ovarian follicles of cows with cystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G J; Panzani, C G; Rodríguez, F M; Salvetti, N R; Díaz, P U; Gareis, N C; Benítez, G A; Ortega, H H; Rey, F

    2015-05-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Follicular cell steroidogenesis and proliferation in ovulatory follicles is stimulated by hormones such as insulin and its necessary post-receptor response. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate-1 (IRS1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), key intermediates in the insulin pathway, in control cows and cows with spontaneous COD and ACTH-induced COD. IR and IRS1 mRNA levels were greater in granulosa cells and lower in follicular cysts than in control tertiary follicles. PI3K mRNA levels were similar in all follicles evaluated, whereas the expression of IR, IRS1 and PI3K was similar in theca cells. Protein expression of IR was higher in control tertiary follicles than in the same structures in animals with COD and with cysts. IRS1 and PI3K protein expression showed the same pattern in tertiary and cystic follicles. However, the protein expression of subunit alpha p85 of PI3K was greater in theca cells from tertiary follicles than in cystic follicles. These results provide new insights into the insulin response in cows with COD. The lower gene and protein expressions of some insulin downstream effectors at an early stage of the signaling pathway could negatively influence the functionality of ovaries and contribute to follicle persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Peptidoglycan inhibits progesterone and androstenedione production in bovine ovarian theca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magata, F; Horiuchi, M; Miyamoto, A; Shimizu, T

    2014-08-01

    Uterine bacterial infection perturbs uterine and ovarian functions in postpartum dairy cows. Peptidoglycan (PGN) produced by gram-positive bacteria has been shown to disrupt the ovarian function in ewes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PGN on steroid production in bovine theca cells at different stages of follicular development. Bovine theca cells isolated from pre- and post-selection ovarian follicles (8.5mm in diameter, respectively) were cultured in vitro and challenged with PGN. Steroid production was evaluated by measuring progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) concentration in culture media after 48 h or 96 h of culture. Bovine theca cells expressed PGN receptors including Toll-like receptor 2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 and 2. Treatment with PGN (1, 10, or 50 μg/ml) led to a decrease in P4 and A4 production by theca cells in both pre- and post-selection follicles. The mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes were decreased by PGN treatment. Moreover, A4 production was further suppressed when theca cells of post-selection follicles were simultaneously treated by PGN and lipopolysaccharide (0.1, 1, or 10 μg/ml). These findings indicate that bacterial toxins may act locally on ovarian steroidogenic cells and compromise follicular development in postpartum dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcomes of first IVF/ICSI in young women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Mounsambote, Leonisse; Prier, Perrine; Mathieu d'ARGENT, Emmanuelle; Selleret, Lise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Delarouziere, Vanina; Levy, Rachel; Darai, Emile; Antoine, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensual definition of diminished ovarian reserve and the best therapeutic strategy has not yet been demonstrated. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate outcomes following a first in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle in young women with diminished ovarian reserve. Women with tubal factor, endometriosis or previous stimulation cycle were excluded. We defined diminished ovarian reserve as women ≤38 years with an AMH ≤1.1 ng/mL or antral follicular count ≤7. Among 59 IVF/ICSI cycles (40% IVF/60% ICSI), the pregnancy rate was 17% (10/59) and live birth rate 8.5% (5/59). Miscarriage rate was 50%. Baseline characteristics and IVF outcomes of the pregnant and not pregnant women were compared. No differences in age, antral follicular count, AMH, protocol used or number of harvested oocytes were found between the groups. A higher gonadotropin starting dose in the pregnancy group (397.5±87 IU vs. 314.8±103 IU; P=0.02) and a trend to a higher total dose received (4720±1349 IU vs. 3871±1367 IU; P=0.07) were noted. The present study confirms that women with diminished ovarian reserve have low live birth rates after a first IVF-ICSI cycle and that a higher gonadotropin starting dose might be associated with better outcomes.

  5. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  6. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  7. Prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Louise; Adams, Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. The incidence is high in the Western world. The incidence of ovarian cancer is reduced by pregnancy, lactation, the oral contraceptive pill and tubal ligation. Lifestyle factors are important in the aetiology of ovarian cancer and current evidence suggests the risk can be reduced by eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, taking regular exercise, avoiding smoking, avoiding being overweight and avoiding long-term use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Familial ovarian cancer is responsible for about 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Strategies available to high-risk women include screening (covered elsewhere) and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. The precise role of chemoprevention for high-risk women in the form of the oral contraceptive pill is unclear.

  8. Lutropin alpha, recombinant human luteinizing hormone, for the stimulation of follicular development in profoundly LH-deficient hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Th Krause

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Th Krause1, Ralf Ohlinger2, Annette Haase31Center for Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, MVZ Uhlandstr, Berlin, Germany; 2Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald, Germany; 3Uhlandstr. 162, 10719 BerlinAbstract: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as a medical condition with low or undetectable gonadotropin secretion, associated with a complete arrest of follicular growth and very low estradiol. The main cause can be traced back to an irregular or absent hypothalamic GnRH secretion, whereas only a minority suffers from a pituitary disorder. The choice of treatment to reverse this situation is a pulsatile GnRH application or a direct ovarian stimulation using gonadotropin injections. The goal is to achieve a proper ovarian function in these cases for a short time to allow ovulation and chance of pregnancy. Since the pulsatile GnRH treatment lost its former importance, several gonadotropins are in use to stimulate follicular growth, such as urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin, highly purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or recombinant FSH, all with different success. The introduction of recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH and FSH provided an opportunity to investigate the distinct influences of LH and FSH alone and in combination on follicular growth in monofollicular ovulation induction cycles, and additionally on oocyte maturation, fertilization competence of the oocyte and embryo quality in downregulated IVF patients. Whereas FSH was known to be indispensable for normal follicular growth, the role of LH remained questionable. Downregulated IVF patients with this short-term gonadotropin depletion displayed no advance in stimulation success with the use of recombinant LH. Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing monofollicular stimulation for ovulation induction showed clearly a specific role and need for both hormones in normal follicular growth. Therefore, a

  9. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptotic factors in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Ortega, Hugo H; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep, which include increased ovarian follicular recruitment and persistence. To test the hypothesis that follicular disruptions in T sheep stem from changes in the developmental ontogeny of ovarian proliferation and apoptotic factors, pregnant Suffolk sheep were injected twice weekly with T propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHT; a nonaromatizable androgen) from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Changes in developmental expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), BCL2, BAX, activated CASP3, and FAS/FASLG were determined at Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo, and 21 mo of age by immunocytochemisty. Prenatal T treatment induced changes in expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers in a follicle-, age-, and steroid-specific manner. Changes in BAX were evident only during fetal life and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 only postnatally. Prenatal T and not DHT increased PCNA and decreased BCL2 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 10 and 21 mo but decreased CASP3 in granulosa/theca cells of antral follicles at 22 wk (prepubertal) and 10 and 21 mo. Both treatments decreased BAX immunostaining in granulosa cells of Fetal Day 90 primordial/primary follicles. Neither treatment affected FAS expression at any developmental time point in any follicular compartment. Effects on BAX appear to be programmed by androgenic actions and PCNA, BCL2, and CASP3 by estrogenic actions of T. Overall, the findings demonstrate that fetal exposure to excess T disrupts the ovarian proliferation/apoptosis balance, thus providing a basis for the follicular disruptions evidenced in these females.

  10. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  11. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  12. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  13. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  14. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  15. Effect of Bushen yixue decoction on follicular development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its possible mechanism of action. Hai-Ning ... Conclusion: BSY promotes follicular development of anovulatory rats via regulating INH-ACT-FS .... the National Institutes for Food and Drug Control .... Finally, the protein bands were detected by.

  16. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  17. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  19. Ovarian preservation in children for adenexal pathology, current trends in laparoscopic management and our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Primary cysts and tumors of the ovary alongwith torsion are often regarded as an indication for open oophorectomy because of the fear of leaving an ischemic organ inside and chances of recurrence. We wish to report our experience of both modalities of management where we initially removed adenexal torsion by either laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy or oophorectomy, but later followed a more conservative approach of adenexal lesion removal with ovarian preservation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of clinical records of patients with ovarian pathology who were managed laparoscopically. Results: 46 cases of pediatric ovarian pathology were managed between March 2006 and March 2013 in two centers by a team of surgeons. The age ranged from 1 days to 18 years (average 14.3 years and the pathology varied from 30 cases of a simple ovarian cyst with torsion, 3 cases of ovarian torsion without any cyst, 7 cases of a dermoid cyst with torsion in all, 1 case of secreting ovarian tumor and 5 cases of a paraovarian cyst with torsion. All patients had a normal tumor marker except 1 girl with a functional ovarian tumor who had elevated LDH and estrogen levels alongwith suppressed LH and FSH. In the initial period of our study we did 1 salpingo-oophorectomy for a suspected complex lesion and two oophorectomies for torsion with a simple cyst. In the later part of our study we performed laparoscopic cystectomy and ovarian preservation in 40 cases, including 7 cases of dermoid, where we performed laparoscopic detorsion with dermoid cystectomy and ovarian preservation in the same sitting. In three cases of chronic torsion who presented to us late, we could not preserve the ovary and had to resort to salpingo-ophorectomy. Histology showed a simple corpus luteal and follicular ovarian cyst in 31 cases, a paraovarian cyst in 5 cases with mature teratoma in 7 cases. Twenty-five patients with ovarian preservation following detorsion were subjected to

  20. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  1. Small RNA sequencing reveals a comprehensive miRNA signature of BRCA1-associated high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Jan; Kluiver, Joost; de Almeida, Rodrigo C.; Modderman, Rutger; Terpstra, Martijn; Kok, Klaas; Withoff, Sebo; Hollema, Harry; Reitsma, Welmoed; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; van den Berg, Anke

    2016-01-01

    AimsBRCA1 mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), a malignancy that originates from fallopian tube epithelium. We aimed to identify differentially expressed known and novel miRNAs in BRCA1-associated HGSOC. Methods Small RNA sequencing was

  2. Effect of Previous Chemotherapy on the Quality of Cryopreserved Human Ovarian Tissue In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Asadi Azarbaijani

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been widely accepted as an option for fertility preservation among cancer patients. Some patients are exposed to chemotherapy prior to ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Consequently, assessment of the developmental capacity of human ovarian tissue after chemotherapy is of primary importance.In order to study the impact of previous chemotherapy on in vitro development and viability of ovarian follicles, quality control samples from 34 female cancer patients at median age of 15 years (range 1‒35, cryopreserved for fertility preservation before (n = 14 or after (n = 20 initiation of chemotherapy, were thawed and cultured for 7 days. The morphology and developmental stages of ovarian follicles were studied by light microscopy before and after culture. Possible associations between follicular densities, age and exposure to alkylating agents, expressed as cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED were tested.Exposure to chemotherapy significantly impaired the survival and development of ovarian follicles in culture. After seven days, significantly higher densities of intermediary, primary and secondary follicles and lower densities of atretic follicles was detected in the samples collected before chemotherapy. Increasing dose of alkylating agents was identified by multivariate linear regression analysis as an independent predictor of a higher density of atretic follicles, whereas increasing age of the patient predicted a better outcome with less follicle atresia and a higher density of maturing follicles.This study provides quantitative in vitro evidence of the impact of chemotherapy on developmental capacity of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. The results indicate that fertility preservation should be carried out, if possible, before initiation of alkylating agents in order to guarantee better in vitro survival of ovarian follicles. In addition, ovarian samples from younger girls show lower viability and fewer

  3. Diagnosis and surgical management of malignant ovarian teratoma in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Lucia; Tecilla, Marco; Borza, Gabriel; Pestean, Cosmin; Purdoiu, Robert; Ober, Ciprian; Oana, Liviu; Taulescu, Marian

    2016-07-19

    Ovarian tumors in reptiles are uncommonly reported in the literature and for green iguanas previously reported cases include teratomas, one adenocarcinoma and one papillary cystadenocarcinoma. The present report is the first of a malignant ovarian teratoma in a green iguana. Complete and detailed pathological features, differential diagnosis and surgical management of malignant ovarian teratoma are discussed in this paper. A 9-year-old intact female green iguana (Iguana iguana) with a clinical history of persistent anorexia and progressive abdominal distension was referred to the surgery department. On physical examination, a presumptive diagnosis of follicular stasis was established. Radiographic evaluation showed a large radioopaque mass within the abdomen, which was visible both in latero-lateral and ventro-dorsal exposures. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large intra-abdominal mass, with numerous cyst-like structures filled with liquid and a heterogeneous aspect with hypoechoic areas. Exploratory laparatomy was thus suggested and the mass was removed surgically. The histologic findings of the neoplasm were consistent with those of ovarian malignant teratoma. Surgical excision of the mass in our case was considered curative and after a follow-up period of 6 months the animal has recovered completely. A malignant ovarian teratoma has not been previously reported in green iguana and should be included in the list of differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors in this species. This report will contribute to a better understanding of the pathology of this rare tumor in green iguanas.

  4. Association of blood groups with ovarian reserve and outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awartani, Khalid; Al Ghabshi, Rahma; Al Shankiti, Hanan; Al Dossari, Mohamed; Coskun, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The association between ABO blood groups and ovarian reserve in infertile patients has been a point of controversy. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of certain blood groups with ovarian reserve and response to treatment in patients undergoing infertility treatment. Retrospective medical record review. Infertility clinic in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) unit at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. All patients under 40 years of age who attended the infertility clinic at a tertiary care centre in 2010 and underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in 2010 and 2011 were divided into groups according to blood type, and clinical parameters were compared. The association between blood groups and ovarian reserve using day 3 luteinzing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and antral follical count (AFC). In 424 patients who underwent 566 IVF cycles, age, LH, FSH and AFC were similar among the different blood groups (P=.9, .1, .5, respectively). with controlled ovarian stimulation, no difference was observed among the four groups in menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) dose or the duration of stimulation. The number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, and number of embryos transferred were similar. There was no difference in the cancellation rate or pregnancy rate among the groups. There was no significant association between blood type and ovarian reserve or response during IVF treatment in our population. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels are best correlated with ovarian reserve testing. Unavailability of AMH levels. Retrospective design.

  5. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  6. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  7. Study of the potential effect of selenium on gamma-radiation induced ovarian failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, R.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a major factor contributing to female infertility by inducing premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, the need for an effective radioprotective agent is evident. The present study investigated the mechanism of potential radioprotective effect of sodium selenite on radiation-induced ovarian failure and whether sodium selenite can stimulate in vivo follicular development in experimental rats. Immature female Sprague-Dawely rats were either exposed to gamma radiation (3.2 Gy, LD 20 ), once and/or treated with sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg), once daily for one week before irradiation. Follicular and oocyte development, apoptotic markers, proliferation marker as well as oxidative stress markers were assessed 24-h after irradiation. In addition, fertility assessment was performed after female rats became completely mature at two months of age. Sodium selenite significantly enhanced follicular development as compared to the irradiated group. Sodium selenite significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation that was evidenced by increasing in lipid peroxide level and decreasing in glutathione level, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase 3 and cytochrome c expressions markedly-increased, whereas, PCNA expression markedly-decreased in the irradiated group; in contrast, sodium selenite treatment prevented these alterations. Histopathological examination further confirmed the radioprotective efficacy of sodium selenite and its in-vivo effect on ovarian follicles’ maturation. In conclusion, sodium selenite showed a radioprotective effect and improved folliculogenesis through increasing ovarian granulosa cells proliferation, estradiol and FSH secretion, and GPx activity, whilst decreasing lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, leading to inhibition of the apoptosis pathway through decreasing the expressions of caspase 3 and cytochrome c.

  8. Ovarian toxicity of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with ovarian irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; Lai, E.V.; Barr, R.; McMahon, A.; Belbeck, L.; O'Connell, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of radiation and chemotherapy on gonadal function are relevant to the morbidity induced by such treatments. Cyclophosphamide given i.p. to rats on Day 30 of age delayed vaginal opening, prevented vaginal cyclicity, and caused a reduction in serum estradiol and progesterone. Antral follicular atresia increased in a dose-dependent fashion in response to cyclophosphamide (0 mg/kg, 53.5%; 1 mg/kg, 67.3%; 50 mg/kg, 65.7%; 100 mg/kg, 73.9%; 150 mg/kg, 92.2%). Despite such alterations in ovarian function, serum gonadotrophins did not rise. The concurrent administration of 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Gy of radiation to the exteriorized ovaries in rats receiving 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide induced widespread loss of primordial, preantral, and healthy antral follicles associated with reduction in serum progesterone and estradiol. Such irradiation induced dose-related increases in serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Parenteral cyclophosphamide and local irradiation appear to induce ovarian toxicity by different mechanisms

  9. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  10. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii)

  11. Comparisons of mRNA expression for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) type 2 receptor (IGF2R) and IGF-1 in small ovarian follicles between cattle selected and not selected for twin ovulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both IGF-1 and -2 stimulate ovarian follicular cell proliferation and antral follicle development. Actions of IGF-1 and -2 are mediated through the IGF type 1 receptor, whereas binding of IGF-2 to the IGF2R results in its degradation. Information on the role of IGF2R in regulating bovine follicula...

  12. Assessing The Impact Of Cancer Therapies On Ovarian Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Clarisa R.; Sammel, Mary D.; Freeman, Ellen; Prewitt, Maureen; Carlson, Claire; Ray, Anushree; Vance, Ashley; Ginsberg, Jill P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether measures of ovarian reserve differ between females exposed to cancer therapies in a dose-dependent manner as compared to healthy controls of similar age and late-reproductive age. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective cohort study Setting University Medical Center Patients 71 cancer survivors age 15-39; 67 healthy, similarly aged unexposed subjects; 69 regularly menstruating women of late-reproductive age (40-52 years). Interventions: None Main Outcome measures Early follicular phase hormones (FSH, Estradiol, Inhibin B, AMH) and ovarian ultrasound measurements (ovarian volume and Antral Follicle Counts) were compared using multivariable linear regression. Results In adjusted models, FSH, AMH and AFC differed between exposed vs. unexposed (FSH 11.12mIU/ml vs. 7.25mIU/ml, p=0.001; AMH 0.81ng/ml vs. 2.85ng/ml, pscore was associated with increased levels of FSH (p= 0.016) and decreased levels of AMH (p=0.003). Exposure to pelvic radiation was associated with impairment in FSH, AMH, AFC and ovarian volume. AMH was similar in women previously exposed to high-dose cancer therapy and 40-42 year old controls. Conclusions Measures of ovarian reserve are impaired in a dose-dependent manner among cancer survivors compared to unexposed females of similar age. Reproductive hormone levels in menstruating survivors exposed to high-dose therapy are similar to late-reproductive women. The predictive value of measures for pregnancy and menopause must be studied. PMID:22137491

  13. Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2008-03-01

    The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research.

  14. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after nAuto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazhir Khoram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods forcancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternativeto prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexualtissues (ovaries and/or testes. There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation ofovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable bloodflow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses ondirect exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implantedthis tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region.Materials and Methods: Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5, bilateralovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5, unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 casesand animals in the control-sham group (n=5 did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation.Results: All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth andrevascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antralafter 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. Afterday 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observedbetween T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesteroneand estradiol in comparison to T2 cases.Conclusion: This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helpsovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal folliclespresentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries.

  15. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Ovarian Cancer and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity influences survival in ovarian cancer, but the causal relations between prognosis and comorbidity are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between comorbidity, system delay, the choice of primary treatment, and survival in Danish...... ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on data from 5317 ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. Comorbidity was classified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Ovarian Cancer Comorbidity Index. Pearson χ test...... and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between comorbidity and primary outcome measures: primary treatment ("primary debulking surgery" vs "no primary surgery") and system delay (more vs less than required by the National Cancer Patient Pathways [NCPPs]). Cox...

  17. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  18. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of an ovarian cyst relies on its nature, and accurate preoperative discrimination of benign and malignant cysts is therefore of crucial importance. This study was undertaken to review the literature concerning the preoperative diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts....... METHODS: Articles concerning ovarian cysts from a medline literature search during the period 1985-2003 were included in addition to articles found as references in the initial publications. RESULTS: Different methods for discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian cysts are discussed....... The diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...

  19. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

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    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  20. Evaluation of sFas in serum and follicular fluid during ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nady Abdelmeged

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: A lower level of sFas in serum was associated with a higher pregnancy rates. This may be attributed to the presence of good fertilized oocytes. The above phenomena may suggest that low levels of sFas in serum may be associated with improved implantation of fertilized oocytes or may prevent damage to the embryo. Lower levels of sFas seem to support embryo implantation.

  1. Evidence of a role for prolactin as regulators of ovarian follicular development in goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The change of PRL concentration was similar to the PRLR mRNA expression level in preovulatory follicles. These results suggest that the PRL mediated by the PRLR plays a stimulatory role in the SWF to SYF transition.

  2. The impact of follicular fluid adiponectin and ghrelin levels based on BMI on IVF outcomes in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, H A; Yilmaz, N; Gorkem, U; Oruc, A S; Timur, H

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI) on follicular fluid (FF) adiponectin and ghrelin levels, and on in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. This prospective cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 120 primary infertile women [group 1; non-PCOS = 60 (BMI PCOS = 60 (BMI lean PCOS group than the lean non-PCOS group (p = 0.001), and these levels were lower in the overweight non-PCOS group compared to lean non-PCOS group (0.001). However, there was no difference in the FF ghrelin levels between the groups. Additionally, we could not find a relationship between clinical pregnancy and adiponectin and ghrelin levels. The FF adiponectin and ghrelin levels have no effects on clinical pregnancy in PCOS. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate this issue.

  3. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Shulha, Hennady P.; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M.; Scott, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell–like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell–like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL. PMID:26307535

  4. Non-coding RNAs in the Ovarian Follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Battaglia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian ovarian follicle is the complex reproductive unit comprising germ cell, somatic cells (Cumulus and Granulosa cells, and follicular fluid (FF: paracrine communication among the different cell types through FF ensures the development of a mature oocyte ready for fertilization. This paper is focused on non-coding RNAs in ovarian follicles and their predicted role in the pathways involved in oocyte growth and maturation. We determined the expression profiles of microRNAs in human oocytes and FF by high-throughput analysis and identified 267 microRNAs in FF and 176 in oocytes. Most of these were FF microRNAs, while 9 were oocyte specific. By bioinformatic analysis, independently performed on FF and oocyte microRNAs, we identified the most significant Biological Processes and the pathways regulated by their validated targets. We found many pathways shared between the two compartments and some specific for oocyte microRNAs. Moreover, we found 41 long non-coding RNAs able to interact with oocyte microRNAs and potentially involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis. These data are important in basic reproductive research and could also be useful for clinical applications. In fact, the characterization of non-coding RNAs in ovarian follicles could improve reproductive disease diagnosis, provide biomarkers of oocyte quality in Assisted Reproductive Treatment, and allow the development of therapies for infertility disorders.

  5. The role of the fallopian tube in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Alicia A; Salvador, Shannon; Finlayson, Sarah J; Tinker, Anna V; Kwon, Janice S; Lee, Cheng-Han; Cohen, Trevor; Ehlen, Tom; Lee, Marette; Carey, Mark S; Heywood, Mark; Pike, Judith; Hoskins, Paul J; Stuart, Gavin C; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Miller, Dianne M; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2012-05-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and lethal subtype of ovarian cancer. Research over the past decade has strongly suggested that "ovarian" HGSC arises in the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) being detected in 5-10% of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers undergoing risk-reducing surgery and up to 60% of unselected women with pelvic HGSC. The natural history, clinical significance, and prevalence of STICs in the general population (ie, women without cancer and not at an increased genetic risk) are incompletely understood, but anecdotal evidence suggests that these lesions have the ability to shed cells with metastatic potential into the peritoneal cavity very early on. Removal of the fallopian tube (salpingectomy) in both the average and high-risk populations could therefore prevent HGSC, by eliminating the site of initiation and interrupting spread of potentially cancerous cells to the ovarian/peritoneal surfaces. Salpingectomy may also reduce the incidence of the 2 next most common subtypes, endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, by blocking the passageway linking the lower genital tract to the peritoneal cavity that enables ascension of endometrium and factors that induce local inflammation. The implementation of salpingectomy therefore promises to significantly impact ovarian cancer incidence and outcomes.

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leonardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in the Epithelium of Inflammatory Periapical Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, R.; Perrotta, R.E.; Musumeci, G.; Crimi, S.; dos Santos, J.N.; Rusu, M.C.; Bufo, P.; Barbato, E.; Pannone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease. PMID:26708181

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, R; Perrotta, R E; Loreto, C; Musumeci, G; Crimi, S; Dos Santos, J N; Rusu, M C; Bufo, P; Barbato, E; Pannone, G

    2015-10-26

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  9. An update on cystic ovarian degeneration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, A T

    2004-02-01

    Cystic ovarian degeneration (COD) is considered to be one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in cattle. There is a severe economic loss to dairy industry because COD increases days-open in the postpartum period and the culling rates. The disease process is a consequence of a mature follicle that fails to ovulate at the appointed time of ovulation in the oestrous cycle. This anovulatory follicular structure either regresses or persists as a follicular or luteal cyst depending upon its structural/functional characteristics. The cells lining the follicular cyst synthesize oestrogen that, in certain instances, forces the animal to exhibit clinical signs of nymphomania. Besides oestrogen production, as per recent findings, they are also capable of secreting varying amount of progesterone which may dictate their fate. The animals that carry a luteal cyst may tend to be in anoestrus as the higher amount of progesterone secreted by this luteinized structure may change the pattern of gonadotrophins' secretion. Present findings suggest that perturbation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian (HHO) axis, due to many exogenous and endogenous factors, as the cause for anovulation. For example, it has been suggested that lack of hypothalamic or hypophyseal response to the positive feedback effect of oestrogens that are secreted by the dominant follicle as one of the many causes. The non-physiological changes that occur in the receptor expression of the HHO axis for the hormones involved in maturation, deviation, dominance and ovulation of the follicle may be yet another cause. The changes that occur at the cellular and molecular level in the ovary (in response to the factors mentioned above) that contribute to anovulation remain to be documented. This approach would allow us to completely understand the disease process. Hitherto, hormonal preparations that release luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary or have luteinizing hormone-like action are used

  10. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  11. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  12. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1 ) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2 ) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3 ) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Correlation between follicular fluid levels of sRAGE and vitamin D in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepika; Grazi, Richard; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn M; Merhi, Zaher

    2017-11-01

    The pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their anti-inflammatory soluble receptors, sRAGE, play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. There is a correlation between vitamin D (vit D) and sRAGE in the serum, whereby vit D replacement increases serum sRAGE levels in women with PCOS, thus incurring a protective anti-inflammatory role. This study aims to compare levels of sRAGE, N-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML; one of the AGEs), and 25-hydroxy-vit D in the follicular fluid (FF) of women with or without PCOS, and to evaluate the correlation between sRAGE and 25-hydroxy-vit D in the FF. Women with (n = 12) or without (n = 13) PCOS who underwent IVF were prospectively enrolled. Women with PCOS had significantly higher anti-Mullerian hormone levels, higher number of total retrieved and mature oocytes, and higher number of day 3 and day 5 embryos formed. Compared to women without PCOS, women with PCOS had significantly lower FF sRAGE levels. In women with PCOS, in women without PCOS, and in all participants together, there was a significant positive correlation between sRAGE and 25-hydroxy-vit D. sRAGE positively correlated with CML in women without PCOS but not in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the low ovarian levels of the anti-inflammatory sRAGE suggest that sRAGE could represent a biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Whether there is a direct causal relationship between sRAGE and vit D in the ovaries remains to be determined.

  14. Differing strategies of patterning of follicular cells in higher and lower brachycerans (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Jablonska, Anna; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2005-10-01

    In all higher dipterans (Brachycera), including the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, each egg chamber (ovarian follicle) consists of a group (clone) of germ cells (one oocyte and 15 accompanying nurse cells) that is surrounded by a layer of somatic mesodermal follicular cells (FCs). As oogenesis progresses the initially uniform FCs diversify into several morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations. In D. melanogaster some of these subpopulations, e.g., border, centripetal, and dorsolateral cells, undertake coordinated migration or rearrangement over the surface of the germ cells. During the final stages of oogenesis these subpopulations participate in the formation of a complex, regionally specialized eggshell. In representatives of lower brachycerans (Orthorrhapha), only FCs that undertake active, directed migration are the border cells. These cells originate at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicle and migrate between the nurse cells to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Reduced motility of FCs in lower brachycerans results in the absence of certain FC subpopulations in their egg chambers and subsequent simplicity of their eggshells. We found that the lack of some FC subpopulations coincided with the appearance of lamellipodium-like protrusions of the oocyte. These protrusions penetrated between the apposing membranes of nurse and FCs and partially enveloped the nurse cell compartment. Analysis of whole-mount preparations stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin revealed that the protrusions contained microfilaments and that their tips were equipped with actin-rich filopodium-like processes. We also found that in some lower brachycerans (representatives of the family Rhagionidae), the FCs located at the posterior pole of the oocyte, became enlarged and morphologically similar to the anterior border cells. These findings indicate that in higher dipterans the processes leading to the formation of a functional egg are variable and often markedly

  15. Relationship of antral follicular blood flow velocity to superovulatory responses in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M E F; Bartlewski, P M; Jankowski, N; Padilha-Nakaghi, L C; Oliveira, L G; Bicudo, S D; Fonseca, J F; Vicente, W R R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between antral follicular blood flow velocity and the response of ewes to hormonal ovarian superstimulation. Ten Santa Inês ewes were subjected to a short- (7days; Group 1) or long-term (13days; Group 2) progesterone (CIDR ® ; InterAg, Hamilton, New Zealand) priming, and a superovulatory treatment with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; Folltropin ® -V; Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada), given twice daily for four consecutive days in decreasing doses and initiated four or ten days after CIDR insertion, respectively. Embryos were recovered surgically seven days after the last pFSH dose. From one day prior to until the end of the pFSH regimen (Days -1 to 3), all ewes underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography of ovaries. The number of high-velocity pixels (HVPs; 0.055-0.11m/s or upper 50% of recordable velocities) on Day 1 correlated directly with the number of corpora lutea (CL; r=0.92, P=0.0002) and of viable embryos (r=0.77, P=0.01). Correlations were also recorded between the number of HVPs on Day 3 and the recovery rate (r=-0.69, P=0.03), viability rate (r=-0.64, P=0.05), and percentage of degenerated embryos (r=0.65, P=0.04). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total area of ovarian cross section on Day 1 was correlated with the number of CL (r=0.95, Pflow has the makings of a useful non-invasive method to predict the outcome of the superovulatory treatment in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local effect of bisphenol A on the estradiol synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Qinling; Dang, Xuan; He, Yaqiong; Li, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Close relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn much attention in recent years, while the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we aim to detect BPA concentration in the follicular fluid and investigate its effect on estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells from PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected from women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. BPA concentration in the follicular fluid from PCOS patients (440.50 ± 63.70 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that from non-PCOS patients (338.00 ± 57.88 pg/ml). Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis in cultured granulosa cells was examined after treatment with BPA from 0.01 to 1 μM for 24 h. Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis was downregulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner in PCOS, but no effect was observed in granulosa cells from non-PCOS patients. These findings provide evidence that increased BPA concentration in the follicular fluid of PCOS patients may play an important role in its pathogenesis by attenuating the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells.

  17. Early Alterations in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells and Induction of Ovarian Epithelial Tumors Triggered by Loss of FSH Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology. It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin (CK staining. Histologic changes and CK staining in the OSE increased from postnatal day 2. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor-bearing animals. Ovaries from a third of aged (1 year mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Weak expression of GATA-4 and elevation of PCNA, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and plateletderived growth factor receptors α and β in mutants indicated differences in cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Thus, we report that OSE changes occur long before epithelial tumors appear in FORKO mice. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis.

  18. Evidence for ovarian tumor necrosis factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    Ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation occur concomitantly with the development of new blood vessels that function in nutritional support of the developing follicles. As follicles undergo atresia and the corpus luteum regresses, blood vessels supplying these tissues degenerate. The first study determined if the ovary contained factors that might regulate ovarian angiogenesis. The bovine ovary was subjected to ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation and the precipitates (ppt.) were assayed in vitro for effects on endothelial cell (CPAE) and fibroblast (3T3 and L929) incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine. Heparin sepharose (HS) chromatography of the 80% AS ppt. revealed the inhibitory activity on CPAE and L929 cells did not bind to HS but was found in the HS column breakthrough (80% BT). Sizing chromatography of the 80% BT indicated thymidine incorporation inhibitory activity exhibited a molecular weight of 30,000-50,000 Daltons. TNF was immunohistochemically localized in the human, bovine and rat ovary. Frozen sections were incubated with polyclonal antibody to human recombinant TNF. Antigen-antibody binding was visualized using a Biotin-StreptAvidin peroxidase technique. Immunoreactive TNF (I-TNF) was localized in corpora lutea and the more antral layers of granulosa cells in antral follicles. Incubation of sections with anti-TNF in the presence of excess TNF resulted in lose of immunostaining. Cell blotting and ELISA further indicated I-TNF was present in granulosa cells. In order to determine whether TNF had an effect on follicular steroidogenesis, preovulatory follicles from cyclic proestrus rats were incubated in vitro for up to 24 hours with various doses of human recombinant TNF. Stepwise increases in progesterone (P) accumulation in the incubation media were observed with 30-300 pM TNF.

  19. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Joop; Drexhage, Hemmo; Hoek, Annemieke

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic...

  20. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as follicular isthmus cysts in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Layne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined for swelling of the right upper lip. The cat had been receiving oral ciclosporin A for eosinophilic plaques. The swelling appeared clinically and cytologically consistent with an abscess; exudate was cultured and treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy and surgical curettage. Five months of antibiotic therapy with three separate surgical treatments resulted in minimal improvement; three separate biopsy samples demonstrated epithelial cysts with severe dermal inflammation. Swelling and drainage of purulent material from the affected lip persisted and progressed to involve the left upper lip. Euthanasia was elected 13 months after initial examination due to disease progression. On necropsy, histopathology demonstrated multiple isthmus cysts intermixed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Relevance and novel information The clinical and histopathologic features were unusual for feline cutaneous SCC. The cystic nature and lack of epidermal involvement suggest the tumor arose from non-epidermal squamous cells such as follicular isthmus or ductal epithelium. There is a pattern of SCC recognized in human renal transplant patients with features of epidermal inclusion cysts. These features have not been previously reported in SCC from a cat.

  1. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of an Impacted Canine in the Presence of Dens Invaginatus and Follicular Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421

  2. Recovery of ovarian function after postradiation menopause. Do FSH levels have a definitive prognostic value?; Recuperation de fonctionnement ovarien apres menopause radio-induite. L`hormone folliculostimulante (FSH) a-t-elle une valeur pronostique definitive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letur-Konirsch, H. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France); Guis, F. [Hopital Antoine-Beclere, Clamart (France)

    1996-08-01

    Menopause, conventionally defined as the permanent cessation as a result of loss of ovarian follicular activity, is biologically expressed by the collapse of plasma levels and increased plasma levels of the gonadotrophins FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). At present, estimation of the ovarian follicle reserve is based on endocrine capacity tests of the ovaries, with increased FSH representing the first sign of exocrine ovarian failure. We report the case of one of our amenorrhoeic patients after chemotherapy, total body radiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute immuno-blastic leukaemia. This patient was included in an in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) programme for iatrogenic premature ovarian failure with increased FSH levels. Instead of high levels of gonadotrophins, this young woman recovered spontaneous follicular developments, benefited from standard IVF with her own oocytes and brought a twin pregnancy to term. This observation shows that a high FSH level is not a definitive prediction of ovarian exocrine capacity. In young women of child-bearing age such as these wanting a child and showing signs of endogenous estrogen impregnation, evaluation of the existence and quality of follicular development is an important factor. (author). 13 refs.

  3. Association between expression of cumulus expansion markers and real-time proliferation of porcine follicular granulosa cells in a primary cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiółka, S; Budna, J; Bryja, A; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Piotrowska, H; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is a compound process that involves both ovarian follicle growth and oocyte development, which is tightly attached to the follicular wall. During this process, cells that form the follicle structure undergo substantial morphological and molecular modifications that finally lead to differentiation and specialization of ovarian follicular cells. The differentiation of ovarian cells encompasses formation of follicle, which is composed of theca (TCs), mural granulosa (GCs), and cumulus cells (CCs). It was previously hypothesized that GCs and CCs represent undifferentiated and highly specialized follicular cells, respectively, which may have similar primordial cell origins. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of cumulus expansion markers such as COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 in porcine GCs during short-term, in vitro culture. We hypothesized that these genes may display an important function in GCs in relation to cellular real-time proliferation. The expression pattern of COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 was evaluated after using RT-qPCR in relation to confocal microscopy observations of protein expression and distribution during real-time proliferation of porcine follicular GCs. The COX2 and HAS2 mRNAs were highly expressed after 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC), whereas PTX3 and TSG6 mRNAs were increased during the first 24-48 h of IVC (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). Conversely, all of the encoded proteins were highly expressed after 144-168 h of IVC as compared to other culture periods (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). When analyzing the realtime proliferation of GCs in vitro, we observed a logarithmic increase of cell proliferation between 0 h and 120 h of IVC. However, after 120-168 h of IVC, the cells reached the lag phase of proliferation. Since it is well accepted that porcine GCs undergo luteinization shortly after 24-48 h of IVC, the expression pattern of investigated genes indicated that Cox2 and Has2 are independent from

  4. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  5. The Structure of Urethral Epithelium in Merinos Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate by histological techniques the structure of urethral epithelium in lambs. In this study, we harvested several fragments (prostatic, membranous and cavernous from urethra from 5 merino’s lambs of 3 months old. The first anatomical segment, the prostatic urethra, is lined by a urinary epithelium. The intermediary layer of this epithelium is formed of 5-6 rows of oval cells. The second segment of urethra has the same type of epithelium but the intermediary layer is formed of 6-7 rows of oval cells. In the last anatomical segment, the penile urethra, the epithelium is the same, but the intermediary layer has 3-4 rows of oval cells. In lambs, the urethra is lined by urinary epithelium. The urethral epithelium does not have the same thickness in all segments. The thinner epithelium it is in the cavernous urethra, the ticker is the membranous urethra.

  6. [Comparison of paired box genes 8 and 2 expression in epithelium tissues and the related tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Huang, X; Shen, G H; Liu, X Y; Zhang, X

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To explore the expressional differences between paired box genes 2(Pax2) and 8 (Pax8) protein in different kinds of epitheliums and tumors, and to investigate the clinicopathologic significance. Methods: Expression levels of Pax2 and Pax8 protein were detected in 75 cases of different human epithelium tissues and 255 cases of different tumors on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pax2 and Pax8 selectively expressed in different tissues. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in the normal epithelium of the thyroid, urinary system and female reproductive system were 100% (2/2), 60.0% (3/5) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 expressed in the epithelium tissues of urinary system and the female reproductive system were 40.0% (2/5) and 38.5% (5/13) respectively. However, the expression of Pax2 protein was not detected in the normal thyroid epithelium. The positive rate of Pax8 protein expressing in the epithelium of reproductive system was significantly higher than that of Pax2 protein ( P <0.05). The tumors derived from different tissues also expressed different levels of protein Pax2 and Pax8. The positive rates of Pax8 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 65.2% (15/23), 66.7% (10/15) and 80.0% (4/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 34.8% (8/23), 13.3% (2/15) and 20.0% (1/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those of Pax2 protein ( P <0.05). The positive rates of Pax8 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 92.9% (26/28), 81.8% (9/11) and 82.4% (14/17), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 28.6% (8/28), 9.1% (1/11) and 17.6% (3

  7. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian cancer affects women in the age group >60 years much ... ovarian cancer presenting with liver and thoracic vertebral metastases 4 months after ... manifested by parenchymal liver or lung ... categorised as stage Ic as per International.

  8. Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, E; Xiao, C W; Wang, Y F; Tsang, B K

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of follicular development and atresia is a complex process and involves interactions between endocrine factors (gonadotropins) and intraovarian regulators (sex steroids, growth factors and cytokines) in the control of follicular cell fate (i.e. proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death). Granulosa and theca cells are key players in this fascinating process. As atresia is the fate of most follicles, understanding of how these physiological regulators participate in determining the destiny of the follicle (to degenerate or to ovulate) at cellular and subcellular levels is fundamental. This short review summarizes the role of intraovarian modulators of programmed cell death in the induction of atresia during follicular development. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  10. Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Neeta; Gupta, Ruchika; Jain, Shyama

    2004-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in association with hyperthyroidism is rare. The malignant lesion may remain occult for a long time. Certain clinical and cytologic features may be helpful in raising the alarm. An elderly male with a history of occupational exposure to X rays, long-standing toxic multinodular goiter and clinical hyperthyroidism presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the neck. Cytologic smears showed a prominent microfollicular pattern, scanty colloid, anisonucleosis and nuclear overlapping. The noteworthy feature was the presence of marginal vacuoles. The cytologic diagnosis of follicular neoplasm with highly suggestive malignancy was made. Subsequently, multiple pulmonary nodules provided radiologic evidence of possible metastatic spread. This case report demonstrates the rare association of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism and analyzes certain high-risk clinical and cytologic features to be considered in the follow-up of long-standing hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter.

  11. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  12. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter

  13. Clinical manifestations of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Lin, Shouqing; He, Fangfang; Li, Baoluo; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2002-09-01

    To study the characteristics of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Amenorrhea patients with elevated FSH: Primary amenorrhea 18 cases, secondary amenorrhea 171 cases and age matched controls with normal menstruation, 180 cases. The descriptive parameters were: estrogen, alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium to creatine ratio, cortical bone mineral density at the right radius measured by single photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone mineral density at the lumbar vertebra body measured by quantitative computerized tomography. Average E(2) levels in amenorrhea patients is under 150 pmol/L with significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium to creatine ratio values than the normal menstruation group. Cortical bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (655 +/- 69 mg/cm(2)) was significantly lower than that of the normal menstruation group (677 +/- 56 mg/cm(2), P < 0.01). Trabecular bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (145 +/- 26 mg/cm(3)) was significantly lower than that of the NOR group (192 +/- 28 mg/cm(3), P < 0.001). The disparity with the normal menstruation group is even greater in the primary amenorrhea group. Bone mineral density of the amenorrhea patients was negatively correlated with duration of the menopause. Serum estrodiol levels in amenorrhea patients was so low that bone turnover was accelerated. This led to insufficient bone accumulation and a dramatically drop in trabecular bone mineral density. The extent was closely related to age of onset of amenorrhea and the duration of ovarian failure.

  14. Detection of dendritic cells and related cytokines in follicular fluid of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tian, Fuying; Huo, Ran; Tang, Aifa; Zeng, Yong; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The presence of dendritic cells (DCs) and associated cytokines in follicular fluid (FF) from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. FF was collected from PCOS patients and patients with severe male factor infertility (control) at the day of transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Phenotypes of DC were detected by flow cytometry, and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-23 were assessed by ELISA. A significant decrease in the percentage of DC was found in patients with PCOS (16.22±5.5%) compared with control (21.27±5.5%, P<.01). E 2 on the day of hCG administration was correlated positively with the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-DR (r=.75, P<.01) and reversely correlated with the concentration of TNF-α in FF (r=-.69, P<.01). The level of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 increased significantly but IL-23 decreased in FF from patients with PCOS. The decrease of DC and disturbance of associated cytokines in FF from PCOS patients indicates a disorder of immunological microenvironment of the ovarian follicle, which might be involved in the dysfunction of folliculogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differential effects of oestrogenic hormones on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic carcinomata of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    A number of hormones, including some steroids, have previously been shown to influence the rate of cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. In this report the effect of oophorectomy and of treatment with ovarian hormones on cell proliferation in these tissues is compared. Colonic tumours cell proliferation was retarded following oophorectomy and this retardation was reversed by the administration of oestradiol, but not by the administration of progesterone. Oophorectomy did not retard cell proliferation in the colonic crypts. The possible significance of these findings in relation to age-dependent variations in the sex ratio for human bowel cancer is discussed.

  16. Ovarian synchronisation in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) during the anovulatory season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, J Manuel; McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in wood bison during the anovulatory season to establish an effective protocol for ovarian synchronisation. In an untreated control phase, bison cows (n=19) were examined daily to establish the interval to new follicular wave emergence (4.9±0.7 days) for the purposes of comparison with the experimental treatments. In Experiment 1, bison were treated by transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular ablation (n=9) or with 2mg, i.m., 17β-oestradiol (n=10). In Experiment 2, bison were treated by follicular ablation (n=9) or with 2mg, i.m., 17β-oestradiol +100mg, i.m., progesterone (n=10). In Experiment 1, the interval to new wave emergence for control, follicular ablation and 17β-oestradiol-treated groups was 4.9±0.7, 1.1±0.1 and 3.1±0.4 days, respectively (P<0.05). The degree of synchrony was 2.4±0.4, 0.2±0.1 and 0.8±0.2 days, respectively (P<0.05). In Experiment 2, the interval to new wave emergence for control, follicular ablation and 17β-oestradiol + progesterone-treated groups was 4.9±0.7, 1.2±0.2 and 3.3±0.3 days, respectively (P<0.05), and the degree of synchrony was 2.4±0.4, 0.2±0.1, and 0.8±0.2 days, respectively (P<0.05). The degree of synchrony did not differ between ablation and hormone treatment groups in either experiment, but was greater in treatment groups than in the untreated control phase. Both follicular ablation and hormone treatment shortened and decreased the variability in the interval to follicular wave emergence in bison, but wave emergence occurred earlier after follicular ablation.

  17. Postmenopausal palpable ovary and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojnić, M; Branković, M; Maksimović, M; Parapid, B; Dugalić, V; Jeremić, K; Gutić, B

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination is a much more reliable method for evaluation of potential ovarian cancer risk than gynecologic palpation. The aim of our study was to analyze the US characteristics of patients with palpable ovaries in light of potential for malignancy. We analyzed 70 women ten years after menopause without increased CA 125 values. They underwent clinical and US exams (abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound), with special emphasis on US Doppler exam. Bimanuel gynecological examination showed palpable ovaries in 14 patients (palpable ovary group), and the remaining 56 patients were defined as the control group. US showed increased dimensions of palpable ovaries. Atypical follicular activity, deviation from verticalization, atypical ovaries and hyperechogenic punctations classified under germ cell cysts occurred statistically significantly more often in the palpable ovary group. Doppler flow showed pathological vascularization in five patients with palpable ovaries and the estrogen level was increased. After four to six months in these five patients we found a mild increase of estrogen levels and higher Doppler abnormality. Six months later, two patients had irregular bleeding and underwent surgical treatment. Every adnexal mass after menopausis demands special attention. Bimanuel gynecological exams should be used liberally. It is necessary to follow the dimensions of the ovary, describe the echostructure, as well as the edges of the ovary and other anatomical structures. Doppler flow measurement and estrogen levels are predictive and give more information. Controls should be in three to six month intervals in order to make a decision for surgical treatment.

  18. Ovarian Stem Cell Nests in Reproduction and Ovarian Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haifeng; Zheng, Tuochen; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xinxin; Huang, Yaoqi; Hu, Chuan; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Liu, Zhengyv; Zheng, Liping; Zheng, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves. Recent studies have found that the immune system and circulatory system are involved in the formation of ovarian germline stem cell niches, as well as regulating the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells through cellular and hormonal signals. Therefore, we can improve ovarian function and delay ovarian aging by improving the immune system and circulatory system, which will provide an updated program for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ovarian tubercular abscess mimicking ovarian carcinoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although genito-urinary tuberculosis is common, reports of isolated ovarian tubercular abscess are rare. Ovarian tubercular abscess may mimics that of an ovarian tumor, leading to diagnostic difficulties. We reported a case report of 35 years woman presented with chronic pain abdomen, weight loss, low-grade fever and a right ovarian mass on ultrasound, with a significantly elevated CA-125 level. On clinical and radiological evidence, diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma was made, and laparotomy was performed with resection of the ovary. Postoperative specimen sent for histological examination that revealed classic epithelioid granuloma and acid-fast bacilli were present in Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Patient was put on antitubercular regimen from our Dots center. She is improving clinical after taking antitubercular drug and is on regular follow up at our chest outpatient department. Ovarian tubercular abscess is common in young women living in endemic zones, but case report of isolated tubercular abscess is rarely reported. CA-125 can be raised in both ovarian tubercular abscess and ovarian carcinoma, and only imaging is not always conclusive. Laparotomy followed by tissue diagnosis can be helpful in this situation. As the prognosis and treatment outcome of ovarian tubercular abscess and ovarian carcinoma is different, proper diagnosis by laparotomy should be done. Early diagnosis of ovarian tubercular abscess is vital as untreated disease can lead to infertility.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  1. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Radiobiology of intestinal epithelium stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    After a single or three-fold whole body irradiation of mice with a dose of 4 Gy and the time interval for the proliferation to be restored (5 days or 3 weeks) the survival curve for stem cells of small intestine epithelium with regard to radiation dose was the same as that for non-preirradiated mice. This indicated that the proliferative potential of stem cells in these experimental conditions was not reduced

  3. [Insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowicki, J

    1994-10-01

    In polycystic ovarian disease there is a strong association between hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism but not with obesity alone. The magnitude of peripheral insulin resistance is similar to that seen in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Mild hyperinsulinemia in PCOD patients is not impair the carbohydrate metabolism. The elimination of the cause of hyperandrogenism by bilateral oophorectomy, long-acting Gn-RH agonist or antiandrogen cyproterone acetate did not improve the associated insulin resistance. In opposition to insulin resistance in the tissues responsible for metabolism of carbohydrate, the ovary remains sensitive to the effects of pancreatic hormone. Presumably this mechanism involved the interaction with IGF-I receptors to stimulate thecal and stromal androgen production. Insulin may sensitize the stroma to the stimulatory effect of LH. In the mechanism of follicular arrest take part increased level of binding proteins for IGF-I, mainly IGFBP 2, -4 and 5 inhibit FSH and IGF-I action.

  4. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Blaakaer, Jan; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study objective was to survey general health and coping in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, and subsequently to develop and test a supportive care intervention. METHODS/MATERIALS: Women who underwent surgery on the suspicion of ovarian cancer participated in a follow...... standard levels. Concerning mental health, levels were below standard during the entire period, but did improve with time, also in women in whom the potential cancer diagnosis was refuted. The preoperative differences between these groups leveled out postoperatively in terms of physical health. At the end...

  6. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  7. Review of theories on development of ovarian cancer. Leptin as a potential agent engaged in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many different hypotheses and theories have been formulated regarding the development of sporadic ovarian cancer. The augmented risk is associated with nulliparity or low fecundity. Apart from changes in the genital system, leptin can be linked in several ways to infertility or low fecundity, from poor alimentation (severe dieting) and its effects on the hypothalamushypophysis-ovary axis to improper blastocyst implantation in the endometrium. Ovulation used to be regarded as representing one of the factors which promote the development of ovarian cancer due to the associated lesions of the ovarian epithelium and the development of inclusion cysts. The risk is reduced by the long-term use of contraceptive pills. However, it has been demonstrated, that hormonal contraception is linked to the stabilization of plasma leptin levels and that it, possibly, has less pronounced effects on target tissues. In view of the suggestions on leptin involvement, the hypothesis regarding the effects of HRT on ovarian cancer development remains unsupported since leptin levels during a course of HRT manifest no increases or decreases- they remain stable. The inflammatory theory of ovarian cancer development might also be linked to the potential involvement of leptin in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, promoting endometrioid and clarocellular ovarian cancers. Leptin has been shown to be linked to the development of endometriosis, particularly due to its mitogenic and angiogenic effects. Bilateral ovariectomy, aimed at preventing the development of ovarian cancer, induces a decrease in serum leptin levels, in contrast to the reversible effects of pharmacological gonadectomy. Ovarian cancer develops more frequently in women who have high living standards, which is significantly associated with increased BMI and augmented serum leptin levels. The described theory concerning the two pathways of ovarian cancer development, including one typical for more aggressive serous cancers, may

  8. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1 was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

  10. Novel antibodies against follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Tom; Hagenbeek, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of patients with follicular B-cell lymphoma. With the combination of chemotherapy and rituximab the overall survival rate has increased with approximately 30%. Unfortunately, there is resistance to rituximab with relapse of

  11. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Total renin after gonadotropin stimulation in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Anttila, L; Jaatinen, T A; Koskinen, P; Aalto, M; Irjala, K; Nikkanen, V

    1995-02-01

    To examine the influence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) on the levels of total renin in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) after stimulation with hMG. Comparative study of the plasma and FF concentrations of total renin in women with and without PCOD after stimulation with hMG. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Thirty-six women undergoing IVF-ET for infertility with (n = 10) or without (n = 26) ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD. Of the latter group, 15 women had tubal infertility, and the rest suffered from an anovulatory infertility and reacted with PCO-like ovarian response to stimulation. The concentrations of total renin in plasma and FF, serum E2, and protein in FF. The concentrations of plasma total renin after the gonadotropin stimulation were significantly higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups when compared with the tubal group. The concentration of total renin in FF and the ratio of total renin per protein in FF were higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups than in the tubal group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive correlations were found between the plasma total renin and serum E2 concentrations in the PCO-like and in the tubal group and between plasma total renin concentrations and the number of mature follicles in all groups. Follicular fluid total renin did not correlate with FF protein in any group. All findings were independent of the total hMG dosage used and the body mass index of the patients. In the present study the concentrations of total renin in plasma were enhanced markedly after gonadotropin stimulation in women with PCOD compared with women having tubal infertility. The pattern of the hormonal secretions revealed a group of infertile patients reacting biochemically like women with PCOD.

  13. Overt leptin response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation negatively correlates with pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization--embryo transfer cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Chakrabarti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A critical body mass of adipose tissue is essential for the normal development of female reproductive functions. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone encoded by the ′Ob′ gene has been proposed as a peripheral signal indicating the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive functions. It is reported as a direct regulator of gametogenic and steroidogenic potential of ovary. Though leptin is widely present in reproductive tissues, its relationship to reproductive hormones is still poorly understood. Aims: Present investigation attempts to explore ovarian response to secretory profile of leptin and its impact on pregnancy outcome in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Settings and Design: Patients enrolled for IVF-ET underwent pituitary-ovarian suppression by ′Long Protocol′ GnRH-agonist downregulation followed by ovarian stimulation. Materials and Methods: Sera were procured at different phases of IVF-ET for the assay of estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and for leptin. Ovarian follicular fluids were also assayed for leptin. Luteinized granulosa cells were cultured in vitro to evaluate their steroidogenic potential. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done by student′s t-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests as applicable. All results were expressed as Mean ± SE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Positive correlation was observed between serum and ovarian follicular fluid leptin. A negative correlation was noted between the serum leptin levels and endometrial thickness. Conclusions: Elevated leptin response may exert adverse impacts on pregnancy success during IVF-ET possibly by modulating uterine receptivity.

  14. Predictive value of ovarian stroma measurement for cardiovascular risk in polycyctic ovary syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loverro Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To verify the feasibility of ovarian stromal evaluation and correlate ovarian parameteres (echogenicity and volume with hyperandrogenism, and both cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in PCOS. Methods Twenty four young PCOS patients and twelve age-matched control women were enrolled. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Ultrasound ovarian study included ovarian volume, stromal volume, stromal area and stromal area/total ovarian area ratio (S/A. Concerning hormones, insulin, LH, FSH, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, DHEAS, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, and SHBG were measured during the early follicular phase (days 2-5. Cardiovascular risk factors were represented by fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids (total and HDL-cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, von-Willebrand factor (vWF, and adiponectin. Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT was measured as a parameter of cardiovascular risk. Results A positive correlation between the S/A ratio and plasma levels of testosterone (p Conclusions This study shows that the ultrasound measurement of ovarian stroma is a predicting factor of hyperandrogenism degree, prothrombotic factors and cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS.

  15. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    is also highly associated with porcine ovarian follicular granulosa cell differentiation in vitro.

  16. Multiple roles of hypoxia in ovarian function: roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-related and -unrelated signals during the luteal phase

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Ryo; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of oxygen conditions in the microenvironment of organs because of the discovery of a hypoxia-specific transcription factor, namely hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1. Ovarian function has several phases that change day by day, including ovulation, follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and regression. These phases are regulated by many factors, including pituitary hormones and local hormones, such as steroids, peptides and cytokines, as well as ox...

  17. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Artificial neural network model to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savala, Rajiv; Dey, Pranab; Gupta, Nalini

    2018-03-01

    To distinguish follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of thyroid in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a challenging problem. In this article, we attempted to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model from the cytological and morphometric features of the FNAC smears of thyroid to distinguish FA from FC. The cytological features and morphometric analysis were done on the FNAC smears of histology proven cases of FA (26) and FC (31). The cytological features were analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers (RS and PD). These data were used to make an ANN model to differentiate FA versus FC on FNAC material. The performance of this ANN model was assessed by analysing the confusion matrix and receiving operator curve. There were 39 cases in training set, 9 cases each in validation and test sets. In the test group, ANN model successfully distinguished all cases (9/9) of FA and FC. The area under receiver operating curve was 1. The present ANN model is efficient to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on cytology smears without any error. In future, this ANN model will be able to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on thyroid aspirate. This study has immense potential in future. This is an open ended ANN model and more parameters and more cases can be included to make the model much stronger. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan; Phulrenu Chauhan; Girish Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examinatio...

  20. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  1. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  2. Effect of shatapushpa taila matra basti and pathadi kwatha on poly cystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krupa D; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa B; Anand, Nalini

    2012-04-01

    Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a complex disorder affecting 5-15% women in their reproductive age and related to ovarian dysfunction, characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogonism, obesity, and infertility. In Ayurveda, these symptoms are found under various conditions, caused by vitiated Vata and Kapha. Pathadi Kwatha and Shatapushpa Taila Matra Basti were studied in the current attempt to evaluate their comparative efficacy in cases of PCOD. Total 34 patients of PCOD were registered among which, 32 had completed the treatment of 2 months. They were randomly divided in to three groups. In group A Pathadi Kwatha (10 g, bid) and Shatapushpa Taila Matra Basti (60 ml for 7 days after cessation of menses for 2 consecutive cycles) were administered. In group B only Basti, whereas in group C capsules of roosted wheat flour were administered. Better results were obtained in group A especially in menstrual irregularities, achieving follicular growth and in weight reduction.

  3. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  4. Distinct Patterns of Stromal and Tumor Expression of ROR1 and ROR2 in Histological Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Henry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ROR1 and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinases have both been implicated in ovarian cancer progression and have been shown to drive migration and invasion. There is an increasing importance of the role of stroma in ovarian cancer metastasis; however, neither ROR1 nor ROR2 expression in tumor or stromal cells has been analyzed in the same clinical cohort. AIM: To determine ROR1 and ROR2 expression in ovarian cancer and surrounding microenvironment and examine associations with clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was used to assess receptor expression in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients (n = 178. Results were analyzed in relation to clinical and histopathological characteristics and survival. Matched patient sample case studies of normal, primary, and metastatic lesions were used to examine ROR expression in relation to ovarian cancer progression. RESULTS: ROR1 and ROR2 are abnormally expressed in malignant ovarian epithelium and stroma. Higher ROR2 tumor expression was found in early-stage, low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ROR2 stromal expression was highest in the serous subtype. In matched patient case studies, metastatic samples had higher expression of ROR2 in the stroma, and a recurrent sample had the highest expression of ROR2 in both tumor and stroma. CONCLUSION: ROR1 and ROR2 are expressed in tumor-associated stroma in all histological subtypes of ovarian cancer and hold potential as therapeutic targets which may disrupt tumor and stroma interactions.

  5. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  6. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome Presenting with Polyserositis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Şengül Samancı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins. Pleural effusion and abdominal ascites frequently accompany this syndrome. In this paper, we present the case of a 22-year-old female patient who was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of sudden chest pain and dyspnea and was treated with ovulation induction. Exudative pleural effusion and ascites were determined in the patient. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed enlarged ovaries with numerous follicular cysts compatible with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Her estradiol level was >5054 pg/ml. The diagnosis of OHSS was established after elimination of other causative factors of polyserositis (pleural effusion and ascites. The disappearance of pleural effusion and ascites spontaneously in a week supported our diagnosis. Herein, we aimed to emphasize that OHSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polyserositis in young female patients with a history of ovulation induction history. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 56-9

  8. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  9. [Cranial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; González-Schaffinni, M A; Farías-García, R; Rey-Laborde, R

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid follicular carcinoma is able to produce metastatic lesions before the vanishing of the primary lesion. We present a case of a woman with a lytic, solitary, asymptomatic parietal bone lesion of 2 years of evolution. Autopsy revealed a thyroid gland with two small cystic areas and renal metastasis. Thyroid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of lytic bone lesions with long evolution in patients 60 years of age or older.

  10. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  11. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

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    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  13. Follistatin during pregnancy and its potential role as an ovarian suppressing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köninger, Angela; Schmidt, Börge; Damaske, Daniela; Birdir, Cahit; Enekwe, Antje; Kimmig, Rainer; Strowitzki, Thomas; Gellhaus, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian quiescence is a common condition during pregnancy. In vitro, follistatin, an antagonist of follicle-stimulating hormone, blocks follicular development at early stages, and its serum levels increase during pregnancy. A possible surrogate biomarker of ovarian arrest during pregnancy is a decrease in anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels followed by an increase in these levels on the second day after labor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether follistatin could act as an ovarian-suppressing agent during pregnancy. Follistatin levels and AMH levels were determined at various stages of pregnancy and postpartum. The follistatin and AMH levels of 69 patients were retrospectively determined with the AMH Gen II ELISA and with the Human Follistatin Quantikine ELISA Kit. For 49 patients, samples were available from various trimesters for cross-sectional analysis; for the other 20, samples were available longitudinally from day one before labor and then daily on days 1 through 4 after labor. Statistical significance was determined with linear regression, the Friedman rank sum test and the Wilcoxon-Nemenyi-McDonald-Thompson post hoc test. The behavior of follistatin levels was exactly opposite that of AMH levels: Follistatin levels increased significantly during pregnancy and on the first day after parturition but declined afterwards, whereas AMH levels decreased significantly during pregnancy and increased after labor. Follistatin can induce ovarian arrest during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of basal serum androgen levels with ovarian response and ICSI cycle outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide Yayla, C; Ozkaya, E; Kayatas Eser, S; Sanverdi, I; Devranoglu, B; Kutlu, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of basal serum testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels during follicular phase for ovarian response and outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of women with diminished ovarian reserve. We prospectively gathered data of basal serum androgen levels and ICSI cycle characteristics of 120 women with diminished ovarian reserve. Association of basal serum T and DHEAS levels with ovarian response was analyzed. Basal T and DHEAS levels were similar between pregnant and non-pregnant cases (P > 0.05). There were significant differences between groups with and without successful embryo implantation in terms of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), gonadotropin starting and total dose, and peak estradiol level (P stimulation due to unresponsiveness (n = 26, 21.7%), no oocyte at oocyte pickup (n = 11, 9.2%), no mature oocyte (n = 6, 5%), and failure of fertilization or embryo development (n = 15, 12.5%). Basal androgen levels were not significant predictors for any of the cycle outcome. AMH level was a significant predictor for failure of fertilization or embryo development (AUC 0.722, P = 0.01) and cancelation of stimulation (AUC 0.801, P stimulation (AUC 0.774, P basal T and DHEAS levels have no value in predicting any of the cycle outcome parameters.

  15. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (Povarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (Povarian resistance index (Povarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  16. The use of ovarian reserve markers in IVF clinical practice: a national consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Palermo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Filippo M

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian reserve markers have been documented to perform very well in the clinical practice. While this is widely recognized, still now there is no consensus on how to use new biomarkers in the clinical practice. This study was conducted among Italian IVF centres using the Delphi technique, a validated consensus-building process. Briefly three consecutive questionnaires were developed for clinicians in charge of IVF centres. In the first rounds, participants were asked to rate the importance of a list of statements regarding the categorization of ovarian response and the diagnostic role of biomarkers. In round 3, participants were asked to rate their agreement and consensus on the list of statements derived from the first two rounds. There were 120 respondents. Consensus was achieved for many points: (a) poor ovarian response is predicted on the basis of the following: AMH  3 ng/ml or AFC > 14; (c) day 3 FSH measurement should always be associated to estradiol; (d) AMH can be measured on a random basis; (e) the measurement of the AFC with the 2D technology may be considered adequate and (f) the AFC should be measured in the early follicular phase and consists in the total number of 2-9 mm follicles in both the ovaries. The present study suggests that extensive consensus on the importance and use of new ovarian reserve markers to improve IVF safety and performance is already present among clinicians.

  17. Polycystic ovarian morphology in normal women does not predict the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M K; Hall, J E; Adams, J M; Lee, H; Welt, C K

    2006-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is present in 25% of normal women in the absence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the natural history of PCOM is unknown. We hypothesized that the presence of PCOM predisposes the development of PCOS. The study was a longitudinal follow-up study over 8.2 +/- 5.2 yr (mean +/- sd; range 1.7-17.5 yr). The study took place in an outpatient setting. Women who took part in a previous study as a normal control and had an ultrasound examination (n = 40) participated. Subjects underwent an interval menstrual history, physical exam, blood sampling, and repeat ultrasound in the follicular phase. Development of PCOS was diagnosed by irregular menses and hyperandrogenism, in the absence of other disorders. Changes in ovarian morphology over time were evaluated. At the baseline visit, 23 women (57.5%) had PCOM and 17 (42.5%) had normal ovarian morphology. One subject with PCOM developed irregular menses and presumptive PCOS. Eleven subjects with PCOM no longer met the criteria for PCOM at follow-up. There was no factor that predicted the change to normal ovarian morphology at the follow-up visit. These data suggest that PCOM in women with regular ovulatory cycles does not commonly predispose the development of PCOS. Although it is unusual to develop PCOM if the ovaries are normal on first assessment, ovaries in women with PCOM no longer meet the criteria for PCOM in approximately half of cases over time.

  18. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff C

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 months earlier. The 2nd case sought medical attention for backache and leucorrhea of 4 years′ duration. Exploratory laparotomy in the 1st case revealed tubo-ovarian masses; the vermiform appendix was not traceable. The uterine cavity in the 2nd case harbored a wooden stick. Direct extension from established ileocacal actinomycosis was believed to involve the female genital adnexae in the past. Association of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis with the presence of a foreign body in the female genital tract has been reported sporadically in the literature, yet an increase in the incidence may be expected because of the frequent use of intrauterine contraceptive devices in recent times. It is suggested that in women presenting clinically with vague abdominal symptoms, backache and discharge, actinomycosis should be considered and ruled out with the help of cytologic and proper microbial culture methods. Once the diagnosis is established, the infection can be treated with good results with penicillin.

  19. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  20. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  1. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  2. Cell cycle evaluation of granulosa cells in the {gamma}-irradiated mouse ovarian follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Joo; Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kang Won; Yoon, Yong Dal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and morphological effects of ionizing radiation on mouse ovarian follicles. Immature mice (ICR, 3 week-old) were irradiated with a dose of LD{sub 80(30)} at KAERI. The ovaries were collected after 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, and 2 days post irradiation. With the morphological basis of the histological staining with hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemical preparation using in situ 3'-end labeling was evaluated. Flow cytometric evaluation of DNA extracted from the whole ovary was performed. The percentage of A{sub 0} (subpopulation of cells with degraded DNA and with lower DNA fluorescence than G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cells), apoptotic, cells in the cell cycle was significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the control group. The number of in situ 3'-end labeled follicles increased at 6 hours post irradiation. All the analyses represented that the ionizing radiation-induced follicular atresia was taken place via an apoptotic degeneration. Such a degeneration underwent very fast and acutely. Therefore, it is concluded that the radiation-induced follicular degeneration is, like the spontaneous atresia, mediated by an acute apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells. Flow cytometric evaluation of cell cycles can make the role for quantifying the atretic follicles and understanding the mechanism of the radiation-induced cell death.

  3. [The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of changes in the fallopian tube mucosa in ovarian epithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaturova, A V; Ezhova, L S; Faizullina, N M; Sannikova, M V; Khabas, G N

    2016-01-01

    to study the incidence of fallopian tube lesions (secretory cell proliferations (SCP), p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STIL), and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) in ovarian epithelial tumors and to propose their pathogenetic association with a certain histotype of the ovarian tumor. The investigation enrolled 136 patients with ovarian epithelial tumors, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically (IHC) examined using p53, Ki-67, and PAX2. Statistical analysis was carried out applying the Mann-Whitney test and χ(2) test. Lesions meeting the STIC criteria were found in 14.7% of cases (only in ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC)), those suspecting STICs were in 25.7%, and those without signs of STICs were in 59.6%. IFC examination diagnosed STIC in 10% of cases (only in OSC), STIL in 13.3%, p53 signature in 11.7% (only in serous tumors), and the normal/reactively changed tubal epithelium in 65%. The incidence of STILs correlated with the malignant potential of serous tumors significantly (pSTIC and high-grade OSC and revealed significant differences in the incidence of other fallopian tubal intraepithelial lesions in serous cystadenomas, borderline tumors, and OSC, in different ovarian carcinomas. The findings may suggest that the earliest stage in the pathogenesis of OSC is the development of SCP, followed by the formation of p53 signatures that may further give rise to STIL, and finally STC (due to the acquisition of additional mutations).

  4. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  5. Familial polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, J R

    1988-12-01

    Emphasis is placed on the heterogeneity of the phenotypic presentation of PCOD. It is the common expression of an unknown number of disorders and thus is a sign and not a specific diagnosis. Two essential features are arrested follicular maturation and atresia of follicles. Normal folliculogenesis is described, emphasizing that a large number of areas could be subject to derangement causing PCOD. Any interference of the finely balanced sequence of events can lead to PCOD. The genetic defect causing familial PCOD is unknown and the initiating event remains undefined. Three families are described that illustrate four features of familial PCOD. A number of associated disorders such as diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and hypertension are described. The potential importance of agents that modulate the LH and FSH activity that may cause PCOD is emphasized. The theoretic means by which similar male and female gonadal abnormalities may be coupled in families through growth factors EGF and alpha TGF are presented.

  6. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Mooij, T. M.; Burger, C. W.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Kortman, Marian; Laven, Joop S. E.; Jansen, Cees A. M.; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Willemsen, Wim N. P.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Evers, Johannes L. H.; van Dop, Peter A.; Macklon, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Is ovarian or extra-ovarian endometriosis associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)? We found a 3- to 8-fold increased risk of ovarian tumours associated with endometriosis: the magnitude of the risk increase depended on the definition of endometriosis.

  7. A genetically engineered ovarian cancer mouse model based on fallopian tube transformation mimics human high-grade serous carcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Valle, Blanca L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Amano, Tomokazu; Ko, Minoru S H; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Morin, Patrice J

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from the epithelium of the fallopian tube. However, most mouse models are based on the previous prevailing view that ovarian cancer develops from the transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium. Here, we report the extensive histological and molecular characterization of the mogp-TAg transgenic mouse, which expresses the SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) under the control of the mouse müllerian-specific Ovgp-1 promoter. Histological analysis of the fallopian tubes of mogp-TAg mice identified a variety of neoplastic lesions analogous to those described as precursors to ovarian HGSC. We identified areas of normal-appearing p53-positive epithelium that are similar to 'p53 signatures' in the human fallopian tube. More advanced proliferative lesions with nuclear atypia and epithelial stratification were also identified that were morphologically and immunohistochemically reminiscent of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a potential precursor of ovarian HGSC. Beside these non-invasive precursor lesions, we also identified invasive adenocarcinoma in the ovaries of 56% of the mice. Microarray analysis revealed several genes differentially expressed between the fallopian tube of mogp-TAg and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6. One of these genes, Top2a, which encodes topoisomerase IIα, was shown by immunohistochemistry to be concurrently expressed with elevated p53 and was specifically elevated in mouse STICs but not in the surrounding tissues. TOP2A protein was also found elevated in human STICs, low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma. The mouse model reported here displays a progression from normal tubal epithelium to invasive HGSC in the ovary, and therefore closely simulates the current emerging model of human ovarian HGSC pathogenesis. This mouse therefore has the potential to be a very useful new model for elucidating the mechanisms of serous ovarian tumourigenesis, as well as

  8. Challenges and opportunities for tissue-engineering polarized epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Ana C; Soleas, John; Poon, James C H; Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    The epithelium is one of the most important tissue types in the body and the specific organization of the epithelial cells in these tissues is important for achieving appropriate function. Since many tissues contain an epithelial component, engineering functional epithelium and understanding the factors that control epithelial maturation and organization are important for generating whole artificial organ replacements. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular organization leads to tissue malfunction and disease; therefore, engineered epithelium could provide a valuable in vitro model to study disease phenotypes. Despite the importance of epithelial tissues, a surprisingly limited amount of effort has been focused on organizing epithelial cells into artificial polarized epithelium with an appropriate structure that resembles that seen in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of epithelial tissue organization and highlight the importance of cell polarization to achieve appropriate epithelium function. We next describe the in vitro models that exist to create polarized epithelium and summarize attempts to engineer artificial epithelium for clinical use. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that exist to translate strategies from tissue engineering other tissues to generate polarized epithelium with a functional structure.

  9. Fibroma ameloblástico versus quiste folicular hiperplásico Ameloblastic fibroma versus hyperplastic follicular cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azúa-Romeo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El fibroma ameloblástico (FA es un tumor odontogénico mixto, compuesto por tejido mesenquimal y epitelio odontogénico, representando el 2% de los tumores odontogénicos, mientras que el quiste dentígero o folicular (QF, el segundo quiste odontogénico en frecuencia, está compuesto exclusivamente por tejido conjuntivo laxo (mesénquima, si bien, el saco fibroso puede contener restos de epitelio odontogénico incluidos, dando lugar a una imagen histológica muy similar. La importancia de esta diferenciación radica en el tratamiento, que es ligeramente más agresivo en el FA y en el comportamiento biológico, ya que el FA puede derivar en un sarcoma ameloblástico, y el QF puede evolucionar hacia ameloblastoma y más raramente carcinoma mucoepidermoide.Abstract: Ameloblastic fibroma (AF is a mixed odontogenic tumor composed of mesenchymal tissue and odontogenic epithelium, accounting for 2% of all odontogenic tumors, while dentigerous or follicular cyst (FQ, second odontogenic cyst in frequency, is formed exclusivelly by soft conective tissue (mesenchyme. Nevertheless, hiperplastic fibrous sac may contain rests of odontogenic epithelium, showing a similar histologic pattern. The importance of an adequate differentiation lies in the treatment, which is slightly aggresive for AF, and regarding the biological behaviour of both lesions, since AF might become in an ameloblastic sarcoma, while over an FQ could develope an ameloblastoma or even a mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  10. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Cox, James H LiuUH Case Medical Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Reproductive Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition.Keywords: premature ovarian failure, premature menopause, ovarian dysfunction

  11. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  12. Pediatric ovarian torsion: an uncommon clinical entity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwani, Kapil M; Mahomed, Anies

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Pediatric ovarian torsion is an infrequent diagnosis and it often mimics acute appendicitis. Most cases are due to underlying ovarian pathology and if left untreated, ovarian torsion may eventually cause peritonitis. Emergency exploratory laparoscopy represents a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool in suspected ovarian torsion.

  13. Monoclonal antibody DS6 detects a tumor-associated sialoglycotope expressed on human serous ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearse, K P; Smith, N L; Semer, D A; Eagles, L; Finley, J L; Kazmierczak, S; Kovacs, C J; Rodriguez, A A; Kellogg-Wennerberg, A E

    2000-12-15

    A newly developed murine monoclonal antibody, DS6, immunohistochemically reacts with an antigen, CA6, that is expressed by human serous ovarian carcinomas but not by normal ovarian surface epithelium or mesothelium. CA6 has a limited distribution in normal adult tissues and is most characteristically detected in fallopian tube epithelium, inner urothelium and type 2 pneumocytes. Pre-treatment of tissue sections with either periodic acid or neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae abolishes immunoreactivity with DS6, indicating that CA6 is a neuraminidase-sensitive and periodic acid-sensitive sialic acid glycoconjugate ("sialoglycotope"). SDS-PAGE of OVCAR5 cell lysates has revealed that the CA6 epitope is expressed on an 80 kDa non-disulfide-linked glycoprotein containing N-linked oligosaccharides. Two-dimensional non-equilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis indicates an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 to 6.5. Comparison of the immunohistochemical distribution of CA6 in human serous ovarian adenocarcinomas has revealed similarities to that of CA125; however, distinct differences and some complementarity of antigen expression were revealed by double-label, 2-color immunohistochemical studies. The DS6-detected CA6 antigen appears to be distinct from other well-characterized tumor-associated antigens, including MUC1, CA125 and the histo-blood group-related antigens sLea, sLex and sTn. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Follicular dynamics, interval to ovulation and fertility after AI in short-term progesterone and PGF2α oestrous synchronization protocol in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J F; Allende, R; Lara, E; Leiva, A; Díaz, T; Dorado, J; Saravia, F

    2012-12-01

    The study was aimed to assess the influence that short-term progesterone treatments have on follicular dynamics, oestrus and ovulation in sheep. The treatment was tested thereafter in a field trial to assess its fertility after AI with fresh semen. In a first experiment, 12 ewes without CL were grouped to receive a new (n = 6) or used CIDR (n = 6) for 7 days and blood samples were obtained to follow plasma progesterone profiles. In a second experiment, 39 cycling ewes were synchronized by a 7-day P4+PGF2α protocol using a new (n = 20) or a 7-day used CIDR (n = 19). Half of both groups received 400 IU eCG and half remained untreated as controls. Ultrasound ovarian examination and oestrous detection were used to compare follicular dynamics, oestrus and ovulation in both groups. In a third experiment, 288 ewes in 3 farms were synchronized by the short-term P4+PGF2α+eCG protocol and ewes were AI with fresh semen 24 h after oestrous detection. Lambing performance was used to test the fertility of the treatment. In Experiment 1, ewes with new inserts presented higher P4 concentration than ewes with used inserts throughout the sampling period (p 0.10). However, ewes treated with eCG show shorter interval to oestrus (p = 0.004) and tend to have larger mature CL (p = 0.06). In Experiment 3, oestrous presentation and lambing performance after AI with fresh semen was considered normal compared to published results. Results suggest that the oestrous synchronization protocol based on P4+PGF2α allows little control of follicular dynamics without compromising fertility after AI with fresh semen provided that eCG is added at the end of the treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Differential Expression of Claudin Family Proteins in Mouse Ovarian Serous Papillary Epithelial Adenoma in Aging FSH Receptor-Deficient Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Aravindakshan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease with long latency. To understand the consequences of loss of folliclestimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R signaling and to explore why the atrophic and anovulatory ovaries of follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO mice develop different types of ovarian tumors, including serous papillary epithelial adenoma later in life, we used mRNA expression profiling to gain a comprehensive view of misregulated genes. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, protein analysis, and cellular localization, we show, for the first time, in vivo evidence that, in the absence of FSH-R signaling, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-11 are selectively upregulated, whereas claudin-1 decreases in ovarian surface epithelium and tumors in comparison to wild type. In vitro experiments using a mouse ovarian surface epithelial cell line derived from wild-type females reveal direct hormonal influence on claudin proteins. Although recent studies suggest that cell junction proteins are differentially expressed in ovarian tumors in women, the etiology of such changes remains unclear. Our results suggest an altered hormonal environment resulting from FSH-R loss as a cause of early changes in tight junction proteins that predispose the ovary to late-onset tumors that occur with aging. More importantly, this study identifies claudin-11 overexpression in mouse ovarian serous cystadenoma.

  16. Ultrasonography of ovarian hyperandrogenemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana A.; Zharkin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of ultrasonography is high informative and widely used in diagnostics of ovarian hyperandrogenaemia. The majority of authors consider that a hyperplasia of a stroma is the main pathognomonic marker of polycystic ovaries (PCO). Still recently swell of a stroma was valued visually, that had subjective nature. We offer for the first time a way of diagnostics of stromal hyperplasia grounded on measurement of a volume of a stroma and ovary with ultrasound method, calculation of the ratio of a volume of the ovary to a volume of a stroma for every patient.

  17. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  18. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  1. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  2. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  3. Influence of body mass index in anti-Müllerian hormone levels in 951 non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women followed at a reproductive medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Pereira, Joana; Nunes, Joaquim; Aguiar, Ana; Sousa, Sandra; Rodrigues, Cátia; Sampaio Matias, Joaquim; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos

    2018-02-22

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve. Obesity/overweight are increasing and may affect the reproductive health. Previous studies regarding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on AMH levels are discordant. Our main goal was to evaluate the influence of BMI on AMH levels in women without polycystic ovarian syndrome. Revision of medical records of 951 women who performed AMH determinations as part of their fertility workup, between 2011 and 2016. Median AMH concentration was 1.75 [interquartile range (IQR) 2] ng/mL (12.9 pmol/mL) and median age at AMH determination was 35 (IQR 6) years. These women evidenced a median BMI of 23 (IQR 5) kg/m 2 . Caucasian women were more represented [889(89.3%)]. Smoking habits (present/past) were present in 359(36.1%), and 147(14.8%) harboured a history of ovarian surgery. On univariable analysis AMH was not correlated with BMI (r = 0.048/p = 0.135); the only factors influencing AMH were age (p ovarian surgery (p ovarian reserve. BMI does not seem to affect AMH levels. The reported concerns on infertility in overweight and obese women may be related to follicular development/oocyte maturation or endometrial disorders, rather than decreased ovarian reserve.

  4. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 9 9 m T c -pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissu...

  5. Creation of a Human Secretome: A Novel Composite Library of Human Secreted Proteins: Validation Using Ovarian Cancer Gene Expression Data and a Virtual Secretome Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Wang, Victoria; Wei, Wei; Waldron, Levi; Drapkin, Ronny; Gillette, Michael; Skates, Steven; Birrer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To generate a comprehensive "Secretome" of proteins potentially found in the blood and derive a virtual Affymetrix array. To validate the utility of this database for the discovery of novel serum-based biomarkers using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data. The secretome was constructed by aggregating the data from databases of known secreted proteins, transmembrane or membrane proteins, signal peptides, G-protein coupled receptors, or proteins existing in the extracellular region, and the virtual array was generated by mapping them to Affymetrix probeset identifiers. Whole-genome microarray data from ovarian cancer, normal ovarian surface epithelium, and fallopian tube epithelium were used to identify transcripts upregulated in ovarian cancer. We established the secretome from eight public databases and a virtual array consisting of 16,521 Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 probesets. Using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data, we identified candidate blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer and performed bioinformatic validation by demonstrating rediscovery of known biomarkers including CA125 and HE4. Two novel top biomarkers (FGF18 and GPR172A) were validated in serum samples from an independent patient cohort. We present the secretome, comprising the most comprehensive resource available for protein products that are potentially found in the blood. The associated virtual array can be used to translate gene-expression data into cancer biomarker discovery. A list of blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection is reported and includes CA125 and HE4. FGF18 and GPR172A were identified and validated by ELISA as being differentially expressed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared with controls. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  8. The effect of GnRH or oestradiol injected at pro-oestrus on luteal function and follicular dynamics of the subsequent oestrous cycle in non-lactating cycling Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Oestrous synchronization involves synchronization of ovarian follicular turnover, new wave emergence, and finally induction of ovulation. The final step can be synchronized by the parenteral administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. This study investigated corpus luteum and follicular emergence after ovulation had been induced by the administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. The injection of oestradiol benzoate may have delayed the emergence of the first follicular wave subsequent to the induced ovulation; administration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH lowered the progesterone rise so that the maximum dioestrous concentration of progesterone on Day 9 was lower when cows were treated during pro-oestrus compared to the spontaneously ovulating controls. One implication of findings from the present study is that induction of ovulation with either oestradiol benzoate or GnRH, administered 24 or 36 h after withdrawal of the CIDR device, respectively, may lower fertility. Future studies must identify the timing of administration relative to the time of CIDR device withdrawal and the optimum concentration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH that would not have untoward effects on the development of the corpus lutea, particularly within the first week of dioestrus.

  9. Effect of antiprogesterone RU486 on VEGF expression and blood vessel remodeling on ovarian follicles before ovulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Mauro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation is strictly related to the development of an adequate blood vessel network required to sustain the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Even if the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF drives angiogenesis before ovulation, the local role exerted by Progesterone (P₄ remains to be clarified, in particular when its concentration rapidly increases before ovulation. AIM: This in vivo study was designed to clarify the effect promoted by a P₄ receptor antagonist, RU486, on VEGF expression and follicular angiogenesis before ovulation, in particular, during the transition from pre to periovulatory follicles induced by human Chorionic Gonadotropins (hCG administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preovulatory follicle growth and ovulation were pharmacologically induced in prepubertal gilts by combining equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG and hCG used in the presence or absence of RU486. The effects on VEGF expression were analyzed using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies, either on granulosa or on theca layers of follicles isolated few hours before ovulation. This angiogenic factor was also correlated to follicular morphology and to blood vessels architecture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: VEGF production, blood vessel network and follicle remodeling were impaired by RU486 treatment, even if the cause-effect correlation remains to be clarified. The P₄ antagonist strongly down-regulated theca VEGF expression, thus, preventing most of the angiogenic follicle response induced by hCG. RU486-treated follicles displayed a reduced vascular area, a lower rate of endothelial cell proliferation and a reduced recruitment of perivascular mural cells. These data provide important insights on the biological role of RU486 and, indirectly, on steroid hormones during periovulatory follicular phase. In addition, an in vivo model is proposed to evaluate how periovulatory

  10. A novel homozygous mutation in the FSHR gene is causative for primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Xu, Xiaofei; Han, Ting; Yan, Lei; Cheng, Lei; Qin, Yingying; Liu, Wen; Zhao, Shidou; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-12-01

    To identify the potential FSHR mutation in a Chinese woman with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Genetic and functional studies. University-based reproductive medicine center. A POI patient, her family members, and another 192 control women with regular menstruation. Ovarian biopsy was performed in the patient. Sanger sequencing was carried out for the patient, her sister, and parents. The novel variant identified was further confirmed with the use of control subjects. Sanger sequencing and genotype analysis to identify the potential variant of the FSHR gene; hematoxylin and eosin staining of the ovarian section to observe the follicular development; Western blotting and immunofluorescence to detect FSH receptor (FSHR) expression; and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay to monitor FSH-induced signaling. Histologic examination of the ovaries in the patient revealed follicular development up to the early antral stage. Mutational screening and genotype analysis of the FSHR gene identified a novel homozygous mutation c.175C>T (p.R59X) in exon 2, which was inherited in the autosomal recessive mode from her heterozygous parents but was absent in her sister and the 192 control women. Functional studies demonstrated that in vitro the nonsense mutation caused the loss of full-length FSHR expression and that p.R59X mutant showed no response to FSH stimulation in the cAMP level. The mutation p.R59X in FSHR is causative for POI by means of arresting folliculogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intact cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on single bovine oocyte and follicular cells combined with top-down proteomics: A novel approach to characterise markers of oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, Valérie; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Bouguereau, Laura; Gargaros, Audrey; Spina, Lucie; Marestaing, Aurélie; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2018-03-20

    Intact cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (ICM-MS) was adapted to bovine follicular cells from individual ovarian follicles to obtain the protein/peptide signatures (top-down workflow using high resolution MS/MS (TD HR-MS) was performed on the protein extracts from oocytes, CC and GC. The TD HR-MS proteomic approach allowed for: (1) identification of 386 peptide/proteoforms encoded by 194 genes; and (2) characterisation of proteolysis products likely resulting from the action of kallikreins and caspases. In total, 136 peaks observed by ICM-MS were annotated by TD HR-MS (ProteomeXchange PXD004892). Among these, 16 markers of maturation were identified, including IGF2 binding protein 3 and hemoglobin B in the oocyte, thymosins beta-4 and beta-10, histone H2B and ubiquitin in CC. The combination of ICM-MS and TD HR-MS proved to be a suitable strategy to identify non-invasive markers of oocyte quality using limited biological samples. Intact cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on single oocytes and their surrounding cumulus cells, coupled to an optimised top-down HR-MS proteomic approach on ovarian follicular cells, was used to identify specific markers of oocyte meiotic maturation represented by whole low molecular weight proteins or products of degradation by specific proteases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Nielsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+......Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+...

  13. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm/sup -2/ to 10.000 Jm/sup -2/ and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm/sup -2/ and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm/sup -2/. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared.

  14. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm -2 to 10.000 Jm -2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm -2 and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm -2 . The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. (orig.) [de

  15. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  16. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  17. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  18. Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hunsucker, S.W.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Helmke, S.M.; Slootweg, P.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Haugen, B.R.; Duncan, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible. Molecular markers may aid distinguishing FTA from FTC in patients with indeterminate cytology. The aim of this study is to define protein

  19. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  20. Ovarian size and response to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzi, S; Khodaee, R; Parsanejad, M E

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate endocrine and ovulatory changes in polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in relation to patients' ovarian size. Three hundred and seventy-one women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOD underwent laparoscopic ovarian cauterization [type I or typical with ovarian volume >8 cm(3) or cross-sectional area >10 cm(2) (n=211), type II with normal size ovary (n=160)]. Serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEAS, PRL, and T before and 10 days after ovarian cautery, spontaneous and induced ovulation and pregnancy rates were compared. Both groups responded to therapy in a similar manner, with a marked decrease in LH, FSH, DHEAS and T levels, with ovulation rates in type I 90.99%, type II 88.75% and pregnancy rates, 73.45% and 71.25%, respectively, with no statistical differences. Hormonal changes, ovulation and pregnancy rates were similar in the two types of PCOD, therefore it can be concluded that ovarian size is not a prognostic factor for response of PCOD patients to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization.

  1. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  2. Dermoscopy of inverted follicular keratosis: study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambrich, A; Zaballos, P; Taberner, R; Terrasa, F; Bañuls, J; Pizarro, A; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2016-07-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is an uncommon benign tumour of the follicular infundibulum, which is often misdiagnosed clinically as other keratinizing tumours, and commonly diagnosed correctly by histopathology. There are few reports about the dermoscopic findings of this lesion. To evaluate the dermoscopic features of IFK. The dermoscopic structures and patterns in digital dermoscopic images of 12 histopathologically confirmed cases of IFK collected from 5 hospitals in Spain were evaluated. A keratoacanthoma (KA)-like pattern composed of central keratin surrounded by hairpin vessels in a radial arrangement was the most common pattern in IFK (58.3%). The second most common pattern was composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area surrounded by vascular structures in a radial arrangement (33.3%). The remaining case showed a pattern composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area with milky red globules. Vascular structures were present in all cases, with a monomorphic pattern in seven cases and a polymorphic pattern in five, mainly with radial arrangement. Arborizing vessels, linear irregular vessels, corkscrew vessels and milky red globules were present in some cases. We describe the two main patterns of IFK. Lesions with a KA-like pattern are clinically and dermoscopically undistinguishable from KA and squamous cell carcinoma. Cases with a polymorphic vascular pattern could be confused with malignant tumours, including basal cell carcinoma and amelanotic melanoma. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Primary Follicular Lymphoma of the Common Bile Duct Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Youssef Elbanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the common bile duct is extremely rare. We present a case with history of inflammatory bowel disease and clinical manifestations of obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP was done and demonstrated tight stricture at the middle part of common bile duct, and radiological findings were supportive of extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Whipple′s procedure was performed and the case was histopathologically proven to be non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of follicular subtype involving the common bile duct. Lymphoma of the hepatobiliary system is usually present as secondary manifestation of systemic malignant lymphoma. However, primary malignant lymphomas arising from the hepatobiliary tree are extremely rare. The radiological appearance of common bile duct lymphoma is very similar to cholangiocarcinoma, making preoperative diagnosis very difficult, as in our present case. We also compare the imaging findings of our case to those seen in reported cases of follicular lymphoma of the common bile duct.

  4. Impact of obinutuzumab alone and in combination for follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarraf Yazdy M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Sarraf Yazdy, Bruce D Cheson Division of Hematology-Oncology, Georgetown University Hospital, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Although rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL, this disease is considered incurable in most patients. Thus, new therapies are needed not only for those in the relapsed/refractory setting, but also for initial treatment. Obinutuzumab (G, GA101 is a third-generation, fully humanized type II glycoengineered, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that results in increased direct cell death and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab has significant antitumor activity when used alone or in combinations in untreated or relapsed refractory FL patients. Studies have demonstrated its ability to prolong progression-free survival and, in some cases, overall survival, and to eliminate minimal residual disease. Several ongoing trials are investigating combinations with chemotherapy, immunomodulators, targeted drugs, and immunotherapy agents. G is generally well tolerated, with associated adverse effects including infusion-related reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and reactivation of hepatitis B virus. Future studies with this antibody should focus on identifying predictive markers and developing chemotherapy-free combinations that will improve the outcome of patients with FL. Keywords: obinutuzumab, follicular lymphoma, MRD, monoclonal antibody

  5. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together.

  6. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG): clinical trial design for rare ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leary, A. F.; Quinn, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Coleman, R. L.; Kohn, E.; Sugiyama, T.; Glasspool, R.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Colombo, N.; Bacon, M.; Zeimet, A.; Westermann, A.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Provencher, D.; Welch, S.; Small, W.; Millan, D.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian

  7. Clinical pregnancy in a woman with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low AMH: utility of ovarian reserve markers in IHH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Crystal; Liu, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    Serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as a useful marker of ovarian reserve that is cycle-independent and predictive of outcome in assisted reproduction cycles. However, there is evidence that AMH production is gonadotropin-dependent, and that under the influence of FSH, growing follicles contribute to circulating AMH levels. Therefore, AMH testing may not be universally reflective of the primordial follicle pool in certain conditions. We demonstrate that in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and deficient gonadotropin production, AMH and antral follicle count (AFC) may not be reliable markers of ovarian reserve. Case report. Fertility clinic at a tertiary academic hospital. A 30-year-old nulligravid patient with IHH who presented for fertility treatment with low FSH (0.3 IU/L), LH (0.1 IU/L), estradiol (77 pmol/L) and AMH levels (0.65 pmol/L), and an unmeasurable AFC. A three-month course of priming with oral micronized 17β-estradiol, followed by daily injections of human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG). AMH level and follicular development. After 60 days of stimulation with hMG, the patient's AMH level increased to a peak of 1.27 pmol/L. After 102 days of stimulation, her estradiol level rose to 480 pmol/L and a 19 mm dominant follicle was detected. The patient successfully conceived with intrauterine insemination. Ovarian reserve testing in patients with IHH can be challenging due to the contracted appearance of the ovaries and deficient FSH production. In these patients, AMH levels may underestimate ovarian reserve due to the lack of FSH-dependent growing follicles. When treated with a long course of hMG, these patients may exhibit increased AMH levels and demonstrate adequate follicular development.

  8. The adhesion molecule NCAM promotes ovarian cancer progression via FGFR signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchini, Silvia; Bombardelli, Lorenzo; Decio, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    glycoprotein involved in brain development and plasticity, in EOC. NCAM is absent from normal ovarian epithelium but becomes highly expressed in a subset of human EOC, in which NCAM expression is associated with high tumour grade, suggesting a causal role in cancer aggressiveness. We demonstrate that NCAM......Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is an aggressive neoplasm, which mainly disseminates to organs of the peritoneal cavity, an event mediated by molecular mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we investigated the expression and functional role of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a cell surface...... stimulates EOC cell migration and invasion in vitro and promotes metastatic dissemination in mice. This pro-malignant function of NCAM is mediated by its interaction with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Indeed, not only FGFR signalling is required for NCAM-induced EOC cell motility, but targeting...

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  17. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  18. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem; Chauhan, Phulrenu; Parmar, Girish

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  19. Late effects of 60Co γ radiation on the bovine oocyte as reflected by oocyte survival, follicular development, and reproductive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Reynolds, R.A.; Murphree, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the oocyte of a long-lived mammal have not been determined. Therefore, 280 15- to 18-month-old grade Herefords were partitioned among five groups and irradiated with either 0, 200, 300, 400, or 300 + 300 (55 days between fractions) R of 60 Co γ radiation at exposure rates of 0.69 or 0.78 R/min. Dose to the ovaries was 37 +- 3 percent of the dose measured in air. Germ cell effects were assessed in the survivors through (1) counts of germ cells and follicles in serially sectioned ovaries, (2) incidence of ovarian abnormalities, and (3) reproductive performance. Neither germ cell nor follicular counts were significantly affected by irradiation (P greater than 0.05). Incidence of ovarian abnormalities was not altered nor was reproductive performance or quality of offspring. It was concluded, therefore, that a near lethal postpuberally applied dose of γ radiation would not affect the reproductive capacity of the bovine female

  20. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  1. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  2. Management of ovarian cysts in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Qiang, Yan; Nan-Nan, Zheng; Lei, Yu; Wei, Lu; Hong-Qiang, Bian; Jun, Yang; Xu-Fei, Duan; Xin-Ke, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  3. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  4. Tamoxifen and ovarian function.

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    Martine Berliere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that the clinical parameter "amenorrhea" is insufficient to define the menopausal status of women treated with chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In this study, we investigated and compared the ovarian function defined either by clinical or biological parameters in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen administered as adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2003, 138 premenopausal patients consecutively treated for early breast cancer were included. Sixty-eight received tamoxifen in monotherapy as the only adjuvant systemic treatment (Group I and 70 were treated with tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy (Group II. All patients had a confirmed premenopausal status based on clinical parameters and hormonal values at study entry. They were followed prospectively every 3 months for 3 years: menses data, physical examination and blood tests (LH, FSH, 17-beta-estradiol. Vaginal ultrasonography was carried out every 6 months. After 3 years, prospective evaluation was completed and monitoring of ovarian function was performed as usual in our institution (1x/year. All data were retrospectively evaluated in 2011. RESULTS: Three patients were excluded from the study in group I and 2 were excluded in group II. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to clinical data, i.e. menses patterns. These patterns were assessed by questionnaires. a: Regular menses (>10 cycles/year b: Oligomenorrhea (5 to 9 cycles/year c: Severe oligomenorrhea (1 to 4 cycles/year d: Complete amenorrhea Estrogen levels did not appear to have any impact on disease-free survival rates after 3 or 8 years. FSH values were also documented and analyzed. They exhibited the same profile as estradiol values. CONCLUSIONS: Amenorrhea is an insufficient parameter to define menopausal status in patients receiving tamoxifen. Low estradiol levels must be coupled with other biological parameters to characterize endocrine status

  5. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in the in vitro ovarian stromal fibroblasts

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    Lilian Chuaire-Noack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing biological research field is the cellular senescence, a mechanism that has been associated, under certain circumstances, withmalignant transformation. Given the high incidence of ovarian cancerand its main origin from the ovarian surface epithelium, as well asthe possibility that an epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs, weevaluated both the in vitro growth of stromal fibroblasts from the ovarian cortex and their β-galactosidase activity at pH 6,enzyme whose expression is considered as a marker of replicativesenescence. Methods: 48 samples of ovarian cortical fibroblasts fromdonors without a history of cancer were serially cultured untilthe end of their replicative life. β-galactosidase activity at pH 6was quantified in each passage by the chemiluminiscent method. Ascontrol, we used ovarian epithelial cell cultures from the samedonors. The enzyme activity was also evaluated in fibroblastspreviously induced to senescence by exposure to hydrogen peroxide.Results: The analysis of the enzyme activity and the replicativecapacity taken together showed that the fibroblast cultures reachedthe senescent state at passages 4-5, as what happened with the control epithelial cells. Fibroblasts induced to senescence showed high variability in the values of enzymatic activity. Conclusions:The similarity between both types of cells in reaching the senescent state deserves to be taken into account in relation to theepithelialmesenchymal transition that has been proposed to explaintheir behavior in the genesis of cancer arising from ovarian surfaceepithelium. Low β-galactosidase activity values at pH 6 would suggestpossible inactivation of the response pathways to oxidative stress.

  6. Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. PMID:26617848

  7. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

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    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  8. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  9. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  10. Dominant lethal and ovarian effects of plutonium-239 in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, C.V.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    (C3H x 101)F 1 female mice were injected intravenously with 239 Pu in trisodium citrate, then mated in pairs to strain CBA males, to test for dominant lethality. In the first experiment 10μCi kg -1 and in the second 20μCi kg -1 body mass was injected. Matings were after 6 days in the first experiment (estimated ovarian absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy) and after 3,6 or 12 weeks in the second (estimated ovarian doses of 1.11, 2.45 and 5.91 Gy respectively). No evidence of dominant lethal induction was found in the first experiment, but in the second there was a significant increase over controls in pre-implantation loss in all three series. Post-implantation lethality increased significantly (by 12%) only after 12 weeks' exposure. With the 6- and 12-week exposures (especially the latter) luteal counts fell, fewer females becoming pregnant than in controls. This is attributed to oocyte killing by the α-particles. Histological and autoradiographic investigations showed a marked reduction in ovarian size and follicular numbers with fission-tracks clustered mainly over the medullary stroma. The preimplantation loss may stem from lowered fertilization of oocytes because of their damage, so that the best measure of dominant lethality is that based on post-implantation death. (author)

  11. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Charkraborty, Tapas [South Ehime Fisheries Research Center, Ehime University, Ainan, 798-4206 (Japan); Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Wang, Deshou, E-mail: wdeshou@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  12. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  13. Cut-Off Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone for The Prediction of Ovarian Response, In Vitro Fertilization Outcome and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

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    Ali Salmassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH cut-off levels in assisted reproductive technology (ART as predictive factor for individualization of stimulation protocols and to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 177 infertile patients were assessed for AMH in serum and follicular fluid (FF on the day of follicular puncture (FP, between 2012 and 2013 in Kiel, Germany. AMH levels and pregnancy rates were compared between low, moderate and high responders and cut-off levels of low and high responders. AMH cut-off levels in pathological cases were evaluated in analysis 1 (OHSS and in analysis 2 [polycystic ovarian syndrome, (PCOS] and compared in analysis 3 to normal endocrinological parameters. Results: AMH levels in FF were higher than in serum (P<0.001. AMH levels in serum and FF increased from low through moderate to high responders (P<0.001. Pregnancy rates were 14.7, 23.3 and 44.9% (P=0.009, respectively. AMH cut-off level for poor responders was 0.61 ng/ml in serum with a pregnancy rate of 13.8 and 37.1% for below and above of this level, respectively. For FF, it was 1.43 ng/ml. AMH levels in analysis 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in analysis 3 (P=0.001. AMH cut-off level for OHSS was 1.5 ng/ml in serum with OHSS rates of 80.8 and 19.2 % for above and below of the level, respectively. For FF, it was 2.7 ng/ml. PCOS patients had an AMH cut-off level of 3.9 ng/ml in serum and 6.8 ng/ml in FF, resulting in a PCOS rate of 100% above this level. Conclusion: AMH levels can help to assess ovarian response potential and guide ovarian stimulation while avoiding OHSS.

  14. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q; Xu, D; Li, Z

    2001-07-01

    To establish a cell line of human ovarian cancer, and study its characterization. The cell line was established by the cultivation of subsides walls, and kept by freezing. The morphology was observed by microscope and electromicroscope. The authors studied its growth and propagation, the agglutination test of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the chromosome analysis, heterotransplanting, immuno-histochemistry staining, the analysis of hormone, the pollution examination and the test of sensitivity to virus etc. A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 685 (OMC685), was established from mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This cell line had subcultured to 91 generations, and some had been frozen for 8 years and revived, still grew well. This cell line possessed the feature of glandular epithelium cancer cell. The cells grew exuberantly, and the agglutinating test of PHA was positive. Karyotype was subtriploid with distortion. Heterotransplantations, alcian blue periobic acid-schiff (AbPAS), mucicarmine, alcian blue stainings, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were all positive. Without being polluted, it was sensitive to polivirus-I, adenovirus 7 and measles virus. OMC685 is a distinct human ovarian tumous cell line.

  15. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Comparative evaluation of sonographic ovarian morphology of Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus those of normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study ovarian morphology by ultrasound in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to establish cut-off values of these parameters in Indian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 consecutive women diagnosed PCOS and 77 apparently healthy women were enrolled. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was carried out to assess ovarian volume, stromal echogenecity, follicle number and size. Cut-off values of the above ovarian parameters with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of 79.49% and specificity of 90.67% was achieved with a cut-off of 8 mL as ovarian volume. A cut-off value of 9 follicles to distinguish between PCOS and control women yielded a sensitivity of 82.35% and specificity of 92.0% while as a follicular size of 5 mm yielded sensitivity and specificity of 74.67% and 78.15% respectively. With all the three parameters sensitivity was 87.39% and specificity 87.84% with 92.04% PPV and 81.25% NPV. Conclusion: Using two or three sonographic criteria in combination improves sensitivity and helps diagnose additional patients with PCOS. Our results are at variance with the established cut-off values highlighting the fact that American Society for Reproductive Medicine consensus cut-off values are not reproducible in Indian context.

  17. Variation in ovarian follicle density during human fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Megale, Rodrigo; Vale, Fabiene; Lanna, Ana Maria Arruda; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2012-09-01

    To obtain a precise estimate of ovarian follicle density and variation in the number of follicles at several gestational ages during human fetal development. Twelve necropsied ovaries from 9 fetuses (gestational age: 24 to 36 weeks) and 3 neonates (who died within the first hours of life) were studied. Ovaries were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial, 7 mm thick sections of the ovaries were cut and evaluated at every 50 cuts. Follicles were counted in 10 regions (each measuring 625 μm(2)) of the ovarian cortex and the number of follicles per mm³ was calculated. The number of follicles per 0.25 mm² ranged from 10.9 (± 4.8) in a neonate to 34.7 (± 10.6) also in a neonate. Among fetuses, follicle density was lowest at 36 weeks of gestation (11.1 ± 6.2) and highest at 26 weeks (32 ± 8.9). The total number of follicles ranged from 500,000 at the age of 22 weeks to > 1,000,000 at the age of 39 weeks. Our results show a peak in the number of follicles during intrauterine life at approximately 26 weeks, followed by a rapid reduction in this number before birth, providing a step forward towards the understanding of primordial follicular assembly in humans and, ultimately, the identification of the determinants of reproductive capacity.

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor BB and DD and angiopoietin1 are altered in follicular fluid from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Leopoldina; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; De Zuñiga, Ignacio; Bisioli, Claudio; Pettorossi, Hernan; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological pathology among women of reproductive age, and is characterized by abnormalities in ovarian angiogenesis, among other features. Consistent with this association, follicular fluid (FF) concentration and ovarian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are increased in PCOS patients. In this study, we examined the protein levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB and DD (PDGFBB and PDGFDD), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), and their soluble receptor sTIE2 in FF from PCOS and control patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. We also analyzed the effect of FF from PCOS and control patients on tight and adherens junction protein expression in an endothelial cell line. PDGFBB and PDGFDD were significantly lower whereas ANGPT1 concentration was significantly higher in FF from PCOS patients than from control patients. No changes were found in the concentration of ANGPT2 or sTIE2. Expression of claudin-5 was significantly increased in endothelial cells incubated for 24 hr in the presence of FF from PCOS versus from control patients, while vascular-endothelial cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens 1 expression were unchanged. The changes observed in the levels of PDGF isoforms and ANGPT1 may prevent VEGF-induced vascular permeability in the PCOS ovary by regulating endothelial-cell-junction protein levels. Restoring the levels of angiogenic factors may provide new insights into PCOS treatment and the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in affected women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Peripubertal ovarian cyst torsion as an early complication of undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ságodi, László; Schmidt, Ildikó; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the authors is to present two cases which raise the possibility of an association between polycystic ovarian syndrome/hyperandrogenism and ovarian cyst torsion in peripubertal girls. Androgen excess may cause more frequently ovarian cyst formation in premenarcheal or young adolescents with undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome than in adults. The authors recommend that polycystic ovarian syndrome as well as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be considered in peripubertal adolescents with ovarian cyst torsion. In case polycystic ovarian syndrome is confirmed, adequate management according to age and pubertal development of the patients should be commenced.

  20. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  1. Intralesional rituximab in primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma relapsed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Ruiz Rodríguez, M J; Vargas Pabón, M

    2017-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman experienced a local relapse of a primary follicular lymphoma (FL) of the conjunctiva. She received 4 weekly intra-lesional injections followed by 6 monthly injections of rituximab (6mg/ml). A clinical response was achieved after first injection. No adverse ocular event or signs of lymphoma relapse were seen after 10 months of follow-up. Intralesional administration of rituximab for treating primary FL of the conjunctiva was an effective and safe therapeutic option; therefore it could be an alternative to other conventional treatments, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Research progress of follicular cytotoxic T cells in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ming

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 5 (CXCR5+ cluster of differentiation (CD8+ T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC subgroup, has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.

  3. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  4. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  5. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  6. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  7. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  8. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  9. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12 were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4 one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4 and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4 after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05 and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05. There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01 but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05 but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05 and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05 both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05. In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  10. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  12. Comparison of transepithelial corneal crosslinking with epithelium-off crosslinking (epithelium-off CXL in adult Pakistani population with progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Akbar

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Transepithelial CXL is not recommended to be replaced completely by standard epithelium-off CXL due to continued ectatic progression in 25% of cases. However, thin corneas, unfit for standard epithelium-off CXL, can benefit from transepithelial CXL.

  13. SERPINB3 in the chicken model of ovarian cancer: a prognostic factor for platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whasun Lim

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs appear to be ubiquitously expressed in a variety of species and play important roles in pivotal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, blood coagulation and fibronolysis. Of these, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1, also known as a SERPINB3, was first identified in squamous cell carcinoma tissue from the cervix of women. However, there is little known about the SERPINB3 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the functional role of SERPINB3 gene in human EOC using chickens, the most relevant animal model. In 136 chickens, EOC was found in 10 (7.4%. SERPINB3 mRNA was induced in cancerous, but not normal ovaries of chickens (P<0.01, and it was abundant only in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries of chickens. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-101, miR-1668 and miR-1681 were discovered to influence SERPINB3 expression via its 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences SERPINB3 expression in chickens. SERPINB3 protein was localized predominantly to the glandular epithelium in cancerous ovaries of chickens, and it was abundant in the nucleus of both chicken and human ovarian cancer cell lines. In 109 human patients with EOC, 15 (13.8%, 66 (60.6% and 28 (25.7% patients showed weak, moderate and strong expression of SERPINB3 protein, respectively. Strong expression of SERPINB3 protein was a prognostic factor for platinum resistance (adjusted OR; odds ratio, 5.94; 95% Confidence Limits, 1.21-29.15, and for poor progression-free survival (PFS; adjusted HR; hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI; confidence interval, 1.03-4.41. Therefore, SERPINB3 may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and be a novel biomarker for predicting platinum resistance and a poor prognosis for survival in patients with EOC.

  14. Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, Frank J.; Visser, Jenny A.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Broer, Simone L.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Fauser, Bart C.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has important roles in postnatal ovarian function. Produced by ovarian granulosa cells, AMH is involved in initial follicle development. In fact, serum AMH level correlates with ovarian follicle number. In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), AMH levels are

  15. Podoplanin (D2-40): A New Immunohistochemical Marker for Reactive Follicular Dendritic Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Chen, Lugen; Fu, Kai; Harter, Josephine; Young, Ken H; Sunkara, Jaya; Novak, Deborah; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Ratech, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma can be challenging because of its morphologic overlaps with many other spindle cell neoplasms and, therefore, new phenotypic markers will be helpful in its differential diagnosis. Podoplanin is a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been detected in reactive FDCs. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of podoplanin using a new mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40, and compared them with CD21, a well-established FDC marker, in a comprehensive panel of cases. The panel included 4 FDC sarcomas, 38 spindle cell neoplasms of other types, 25 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and 117 lymphoid and 5 myeloid malignant hematopoietic neoplasms. Our study revealed that D2-40 strongly stained 3 of 4 FDC sarcomas. In contrast, D2-40 stained only 2/38 other spindle cell neoplasms tested. Furthermore, we observed that D2-40 highlighted more FDC meshworks than CD21 in Castleman's disease, follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma, and residual reactive germinal centers in a variety of lymphoma types. D2-40 and CD21 stained an equal number of cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, progressively transformed germinal centers and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. No expression of podoplanin was detected in normal or neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells. We conclude that podoplanin (D2-40) is a sensitive and specific FDC marker, which is superior or equal to CD21 in evaluating both reactive and neoplastic FDCs. In addition, our results suggest that podoplanin (D2-40) can be used to support the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. PMID:18784810

  16. New stimulation regimens: endogenous and exogenous progesterone use to block the LH surge during ovarian stimulation for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The advent of embryo and oocyte vitrification today gives reproductive specialists an opportunity to consider new strategies for improving the practice and results of IVF attempts. As the freezing of entire cohorts does not compromise, and may even improve, the results of IVF attempts, it is possible to break away from the standard sequence of stimulation-retrieval-transfer. The constraints associated with ovarian stimulation in relation to the potential harmful effects of the hormonal environment on endometrial receptivity can be avoided. This review will look at the new stimulation protocols where progesterone is used to block the LH surge. Thanks to 'freeze all' strategies, the increase in progesterone could actually be no longer a cause for concern. There are two ways of using progesterone, whether it be endogenous, as in luteal phase stimulation, or exogenous, as in the use of progesterone in the follicular phase i.e. progestin primed ovarian stimulation. A literature search was carried out (until September 2016) on MEDLINE. The following text words were utilized to generate the list of citations: progestin primed ovarian stimulation, luteal phase stimulation, luteal stimulation, duostim, double stimulation, random start. Articles and their references were then examined in order to identify other potential studies. All of the articles are reported in this review. The use of progesterone during ovarian stimulation is effective in blocking the LH surge, whether endogenous or exogenous, and it does not affect the number of oocytes collected or the quality of the embryos obtained. Its main constraint is that it requires total freezing and delayed transfer. A variety of stimulation protocols can be derived from these two methods, and their implications are discussed, from fertility preservation to ovarian response profiles to organization for the patients and clincs. These new regimens enable more flexibility and are of emerging interest in daily practice. However

  17. Polycystic ovarian disease: US features in 104 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H C; Futterweit, W; Thornton, J C

    1987-04-01

    Ultrasonographic (US) study was performed in 25 healthy women and 104 patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Although the average size of ovaries in the PCOD patients was much larger than that of the healthy women, 29.7% of ovaries in the PCOD patients were normal in size. The shapes of the ovaries (roundness index) in PCOD patients were not different from those of the healthy women. There was no significant correlation between the size and shape of the ovaries. Bilaterally enlarged, globular-shaped ovaries were rare and usually asymmetric in size. The most important feature of PCOD on US scans is the bilaterally increased numbers of developing follicles (0.5-0.8 cm in size), usually more than five in each ovary. Although maturing follicles (1.5-2.9 cm) are much rarer in PCOD patients (13.5%) than in healthy women (36%), the incidences of follicular cysts (greater than 3 cm) was about the same in both.

  18. Increase of corneal epithelium cell radioresistance during regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiosensitivity of the normal and regenerating cornea epithelium of C 57 Bl mice was performed on the cellular level, the duration of the cell cycle being taken into account. Criteria of radiation injuries were the number of chromosome aberrations, mitotic index and duration of mitotic block. The anterior part of the head was irradiated singly with 1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 Gy and also repeatedly 3.5 + 3.5 at a 24-hours interval. The corneas were fixed 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after irradiation. In all cases of irradiated mice the regenerating epithelium showed a shorter mitotic block and significantly lower cytogenetic injury as compared with the controls. Effects of fractionated irradiation were only shown in the regenerating epithelium. The results obtained indicate that regenerating epithelium cells of the cornea are significantly more radioresistant than normal epithelium due to activation of post-radiation recovery, and also, possibly, due to an increase in the content of endogenous radioprotectors. (author)

  19. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  20. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Martinelli-Kläy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus.