J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom
Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8â25 percent). The activity projected to...
... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...
James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer
The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...
Ryan L. Sharp; Craig A. Miller
This study was conducted to identify the motivations of trip participants in the Georgia Outdoor Recreation Program at the University of Georgia during the fall semester of 2007, and to collect baseline data about their participation. Participants were asked to fill out a survey and return it to the trip leader at the conclusion of each trip. Participants'...
Alan D. Bright; Susan C. Barro
Environmental awareness has increased in the past two decades. One factor believed to influence this awareness is outdoor recreation participation. We examined whether participation in outdoor recreation predicts pro-environmental behavior and whether environmental values mediate the relationship. A survey of residents of Washington state measured (a) participation in...
Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X.F. Wang; K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson
A number of studies have shown that certain groups in American society (e.g., Blacks, women, urban dwellers) can encounter barriers or perceived constraints to participation in outdoor recreation. Early research on constraints focused on racial or gender differences. More recent research has examined the effects of income, education, age, and place of residence (Arnold...
recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...
Bob Du Lee; Alan Graefe; Robert Burns
Family recreation has been recognized as an effective way to nurture family customs and promote healthy youth development. In particular, outdoor-based recreation that includes inherent challenges often offers opportunities for a family to grow together and promotes family cohesion and youth development. Building on earlier research, this study attempts to further...
J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Neelam Poudyal; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Lynne Seymour; H. Ken Cordell
In this chapter we begin to assess the potential effects of climate change on future outdoor recreation in the South, a region spanning 13 states from Virginia to Texas (Chapter 1). Our goal is to provide some useful insights about future natural resource-based recreation-an important nontimber product derived from southern forests-in the face of climate change. We...
John F. Dwyer
Much of the initial research on the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups focused on between-group differences in percent participating in an activity. This tended to focus research, policy, and management on between-group differences at the expense of a more comprehensive look at the participation patterns of racial/ethnic groups. This paper...
recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...
Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English
Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...
Walter S. Hopkins
Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The RECSITES data layer contains a wide range of recreational sites in Vermont. This point data layer includes parks, ski areas, boat access points, and many other...
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann
Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...
Lindsey Barker; Chad Dawson
The relationship between environmental attitudes (EA) and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been the focus of several studies in environmental psychology and recreation research. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between EAs and ERBs at both a general level and at an activity-specific level using a 2009 survey of motorized...
H. Ken Cordell
This publication presents a national study of outdoor recreation trends as part of the Renewable Resources Planning Act Assessment by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The objectives are to review past trends in outdoor recreation participation by Americans, to describe in detail current outdoor recreation participation patterns, and to compare...
H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz
the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.
This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…
Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra
in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...
Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.
This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…
G.T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X. Wang; H.K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson
This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment...
Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz
Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...
Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...
Phipps, Maurice L.
This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…
Carl H. Reidel
I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...
Harriet H. Christensen; Paula J. Williams; Roger N. Clark
Objective information is generally lacking about women and their satisfactions and experiences from participation in outdoor recreation. Data were gathered from campers in three National Forests in Washington and Oregon. Attitudes, preferences, perceptions, and reported activities of men and women campers were compared. Overall, responses showed more similarities than...
John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell
In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...
Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...
Yasong Wang; Alan Graefe
This paper reports on a case study of an outdoor experiential learning program and examines its meaning for program participants. The research was conducted with 56 university students who participated in the Outdoor Recreation Consortium held at the Great Smoky Mountain Institute in Tremont, TN. A mixed-method comparative research approach, using both quantitative and...
Kloek, M.E.; Buijs, A.E.; Boersema, J.J.; Schouten, M.G.C.
Immigrants are often described as ‘under-participating’ in non-urban outdoor recreation. Our quantitative study among 1057 young adults of Chinese, Turkish and non-immigrant descent in the Netherlands, however, showed strong differences in outdoor recreational behaviour between and within ethnic
Michael A. Tarrant; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell
Between 1990 and 1994, a comprehensive national survey was conducted by the USDA Forest Service (FS), Southern Research Station, to measure visitor preferences for, and perceptions of, setting attributes at a variety of outdoor recreation sites. Over 11,000 visitors at 31 outdoor recreation sites across the country were interviewed in this study. The study was entitled...
Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan
This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…
Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant
Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…
Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken
Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)
Eric M. White; Michael Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Don English
Outdoor recreation plays a significant role in American lives. It provides physical challenges and well-being, helps develop lifelong skills, provokes interest and inquiry, inspires wonder and awe of the natural world, and often provides an alternative to daily routines. Recreation contributes greatly to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of individuals, bonds...
Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M. Bowker; Katherine Smith; Cindi West
Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and Â provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51 Â billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters Â (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....
Stanley J. Zarnoch; Donald B. K. English; Susan M. Kocis
An outdoor recreation use simulator (ORUS) has been developed to simulate dispersed recreation survey data similar to that collected by the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) Project's survey of the national forests of the U.S.A. Statistical distributions are used to represent the various behaviors of recreationists during their visit to a dispersed area. The...
This paper indicates how modern spatial computing technology can be used for developing spatial policy for, and planning of outdoor action and adventure recreation and tourism (OAART). An application was performed in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research overviews spatial recreation and tourism ...
Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…
This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…
H. Ken Cordell
Considerable interest in better understanding current trends in nature-based outdoor recreation followed publication of Richard Louvâs book, Last Child in the Woods, and a recent paper by Oliver R.W. Pergams and Patricia A. Zaradic titled âEvidence for a Fundamental and Pervasive Shift away from Nature-Based Recreation.â
R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Paul Gentle
Outdoor recreation on private land is influenced by myriad factors. To provide background and context on these factors, this chapter first overviews the private land situation in the United States and provides general information and discussion related to ownership and tenure, land-use patterns, legal restrictions, and economic conditions, including taxation issues....
Lloyd C. Irland; Thomas Rumpf
A data base for assessing the availability of land for outdoor recreation does not exist. Information on related issues such as vandalism, easements, and land posting is scanty. Construction of a data base for assessing land availability should be a high priority for USFS and HCRS, and for SCORP's and the RPA and RCA assessments.
Pouwels, Rogier; Sierdsema, Henk; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Henkens, René J.H.G.; Opdam, Paul F.M.; Eupen, van Michiel
In protected areas managers have to achieve conservation targets while providing opportunities for outdoor recreation. This dual mandate causes conflicts in choosing between management options. Furthermore, the persistence of a protected species within the management unit often depends on how
John D. Peine; Robert W. Marans; Charles C. Harris
Following a brief historical overview of the social indicators movement, outdoor recreation measures which can be considered as social indicators are discussed. Such indicators are largely derived from social surveys. Illustrative data from 53 such surveys are presented. Despite the availability of such data, there have been few attempts to adapt them as established...
H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Shela H. Mou; John C. Bergstrom; R. Jeff Teasley; Michael A. Tarrant; John Loomis
Outdoor Recreation in American Life is the United States' only ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the trends, current situation, and likely future of outdoor recreation demand and supply. New and different aspects of national demand, resemblances to the past, and trends in the supply of outdoor recreation opportunities, both from the private and public sectors,...
Andre, Elizabeth K.; Williams, Nathan; Schwartz, Forrest; Bullard, Chris
Campus outdoor recreation programs and facilities have faced a number of public attacks questioning their value for students. Climbing walls in particular have become, to some, emblematic of waste and financial excess in higher education. Despite these claims, this literature review uncovers numerous benefits for participants and schools provided…
Full Text Available Abstract Background A physically active life promotes both physical and mental health, increasing well-being and quality of life. Physical activity (PA performed outdoors has been found to be particularly good for promoting well-being. However, participation in PA can change during the course of a lifetime. Parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women, although studies in the field are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate participation in outdoor recreational PA, and factors influencing participation among parents-to-be, with and without previous children, from a gender perspective. Methods This study included baseline data from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from the municipality of Karlskrona in south-east Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008-2009. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year and analysed the probability of participating in this PA using 25 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Seventy-six per cent of the women and 65% of the men had participated in outdoor recreational PA, varying from several times per month to every day, over a 12-month period prior to one month before pregnancy. Participation in PA indoors and owning a dog or a horse emerged as the most important factors associated with the probability of participation in outdoor recreational PA. Men were affected by a greater number of factors than women, for example men who had a family situation that permitted outdoor recreational PA participated in activities to a greater extent than men without such a family situation. The physical aspect, i.e. improved physical condition, staying power and vigour, also played a significant role with regard to participation among men. Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that affects participation in PA. By offering family-oriented PA choices that involve
Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica
This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin's (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide "umbrella" organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.
Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica
This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.
Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker
In a recent article in this Journal, Whitehead (1 992) presents a method for estimating annual economic surplus for recreation trips to a natural resource site based on whether an individual participates in recreation at that site. Whitehead proposes his method as an alternative to the traditional two-stage travel cost approach. We contend that Whitehead's method...
Full Text Available During recent years in Korea, the participants in outdoor recreation have significantly increased, and relevant industries have also shown a great growth. This phenomenon is to pursue outdoor recreation based on nature as a way of maintaining healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to explore how perceived restorative environment influences wellness, satisfaction, and loyalty by researching climbers in the National Park. The data were collected at four times only on weekends from 12th July to 20th July 2014 at the entrance of Mt. Dobong in Mt. Bukhand National Park in Seoul. Researchers selected every 5th visitors with systematic sampling. Out of 420 collected questionnaires, except from 20 questionnaires which include unanswered items, 400 questionnaires were used for empirical analysis. The result of the analysis by using SEM shows that perceived restorative environment has a critical influence on wellness, and this wellness also affects satisfaction and loyalty. This result of the research provides a useful insight into how policy makers and practitioners in the National Parks, urban parks and Ministry of Health and Welfare develop the places for outdoor recreation based on nature in order to pursue wellness as a way of the improvement of the public health.
Paul H. Gobster; David M. Buchner
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and leisure fields in promoting outdoor recreation. We describe how trans disciplinary integration of research efforts across these fields can lead to a better understanding of how outdoor recreation facilities and programs can help realize a full range of health and wellness benefits....
Milstein, David N.
Michigan is widely recognized as a traditional leader in outdoor recreation and tourism. Its location and resources provide many comparative advantages toward attracting visitors. State spending for outdoor recreation amounted to $95 million over the decade ending in 1960. State and Federal policies and programs are likely to emphasize outdoor…
Background: Access to outdoor recreational resources is important for promoting healthy behavior and physical activity, which may decrease the risk of disease. To date, no study has examined the relationship between access to outdoor recreational resources (including protected l...
Jensen, Cathrine Ulla
and the profile of the price premium. There is a large correlation between the income level within a neighborhood and the level of outdoor recreation. Controlling for unobserved quality through fixed effects reveals that the price premium increases with prices, but when controlling for the general price level...... using the trade price of neighboring homes (a lag), the price premium becomes constant. Controlling for local neighborhood affluence and unobserved quality on a larger scale yields the same results as the spatial lag term but with a more robust model due to the absence of endogeneity. The paper offers......This paper investigates how household demand for access to nature varies across a Danish housing market. I use conditional quantile regressions to estimate the implicit price for a change in nature area conditional on the home price. If there are systematic differences in the willingness to pay...
This report summarizes more than 30 years of the literature on net economic value of outdoor recreation on public lands. The report provides average net willingness to pay or consumer surplus per day for 30 recreation activities at the national level. Values per day by recreation activity are also presented by census region of the United States. Detailed tables provide...
Deborah J. Chavez
Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...
Patricia L. Winter; Jessica Skenderian; William Crano
This paper examines the issue of outreach to diverse publics as a central concern to natural resource recreation management. Increasing diversity across the Nation has been accompanied by an underrepresentation of communities of color among outdoor recreation populations in natural resource settings. Mass media may be an excellent way to conduct outreach, but the...
Gary H. Elsner
These eight papers were presented at Working Party S6.01-3, XVIth World Congress of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Oslo, Norway, June 22, 1976. Topics covered include (a) improving studies on demand for outdoor recreation, (b) forecasting changes in number of visitors after a change in recreational quality at an area, (c) comparing the use...
Donald B. K. English; Carter J. Betz; J. Mark Young; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell
This paper develops regional recreation supply and demand projections, by combining coefficients from the national 1989 RPA Assessment models with regional regressor values. Regional recreation opportunity estimates also are developed, based on regional travel behavior. Results show important regional variations in projections of recreation opportunities, trip supply,...
Evidence from correlational studies suggests outdoor recreation may enhance participants' environmental concern, but findings are inconclusive. Also, previous research has not systematically addressed the influence of interpretation services on environmental concern, and little research has been conducted in developing Eastern countries. Thus,…
Full Text Available As Henry Thoreau noted in the 1850s, the simple act of walking can be loaded with political and spiritual meaning. Today, taking a hike as an act of engaging in outdoor recreation is equally non-trivial, and therefore subject of the following analysis. As this paper argues, outdoors recreation is still influenced by the legacy of the Sublime and its construction of wilderness. This troublesome legacy means that the cultural self-representation of outdoor sports – and the practice itself – lays claim to the environment in ways that are socially and sometimes even ethni-cally exclusive. This essay uses William Cronon’s critique of the cultural constructedness of wilderness as a point of departure to see how Western notions of sublime nature have an impact on spatial practice. The elevation of specific parts of the environ-ment into the category of wilderness prescribes certain uses and meanings as na-ture is made into an antidote against the ills of industrial civilization, and a place where the alienated individual can return to a more authentic self. This view then has become a troublesome legacy, informing the cultural self-representation of those uses of “wilderness” that are known as outdoor recreation. In its cultural production, outdoors recreation constructs “healthy” and “athlet-ic” bodies exercising in natural settings and finding refuge from the everyday al-ienation of postmodern society. Yet these bodies are conspicuously white, and the obligatory equipment and fashion expensive. Outdoor recreation is a privileged assertion of leisure, often denoting an urban, affluent, and white, background of the practitioner. These practitioners then lay exclusive claim on the landscapes they use. As trivial as taking a hike or any other form of outdoors recreation may thus seem, they put a cultural legacy into practice that is anything but trivial.
Gilbert, Jim, Ed.; Bruner, Eric, Ed.
This proceedings contains 16 papers on recreation and adventure programming, outdoor education, and outdoor leadership training. The papers are: (1) "Beyond Recreation: Our Classroom Is Wild America" (Barry Auskern); (2) "Outward Bound Leadership Model: An Exploratory Study of Leadership Variables" (Natalie L. Bartley); (3)…
Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell
This study examines the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation sites and their proximity to census block groups (CBGs), in order to determine potential socio-economic inequities. It is framed within the context of environmental justice. Information from the Southern Appalachian Assessment database was applied to a case study of the Chattahoochee National Forest in...
Lier, van H.N.
When meeting the increasing demand for outdoor recreation projects, problems arise concerning location, planning capacity and layout. A system has been developed to solve the two last mentioned problems. Special attention is paid to inland beaches in the Netherlands. To apply the system two
Sera J. Zegre; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger; Randall S. Rosenberger
This article uses perceptions of commercial tour operators in Juneau, Alaska, to examine the extent to which the commercial outdoor recreation and tourism industry in this area reflects principles of McDonaldizationâefficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Data from interviews with 23 operators suggest that this industry in Juneau illustrates these...
Ana Elia Ramón Hidalgo; Howard. Harshaw
Recreationists with high expectations of satisfaction from outdoor recreation activities are increasingly using trails networks near urban areas. But differences in expectations, behaviors and values of trail users may create conflicts resulting in unsatisfactory experiences. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of management practices that may reduce...
Teague, Travis L.
This paper stresses the outdoor recreation and education professionals should understand aspects of liability, negligence, and risk management. There are four elements that must be present if a person or organization is to be considered negligent: the presence of a legal duty of care, a breach of duty, proximate cause, and actual damages. When…
Qurie Purnamasari; Andry Indrawan; E. K. S Harini Muntasib
Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration. This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology. This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC). This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people i...
H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; Gary T. Green
Wilderness and other public land management agencies, both federal and state, have been feeling a pinch. It seems this pinch may partly be in response to a growing perception, or perhaps misperception,that nature-based, especially wildland recreation, is on the decline. This perception has been getting a lot of media attention of late. Some of us who have done research...
J. M. Bowker; D. Murphy; H. K. Cordell; D. B. K. English; J. C. Bergstrom; C. M. Starbuck; C. J. Betz; G. T. Green; P. Reed
This paper explores the influence of demographic and spatial variables on individual participation in wildland area recreation. Data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE) are combined with GIS-based distance measures to develop nonlinear regression models used to predict both participation and the number of days of participation in...
Neaman, Keith C; Do, Viet H; Olenzek, Emily K; Baca, Marissa; Ford, Ronald D; Wilcox, Richard M
Outdoor recreational fires are a frequent occurrence during the summer months and can be associated with burns resulting in significant morbidity. Both pediatric and adult populations can be affected, and their mechanism of injury is often different. Understanding these mechanisms is important when designing prevention programs. It is the goal of this study to review our experience with outdoor recreational fires. All patients who presented to Spectrum Health Blodgett Regional Burn Unit for burns secondary to an outdoor recreational fire over an 8-year period were reviewed. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, body area involved, TBSA burned, treatments undertaken, and subsequent complications were recorded. Pediatric patients (aged 16 years and younger) were analyzed independently, and risk factors were determined. A total of 329 patients suffered burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires over the length of the study. More than 35% required inpatient treatment, with an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hands were the most frequently affected body part, with the mean TBSA involved being 3.5%. Ninety-four patients (28.6%) required split-thickness skin grafting. The most common mechanism of injury in both adult and pediatric populations was falling into an ongoing fire. Wound infection was the most common complication. Alcohol intoxication was associated with a higher burn severity and complication rate. Pediatric patients represented 39.8% of the sample. Burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires are associated with significant morbidity. Adult prevention programs should target awareness with respect to alcohol consumption and campfires secondary to the morbidity associated with these injuries. Pediatric patients are particularly susceptible, and parents should remain diligent about campfire safety and be educated about the inherent dangers of both active and extinguished fires.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is part of a healthy lifestyle and prevents many chronic health problems, in addition to promoting mental health. PA performed outdoors has been found particularly good for promoting one's well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which outdoor recreational PA was carried out during 1 year, and the factors influencing such activities from a gender perspective among persons ≥ 60 years of age. Methods This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men. Conclusion Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor
Gentle, Paul F.; Bergstrom, John C.; Betz, Carter J.; Bowker, James Michael; Cordell, H. Ken; English, Donald B.K.; Teasley, R. Jeff
Future demand projections reported in this paper indicate a steady increase in demand for outdoor recreational opportunities in U.S. regions where BLM lands are located. From a supply perspective, BLM lands represent "prime targets" for meeting increased recreational demand in the western U.S. The BLM will face the challenge of balancing increased recreation use with other multiple uses, and minimizing the negative environmental impacts of increased recreation use such as damages caused by mo...
The purpose of this study was threefold: First, to analyze some core concepts of human well-being. As part of this issue, the study deals with the distinction between life satisfaction and personal growth. Also related to this first issue, the study investigates the difference between the emotion of pleasure and the emotion of interest. Second, to investigate changes in health, life satisfaction and emotions during the first semester with outdoor recreation in folk high schools. And third, to...
Siderelis, Christos; Smith, Jordan W.
State parks play a substantial role in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities within the United States. Park operators must make crucial decisions in how they allocate capital expenditures, labor, and parkland to maintain recreation opportunities. Their decisions are influenced, in part, by the ecological characteristics of their state's park system as well as the vitality of their state's economy. In this research, we incorporate the characteristics of states' ecosystems and their local economies into a formal production analysis of the states' park systems from the years 1986 to 2011. Our analysis revealed all three factors of production were positive and inelastic. Expenditures on labor had the largest effect on both park utilization and operational expenditures. Our analysis also found a large degree of variability in the effects of ecological characteristics on both utilization and operating expenditures. Parkland utilization and operational expenditures were more elastic in areas such as Oceania and Mediterranean California relative to other ecological regions. These findings lead us to conclude that state park operators will experience variable levels of difficulty in both accommodating increasing demands for recreation from state parks and maintaining the existing quality of outdoor recreation provided within their system.
Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G.; Burke, J.E.
The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)
Gyan P. Nyaupane; Duarte B. Morais; Alan Graefe
The purpose of this study was to compare leisure constraints across three outdoor recreation activities, whitewater rafting, canoeing, and overnight horseback riding, in the context of the three-dimensional leisure constraints model proposed by Crawford and Godbey (1987). The sample consisted of 650 outdoor enthusiasts from 14 U.S. states who showed an interest in...
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, f...
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374
Full Text Available This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Michael A. Schuett
This study investigated the social interaction of white water kayakers and attempted to predict the level of enduring involvement of participants. It was hypothesized that social interaction would shift from classes and programs to peers of similar interests as level of involvement increased. The results did show that social interaction is a primary reason for...
In order to determine perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana the modified Crawford, Jackson and Godbey\\'s (1991) constraint assessment questionnaire which focused on five barrier categories, i.e. aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, facility-awareness and facility constraint, was used.
H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom; Lawrence A. Hartmann; Donald B. K. English
The Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Situation in the United States is intended to build upon past studies and to establish a new and better information base on outdoor recreation and wilderness demand and supply. Also, this assessment answers several key questions which will help identify ways to meet demand through the year 2040. Specifically, it is...
Full Text Available 800x600 Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration. This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology. This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC. This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people into consideration which are describe the product of ecology recreation in order to achieve an ideal product that has not been reached previously and still need more serious effort. Analysis descriptive with qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this study. SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and descriptive statistic are considered for alternative outdoor recreation product while the AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process has been used to achieve a priority product for implementation. The findings suggested a diversification strategy or S-T (Strengths – Threats was chosen to develop the products of recreation in WWCC. The priority of these products based on the AHP value are as follows: a Water falls (0.2700, b Natural scenery (0.1623, c Camping (0.1405, d Hiking (0.1073, e Theraphy of water fall energy (0.0885, f Plants viewing (0.0665, g Wildlife viewing (0.0525 and h Outbound (0.0380. Key words: Outdoor recreation product, ecology, WWCC, Bogor Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Rodney B. Warnick
The purpose of this review was to examine volume segmentation within three selected outdoor recreational activities -- swimming, hunting and downhill skiing over an eight-year period, from 1982 through 1989 at the national level and within the Northeast Region of the U.S.; and to determine if trend patterns existed within any of these activities when the market size...
John F. Dwyer; Susan C. Barro
A study of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior of Non-Hispanic White Americans (n=618), African Americans (n=647), and Hispanic Americans (n=346) in Cook County, Illinois was conducted in early 1999. Respondents were contacted in a phone survey using random digit dialing and a quota for each group. Important similarities and differences were found among these...
Full Text Available Actor-network theory (ANT shows how scientific and technical innovations may take the form of a socio-technical network, by the aggregation of humans and non-humans (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1989. This article reflects on the contributions and limits of ANT to examine a particular object of research presenting regular innovations: the outdoor recreation. Firstly, the integration of non-humans to the analysis (Latour, 2006 is relevant in the study of nature sports because physical entities transform the action and involve specific associations. Then it is a particular epistemological positioning that shakes the dichotomies up and givesimportance to the reflexive activity of actors. Finally, understanding the development of collectives is useful for the study of nature sports. The construction of a social coexistence between different activities (sports activities and other activities strongly questions the political transformation of contemporary democracy, including the establishment of a participatory management.
Elwood L., Jr. Shafer; George Moeller
If future recreation consumption and associated intangible values can be predicted, the problem of rapid decision making in recreation-resource management can be reduced, and the problems of implementing those decisions can be anticipated. Management and research responsibilities for meeting recreation demand are discussed, and proved methods for forecasting recreation...
The long-term effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on the eye are of increasing concern as many people live longer and spend more of that time in outdoor recreation and as the diminishing ozone layer filters less UV light. Ultraviolet radiation is strongest at high altitude, low latitude, and open for reflective environments (sand, snow, or water). For people who lack an eye lens (aphakics), UV light is transmitted directly onto the retina. Cumulative exposure to the 300- to 400-nm range of UV light is one factor causing cataracts. Ophthalmologists say cataracts cause visual deficits for more than 3.5 million people in the United States. Cumulative UV exposure may lead to age-related macular degeneration. At a Research to Prevent Blindness conference in Arlington, VA, John S. Werner, PhD, professor of psychology and neurosciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, described how his group demonstrated the effects of UV light on retinal cones. Different types of intraocular lenses were placed in each eye of eight patients who had undergone bilateral cataract surgery. After five years, retinal cones chronically exposured to UV radiation had less sensitivity for short wavelengths (440 nm) by a factor of 1.7.
Po-Hsin Lai; Chia-Kuen Cheng; David Scott
Participation in outdoor recreation has been increasing at a rate far exceeding the population growth since the 1980s. The growing demand for outdoor recreation amenities has imposed a great challenge on resource management agencies of public lands. This study proposed a segmentation framework to identify different outdoor recreation groups based on their attitudes...
Shanely, Shannon Dee
Today, human beings spend more than 90% of their lives indoors (Evans, 2003). Not long ago, both urban and rural children grew up mostly outdoors, and had direct experiences with plants, animals, and the ways in which the necessities of daily life were grown, made, and used. When they were not helping with household work, children spent much of their time exploring the outdoor environment, relatively free from adult interference. The lives of children today are much different. Children now have fewer opportunities for unstructured play and regular contact with the natural world. Outdoor education programs are one tool that can provide children with continued access to the natural world. This study was conducted to determine how outdoor education program participants interpret their experiences in the natural world, how participant engagement with an outdoor education program shapes their perception of the natural world, and how participant interpretation of an outdoor education program shapes their actions for caring for the natural world when they return home. Using qualitative research methods, my study was conducted with four sixth-grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program. The participants, two females and two males, were given cameras to document the most important aspects of their outdoor education experience. The pictures were used to stimulate conversation and encourage reflection during the interview process. Data sources consisted of a pre-program interview with each student, daily interviews with students while they were participating in the outdoor education program, and a post-program interview conducted one week after the program ended. Critical incident technique analysis was used to delineate the most critical elements of each participant's outdoor education experience. My study found that participants interpreted their outdoor education program as a positive experience. Classes that were challenging and gave
Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen
Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study of university students according to gender; recreational activity participation trends and participation in these events in the factors which may impede the examination of population of the study, Agri Ibrahim Chechen University 2012 - 2013 academic year, students who are studying the sample group the Islamic Sciences Faculty, Faculty of Arts and Education at the Faculty of normal and used in teaching students selected by the random sampling method and volunteered to participate in the research consisted of 490 individuals . Working as a data collection tool "Leisure Barriers" scale is used. Working for the analysis of two independent sample t - test and ANOVA were applied, no significant differences found as a result of these practices in order to determine the source of the Duncan test was performed. The scale used in the study in three of the six factors of the variations observed according to the specified arguments, but this perspective more " time and lack of interest in" the focus has been understood that.
Slater, Daniel; Meade, Michelle A
Recreation and sports following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are beneficial, but under-studied, aspects of community integration. Previous studies have shown that sports and recreation can offer numerous physiological and psychological benefits to those who participate. This manuscript critically reviews available literature focused upon participation in recreation and sports among persons with SCI. Issues of participation, technology and safety are discussed and recommendations are provided.
Full Text Available Outdoor Adventure Education can be used to develop and hone the transferable orso called soft skills such as group work and problem-solving skills in highereducation. These skills are also much needed to ensure employability. An outdooradventure activity was developed and implemented by lecturers in order to bridgethis gap between university and the industry in order to hone the transferableskills of students studying sport and recreation. Data were collected over twoyears. Two hundred students participated in the research study with a mean age of22±4 years. Data were collected qualitatively and analysed and subsequentlynumerically coded to ensure statistical analyses. Analyses indicated no statisticaldifferences between skills learned in the first and second year. Students were thendivided into first time and second time participants and statistical differences werefound. The second time participants reported mostly on leadership skills learnedand first time participants on teamwork. Implementingan outdoor AdventureEducation event was effective in developing skills in students much needed for success in higher education as well as becoming well-rounded individuals whompossess all the qualities for rewarding employment.
Studies that employ communication theories are rare in recreation resource management. One reason may be unfamiliarity with communication theories and their potential to provide useful results. A two-dimensional metatheoretical plane is proposed, selected recreation and communication theories are located in it, and functional comparisons are made among eight disparate...
J. Michael Bowker; D. Murphy; H. Ken Cordell; Donald B.K. English; J.C. Bergstrom; C.M. Starbuck; C.J. Betz; G.T. Green
This paper explores the influence of demographic and spatial variables on individual participation and consumption of wildland area recreation. Data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment are combined with geographical information systembased distance measures to develop nonlinear regression models used to predict both participation and the number...
Oeian, H.; Skaar, M.; Vistad, O.I.; Andersen, O.
In the aftermath of the Full City loss several academic reports will assess the effects from the oil spill upon different aspects of the nature environment, but also upon human activities within this kind of surroundings. In this report the short term effects upon outdoor recreational activities will be evaluated. Short term refers to the period from the oil spill was first observed (July 31th 2009) and until winter arrived. The report is the end product of a pilot project that has been carried out prior to a more comprehensive study where long term effects upon outdoor recreational activities are to be assessed. In the late summer months of 2010 a survey among the population of the most severely affected areas will be implemented. The survey will clarify to what extent people have take popular areas for outdoor recreation into use again and whether there are any changes in the patterns of outdoor recreation, compared to the situation before the oil spill. In addition the survey will illuminate people's attitude to oil pollution along the coast line. In order to assess the effects from oil spill upon outdoor recreation, it has been essential to establish knowledge about the outdoor life in the relevant areas as it was before the Full City loss. Albeit some statistical materials exist on marinas, numbers of second homes, member-ships in clubs and associations etc., available quantified data material have been rather insufficient. The most important source of data has subsequently been found in interviewing a fairly large number of persons. The interview subjects either offered extraordinary insights into specific outdoor activities, or spoke as representatives of the relevant councils and county authorities, whose responsibilities are connected to the management of nature environment and outdoor recreation. In addition to providing an overview of the outdoor recreation patterns, and to assess the concrete effects upon different activities, the report takes
Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T
Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.
Kelly S. Bricker; Patricia L. Winter; Jeremy R. Schultz
âEverybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and cheer and give strength to the body and soul alike.â John MuirNature-based recreation is believed to be the fastest growing sector of the recreation and tourism industry globally, generating an estimated 10-12 percent growth in international travel per...
Bhat, Gajanan; Bergstrom, John C.; Bowker, James Michael; Cordell, H. Ken
This paper provides a methodology for the estimation of recreational demand functions and values using an ecoregional approach. Ten ecoregions in the continental US were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate the recreational demand functions for activities such as motorboating and waterskiing, developed and primative camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecor...
Christoph, Sebastian; Cazzaniga, Simone; Hunger, Robert Emil; Naldi, Luigi; Borradori, Luca; Oberholzer, Patrick Antony
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection and skin cancer awareness are essential in the avoidance of cutaneous malignancies. Skin cancer prevention programmes involve public educational campaigns, for example, for outdoor workers or school children. Since nonprofessional sun exposure (e.g. during outdoor sport) is increasing with today's lifestyle, we assessed UVR protection and skin cancer awareness among recreational athletes. This survey-based, paper/pencil study was designed to assess UVR protection and skin cancer awareness among recreational athletes attending the largest running event in Switzerland. All adults (age 18 and older) attending this run were invited to complete our survey at our study booth. Our form consisted of questions about participants' personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment, skin type, history of sunburns, and personal/family history of skin cancer, as well as participants' subjective attitudes and behaviours relating to UVR protection and skin cancer avoidance. We calculated separate scores for individual UVR protection and skin cancer awareness. We tested these two scores in relation to educational level as a primary endpoint. In addition, the impacts of further distinct characteristics were assessed in multivariable analysis. A total of 970 runners (457 males, 513 females, mean age 41.0 years) completed our survey. Our results indicate that UVR protection is dependent on age, gender, skin type and personal history of skin cancer. Educational attainment (at univariate level), age, gender and skin type (in multivariable analysis) significantly affected the skin cancer awareness score. Our findings suggest that protection measures among recreational sportsmen can be improved. Achievements are notable in older, fair skinned, female runners. Our findings indicate that further work is needed in the education of the general public, and athletes in particular.
This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture
Sport and recreation are used as vehicles to create military readiness. Botswana Defence Force (BDF) soldiers are constantly deployed to border posts and other areas where their missions involve anti-poaching activities, disaster management and foreign peace-keeping. When not deployed, they reside with their families ...
This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…
Seong-Hoon Cho; J.M. Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Roland K. Roberts; Taeyoung Kim
In the face of higher travel costs due to rising gasoline prices and scarce budget resources,we explored differences in the impacts of travel costs on recreational demand for visitors participating in various recreational activities. Five individual travel cost models were estimated, one for each of 5 national forests (i.e., Allegheny, Coconino, Mount Baker-Snoqualmie...
Adolescence is a developmental time period in which social connections are an important aspect to fostering positive growth and identity. Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) programs are strategically positioned to help in this developmental process because of the novel social environment, however, little is known about how these types of social…
Laura E. Baird; Logan O. Park
Engaging children in natural settings enhances learning, promotes early childhood development, and makes use of protected natural areas. Unfortunately, many schoolchildren, especially from economically disadvantaged areas, lack support for environmental education (EE) to develop skills and attitudes that increase rates of appropriate outdoor behaviors. Improved access...
Öhman, Johan; Öhman, Marie; Sandell, Klas
A new teaching aid--exergames--is increasing in popularity in schools and is regarded as an interesting, varied and effective way of improving students' fitness. These exercise television games often contain references to physical activities carried out in different outdoor landscapes. The purpose of this article is to examine the views of…
Robert C. Burns; Elizabeth Covelli; Alan Graefe
Resource managers in Oregon State Parks and the Pacific Northwest Region of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (U.S. Forest Service) identified a need to better understand the needs of existing and potential stakeholders who may visit public recreation lands in Oregon. Specifically, this research was designed to understand the perceptions of racial and...
Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger
The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...
Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Iwarsson, Susanne; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina
The aim was to study whether perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility affect changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among community-dwelling older people over a two-year period. Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) in central Finland were interviewed on two occasions, face-to-face at baseline and over the telephone two years later. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility were assessed using a 15-item structured questionnaire, and the sum scores categorized into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Autonomy in participation outdoors was assessed with the 'Impact on Participation and Autonomy' (IPA) questionnaire using the autonomy outdoors subscale (score range 0-20, higher scores indicating more restricted autonomy). Scores for autonomy in participation outdoors were available for 848 participants at baseline (mean 6.2, SD = 3.8) and for 748 participants at the two-year follow-up (mean 6.7, SD = 3.9). At baseline, those reporting multiple environmental barriers had the most restricted autonomy, while those reporting no environmental barriers had the least restricted autonomy (p autonomy in participation outdoors declined more among those reporting multiple environmental barriers compared to those reporting none (age- and sex-adjusted group*time β = .629, s.e. = .277, p = .023). Adjustment for cognitive functioning, education, number of chronic conditions and change in walking difficulty did not influence the association. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility accelerate the decline in autonomy in participation outdoors among older community-dwelling people. Understanding factors affecting autonomy can help in finding ways to support the sense of autonomy as people age.
Marafa, Lawal M.; Ting, Ho Yan; Cheong, Chau Kwai
ABSTRACT : It is perceived that psychological benefits motivate people to seek outdoor experiences in addition to social and biological benefits. Individual needs are usually influenced by one’s socio-demographic situation, past experience, personal attitudes and values among other factors. In this study, a survey was conducted that assessed individual perception and satisfaction of hiking activities (n=146). Enjoying nature and escaping from physical pressure are the most important outcomes ...
Full Text Available Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents. Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide.This study analyzed data collected by the "Taiwan Social Change Survey" (program five, wave 3 "Leisure Life" questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess respondent interest in recreational sports participation and evaluated the influence of behavioral factors, socioeconomic factors, and residence location (urban/rural.Of the 2,146 participants in this study, 50.3% were male, and the average age was 43.9 years. Location of residence (urban/rural accounted for 35.3% of the variation in interest in recreational sports participation, while the remaining 64.7% came from the individual level. Participants who lived in rural settings were less interested in recreational sports than their urban counterparts. Gender, educational attainment, participation frequency, health-motivated interest, and appearance-motivated interest were also associated with interest in recreational sports participation.Different communication strategies may be needed to effectively reach different demographic groups. We suggest that future public health campaigns aiming to increase recreational sports participation include tailored interventions and messages to effectively encourage leisure physical activities among all, regardless of demographic boundaries.
Divorce is one of the most stressful events a child or adult might ever experience. Enhancing family functioning is a key intended outcome in designing family leisure programmes aimed at developing life-enhancing attitudes and relationships. Nonetheless, the actual effects on families participating in such programmes, ...
Tercan Kaas, Evren; Çerez, Haluk
The aim of this study was to analyze participation in campus recreational sport activities, leisure negotiation, self-esteem and life satisfaction in university students. Population of the study consisted of 3625 students from Akdeniz University who were attending elective physical education lectures. Sample of the study was 694 individuals with a mean age of 21.20±2.06. The questionnaire used for data collection consisted of demographic information, information about participation in recreat...
Steve Sutton; Gordon Cessford
Managing New Zealandâs protected natural and historic heritage falls largely on the Department of Conservation (DOC), which manages close to a third of the countryâs land area and increasing proportions of the coastal/marine setting. Providing public access to this shared heritage through a range of recreation opportunities is a key management outcome for DOC. This...
Anderson, D.H.; Fulton, D.C.
The human dimensions literature challenges the notion that settings are simply features and attributes that can be manipulated to satisfy public demand; instead, people view specific recreation settings as unique kinds of places. Land managers provide recreation experience opportunities, but most conventional management frameworks do not allow managers to address the personal attachment of people to places. This study examined the relationships among activity participation, recreation experience preferences (REP), and setting and place attachment. Study data was obtained from a visitor study conducted in 2000-2001 at U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Waterfowl Production Areas in Minnesota. We used structural equation modeling to explore whether recreation experience preferences mediate the relationship between types and frequencies of recreation participation and place attachment at Minnesota's Waterfowl Production Areas. Results offer empirical evidence that recreational experience preferences associated with activity participation may be instrumental to one's development of place attachment to a recreation site. Thus, research in these two areas may be more complementary than has been apparent in the literature. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Jirásek, Ivo; Plevová, Irena; Jirásková, Miroslava; Dvorácková, Adéla
This paper describes an analysis of mind maps capturing the experiences of the participants in an experiential and outdoor education course. The method of mind mapping is usually limited to a quantitative scoring analysis and comparative content analysis of concepts. As a consequence, the visual elements of the information are usually ignored, but…
Ashley E. Askew; J.M. Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green
The outdoor recreation component of the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provided projections and modeling of participation and intensity by activity. Results provided insight into the future of multiple outdoor recreation activities through projections of participation rates, numbers of participants, days per participant, and total activity days. These...
Ham, Sandra A; Kruger, Judy; Tudor-Locke, Catrine
Given the evidence that regular physical activity produces substantial health benefits, participation in sports, exercise, and recreation is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to describe participation in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities among US adults. Data from 2 national surveys of respondents age 18 years and older were analyzed. Respondents to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003 through 2005 (N=45,246) reported all activities on 1 randomly selected survey day. Respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2004 (N=17,061) reported leisure-time physical activities in the 30 days before the interview. One-quarter of adults participated in any sport, exercise, or recreational activity on a random day, and 60.9% of adults participated in any leisure-time activity in the previous 30 days. The most common types of activities were walking, gardening and yard work, and other forms of exercise. The sports and recreational activities had typical durations of 1/2 to 3 hours per session, and the exercise activities typically lasted 1 hour or less. The prevalence of sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities is generally low among US adults; exercise is the most commonly reported type of activity.
Bergier, Barbara; Bergier, Józef; Kubińska, Zofia
Environmental determinants for participation of disabled subjects in tourism and recreation comprise an important social problem. The amount and use of free time for individuals with disabilities in daily life, holidays, and vacation leave and the location for tourism and recreation were examined. Seven hundred and fifty individuals, aged 16-75 yr, with varying degrees of disability, from three eastern provinces of Poland: Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie were investigated. In these studies, a diagnostic survey method with the use of questionnaire, interviews, and analysis of data was carried out. It was found that individuals with disabilities have a significant amount of free time, which is usually spent with family and friends. Among the specific benefits of participation in physical activities are well-being, health improvement, and making new acquaintances. The main factors determining participation in tourism and recreation were price, a friendly group, and doctor recommendations.
Shields, Margaret M.; Thomas, Katherine H.; Paschal, Angelia; Tucker, Melanie; Leeper, James; Usdan, Stuart
Biking is a popular recreational activity, and understanding how to promote participation is important to college health and recreation professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine factors contributing to cycling behaviors on one large college campus from an ecological perspective. Students were surveyed at a southeastern university in…
Full Text Available Prior research has found connections between youth participation in recreational activities and academic achievement, civic involvement, and improved health. To investigate California youth outdoor recreation attitudes, behaviors, and constraints, eight focus groups were conducted with community recreation center youth participants. Youth answered 10 questions about their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of outdoor recreation. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Three to seven axial codes were identified for each question. Results showed that youth want to have more access to outdoor recreational activities. However, there are frequently considerable constraints for the youth to overcome including draws of technology, family obligations, and laziness. Safety was a recurring concern among participants. Understanding youth attitudes and perceptions allows managers to meet youth needs, program for youth interests, and provides a strong foundation for marketing and as a rational for funding grants.
Aksoy, Yener; Çankaya, Soner; Tasmektepligil, M. Yalçin
The aims of this study were to compare the differences and determine the relationships between the scores obtained from Minnesota job-satisfaction and quality-of-life scales applied to males' ages 18 to 40 who participate in recreational activities and those who do not. The samples of the study consisted of 282 volunteers (148 of whom participate…
Chase, Craig Carleton
This study evaluates the changes in attitudes of Williamson County, Illinois, school administrators and elementary teachers toward the usefullness of outdoor education in achieving academic goals for their students. The 165 participants in the study constituted all of the educators from the 23 elementary schools in the county. Instruments used in…
This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged
Outdoor Recreation. Community Action Guide for Public Officials: (1) Planning, (2) Legal Aspects, (3) Organization, (4) Staffing and Consultants, (5) Areawide and Multigovernmental Opportunities, (6) Financing, (7) Technical and Financial Assistance, (8) Land Acquisition, (9) Water Based Recreation, (10) Citizen Support
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
A series of 10 Community Action Guides was developed to assist public officials and community leaders in establishing comprehensive outdoor recreation programs. The importance of providing parks and recreation facilities in metropolitan areas and the importance of protecting the natural environment are emphasized. Methods of organization,…
Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos; Zahariadis, Panagiotis; Grouios, George
This study aimed at investigating the effect of motivational dimensions proposed by Pelletier, et al. in 1995, both on sport participation levels and on intention for continuing participation among adult recreational sport participants. Two hundred and fifty-seven adult individuals, who reported participation in some type of sport and physical activity, completed the Sport Motivation Scale and a scale measuring intention. The study provided evidence to suggest that increased motivation leads to increased participation. Amotivation significantly decreased from the least to the most frequent participant groups, while both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation followed the reverse pattern. The results also indicated that increased intrinsic motivation to gain knowledge and accomplishment and extrinsic motivation (introjected regulation) are positively correlated with individuals' intentions to continue participation, while amotivation is negatively related. These results provide limited support for the self-determination theory. Implications for sport participation promotion are discussed.
Rodríguez Celin, Mercedes; Fano, Virginia
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders that cause bone fragility, with a wide clinical variability resulting in varying degrees of motor disability. To describe the level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta. Descriptive, analytical and crosssectional study conducted in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta older than 15 years old attending the Skeletal Dysplasia Office of Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" (May 2013 through December 2014). Self-administered survey. Short stature was an outcome measure that indicated severity. There were 18 patients; age: 19.17 (±3.4 sDE); 83% had moderate-severe forms of OI; median height: -7.9 sDE; 50% used a wheelchair. Average education years: 12.2; 56% participated in sporting activities; and 78% were involved in recreational and social activities. A high level of independence was observed. We found a correlation between short stature and use of wheelchair (r: -0.77) and between short stature and participation in sporting activities (r: 0.66). No correlation was observed with years of education (r: -0.15), participation in social activities (r: -0.22) or recreational activities (r: 0.35). Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Sharon L. Todd; Lynn Anderson; Anderson Young; Dale Anderson
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in motivations for outdoor adventure recreation pursuits over a short period of time (pre- to posttest) for participants with different levels of development. Subjects were 100 undergraduate recreation majors from separate similar summer session Outdoor Education Practicum courses, each of which included 7 days in a camp...
Pritchard, Elizabeth; Barker, Anna; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Brown, Ted; Haines, Terry
To identify demographic, physical and psychosocial determinants associated with participation in daily activities of community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional design of older adults (≥70 years) from Victoria, Australia, residing in their homes was drawn from a convenience sample. The outcomes were recent participation in household and recreational activities as measured by the Phone-FITT. Explanatory variables included demographics, physical and mental health functioning (Short Form-12 version 2, Geriatric Depression Scale 15). Associations were analyzed through linear regression. There were 244 participants (60% female), with a mean age of 77.5 years (SD 5.7). Higher levels of depression and fewer falls (during the previous year) were independently associated with restrictions in household participation (p falls and restricted household participation were associated, but no association was observed between falls and recreational participation. Further studies are required to explore this association in more detail. Implications for Rehabilitation Depression is significantly correlated with the level of participation in daily activities for older adults. Health professionals need to screen for depression when working with older adults.
David Flores; Gennaro Falco; Nina S. Roberts; Francisco P. Valenzuela
In 2044 the United States is expected to be a majority-minority nation. Promoting participation in outdoor recreation among racial and ethnic minority populations has long been a challenge facing the contemporary recreation manager. In this article, we compare data from the US Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring program from 2010-2014 to US Census data from...
Full Text Available Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for
Ladle, Andrew; Steenweg, Robin; Shepherd, Brenda; Boyce, Mark S
Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b) occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c) temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for motorised
Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn
This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture
Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Miller, Anna B.
Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the
Charles B. Sims; Donald G. Hodges; Del Scruggs
Rural economies in many parts of the United States have undergone significant changes over the past two decades. Faltering economies historically based on traditional economic sectors like agriculture and manufacturing are transitioning to retail and service sectors to support growth. One example of such an industry is resource-based recreation and tourism. Tourists...
Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Marcus, Frank; Estes, N A Mark
AIMS: It has been proposed that competitive sport increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and death in patients with arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). However, it is unknown whether this only applies to competitive sport or if recreational sports activity also...... three categories of sports participation: competitive (n = 41), recreational (n = 48), and inactive (n = 19). Competitive sport was associated with a significantly higher risk of VTA/death when compared with both recreational sport [HR = 1.99 (1.21-3.28), P = 0.007] and inactive patients [HR = 2.05 (1.......07-3.91), P = 0.030]. No increased risk of VTA/death was associated with recreational sport when compared with patients who were inactive [HR = 1.03 (0.54-1.97), P = 0.930]. Symptoms developed at an earlier age in patients who participated in competitive sport (30 ± 12 years), when compared with patients who...
Clifton E. Watts; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher
Contains articles and posters presented at the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover GIS applications and recreation resource quality, meanings and measurement of recreation, climate change and resource planning, youth and outdoor recreation, urban recreation challenges, outdoor recreation--trails, human dimensions of wildlife, leisure and...
Larissa Rafaela Galatti
Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program. To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith DaWalt, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
As the number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) grows, the need to identify modifiable correlates of positive outcomes and quality of life (QoL) gains in importance. Research indicates that perceived stress is significantly correlated with QoL in adults with ASD. Studies in the general population of individuals without disabilities indicate that greater participation in social and recreational activities may lessen the negative impact of perceived stress on well-being, and this association may also hold among adults with ASD. We hypothesized that: (1) perceived stress would be negatively associated with QoL; and (2) higher frequency of participation in social activities and recreational activities would moderate the relationship between perceived stress and QoL. We used data collected from 60 adults with ASD aged 24-55 and their mothers to address our hypotheses. Findings indicate that adults with ASD with higher perceived stress are likely to have poorer QoL. Furthermore, greater participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on QoL, but no buffering effect was observed for participation in social activities. These findings suggest that interventions and services that provide supports and opportunities for participation in recreational activities may help adults with ASD manage their stress and lead to better QoL. Autism Res 2017, 10: 973-982. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement
de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby C.
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement
Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba; Shnitzer, Shlomit; Mashal, Nira
The Cognitive Activity Theory suggests an association between participation in cognitive activities during midlife and cognitive functioning in the short term. We examined the impact of participation in cognitively stimulating activities conveyed during leisure activities on crystallized and fluid tests' performance among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Adults (n = 32; chronological age = 25-55) with non-specific ID and with Down syndrome rated the frequency of their participation in leisure activities. Pursuits included more cognitively involving (reading, participating in academic courses) and less cognitively involving (cooking, dancing) activities. Three judges ranked activities according to their cognitive load on a 1 (few cognitive components) to 5 (many cognitive components) points scale. The findings indicate two new scales: cognitively stimulating activities and recreational stimulating activities. The crystallized battery included phonemic fluency, synonyms, idioms, and verbal metaphors. The fluid battery included the Homophone Meaning Generation Test, Metaphoric Triad Test, Novel Metaphors Test, and Trail Making Test. Hierarchal regression with chronological and mental age, recreational, and cognitively stimulating activities indicated that participation in recreational activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of word fluency. Participation in cognitive activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of most of the crystallized and fluid tests. The findings support the Cognitive Activity Theory in populations with ID. The findings also support the Compensation Age Theory: not only endogenous factors (age, etiology, IQ level), but also exogenous factors such as life style determining the cognitive functioning of adults with ID. However, frequency and the cognitive load of the activities influenced their cognitive functioning.
Wright, S.A.; Titus, S.
South African universities share a common purpose to make sport and recreation accessible to students at higher education institutions, including students with disabilities.Therefore, integrating students with disabilities into the daily activities of any university institution is important as it may be beneficial for them to participate in recreational activities on campus. This study focuses on the experiences and perceptions of students with disabilities regarding recreational sport whilst...
Kelly S. Bricker; Jessica Leahy; Dave Smaldone; Andrew Mowen; Chad Pierskalla
Over the past few years, there has been increased awareness of the connection between health and outdoor recreation and a proliferation of alliances, partnerships, and statewide efforts to promote the health benefits of outdoor recreation (Memorandum of Understanding [MOU] 2002, NRPA 2008). The alliances formed underscore the relevance of outdoor recreation in...
Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France
Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.
The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ≫ Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.
Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Forsmark
Ottosson, Pia [Atrax Energi AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged.
Hans G. Vogelsong; [Editor
Contains articles presented at the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover recreation; protected areas and social science; water based recreation management studies; forest recreation management studies; outdoor recreation management studies; estimation of economic impact of recreation and tourism; place meaning and attachment; tourism studies;...
R. Burns; K., comps. Robinson
Contains articles and posters presented at the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...
Cherie LeBlanc; Christine, comps. Vogt
Contains articles and posters presented at the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...
David B. Klenosky; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; eds.
Contains articles and posters presented at the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...
Woodmansee, Carmen; Hahne, Andrew; Imms, Christine; Shields, Nora
Facilitating participation in physical recreation among children with disability is an increasingly important aim of paediatric rehabilitation. To compare the extent (diversity and frequency), context (where and companionship), experience (enjoyment) and preference for participation in physical recreation activities outside-of-school between children with disability and children with typical development. One hundred and sixty-three children with physical, intellectual, sensory or multiple disabilities (67 girls; mean age 10.8 yr) were matched with 163 children with typical development for age, sex, geographical location and socioeconomic status. Participation in 16 physical recreation activities (including walking, cycling, team sports) was compared between these two groups using non-parametric statistics and relative risk ratios. There were significant differences between the groups in 14 activities. A lower percentage of children with disability reported participating in 5 physical recreation activities. A higher percentage of children with disability reported not participating in their preferred activities. Children with disability were less likely to participate on their own in some day-to-day physical recreation activities such as walking and cycling. Differences between the groups related to the context (companionship) and preference for participation. Understanding and addressing these differences may enhance participation among children with disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laferrier, Justin Z; Teodorski, Emily; Cooper, Rory A
The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects that participation in sports, exercise, and recreation may have on self-esteem and quality-of-life in service members/veterans with disabilities. Two hundred twenty service members/veterans with disabilities who were participants in one of three annual adaptive sporting events took part in this cross-sectional study. Variables of interest were years of sport, exercise, and recreation participation since the onset of disability as well as the type of activity they engaged in. Main outcome measures were self-esteem and quality-of-life. A positive relationship was found between participant quality-of-life and the number of years spent participating in sports, exercise, and recreation since the onset of their disability. A significant difference was found between pre-event and postevent self-esteem scores. A significant difference was also found in self-esteem scores between the levels of years of participation in sports, exercise, and recreation when averaged across activity type. Finally, there were significant differences found on self-esteem scores between the levels of type of activity averaged across years of participation. Our results indicate that participation in sports, exercise, and recreation has a positive influence on self-esteem and quality-of-life in individuals with disabilities.
Nodurft, Susan Jennings Johnson
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of an innovative, outdoor wilderness program on the participants' sense of connectedness with the natural world. Ancillary objectives looked at the impact of epistemological and pedagogical program elements, participants' people and place background experiences, and worldviews on this connectedness sense. The weekend program, based upon a philosophy of deep ecology, draws upon the Native American wisdom tradition and employs a pedagogy of myth, modeling and experiential learning. The researcher and fourteen volunteers primarily drawn from biology classes at a community college participated in the study. Snyder's (1988) four themes of connectedness and a heuristic qualitative design described by Moustakas (1990) were employed in determining the essence of impact. Data collection methods included pre- and post-questionnaires, audio and video tapes of the weekend, field notes, journals, and follow-up interviews. Upon completion of data gathering, three co-researchers were selected for focus study. Results of analysis are described in the form of in-depth profiles of the three co-researchers' experiences containing verbatim narration and common themes explicated from those profiles. Findings revealed that (1) the co-researchers experienced a deep and transforming sense of connectedness with the natural world, (2) a number of key program elements could be identified that facilitated connectedness, (3) childhood experiences played a significant role, and (4) pre-existing biocentric worldviews deepened as a result of the wilderness experience. Several important implications resulted from this study: (1) Transformative programs such as the outdoor program in this study, virtually nonexistent in mainstream environmental education, need to be taken seriously and efforts made to incorporate these types of programs in our public schools, (2) science educators need to examine and amend a belief structure which, in
Nurullah Emir Ekinci
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze, which recreational sport or non- sport such as cultural/ art activities that university students prefer in their leisure time and underlying reasons that constrains participating in these activities with regard to different variables. Randomly chosen 339 students from The Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Sciences and Engineering at University of Dumlupiınar volunteered for the study. In this research as a data collection tool “Leisure Constraint Scale” was used. During the evaluation of the data in addition to descriptive statistical methods such as Percentage (% and frequency (f Independent Samples t-test and One way Anova were used. As a result it was found that 19.2% participants choose recreational sport activities in their leisure time. In addition, significant differences have emerged between participants’ gender and constrains to leisure in "lack of information", "lack of friends" and "time" sub-dimensions, between age and barriers to leisure in "time" sub-dimension, and between average monthly income levels and constrains to leisure in "individual psychology" and "facilities / services" sub dimensions (p <0.05. But no significant differences were found according to activities that they choose in their leisure time.
curiosity about nature, improved outdoor skills. In a study of a conservation education camp offered through a zoo education department, Kruse and...Card (2004) found that campers’ conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior (such as recycling , improving habitats, and encouraging others...outdoor school were more likely to engage in positive environmental behaviors (such as recycling or closing the refrigerator door, based on parent
Law, Mary; King, Gillian; King, Susanne; Kertoy, Marilyn; Hurley, Patricia; Rosenbaum, Peter; Young, Nancy; Hanna, Steven
Children with physical disabilities are at increased risk of limitations to participation in everyday activities. This study describes research examining the participation of children in day-to-day formal and informal activities (excluding mandated academic schooling). Using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) measure, data on participation patterns were collected from 427 children (229 males, 198 females; mean age 10 y [SD 2 y 4 mo]; range 6-14 y) with physical limitations and from their families. The primary types of physical disability in the sample included cerebral palsy, spina bifida, acquired brain injury, and musculoskeletal limitations. Findings indicate a broad range of diversity and intensity of participation, with proportionately greater involvement in informal rather than formal activities. Significant differences in participation and enjoyment were found between males and females, and for children more than 12 years of age. Children's participation was less diverse in families reporting lower income, single-parent status, and lower respondent parent education. These findings provide a foundation for an improved understanding of the participation of children with physical disabilities, which can assist families and service providers in planning activities that fit with their child's preferences and ensure active participation.
Manzanero, Silvia; Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C
With the increasing capacity for remote collection of both data and samples for medical research, a thorough assessment is needed to determine the association of population characteristics and recruitment methodologies with response rates. The aim of this research was to assess population representativeness in a two-stage study of health and injury in recreational runners, which consisted of an epidemiological arm and genetic analysis. The cost and success of various classical and internet-based methods were analyzed, and demographic representativeness was assessed for recruitment to the epidemiological survey, reported willingness to participate in the genetic arm of the study, actual participation, sample return, and approval for biobank storage. A total of 4965 valid responses were received, of which 1664 were deemed eligible for genetic analysis. Younger age showed a negative association with initial recruitment rate, expressed willingness to participate in genetic analysis, and actual participation. Additionally, female sex was associated with higher initial recruitment rates, and ethnic origin impacted willingness to participate in the genetic analysis (all P<.001). The sharp decline in retention through the different stages of the study in young respondents suggests the necessity to develop specific recruitment and retention strategies when investigating a young, physically active population. ©Silvia Manzanero, Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, David C Hughes. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.05.2018.
Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
Statistics about the recreational physical activity (PA) of minority ethnic Muslim women reveal very low participation rates. Drawing on approaches to socialization and Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste, the aim of this study was to investigate the (lack of) PA participation of Muslim mino...
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....
Seaman, Jayson; Bell, Brent J.; Trauntvein, Nate
In this article, we report on research undertaken in 2016 to assess a number of trends influencing the current status of degree-granting outdoor programs in the United States, including factors that bear on the value of degrees. We analyze data provided by the U.S. Department of Education's College Scorecard and results of a survey comparing 59…
James, comp., ed. Murdy; ed. comp.
Contains articles presented at the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover planning issues, communications and information, management presentations, service quality and outdoor recreation, recreation behavior, founders? forum, featured posters, tourism and the community, specialized recreation, recreation and the community, management issues in...
... species; the environment; or archaeological, cultural, historical, or other significant natural features... participate in outdoor recreation activities with their families and friends. The benefits are difficult to... Architectural Barriers Act Guidelines by cross-referencing Appendices C and D.\\5\\ Since these [[Page 59479...
Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Clifton E., Jr., eds. Watts
Contains articles presented at the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and demographics, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure constraints, environmental attitudes and values, leisure...
Drury, Jack K.
A Wilderness Recreation Education program aims to: offer students an opportunity to be involved with direct learning in the outdoors; instill an understanding of ways to exist within and enjoy the wilderness environment; and develop an awareness of an appreciation for the need to conserve and maintain the wilderness environment for generations to…
Hyder, Kieran; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Armstrong, Mike; Ferter, Keno; Townhill, Bryony; Ahvonen, Anssi; Arlinghaus, Robert; Baikov, Andrei; Bellanger, Manuel; Birzaks, Janis; Borch, Trude; Cambie, Giulia; Graaf, De Martin; Diogo, Hugo M.C.; Dziemian, Łukasz; Gordoa, Ana; Grzebielec, Ryszard; Hartill, Bruce; Kagervall, Anders; Kapiris, Kostas; Karlsson, Martin; Kleiven, Alf Ring; Lejk, Adam M.; Levrel, Harold; Lovell, Sabrina; Lyle, Jeremy; Moilanen, Pentti; Monkman, Graham; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Mugerza, Estanis; Martinez, Roi; O'Reilly, Paul; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Pita, Pablo; Radford, Zachary; Radtke, Krzysztof; Roche, William; Rocklin, Delphine; Ruiz, Jon; Scougal, Callum; Silvestri, Roberto; Skov, Christian; Steinback, Scott; Sundelöf, Andreas; Svagzdys, Arvydas; Turnbull, David; Hammen, Van Der Tessa; Voorhees, Van David; Winsen, Van Frankwin; Verleye, Thomas; Veiga, Pedro; Vølstad, Jon-Helge; Zarauz, Lucia; Zolubas, Tomas; Strehlow, Harry V.
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on
Hyder, Kieran; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Armstrong, Mike
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high‐participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on...
Kellow, J. Thomas; Frey, Georgia C.; Sandt, Dawn Rosser
This study is a conceptual replication of previous work by Storey, Stern, & Parker (1990) that examined the influence of participation in integrated vs. segregated recreation/sports activities on evaluations of a person with mental retardation by persons without a disability. The Storey et al., (1990) study observed that people with mental…
Ka Yiu Lee
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the associations between objectively-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and perceived/objective measures of neighbourhood recreational facilities categorized into indoor or outdoor, public, residential or commercial facilities. The associations between facility perceptions and objectively-assessed numbers of recreational facilities were also examined. Method: A questionnaire was used on 480 adults to measure local facility perceptions, with 154 participants wearing ActiGraph accelerometers for ≥4 days. The objectively-assessed number of neighbourhood recreational facilities were examined using direct observations and Geographical Information System data. Results: Both positive and negative associations were found between MVPA and perceived/objective measures of recreational facilities. Some associations depended on whether the recreational facilities were indoor or outdoor, public or residential facilities. The objectively-assessed number of most public recreational facilities was associated with the corresponding facility perceptions, but the size of effect was generally lower than for residential recreational facilities. Conclusions: The objectively-assessed number of residential outdoor table tennis courts and public indoor swimming pools, the objectively-assessed presence of tennis courts and swimming pools, and the perceived presence of bike lanes and swimming pools were positive determinants of MVPA. It is suggested to categorize the recreational facilities into smaller divisions in order to identify unique associations with MVPA.
Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian
Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of
Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell
This chapter is presented in two sections. The first by Bright and Tarrant describes visitor preferences and examines users' perceptions of encountering other visitors in outdoor recreation settings. The second by Tarrant and others reviews visitor preferences for, and satisfactions with, outdoor recreation experiences.
Stodolska, Monika; Peters, K.B.M.; Horolets, Anna
This study examines the use of natural environments for recreation among immigrants and factors that led to changes in their use of natural environments between home and host countries. The data were collected through individual interviews with 13 Latino and 13 Chinese immigrants in the U.S., 15
Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John
The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…
David A Graefe; Rudy M. Schuster; Gary T. Green; H. Ken Cordell
Outdoor recreation management frameworks suggest that a diverse set of recreation opportunities is necessary to meet the needs and desires of a diverse population of recreationists. Managers of recreation resources must understand recreational demand if they wish to provide high-quality recreation opportunities to their users. The purpose of this study was to examine...
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).
This revised edition includes new material recommended by a panel of experts in the field of recreational planning. The following topics are covered: (1) the planning process; (2) indoor facilities; (3) outdoor facilities; (4) indoor and outdoor swimming pools; (5) encapsulated spaces and stadiums; (6) service areas; (7) recreation and park…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project "Characterizing participation in non-commercial fishing and other shore-based recreational activities on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands" was conducted in...
An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…
Ramesh Ghimire; Gary T. Green; Neelam C. Poudyal; H. Ken Cordell
Given the growing US population and its relatively stable supply of publicly owned forests, it seems likely thatÂ future demand for outdoor recreation will be increasingly satisfied by privately owned forests. Therefore, itÂ becomes important to understand whether visitors to publicly and privately owned forests have differentÂ characteristics. Using data from a US...
Association of competitive and recreational sport participation with cardiac events in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: results from the North American multidisciplinary study of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Marcus, Frank; Estes, N.A. Mark; Link, Mark; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Calkins, Hugh; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Moss, Arthur J.; Zareba, Wojciech
Aims It has been proposed that competitive sport increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and death in patients with arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). However, it is unknown whether this only applies to competitive sport or if recreational sports activity also increases the risk of VTA/death. Methods and results Probands diagnosed with ARVC according to the 2010 task force criteria for ARVC (n = 108) were included in the current analysis. At the time of enrolment, study participants were questioned about exercise level prior to and after ARVC diagnosis, within three categories of sports participation: competitive (n = 41), recreational (n = 48), and inactive (n = 19). Competitive sport was associated with a significantly higher risk of VTA/death when compared with both recreational sport [HR = 1.99 (1.21–3.28), P = 0.007] and inactive patients [HR = 2.05 (1.07–3.91), P = 0.030]. No increased risk of VTA/death was associated with recreational sport when compared with patients who were inactive [HR = 1.03 (0.54–1.97), P = 0.930]. Symptoms developed at an earlier age in patients who participated in competitive sport (30 ± 12 years), when compared with patients who participated in recreational sport (38 ± 17 years) (P = 0.015) and inactive patients (41 ± 11 years) (P = 0.002). No difference in age at first symptom was seen between patients who participated in recreational sport and inactive patients (P = 0.651). Conclusion Competitive sport was associated with a two-fold increased risk of VTA/death, and earlier presentation of symptoms, when compared with inactive patients, and to patients who participated in recreational sport. When compared with inactive patients, recreational sport was not associated with earlier onset of symptoms or increased risk of VTA/death. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT00024505. PMID:25896080
Chippendale, Tracy; Raveis, Victoria
Although the epidemiology and prevention of falls has been well studied, the focus has been on indoor rather than outdoor falls. Older adults' knowledge of outdoor risk factors and their outdoor fall prevention practices have not been examined. To fill this gap, and to inform the development of a prevention program, we sought to explore the experiences and fall prevention knowledge and practices of older adults who had sustained an outdoor fall. A cross-sectional study using random digit telephone dialing was used to survey community dwelling seniors (N=120) across the five boroughs of New York City. We used the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire (OFQ), a valid and reliable tool as the survey instrument. Perceived outdoor fall risks, strategies used for prevention, and outdoor fall experiences were examined. SPSS version 21 was used for descriptive analysis of participant characteristics and to determine frequencies of perceived outdoor fall risks and strategies used for prevention. Phenomenological analysis was used with the qualitative data. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed separately and a mixed methods matrix was used to interpret and integrate the findings. Analysis revealed diverse unmet education and training needs including the importance of using single vision glasses, understanding the fall risks associated with recreational areas and parking lots, safe outdoor walking strategies, safe carrying of items on level and uneven surfaces, as well as when walking up and down stairs, and safety in opening/closing doors. Study findings are informative for outdoor fall prevention programs as well as practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christopher A. Monz; Catherine M. Pickering; Wade L. Hadwen
Recreation ecology - the study of the environmental consequences of outdoor recreation/nature-based tourism activities and their effective management - is an emerging field of global importance. A primary research generalization in this field, the use-impact relationship, is commonly described as curvilinear, with proportionally more impact from initial recreation/...
Hendren, Travis E.; And Others
This curriculum guide offers guidelines for structuring a course which exposes the students to various environmental careers. The guide is divided into three sections. The first section offers information about such a course: course description, purpose, credits, special or unique aspects, physical facilities, equipment, major materials, teacher…
H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Shela H. Mou
Key FindingsPopulationThe South grew considerably faster (32.5 percent) in total population in the 18 years between 1990 and 2008 than the Nation as a whole (22.2 percent). The region has just over half of the countryâs non-Hispanic African American population (18.9 million) and is a close second to the Rocky Mountains in both...
Stephanie C. Field
Full Text Available Motor skill proficiency in middle childhood is associated with higher physical activity levels at that age and is predictive of adolescent physical activity levels. Much of the previous research in this area has used accelerometry in determining these relationships, and as a result, little is known about what physical activities the children are engaging in. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine rates of participation in physical activities, the relationships between motor proficiency and how often children participate, and if there were gender-based differences in participation, motor skills, or the relationship between these variables. Participants were 400 boys and girls (Mean age = 9 years 6 months in grade 4. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 and physical activity participation was measured using the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared analyses, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used to examine activity patterns and whether these patterns differed by gender. Correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationships between fundamental motor skill proficiency and participation. The boys and girls participated in many of the same activities, but girls were more likely to participate in most of the informal physical activities. More boys than girls participated in team sports, boys participated more frequently in team sports, and the boys’ object control and locomotor skill proficiency were significantly associated with participation in team sports. There were some significant associations between motor skills and participation in specific activities; however it is not clear if participation is developing skillfulness or those who are more skilled are engaging and persisting with particular activities.
Paul Heintzman; Don. Dawson
This study was a secondary analysis of data from a previous study of 248 Canadians on four dimensions of leisure style: time use, leisure setting, leisure activity participation, and leisure motivation. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine if frequency of participation in three rural leisure settings were related to other leisure style dimensions.
The aim of this study is to determine the constraints in participating the leisure activities for college students, the strategies of negotiation regarding these constraints and the relationship between the facilitators and activity participation. The population of the study consists of currently registered students from Ankara University.…
Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim
This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…
Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.
Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…
Full Text Available Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of preserving ecological integrity in conservation and outdoor recreation decision-making processes, traditional metrics analyzing the supply of and demand for conservation and recreation resources have focused on geographical and population-centric units of measurement rather than ecological ones. One tool past researchers have used to inform recreation resource planning is the recreation location quotient (RLQ. While simple park-to-population ratios or acres-per-capita metrics provide a base measure of carrying capacity and are often useful to set broad recreation supply standards, the RLQ offers a more nuanced snapshot of supply and demand by comparing regional ratios to a standardized reference region. The RLQ is thus able to provide a statistic or quotient that highlights regions where recreation resources are particularly abundant and/or scarce relative to a reference area. This project expands the past RLQ analyses by investigating the distribution of recreation resources across the 10 ecological sections found within the US state of Minnesota. RLQs were calculated using recreation trail mileage, natural resource and recreation area acreage data, and recreation facility data from federal, state, and local agencies. Results found notable differences in supply of recreation resources across ecological sections. Some sections were considerably underrepresented in recreation resources-per area (e.g., Red River Valley and North Central Glaciated Plains while others were underrepresented in recreation resources-per capita (e.g., Minnesota and Northeast Iowa Morainal. The RLQ statistics and resulting maps illustrating relative surplus or deficiencies can inform future land acquisition decisions and highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional planning in order to ensure outdoor recreation systems are ecologically representative. Possible implications and recommendations for future planning
Schutz, Jeff; Schutz, Laurie
Parents who have a child with a disability often find that recreational activities can be anything but accessible. Time for recreation is drowned by the priorities of caring for a child's needs, and the "umph" to get out can feel like an insurmountable obstacle. The activities parents love and aspire to share with their child may seem like one…
Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect
Full Text Available Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called “walkability”. This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years, and used a Geographic Information System (GIS and walking interviews (with a sub-sample to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.
Zandieh, Razieh; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin
Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density) relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years), and used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS) technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries) in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.
The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…
Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M
The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.
Shuangyu Xu; Sonja Wilhelm Stanis; Carla Barbieri; Jiawen. Chen
Little is known about recreational storm chasing, a type of risk recreation that has increased in popularity since the 1990s. This study was conducted to understand factors associated with participation in recreational storm chasing in the United States. Particularly, this study assessed the motivations and sensation seeking attributes of recreational storm chasers, as...
Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other
Zhai, L L; Wu, X Y; Xu, S J; Wan, Y H; Zhang, S C; Xu, L; Liu, W; Ma, S S; Zhang, H; Tao, F B
Objective: To examine the relationship between the prevalence of self-reported myopia and outdoor activities among middle school students and to explore the influence factors of the self-reported myopia. Methods: A total of 12 979 participants were recruited from junior and senior middle school students in in Shenzhen, Nanchang, Zhengzhou and Shenyang by random cluster sampling method between December 2015 and March 2016. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire to collect the information of demographic characteristics, self-reported myopia, outdoor activities, etc. 12 603 out of 12 979 copies of questionnaire were valid. The prevalence of self-reported myopia was compared among middle school students with different characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between myopia and outdoor activities. Results: The prevalence of self-reported myopia among middle school students was 69.6% (8 766/12 603); which was separately 52.1% (1 216/2 335) in seventh grader, 61.6% (1 459/2 369) in eighth grader, 69.0%(1 470/2 129) in ninth grader, 80.0% (1 812/2 265) in freshmen, 79.4% (1 622/2 042) in sophomore, and 81.1%(1 187/1 463) in junior. The prevalence of self-reported myopia showed an increasing trend with the increase of grade (χ(2)=639.67, Pmiddle school students ( OR= 1.58, 95 %CI: 1.36-1.82). The risk of self-reported myopia were significantly decreased by always physical exercise and recreational activities after school among middle school students: the ORs were separately 0.67 (95 %CI: 0.57-0.78) for physical exercise and 0.77 (95 %CI: 0.64-0.92) for recreational activities. After stratified analysis by the parents' myopia status, in non-myopic parents group, exercise and recreational activities after school among middle school students decreased the risk of myopia: the ORs were separately 0.68 (95 %CI: 0.55-0.82) for physical exercise and 0.76 (95 %CI: 0.61-0.95) for recreational activities; in either myopic parent
Arundel, J T
This paper deals with some basic features of accidents in recreation and will attempt to throw some light on their economic consequences. Let us examine sport as one aspect of recreation. As Williams (1973) put it, "Sport is a phenomenon of simple definition, but with well recognised features. It is essentially recreational, essentially physical, frequently competitive and always contrived." The number and type of participants has increased, along with the range of activities available. Classifications of sport, at best, are arbitrary but nevertheless are useful for analysis. These divisions may be land/air/water types; indoor/outdoor; team/individual; body contact/non-contact/vehicular; amateur/professional. Sports injuries are of two types, intrinsic or self-inflicted (Williams, 1973) and extrinsic. Intrinsic injuries refer to those as a result of over-use (leading, for example, to stress fractures) and to specific incidents not involving outside agents. Extrinsic injuries are caused by contact with external objects and form the bulk of injuries sustained in body-contact, vehicular (horses, cars, skis) and environmental-type sports. Extrinsic injuries are generally more severe because greater forces and velocities are involved. Appendix 1 lists the main sporting activities according to location of sport; individual or team participation; likelihood of extensive body contact; and professional status. Professional players not only suffer loss of earning capacity but may reflect a bad investment for an entrepreneur or reduce spectator attendance and gate taking. It is apparent that team sports, having substantial body contact, face a higher risk of moderate to serious injury than do individual, non-contact sports, although major injuries can be sustained in the latter, for example, sprains and dislocations in athletics, golf, tennis, etc. Other sports must be classed as dangerous because of the nature of competition, for example, motor racing and flying. These
Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for 1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.
The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…
Mullins, Philip M.
In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…
Meals, Anthony; Washburn, Shannon
A Delphi survey was conducted with 30 outdoor education experts in Kansas. Participant responses helped frame a Kansas definition of outdoor education and identified essential educational goals and outcomes, critical components for effective outdoor education programming, and barriers facing outdoor education in Kansas. The study highlights…
Climstein, Mike; Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joe
Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P well as significantly (P surf are advised to regularly utilize sun protection strategies (avoid peak ultraviolet radiation (10 am-3 pm), rashvest, hat and sunscreen) and primary care physicians are recommended to regularly screen their patients who surf. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Recreation &Community Activities WHAT ARE A RECREATIONAL THERAPIST'S EDUCATION, QUALIFICATIONS, & CREDENTIALS? A qualified recreational therapist is someone who is nationally certified as a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS), usually referred to as Recreational ...
Rute Estanislava Tolocka
Full Text Available O período maturacional adolescente é importante na avaliação de indicadores de saúde e desenvolvimento social. O objetivo deste estudo exploratório foi caracterizar aspectos maturacionais e verificar se existe influência destes no estabelecimento de relações sociais durante jogos recreativos. Foram observados 41 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, de uma escola pública do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados através de ficha de saúde, diário de campo e filmagem de um evento recreativo elaborado pelos próprios adolescentes. A idade média da ocorrência da menarca foi 12,3 anos; os garotos com todas as características sexuais secundárias desenvolvidas tiveram mais interação social com o sexo oposto. Papeis de liderança foram assumidos por adolescentes com maior desenvolvimento sexual secundário. Há indícios que o desenvolvimento das características maturacionais pode favorecer interações pessoais entre adolescentes do sexo oposto e contribuir para o desempenho de papeis sociais relacionados à liderança.The adolescent maturational period is important in assessing health indicators and social development. The aim of this exploratory study was to characterize maturational aspects and to investigate their influence in the establishment of social relations during recreational games. It was observed 41 adolescents of both sexes, from a public school of São Paulo State. Data were collected through a bill of health, a field diary and video recording from a recreational event produced by the adolescents. The average age of menarche was 12.3 years; the boys with all secondary sexual characteristics developed more social interaction with the opposite sex. Leadership roles were assumed by adolescents with higher secondary sexual development. There are evidences that the development of maturational characteristics can facilitate personal interactions among adolescents from opposite sex and contributes to the performance of
Janssen, S.A.; Salomons, E.M.; Vos, H.; De Kluizenaar, Y.
The impact of transportation noise on human health has primarily been studied in the home environment, with the facade exposure level as a determinant. However, urban residents may travel, work and recreate outdoors during many hours of the day, and outdoor noise may affect their health and
... opportunities in areas designated as rural and semi- primitive zones. Alternative 3, the NPS preferred...-primitive outdoor recreation opportunities and encourage nonmotorized recreation such as hiking, biking... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying...
Cottrell, S.P.; Lengkeek, J.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.
This study applied a tourist typology to an outdoor recreation experience (day-use) in a Forest Service preserve in Holland using 25-items representing five modes of experience: amusement, change, interest, rapture and dedication. The aim was to offer a typology of recreation experiences for
Lucas, Robert C.; Shechter, Mordechai
The article describes the use of a simulation for outdoor recreation management which is applicable for any type of dispersed recreation area where visitor flows are of concern, where there are capacity constraints, where visitor encounters are significant, and where it is desired to allow visitors substantial freedom to move about flexibly. (MJB)
Sanderson, Heather; DeRousie, Jason; Guistwite, Nicole
This study examined the impact of collegiate recreation participation on academic success as measured by grade point average, course credit completion, and persistence or graduation. Logistic and multiple regressions were run to explore the relationship between total recreation contact hours and outcome variables. Results indicated a positive and…
Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.
Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542
Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A
Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.
Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.
This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…
Only a negligible number engaged in vigorous outdoor activities. As a result, the available recreational facilities within and outside the campus were not fully utilized, even during national holidays and free weekends. The University management may consider introducing a special programme and updating facilities to ...
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Atkins, Penny R; Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Aoki, Stephen K; Peters, Christopher L; Maak, Travis G; Anderson, Andrew E
Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is a dynamic process, but its diagnosis is often based on static, supine images. To couple 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models with dual fluoroscopy (DF) images to quantify in vivo hip motion and the ischiofemoral space (IFS) in asymptomatic participants during weightbearing activities and evaluate the relationship of dynamic measurements with sex, hip kinematics, and the IFS measured from axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Eleven young, asymptomatic adults (5 female) were recruited. 3D reconstructions of the femur and pelvis were generated from MRI and CT. The axial and 3D IFS were measured from supine MRI. In vivo hip motion during weightbearing activities was quantified using DF. The bone-to-bone distance between the lesser trochanter and ischium was measured dynamically. The minimum and maximum IFS were determined and evaluated against hip joint angles using a linear mixed-effects model. The minimum IFS occurred during external rotation for 10 of 11 participants. The IFS measured from axial MRI (mean, 23.7 mm [95% CI, 19.9-27.9]) was significantly greater than the minimum IFS observed during external rotation (mean, 10.8 mm [95% CI, 8.3-13.7]; P dynamic activities observed. The IFS was smaller in female than male participants for standing (mean, 20.9 mm [95% CI, 19.3-22.3] vs 30.4 mm [95% CI, 27.2-33.8], respectively; P = .034), level walking (mean, 8.8 mm [95% CI, 7.5-9.9] vs 21.1 mm [95% CI, 18.7-23.6], respectively; P = .001), and incline walking (mean, 9.1 mm [95% CI, 7.4-10.8] vs 21.3 mm [95% CI, 18.8-24.1], respectively; P = .003). Joint angles between the sexes were not significantly different for any of the dynamic positions of interest. The minimum IFS during dynamic activities was smaller than axial MRI measurements. Compared with male participants, the IFS in female participants was reduced during standing and walking, despite a lack of kinematic
Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan
The focus of the paper is on places and facilities for physical activity in nature and reports on a scoping literature review. The study aims to bring together research from several research areas, and the perspective is both of conceptual and systematic character. The purpose is to provide an ov...
Martínez, Cristina; Guydish, Joseph; Robinson, Gillian; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose María; Fernández, Esteve
The aim of this study is to assess the level of protection of secondhand smoke in outdoor locations among countries belonging to the WHO European Region. This cross-sectional study measures the level of protection provided by laws in outdoor locations. A protocol to evaluate the outdoor smoke-free legislation was developed according to the recommendations provided by the WHO Guidelines for implementing smoke-free outdoor places. For each law 6 main sectors and 28 outdoor locations were evaluated. 68 laws from 48 countries were reviewed, totally assessing 1758 locations. Overall 3.1% of the locations specified 100% smoke-free outdoor regulation without exceptions, 2.5% permitted smoking in designated outdoor areas, 37.5% allowed smoking everywhere, and 56.9% did not provide information about how to deal with smoking in outdoor places. In the Education sector 17.8% of the laws specified smoke-free outdoor regulation, mainly in the primary and secondary schools. Three pioneering laws from recreational locations and two from general health facilities specified 100% outdoor smoke-free regulation. Outdoor smoke-free policies among countries belonging to the WHO European Region are limited and mainly have been passed in the primary and secondary schools, which protect minors from the hazards of secondhand smoke in educational settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Satchell, J E
The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.
Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.
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A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.
Floyd L. Newby; William D. Lilley
As societal and economic pressures mold and alter patterns of human behavior, the outdoor recreation planner gazes into the milange of "trend data" developed to simplify his planning efforts and ........
To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…
Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…
Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley
This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel G S; Lirani, Luciana S; DaSilva, Sergio G; Costa, Eduardo C; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Elsangedy, Hassan M
In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.
Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina
To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.
Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. (Tech. coords.) Chavez
The Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research (SARR) Symposium was held February 4-6, 2004 in San Francisco, California at the Presidio of San Francisco, a component of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and at San Francisco State University. The theme was: Linking People to the Outdoors: Connections for Healthy Lands, People and Communities.
Gajana Bhat; John Bergsrom; R. Jeff. Teasley
This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such...
Christopher A. Monz; David N. Cole; Yu-Fai Leung; Jeffrey L. Marion
Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological...
Strand, Tor Egil Riegels
This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...
In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…
Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill
1. Introduction 2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium 3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces 4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models 5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound 6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects 7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction 8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground 9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers 10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence 11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence 12. Prediction Schemes 13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.
Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David
Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…
Heather Boland; Paul Heintzman
Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...
Vicente Gómez Encinas
Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.
E. M. Avedon; S. L. J. Smith
Data archives and data banks have become increasingly important as more researchers begin to examine trends. Characteristics of data banks, sources of bias in secondary data sources and important trends in data banks are described. The paper concludes with advice about using data banks.
Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040
Mark S. Tremblay
Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.
Schwartz, Forrest; Belknap, C. J.
In this research, we investigated the effects of participation in a college outdoor orientation program (OOP) on participants' trait emotional intelligence (TEI). Three hundred seventeen outdoor orientation participants completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) before and after participation in an OOP. Four…
Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)
Horvath, Victor G.
Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)
Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…
Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica
Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…
Timothy G. Gregoire; Gregory J. Buhyoff
Probability sampling methods applicable to estimate recreational use are presented. Both single- and multiple-access recreation sites are considered. One- and two-stage sampling methods are presented. Estimation of recreational use is presented in a series of examples.
Full Text Available Alpine skiing is one of the most popular leisure time winter sporting activities. Skiing imposes high requirements concerning physical fitness, particularly regarding balance abilities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in balance performance of recreational skiers after a seven-day ski camp. A total of 78 students - 24 women and 54 men - participated in the study. The ski course was held in accordance with the official program of the Polish Ski Federation. The study sample was comprised of 43 beginners and 35 intermediate skiers. All students were tested with the MFT S3-Check, the day before and the day after the ski camp. The test system consisted of an unstable uniaxial platform, with an integrated sensor and corresponding software. Changes in balance performance (sensory and stability index were evaluated using paired t-tests. Additionally, changes in sensory and stability categories, which were based on the norm data, were analyzed. Female and male participants showed significantly better sensory and stability indices after skiing. Considerable changes from weak or very weak to average or good balance categories could be seen after skiing for both sexes. Regarding skiing experience, both beginners and intermediate skiers improved their sensory and stability indices significantly after skiing. Hence, recreational alpine skiing resulted in better balance performance regardless of sex or skiing experience. Skiing as an outdoor activity offers the opportunity to improve balance performance with a positive impact on everyday life activities.
The modified basketball game as a way into participative physical recreation process for masculine young people between 17 – 23 years old in The Ceferino Fernández Viñas Popular Council in Pinar del Río
Marilín Páez Basabe
Full Text Available The participative physical recreation is based in the recreational sport’s functions that allow to offer an spectacle focussed in satisfying the population’s tastes, preferences and needs throughout its elective and participative action. The general objective of this research is to increase the options for the modified basketball practice in the popular councils like an answer to the problem found in the community among masculine young people between 17 and 23 years old. This game is use for its highest preference in the sportsmen and nowadays it is dynamic, flexible and changing according to the circumstances. The game is based on the Basketball International Association official rules, what allows adaptations to play in the community fields being available for the majority. This investigation wants to strengthen the mass organizations and social nets leading their roles in the solution of community problems providing more interest for the resident’s life even for those ones that are unemployed.
Nolan, Christy David
The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…
Robert J. W. Brewin
Full Text Available Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities and argue, based on current technological developments and recent research, that the time is right to employ recreational citizens to improve large-scale aquatic sampling efforts. We discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for this strategy to be successful (e.g., sensor integration, data quality, and citizen motivation, the steps needed to realize its potential, and additional societal benefits that arise when engaging citizens in scientific sampling.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a national survey of saltwater recreational anglers beginning in February 2013. The survey was implemented in six regions including the...
Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...
Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...
... 28.00 Learn More Coverage of Recreational Therapy: Rules and Regulations (3rd Edition) Non Member Price: $45.00 Member Price: ... Web Feedback — We'd love to hear from you. Contact us at webmaster@ ...
Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...
Full Text Available Purpose: to conduct research of the historical and geographical factors of becoming and development of the Elbrus region as a center of tourism and mountaineering, to consider the use of mountain and natural complexes for active rest, to give a recreational assessment of the use of mountain natural complexes. Material & Methods: analysis of literature sources, analysis of documents, organizational analysis. Results: the historical and geographical analysis of the mountain-natural territory of the Elbrus region is carried out, the recreational assessment of the use of mountain natural complexes for active recreation is displed. Conclusions: analysis of the spatial assessment of the recreational and tourism-mountaineering potential of mountain natural territorial systems, allows choosing the safest and most attractive routes and classifying them according to complexity and safety.
Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark
Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports
John J. Daigle; Alan E. Watson; Glenn E. Haas
National forest trail users in four geographical regions of the United States are described based on participation in clusters of recreation activities. Visitors are classified into day hiking, undeveloped recreation, and two developed camping and hiking activity clusters for the Appalachian, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Southwestern regions. Distance and time traveled...
Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy
In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Gary T. Green
This paper broadly explores changing outdoor recreation demands, environmental opinions and demographics in the United States. With this country's population predicted to more than double by the end of this century, it is imperative that we understand these trends and their implications for better managing our natural envimnment and providing opportunities for...
Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan
In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Matthews, Bruce E.
Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…
Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…
Brian E. Garber-Yonts
This analysis examines the problem of measuring demand for recreation on national forests and other public lands. Current measures of recreation demand in Forest Service resource assessments and planning emphasize population-level participation rates and activity-based economic values for visitor days. Alternative measures and definitions of recreation demand are...
Bullock, Charles C.; Mahon, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Charles L.
Ultimately, all successful recreation programs center around its participants wants and needs. Serving people with disabilities is no exception. "Introduction to Recreation Services for People with Disabilities" is intended to be an introductory book for anyone planning or working in the parks, recreation, and leisure service industry. Through…
This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts
Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)
This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.
Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.
Oinonen, Soile; Grønbæk, Lone; Laukkanen, Marita
This article studies how accounting for the benefits of recreational fisheries affects the formation and stability of an international fisheries agreement (IFA) on the management of Baltic salmon stocks. The interaction between four countries is modelled through a partition function game, under two...... scenarios. In the first scenario, countries take their participation decision for the IFA based only on the net present value of profits from commercial fisheries. In the second scenario, the net present value of the recreational benefits from angling is also considered. The results show that accounting...... for recreational benefits leads to the formation of the grand coalition, whereas only partial cooperation occurs when payoffs are confined to profits from commercial fisheries....
Assessment of working women's perception and pursuit of recreation. ... Africa, to participate in two focus group interviews at the workplace of the respondents. ... Three underlying themes, namely barriers, benefits, and attitude and pursuits ...
Seyma, Aksu; Umdu Topsakal, Ünsal
The aim of this study is to study the effect of using planetariums as an outdoor learning environment regarding students' opinions. Therefore, descriptive qualitative research was used. The participants were from a school in Istanbul. Ten students, 4 male and 6 female, participated in a planetarium visit to a museum. The data of the study were…
Exceptional Parent, 1991
Thirty national recreation organizations serving individuals with disabilities are listed, along with addresses and telephone numbers. Sample recreational activities covered include Boy Scouts and Girls Scouts, various wheelchair sports, skiing, golfing, and horticultural therapy. (JDD)
Thorn, B E
The use of marketing strategies can enhance the delivery of therapeutic recreation services. This article discusses how agencies can adapt marketing techniques and use them to identify potential markets, improve image, evaluate external pressures, and maximize internal strengths. Four variables that can be controlled and manipulated in a proposed marketing plan are product, price, place and promotion.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
This publication deals with recreation and leisure in American society. It is stated that the greater mobility of Americans, the increased time and money available for leisure time pursuits, the higher degree of educational level with accompanying wider interests, and the changing attitudes toward the balance between work and play are having…
David N. Cole; Kerri Cahill; Marilyn Hof
As the demographics of public land recreational visitors change, planners and managers of public lands face the challenge of protecting resources while providing high quality visitor experiences. Because our political environment demands ever more reliance on scientific data and transparent decisionmaking, planners and managers need better tools to help them understand...
Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David
Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for...
George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer
This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...
Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak
Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...
Background Despite extensive research on risk factors associated with falling in older adults, and current fall prevention interventions focusing on modifiable risk factors, there is a lack of detailed accounts of sex differences in risk factors, circumstances and consequences of falls in the literature. We examined the circumstances, consequences and resulting injuries of indoor and outdoor falls according to sex in a population study of older adults. Methods Men and women 65 years and older (N = 743) were followed for fall events from the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston prospective cohort study. Baseline measurements were collected by comprehensive clinical assessments, home visits and questionnaires. During the follow-up (median = 2.9 years), participants recorded daily fall occurrences on a monthly calendar, and fall circumstances were determined by a telephone interview. Falls were categorized by activity and place of falling. Circumstance-specific annualized fall rates were calculated and compared between men and women using negative binomial regression models. Results Women had lower rates of outdoor falls overall (Crude Rate Ratio (RR): 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.56-0.92), in locations of recreation (RR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70), during vigorous activity (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18-0.81) and on snowy or icy surfaces (RR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.86) compared to men. Women and men did not differ significantly in their rates of falls outdoors on sidewalks, streets, and curbs, and during walking. Compared to men, women had greater fall rates in the kitchen (RR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.04-3.40) and while performing household activities (RR: 3.68, 95% CI: 1.50-8.98). The injurious outdoor fall rates were equivalent in both sexes. Women’s overall rate of injurious indoor falls was nearly twice that of men’s (RR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.44-2.72), especially in the kitchen (RR: 6.83, 95% CI: 2
Garrett Duncan; John Mintz; Douglas Rischbieter; John Baas
This paper focuses on identifying applications of recreation survey results in the context of water-based recreation planning. Recreation researchers have sometimes been criticized for conducting research that is weak in applied value (Cordell 1999). The paper also focuses on the important, but sometimes forgotten role that private entities play (e.g., Pacific Gas and...
Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…
This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...
Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita
Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.
Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...
Albertson, Timothy E
The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.
Cole, Scott; Lindhjem, Henrik; Zandersen, Marianne
the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once......The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture...... these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services....
Bolliger, Doris U.; Shepherd, Craig E.
This study examined how instructors and learners in residential outdoor education programs utilized mobile technologies and Web 2.0 applications. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with instructors, support staff, and administrators at a nonprofit institution that provides outdoor education programs. Sixty-five participants in those…
Starbuck, J. David.
Forty-nine formal research studies have been conducted on participants of college outdoor orientation programs. Although many variables have been examined for the incoming students, only one study has focused on the impact on the student leaders. The goal of this study was to understand how student leaders in outdoor orientation programs…
Ritchie, Stephen D.; Wabano, Mary Jo; Corbiere, Rita G.; Restoule, Brenda M.; Russell, Keith C.; Young, Nancy L.
Indigenous voices are largely silent in the outdoor education and adventure therapy literature. The purpose of this research collaboration was to understand how a 10-day outdoor adventure leadership experience (OALE) may promote resilience and well-being for Indigenous youth through their participation in the program. The process was examined…
Full Text Available Recreational activities represent individual or organized group activities chosen by free will, which help individuals to maintain good health, physical and working condition. In addition to the required physical segment, recreation also includes mental component which refers to strengthening of the will and determination, acquisition and development of self-control. With physical and mental aspect of recreational activities, many authors especially emphasize the importance of socio-psychological component of recreation. The aim of this paper is to review the so far published scientific and professional works in which the problem of recreational activities of persons with cerebral palsy, sight impairment, intellectual disability and autism is discussed, by studying the available literature. During the research we used the electronic data base of Serbian Library Consortium for Coordinated Acquisition, Google Scholar, as well as published material available in print. The participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities in the community is determined by the individual characteristics of the person, but with the community factors as well. The results of many studies show that persons with disabilities participate less in leisure and physical recreational activities and that is largely related to the level of social integration of these persons. Taking into account the fact that the participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities largely correlates with the quality of life of these persons, it is necessary to increase the number of recreational services that the community offers, as well as to specialise, modify and adapt some of them in relation to the needs of these persons. Also, it is recommended that as an integral part of all therapeutic approaches to persons with disability, the training of these persons for the appropriate use of their leisure time be included.
Full Text Available In the wake of urbanisation processes and the constitution of metropolitan regions, the role of the city's rural surroundings is receiving more attention from researchers and planners as rural areas offer various (cultural ecosystem services for the urban population. Urban dwellers increasingly desire recreation and landscape experience. Although this need for recreation is generally recognized, few studies have focused on the question of people's preferences for certain types and characteristics of outdoor recreation areas in relation to the frequency of use. In order to acquire baseline data on this subject, the main objectives of this study were to explore recreation preferences of urban dwellers and the relation between actual use and perceived value of recreation areas in a case study in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (Germany. In a social survey, Hamburg residents (n = 400 were asked about their preferences and use of four important regional recreation areas with different landscape characteristics in face-to-face interviews in different locations in the city. We found that both outdoor recreation within and outside of the city were fairly or very important for more than 70% of the questioned urban dwellers. Interestingly, the preference for a recreation area outside of the city did not depend on the frequency of use, which indicates that certain recreation areas had a symbolic value besides their use value. When people were questioned on the characteristics of recreation areas, perceived naturalness was found to be strongly related to preference. Respondents considered the diversity, uniqueness, and naturalness of the landscape to be far more important than the accessibility of the recreation areas and the provision of service facilities.
Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A
Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.
Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.
Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.
Bhat; Bergstrom; Teasley; Bowker; Cordell
/ This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such as motor boating and waterskiing, developed and primitive camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecoregion. While our ecoregional approach differs conceptually from previous work, our results appear consistent with the previous travel cost method valuation studies.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Ecoregion; Travel cost method; Truncated Poisson model
Full Text Available The subject of research is tourist offer of a camp which would satisfy the needs of tourists who want an active recreation, with changeable and attractive facilities in the Balkan Scout Center (BSC of Jovac. The goal is to define a model for recreational tourism product mix of the Balkan Scout Center, based on the analysis and evaluation of the elements of supply and identifying the demand for a certain program content. The research was conducted from April to August 2012, as a part of activities implemented in BSC events: Easter camp, Summer camp and Volunteer camp. The sample consisted of 100 visitors (respondents; the administered instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and the methods on which the analysis of the modeling was based were: frequency of occurrence, comparative analysis (Benchmarking, SWOT and PEST. The research results confirm the existence of necessary resources for the implementation of the contents in the field of recreational tourism in the BSC, and the possibility of implementation of the product mix that includes day trips and a variety of outdoor recreational activities.
M Guszkowska; A Bołdak
The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.
Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.
Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…
Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…
Mullins, Philip M.
To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…
Cheryl E. Peters
Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.
Rothe, Elizabeth; Holt, Christina; Kuhn, Celine; McAteer, Timothy; Askari, Isabella; O'Meara, Mary; Sharif, Abdimajid; Dexter, William
To identify barriers to outdoor physical activity in winter among Somali youth in Maine. Despite the many proven health benefits of physical activity among children, such as cardiovascular fitness and health status as an adult, there has been a decrease in physical activity among children in recent years. Specifically, children who are of low socio-economic status or are from communities where many immigrants are at increased risk for developing obesity. Immigrants are also less likely to be physically active. There are many potential barriers to wintertime physical activity among Somali youth in Maine, such as lack of financial resources, transportation, proper winter clothing, and appropriate knowledge of winter safety, and language and cultural barriers. For females, different attire required for outdoor activity may be a barrier. Somali parents and children were recruited from Portland, Maine to participate in focus groups led by a trained facilitator with a Somali translator and cultural broker. Transcripts were coded using NVIVO software to identify barriers to physical activity among Somali youth outside in winter. Eight focus groups were conducted. Sixty-one Somali community members were recruited. Participants felt outdoor physical activity is important, but note that it is decreased in winter. Barriers to outdoor activity in winter cited by focus group participants were lack of resources, health concerns, gender barriers for females, and knowledge barriers. Concern over lack of supervision while children play outside was also cited. This study revealed many of the underlying beliefs, barriers and cultural issues that impact Somali families' intention to be active and ability to be active outdoors in winter. These findings can be used to generate research hypotheses and public health interventions regarding outdoor physical activity among Somali youth.
Visiting forests and nature reserves for recreational purposes Frequency and destination of holidays and short holidays / leisure outdoor activities in the Netherlands / having one or more dogs / other activities like visiting relatives and friends, going to the beach, visiting forests and other
Chippendale, Tracy; Lee, Chang Dae
Using a theoretical model that combines an ecological perspective and Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a guide, we sought to compare experiences and characteristics of community dwelling older adults with and without concern about falling outdoors. A survey of randomly selected community dwelling older adults across NYC (N = 120) was conducted using the outdoor falls questionnaire. Descriptive quantitative analyses of participant characteristics were conducted for all participants and for those with and without concern about falling outside. Conventional content analysis using two coders was employed to examine outdoor fall experiences for each group. A mixed methods matrix was used to integrate qualitative and quantitative findings. Some participant characteristics were more common among those with a concern about falling outside such as decreased functional status, female gender, and number of prior outdoor falls. As per descriptions of outdoor fall experiences, participants with concern were more likely to report a fall while climbing stairs or stepping up a curb, describe an intrinsic factor as a cause of their fall, use an injury prevention strategy during the fall, sustain a moderate to severe injury, seek medical attention, have had an ambulance called, require help to get up, and describe implementation of a behavioral change after the fall. Differences exist in participant characteristics and outdoor fall experiences of those with and without concern about falling outside. The proposed model can be used to understand fear of falling outdoors and can help to inform the target population and content of intervention programs.
C. Mann; J.D. Absher
The scientific inputs to management of recreation areas in Germany have been largely determined by ecologically oriented quantitative impact and conflict studies with an emphasis on nature protection. Today, however, Germanyâs recreational situation has changed. New activities and increased participation by people seeking different recreational experiences challenge...
Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S
Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hip fractures in older persons are associated with both low levels of daily physical activity and loss of outdoor mobility. The aim was to investigate if accelerometer-based measures of physical behaviour can be used to determine if people undertake outdoor walking and to provide reference values for physical behaviour outcomes related to outdoor mobility. Older persons (n=245, ≥70 years, one year after hip fracture, participated. Six objective measures of physical behaviour collected by an activity monitor were compared with self-reported outdoor mobility assessed with the Nottingham Extended ADL scale. All measures of time and length in upright periods were significantly lower in participants who reported not walking outdoors (p<0.001. A set of cut-off points for the different physical behaviour variables was generated. Maximum length of upright events discriminated best between groups, with 31 minutes as a threshold to determine if a person is more likely to report that they walk outdoors (sensitivity: 0.805, specificity: 0.704, and AUC: 0.871 or 41 minutes or more to determine if a person is more likely to report outdoor walking on their own (AUC: 0.891. Physical behaviour variables from activity monitoring can provide information about patterns of physical behaviour related to outdoor activity performance.
Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans
In the last decade, multiple GIS-based planning support systems have been developed in order to improve the basis for spatial planning. Recent research has focused on problems regarding a lack of utilisation or barriers to the use of advanced GIS and GIS-based planning support systems in planning...... applications. This paper discusses these research findings in the context of outdoor recreational planning by local governments in Denmark. According to a national survey of municipal planners, GIS-based planning support is widely used in Denmark, but more GIS is needed and is being requested for local outdoor...... recreation planning. However, considerable differences exist between the ways municipalities assess their need for and use of GIS planning support. These differences are explored in more detail using a factor analysis of planning variables and uses of GIS. Three situations are described: 1) extensive network...
Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...
are theories of human cognitive activity during driving. Van der Molen and Botticher recently reviewed several of these models . The models...represent driving knowledge, how to perceive traffic situations, or how to process information to obtain actions. Van der Molen and Botticher attempted to...Conference on Robotics and Automation. IEEE, 1987.  van der Molen , H.H., and Botticher, A.M.T. Risk Models for Traffic Participants: A Concerted
Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne
To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....
For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…
A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…
The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…
Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel
A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...
Using the constraints-effects mitigation model, this study explored the benefits of recreation and sport leisure activities that motivate women's participation. While there are numerous studies that have investigated factors that motivate women's leisure participation and leisure constraints in Europe and the United States, there ...
Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim
In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…
Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.
Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…
Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen
Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...
Spaul, Robert J; Heath, Julie A
Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e.g., trails or campsites) predicted golden eagle territory occupancy, egg-laying, or the probability a breeding attempt resulted in ≥1 offspring (nest survival). We monitored egg-laying, hatching and fledging success, eagle behavior, and recreation activity within 23 eagle territories near Boise, Idaho, USA. Territories with more off-road vehicle (ORV) use were less likely to be occupied than territories with less ORV use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -2.8 to -0.8). At occupied territories, early season pedestrian use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -3.8 to -0.2) and other nonmotorized use (β = -3.6, 85% CI: -10.7 to -0.3) reduced the probability of egg-laying. At territories where eagles laid eggs, short, interval-specific peaks in ORV use were associated with decreased nest survival (β = -0.5, 85% CI: -0.8 to -0.2). Pedestrians, who often arrived near eagle nests via motorized vehicles, were associated with reduced nest attendance (β = -11.9, 85% CI: -19.2 to -4.5), an important predictor of nest survival. Multiple forms of recreation may have cumulative effects on local populations by reducing occupancy at otherwise suitable territories, decreasing breeding attempts, and causing nesting failure. Seasonal no-stopping zones for motorized vehicles may be an alternative to trail closures for managing disturbance. This study demonstrates the importance of considering human disturbance across different parts of the annual cycle, particularly where
Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M
Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.
Percy , E. C., "The Snowmobile: Friend or Foe?" Journal of Trauma, Vol 12, No. 5 (May 1972), pp 444-446. Price, V. J., "Snowmobiles, The Winter Revolution...Fort Dix, NJ Hasset, John J., Agronomy Department, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL Huber, Phil, Environmental Offices, Fort Benning, GA Jackson ...Outdoor Recreation Director, Fort McCoy, WI Houser, James, Forester, Fort McCoy, WI Hutchinson, Julian, Land Manager, Fort McCoy, WI Jackson , Gary
Foulds, Heather J A; Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Drury, Chipman Taylor; Ngai, Shirley; Fougere, Renee J; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R
Altered autonomic function has been identified following ultra-endurance event participation among elite world-class athletes. Despite dramatic increases in recreational athlete participation in these ultra-endurance events, the physiological effects on these athletes are less known. This investigation sought to characterise changes in surrogate measures of autonomic function: heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) following ultra-endurance race participation. Further, we sought to compare baseline measures among ultra-endurance athletes and recreationally active controls not participating in the ultra-endurance race. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes (n = 25, 44.6 ± 8.2 years, 8 females) and recreationally active age, sex and body mass index matched controls (n = 25) were evaluated. Measurements of HRV, BPV and BRS were collected pre- and post-race for recreational ultra-endurance athletes and at baseline, for recreationally active controls. Post-race, ultra-endurance athletes demonstrated significantly greater sympathetic modulation [low frequency (LF) power HRV: 50.3 ± 21.6 normalised units (n.u.) to 65.9 ± 20.4 n.u., p = 0.01] and significantly lower parasympathetic modulation [high frequency (HF) power HRV: 45.0 ± 22.4 n.u. to 23.9 ± 13.1 n.u., p HRV and BPV measures. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes experienced increased sympathetic tone and declines in BRS post-race, similar to previously reported elite world-class ultra-endurance athletes, though still within normal population ranges.
Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H
Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)
Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.
Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.
Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin
Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest
Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.
Granek, E F; Madin, E M P; Brown, M A; Figueira, W; Cameron, D S; Hogan, Z; Kristianson, G; de Villiers, P; Williams, J E; Post, J; Zahn, S; Arlinghaus, R
Globally, the number of recreational fishers is sizeable and increasing in many countries. Associated with this trend is the potential for negative impacts on fish stocks through exploitation or management measures such as stocking and introduction of non-native fishes. Nevertheless, recreational fishers can be instrumental in successful fisheries conservation through active involvement in, or initiation of, conservation projects to reduce both direct and external stressors contributing to fishery declines. Understanding fishers' concerns for sustained access to the resource and developing methods for their meaningful participation can have positive impacts on conservation efforts. We examined a suite of case studies that demonstrate successful involvement of recreational fishers in conservation and management activities that span developed and developing countries, temperate and tropical regions, marine and freshwater systems, and open- and closed-access fisheries. To illustrate potential benefits and challenges of involving recreational fishers in fisheries management and conservation, we examined the socioeconomic and ecological contexts of each case study. We devised a conceptual framework for the engagement of recreational fishers that targets particular types of involvement (enforcement, advocacy, conservation, management design [type and location], research, and monitoring) on the basis of degree of stakeholder stewardship, scale of the fishery, and source of impacts (internal or external). These activities can be enhanced by incorporating local knowledge and traditions, taking advantage of leadership and regional networks, and creating collaborations among various stakeholder groups, scientists, and agencies to maximize the probability of recreational fisher involvement and project success.
Gonson, Charles; Pelletier, Dominique; Alban, Frederique; Giraud-Carrier, Charlotte; Ferraris, Jocelyne
Coastal populations and tourism are growing worldwide. Consequently outdoor recreational activity is increasing and diversifying. While Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are valuable for mitigating anthropogenic impacts, recreational uses are rarely monitored and studied, resulting in a lack of knowledge on users' practices, motivation and impacts. Based on boat counts and interview data collected in New Caledonia, we i) explored factors affecting user practices and motivations, ii) constructed fine-scale pressure indices covering activities and associated behaviors, and iii) assessed the relationships between user practices and site selection. User practices were found to depend on protection status, boat type and user characteristics. Pressure indices were higher within no-take MPAs, except for fishing. We found significant relationships between user practices and settings characteristics. In the context of increasing recreational uses, these results highlight options for managing such uses through settings management without jeopardizing the social acceptance of MPAs or the attainment of conservation goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...
Moshi, Irene R; Ngowo, Halfan; Dillip, Angel; Msellemu, Daniel; Madumla, Edith P; Okumu, Fredros O; Coetzee, Maureen; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Manderson, Lenore
The extensive use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa has contributed to a significant reduction in malaria transmission. Even so, residual malaria transmission persists in many regions, partly driven by mosquitoes that bite people outdoors. In areas where Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a dominant vector, most interventions target the reduction of indoor transmission. The increased use of ITNs/LLINs and IRS has led to the decline of this species. As a result, less dominant vectors such as Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, both also originally indoor vectors but are increasingly biting outdoors, contribute more to residual malaria transmission. The study reports the investigated community perceptions on malaria and their implications of this for ongoing outdoor malaria transmission and malaria control efforts. This was a qualitative study conducted in two rural villages and two peri-urban areas located in Kilombero Valley in south-eastern Tanzania. 40 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions were conducted with men and women who had children under the age of five. The Interviews and discussions focused on (1) community knowledge of malaria transmission, and (2) the role of such knowledge on outdoor malaria transmission as a contributing factor to residual malaria transmission. The use of bed nets for malaria prevention has been stressed in a number of campaigns and malaria prevention programmes. Most people interviewed believe that there is outdoor malaria transmission since they use interventions while indoors, but they are unaware of changing mosquito host-seeking behaviour. Participants pointed out that they were frequently bitten by mosquitoes during the evening when outdoors, compared to when they were indoors. Most participants stay outdoors in the early evening to undertake domestic tasks that cannot be conducted indoors. House structure, poor ventilation and warm weather conditions
Propane is used in most remote locations in North America for heat, cooking, power, or light. The users include ski hills operators to fishing lodges owners. Three profiles are presented in this article. The Pawistik Lodge is located in northern Saskatchewan near the Manitoba border. This lodge accommodates anglers. Propane is used for heating, gas stoves, lighting, and to power a one-ton truck, while electricity is used for all other energy needs. At Banff National Park, the clean burning fuel of choice for hot water, heating, cooking, and refrigeration is propane. Every location west of the town of Banff is fueled by propane. It includes the Sunshine and Lake Louise ski resorts, the Lake Louise village, Johnston's Canyon, as well as other locations. Some of the cabins used by the Park wardens have been equipped with solar panels to supply the energy required for lighting, but stoves in those cabins are powered by propane. Park vehicles are powered by propane when possible, and some are powered by dual fuel, propane and gasoline. It is all part of the government's green plan. The entire Yoho National Park is also fueled by propane. Sun Peaks ski resort operates an elaborate grid system and a plant that vaporizes propane for distribution. The price increase for propane earlier in 2001 did not adversely affect the resort since it buys its propane in bulk (it uses approximately two million litres of propane each year). Propane fuels heating, hot water, and fireplaces. The outdoor swimming pool is heated using propane. It attempts to implement from the lessons learned at the successful Whistler/Blackcomb ski resort, also fueled by propane.
Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim
BACKGROUND: Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA...... of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). METHODS: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational...
Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie
Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers....... However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried out in 2009/2010. The first recall survey exclusively targeted fishers who had been issued......, in certain areas, the recreational harvest of cod accounted for more than 30% of the total yield. The majority (81%) of the recreational cod harvest was taken by anglers. Eels, however, are almost exclusively caught with passive gear (fykenets) and a total of 104 t year−1 was harvested, which corresponds...
Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Ho, Susanna; Ching, Chew Ting
This paper explores pre-service PE teachers' conceptions of outdoor education (OE) in Singapore. Survey questionnaires were administered to 120 pre-service teachers; 14 teachers participated in follow-up semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate that OE is predominantly situated within the outdoor camp environment. Pre-service teachers…
Full Text Available In the article is expounded about health and its basic constituents: physical, psychical and social. Description is given to physical development of man and its physical preparedness, physical form and trained, physical activity and functional readiness. Opinions and looks of scientists, teachers and doctors are presented on determination of health of man, including student. All of these symptoms are taken into account from point of recreation measures. Description of determination of recreation, physical recreation and other concept of recreation systems is given. It is shown historical information about both determination of health and recreation, and also participation of higher educational establishments of physical culture of Ukraine, Russia and Poland, which is working under this problem, in determination of health and recreation.
Full Text Available Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play.Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour.3856 (n=29% participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with >2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B=2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34, >330 additional steps per day (B=336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51, and nearly 5min less time spent sedentary per day (B=−4.91 95% CI −7.54, −2.29Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions to promote
Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
Objective measurements of outdoor time are essential to establishing evidence about the health benefits of going outdoors among older adults. To better understanding the health benefits of going outdoors, clarification of potential mediators to connect going outdoors with health benefits is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate associations of objectively-measured outdoor time with older adults' physical and psychological function, and examine the mediating role of physical activity on these associations. Baseline data from a randomized control trial of physical activity among older adults with global cognitive impairment was used. Data from 192 participants were analyzed. Measures included steps-per-day, objectively-measured outdoor time per day using global positioning systems, physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength), psychological function (depression, well-being) and basic factors. Path analysis showed that outdoor time was significantly associated with steps-per-day (path coefficient = 0.23) and depression (path coefficient = -0.16). Outdoor time was not directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength and well-being. However, steps-per-day was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (path coefficient = 0.18), lower-extremity strength (path coefficient = -0.22) and well-being (path coefficient = 0.14). We found that objectively-measured outdoor time was indirectly associated with physical function, and both directly and indirectly with psychological function through physical activity among older adults. This finding indicates that going outdoors influences older adults' health outcomes, and is mainly mediated by physical activity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1455-1462. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.
The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.
Rasmussen, Karsten Bo
A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...
Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo
Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...
Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville
This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from cr...
Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.
Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…
Richard Schreyer; Richard C. Knopf; Daniel R. Williams
Effective inventory, management, and planning for recreation resources depend upon knowing why persons choose certain environments to attain specific goals, and what elements in those environments facilitate goal-attainment. Research focused on relating motives for participation to specific components in the environment has had only limited success. This paper proposes...
This brief guide presents principles and suggestions to help individuals who are deaf-blind enjoy and benefit from participation in recreational activities. Some considerations discussed are to: (1) start with the individual and determine what he or she is interested in, focusing on the selection of safe, age-appropriate activities; (2) research…
Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve
Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974
Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.
Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both
Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takao
Identifying the risk factors of cognitive impairment is essential for implementing effective prevention strategies for dementia. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of going outdoors is inversely associated with cognitive decline. Little research has examined whether the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive decline varies with physical functioning in older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive function in older adults with and without physical function limitations. The present study analyzed the data of 4450 individuals (aged 65 years or older) who participated in the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. The measures were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), going outdoors (at least once a week or not), self-reported physical function limitations (with or without), and demographic and health-related factors as potential confounders. Analysis of covariance and post-hoc comparisons showed that although going outdoors at least once a week was associated with higher MMSE scores among older adults with limited physical function, it was not significantly associated with the MMSE scores among older adults without limited physical function. Similarly, logistic regression analyses, stratified by physical function, showed a significant association between going outdoors and MMSE (older adults with limited physical function. The results show that going outdoors less than once a week is associated with decreased cognitive function among older adults with limited physical function, but it is not associated with cognitive function among older adults without limited physical function. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
A study in 2008 revealed that 44% of municipal sport and recreation facilities in South Africa were reported to be poorly maintained because of the lack of necessary skills and poorly trained staff. It seems that training could be a major contributor to solving this problem. The aim of this qualitative research was to determine ...
Full Text Available Romanian Wild Carpathia constitutes the ultimate pristine wilderness of the old European continent. Carpathian Mountains landscape experiences and outdoor recreation represents quite unique cultural ecosystem services. The new annotations to the Forest Law are restricting any public access in the woods without authorities’ pre-approval for organised sport, leisure and tourism activities. However, off road vehicle (ORV recreation is a popular activity and a growing transparency concern of National Forest Administration Authorities that is not managed accordingly. Here we show that our ORV recreation frame model can securely allow public access and protect all Romanian mountains. Our results demonstrate how growing ORV recreation popularity can be used in an honest and open way if it is well organized and controlled. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for a regional and national forest administration sustainable development plan. Furthermore, stopping illegal forest activities is a major target of the anti-logging movement. A well-defined assay for the ORV recreation frame model will be relevant for such developments.
Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas
This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…
Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…
Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...
De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen
... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...
Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…
M. R. Arpentieva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical analysis of the problems of ecological tourism as a component of the theory and practice of recreational geography (geography, nature. The article reveals the essence and characteristics of ecotourism identifying its issues and determining the direction and tasks of its development. Special attention is paid to types and objects of ecological tourism, main problems and aspects of its development in the context of recreational geography and tourism are highlighted, such as the lack of an overall national concept for the development of rural tourism or the lack of clearly articulated public policies. There are neither standards and regulations applicable to rural tourism nor qualified personnel, knowledge and experience in the service sector of foreign and domestic tourists.There are no regulatory legal acts in the field of rural and ecological tourism which is aggravated by the unwillingness and inability to efficiently use private recreation resources. One of the key problems connected with the development of domestic tourism, including such types as agrotourism (“green tourism”, coupled with the experience of participation in rural works, and rural tourism as a whole, attracting people to rural life. The business problems of development of ecological tourism as an independent tourism industry cannot and should not be addressed to without strategic analysis and forecasting varied (including negative consequences of tourist activity for society, culture and environment as well as without and without the development and implementation of forms of ecological tourism aimed at harmonizing nature and culture of nature management by the population.
Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve
To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Barcelona, Spain. Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rantanen, Taina; Äyräväinen, Irma; Eronen, Johanna; Lyyra, Tiinamari; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vaarama, Marja; Rantakokko, Merja
Older community-living disabled people often have unmet activity needs and participation restrictions potentially reducing their quality of life (QoL). We examined the effects of an individualized out-of-home activity intervention delivered by volunteers on QoL among community-living older people, who have difficulty accessing the outdoors independently. Volunteering, Access to Outdoor Activities and Wellbeing in Older People (VOW; ISRCTN56847832) was a two-arm randomized single-blinded, controlled effectiveness trial (RCT) in Jyväskylä, Finland. The inclusion criteria were: age 65 or over, severe mobility limitation, able to communicate, and agree to participate in a RCT. Each intervention group member was assigned a trained volunteer with whom out-of-home activities were done once a week for 3 months (e.g., running errands or recreational activities). The primary outcome was the environmental subscore of QoL assessed with WHOQOL-BREF. Secondary outcomes were the overall QoL, physical capacity, psychological well-being, and social relationships assessed with WHOQOL_BREF and lower-extremity performance assessed with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). 121 people aged 67-92 years (mean age 81.9 years, SD 5.9, 90 % women) were randomized. No treatment effect on the environmental QoL subscore was observed, but for physical capacity subscore a significant treatment effect was observed (General Linear Model, Group by Time p = 0.001). No effects were observed for the other QoL subscores or for SPPB score. This study suggests that individualized out-of-home activity intervention delivered by volunteers may influence the QoL of old severely mobility-limited community-living people in a positive way. Further studies are needed to better understand how to improve QoL of older disabled community-living people and potentially buffer them against more severe care needs and institutionalization.
María Ofelia Armas-Álvarez
Full Text Available The work is lead to establish the theoretical foundations of the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process that favour the knowledge acquisition and the development of necessary skills in the students to promote culture in the different moments where they have connection with the society by means of the participation of the subjects and disciplines of the current programs that allow to organize systematic and articulated activities, appropriately planned, able to satisfy the necessities and to achieve the purpose of getting the preparation and integral cultural formation, as well as the their appropriate projection in the social environment that demands the contemporary society from the university professionals. In the work they are determined the content and skills that the student requires to promote Physical Culture in correspondence with their professional performance. It is designed a plan of activities to carry out the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process.
Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.
For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20
Hutchinson, Susan L; Fenton, Lara
There is merit in understanding how recreation-oriented programs for adults living with mental illness address barriers to participation and how programming is structured to create safe and inclusive environments, resulting in programming that amplifies the benefits of recreation for mental well-being. Following an environmental scan of programs targeting adults living with mental illness in Canada, ten coordinators in community mental health settings were interviewed. Four themes were constructed to reflect characteristics deemed to be 'promising practices' related to recreation-oriented programming: (a) barriers and solutions to individual participation, (b) characteristics of welcoming and supportive environments, (c) leadership characteristics, and (d) program characteristics.
Employee recreation programs have been shown to reduce absenteeism, increase performance and productivity, reduce stress levels, and increase job satisfaction. Studies that present positive results of employee recreation are discussed. (DF)
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is meant to be a comprehensive database of recreational assets in public areas. Recreational assets are considered amenities provided to the public for...
Fort, Inza L.; Di Brezzo, Ro
The preponderance of articles and research on nutrition can be confusing. The active woman over 30 can enhance performance and health with a high-quality diet. Specific nutritional concerns for women after the college years, such as nutrient content, iron, calcium, vitamin supplementation, and caffeine are discussed. Evidence that processed foods…
Epidemiological data suggest that activity levels generally increase from middle childhood into early adolescence, and then they tend to decline. Adolescence is a critical period in which initiation and formation of health behaviours occur, which can continue into adulthood. The purpose of the study is thus to investigate sport ...
Recreational games can be incorporated into physical education programs to encourage play and activity among students during their leisure time. Students can play their own games during recess, before or after school, during intramural programs, or in their neighborhood with family and friends. This article describes five such games namely:…
Linda E. Kruger
The paper presents a personal perspective on water and recreation including challenges for managers and researchers and approaches to contemporary issues. The article explores the relationship between group identify and connection to place, developed through trecreation activities, and engagement in stewardhsip and sustainability activities.
Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette
-er/land use information), demographic information. The report is accom-pagnied with a spatial database for the regional case of forest recreation in Northern Zealand, Denmark. The spatial database contains forest polygons; forest attribute; estimation of total annual number of visits per site; and es...
Card, Jaclyn A.
Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…
Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller
Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...
Knuiman Matthew W
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition
E. G. Matyugina
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to identify the specifics of the attractiveness of the recreational space of resort areas for the sub-federal units of different levels.Methods. In the research of approaches to the organization of recreation and structural features of the territorial space, we applied systematic and analytical comparativegeographical methods of analysis on the example of the Republic of Crimea.Findings. The urgency of integration of the compensatory mechanism into the reproduction processes determines the importance of not only the allocation of recreational space, but also the organization of purposeful activities to ensure and maintain its attractiveness. Since the resort areas have been adopted as a research object, it is necessary to rank the components of the natural resource potential on the basis of their participation in building recreation. A wide range of forms of manifestation of recreational interest determines the positioning of the basic and complementary types of recreation. The attractiveness of the latter takes various forms depending on the subject-carrier of interest.Conclusion. In the formation of a recreational space, it is necessary to define the "profiling" of the territory in terms of identifying the most significant component that is the basis for organizing recreational activities, identifying the related areas, thus it provides a greater coverage of the preferences of the sub-federal units. As a result, it gives the recreation a systematic property based on the integrated and maximally full use of the potential of the territory. Recreational space is studied in terms of the formation of the structure of the actual recreation ("recreation pyramid" and infrastructure, hence only their compilation provides the attractiveness of the recreation. Has been proved the existence of various forms of attractiveness of recreational space for economic entities of different levels. These conditions, examined on the
Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M
The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.
Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B
Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.
The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of an outdoor experiential environmental education (OEEE) programme on the affective domain of adult participants--namely, in-service teachers from Turkey. Data collection methods such as; psychodrama, non-participant observation, open-ended questions and content analysis were used within a…
Full Text Available Recreational architecture is a branch of architectural activity whose main object is formation of recreational spaces (territories, buildings, complexes and equipment. The goal of recreational architecture is to create optimal (comfortable, lovely and realizable environment for all recreation types and forms. This goal is realized by projects which are based on scientific research and recommendations. This activity needs more than casual work and living environment. It needs special space and equipment: territory, water area, buildings, and rooms. Everything can be called recreational environment. Recreational environment can be of various dimensional scales: enormous seaside or lake areas intended for recreation, resorts, recreational institution complexes and many single buildings, beaches, forest parks, pools. Recreational environment is possible not only out of town but in town as well. Beginning of recreational architecture is observed in antique cultures, but as a separate specific architectural activity branch it rapidly began to spread in last century first half and in Lithuania – in the last four decades. In this work, analysis of evaluating recreational architecture is made seeking to reveal recreational architecture evaluating criteria and their use .Article in Lithuanian
Recreation decisions have traditionally been studied in tourism and leisure management. However, the topic has recently started to be studied on the transportation research field. This increasing interest in recreation travel reflects the fact that the share of recreation trips is rapidly increasing
Chieh-Lu Li; James D. Absher; Yi-Chung Hsu; Alan R. Graefe
Measuring cultural diversity in recreation has become an important topic because of the increasing coverage of and interest in ethnicity and cross-cultural aspects of recreation. Introducing theories and methods from established disciplines other than leisure studies/recreation and park studies is necessary to understand this important issue. In this article, we first...
The Baltic Sea plays a significant role for recreational use in the nine littoral countries with more than 70% of the population visiting the coast, representing some 80 million recreation visits annually. Understanding the values associated with coastal recreation and the potential welfare chang...
Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.
Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is
Cocks, Samuel; Simpson, Steven
Sometimes environmental philosophers write only for other environmental philosophers, and their insights on the nature-human relationship do not reach environmental educators and adventure programmers. This article investigates one aspect of environmental philosophy and the differences between anthropocentric and ecocentric thinking, and applies…
Megha Budruk; Robert Manning
Research on crowding-related norms has begun to explore differences across settings, time, activities, and visitor characteristics such as age, economic status, and country of origin. The literature examining visitors' country of origin suggests a mixed pattern. While there is some evidence of differences across country of origin, other studies have not indicated...
The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.
Full Text Available This article studied the concept of campus plaza, i.e. the outdoor space of the Selcuk University located in Konya, Turkey. The objective of the study in which the survey, observation and photographic methods were used, was to examine the plaza as an outdoor space providing individual and social benefits to campus people and to determine the principles regarding the establishment of this space. Two hundred forty-three students participating in the survey were asked about the outdoor spaces they use in the campus area, the qualities of the plaza, their purposes and the frequency of plaza use, and a descriptive analysis was performed to determine the plaza’s quality. Additionally, a correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the landscape accessory and the manner in which the users’ senses were affected by the experienced space (profiles of the space. At the end of this study, two main components determining the campus plaza’s quality were found: (i qualities of the physical environment (climatic features, location of plaza, its relation with the surrounding structuring, pedestrian / vehicle relation in terms of accessibility, fixed elements / equipment in the area, quality of open space area, quality of landscape accessory and area’s being in good repair (ii user characteristics. User characteristics also comprised two quality criteria: (i the behavioural and functional quality, (ii the visual quality.
Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Chad D. Pierskalla; Alan Graefe
The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor recreation behavior of Oregon's aging population, including developing a socio-demographic profile and examining the importance of their current motivations with the importance of their expected motivations 10 years from now. A stratified random sample was drawn of Oregon residents, and a mailback questionnaire...
This investigation examined whether community cohesion mediates or moderates the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms in older adults displaced by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study included 292 adults aged 65 years or older who were relocated to permanent houses after Typhoon Morakot damaged their homes on 8th August 2009. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test the role of community cohesion on the association between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. The sample of displaced older adults displayed higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than the average for community dwelling older people in Taiwan. Community cohesion fully mediated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion also moderated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion occupies a key role on the link between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Participation in outdoor activities was associated positively with community cohesion, while high community cohesion was related negatively to depressive symptoms. Additionally, the benefit of outdoor activities to fewer depressive symptoms only manifested in older adults with high community cohesion. Programs and services should be designed to enhance community cohesion in order to maximize the benefit of outdoor activities to the mental health of displaced older adults after natural disasters.
Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino
Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.
Schaefer, Lee; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Majumdar, Sumit R; Mollard, Rebecca; Woo, Meaghan; Sadman, Rashik; Rinaldi, Randi Lynn; Boulé, Normand; Torrance, Brian; Ball, Geoff D C; Veugelers, Paul; Wozny, Paul; McCargar, Linda; Downs, Shauna; Lewanczuk, Richard; Gleddie, Douglas; McGavock, Jonathan
To determine whether time spent outdoors was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and related health benefits in youth. We performed a cross-sectional study of 306 youth aged 13.6 ± 1.4 years. The exposure of interest was self-reported time spent outdoors after school, stratified into three categories: none, some, and most/all of the time. The main outcome of interest was accelerometer-derived MVPA (Actical: 1500 to >6500 counts/min). Secondary outcomes included sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, overweight status, and blood pressure. Among the 306 youth studied, those who reported spending most/all of their after-school time outdoors (n = 120) participated in more MVPA (61.0 ± 24.3 vs 39.9 ± 19.1 min/day; adjusted P outdoors (n = 52). No differences in overweight/obesity or blood pressure were observed across the groups. Time spent outdoors is positively associated with MVPA and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth and negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Experimental trials are needed to determine whether strategies designed to increase time spent outdoors exert a positive influence on physical activity and fitness levels in youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David
Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.
Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M
To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris
At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…
... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...
Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.
It is presumed that recreation activities have a variety of functions for people, from tension reduction to citizenship development; however, a recreation activity's most empirically obvious function is as a reinforcer. This study demonstrates how two recurrent problems of urban recreation programs—recruitment of members and reduction of disruptive behaviors within the program—can be handled simply by contingently adjusting the amount of time the recreation activities are available. When extra time in the recreation center was provided to those youths who brought new members, dramatic increases in membership were achieved. On the other hand, when the closing time for each evening's recreation program was publicly moved forward by a few minutes for each offense, disruptive behaviors were nearly eliminated. Recreation used as a reinforcer can thus improve the basic operation of a recreation center and might similarly enhance other presumed and desired functions of recreation. PMID:16795471
This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.
Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William
A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...
Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology for generating models of demand for informal outdoor recreation. We analyze visitor data from multiple forest sites across Great Britain. We introduce a wide range of variables typically omitted from most economic demand models of recreation. These include on-site characteristics, and off-site locational drivers of visitation including substitute and complement availability. A Poisson multilevel model is used to model visitor counts, and the methodology is applied to a dataset of more than 10,000 visits to open-access woodland sites. Results confirm it identifies a broader range of demand drivers than previously observed. The use of nationally available explanatory variables enhances the transferability and hence general applicability of the methodology.
Dustin, Daniel; Browne, Laurie; Bricker, Kelly; Schwab, Keri
This article stems from a conversation among academic leaders of graduate-oriented departments of parks, recreation, and tourism across North America who participated in an administrator summit at Zion Ponderosa Resort in southern Utah September 23-26, 2010. The University of Utah's Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism hosted the summit,…
Jerry L. Ricciardo
The quest for quality of life and individual happiness is, in part, associated with the individual's ability to identify his/her own needs at a point in time along the life cycle continuum and having the ability to translate those needs into activity spheres or recreation activities. This research is an examination of recreational career participants among a...
The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...
Fisher, David M; Wood, Spencer A; White, Eric M; Blahna, Dale J; Lange, Sarah; Weinberg, Alex; Tomco, Michael; Lia, Emilia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods. First, we measure daily and monthly visitation rates to individual trails within the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (MBSNF) in western Washington. At 15 trailheads, we compare counts of hikers from infrared sensors, timelapse cameras, and manual on-site counts, to counts based on the number of shared geotagged images and trip reports from those locations. Second, we measure visitation rates to each National Forest System (NFS) unit across the US and compare annual measurements derived from the number of geotagged images to estimates from the US Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Program. At both the NFS unit and the individual-trail scales, we found strong correlations between traditional measures of recreational use and measures based on user-generated content shared on the internet. For national forests in every region of the country, correlations between official Forest Service statistics and geotagged images ranged between 55% and 95%. For individual trails within the MBSNF, monthly visitor counts from on-site measurements were strongly correlated with counts from geotagged images (79%) and trip reports (91%). The convenient, cost-efficient and timely nature of collecting and analyzing user-generated data could allow land managers to monitor use over different seasons of the year and at sites and scales never previously
Chaix, Basile; Simon, Chantal; Charreire, Hélène; Thomas, Frédérique; Kestens, Yan; Karusisi, Noëlla; Vallée, Julie; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Weber, Christiane; Pannier, Bruno
Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one's residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n=7105, 2007-2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h 31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one's residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one's neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the quartiles). Providing green/open spaces of
Allan Francis Ebunola Oladugbagbe
Full Text Available One major element that finds expression at road intersections, parks, gardens, square and open spaces in the urban landscape are outdoor sculptures. Of great significance is the historical information they disseminate, the visual impressions they convey and the aesthetic value they add to the quality of the city. From 1960s and after the civil war, the uses of sculptures for embellishments in public places have increased tremendously in Nigeria. However, outdoor sculpture for the purpose of recreation and relaxation in our built environment has not been adequately addressed scholastically in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, focuses on the social values derivable from the use of sculpture in urban design and the losses that could accrue to the social system if not adequately managed. The values of these sculptures to the socio-psychological development of Nigerians and the beautification of the urban environment are equally emphasized. The study shows that incorporating sculptures into public places without doubt will heighten public appreciation and aesthetic perception and make Nigerian cities unique and vibrant.Keywords: Nigeria urban cities; socio-psychological impact; outdoor sculptures.
... recreational vehicles should not drive while under the influence of alcohol, drugs or even some prescription medicines. Parents should set an example for their children in this regard. Young drivers should be discouraged ...
Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor
Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to th...
Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina
Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
Barakazı, Mahmut; Önçel, Sibel
In terms of culture, art and gastronomy, Urfa sira nights are the basis for an important recreational activity. Recreational activities in these regions provide tourism awareness, as well as the benefits of introducing local Urfa cuisine, which is very rich in culinary culture, and Gastronomy leads to the recognition of tourism in the region. The aim of this research is to encourage recreational activities by promoting recreational activities such as Urfa sira 'nights' effects on ga...
Sugiyama, Takemi; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark
This study examined whether attributes of pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to public open spaces (POS) and adults' recreational walking. Data were collected from participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study in 2007. Recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Measures of POS access (presence, count, and distance to the nearest POS) were assessed using a Geographic Information System. Pedestrian environmental attributes included aesthetics, walking infrastructure, barrier/traffic, crime concern, intersection density, and access to walking trails. Regression analyses examined whether associations between POS access and recreational walking were moderated by pedestrian environmental attributes. The sample included 1574 participants (45% men, mean age: 55). POS access measures were not associated with recreational walking. However, aesthetics, walking infrastructure, and access to walking trail were found to moderate the POS-walking relationships. The presence of POS was associated with walking among participants with aesthetically pleasing pedestrian environments. Counter-intuitively, better access to POS was associated with recreational walking for those with poorer walking infrastructure or no access to walking trails. Local pedestrian environments moderate the relationships between access to POS and recreational walking. Our findings suggest the presence of complex relationships between POS availability and pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois
On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.
Adams, Marc A; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F
Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001-2005 from Seattle / King County WA and Baltimore MD / Washington DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-HH). All measures were higher in the HHH than the LLL profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all pwalkability index. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng-Ping Wang; Chad P. Dawson
Previous studies point out recreation conflict may be affected by recreation goals, resource specificity, activity style, mode of experience, lifestyle tolerance, norms, problems perceived, visitor values and conflict sensitivity. However, people engaging in single or multiple activities may have different patterns when considering recreation conflict. A study of...
Background Understanding how the determinants of behaviour vary by context may support the design of interventions aiming to increase physical activity. Such factors include independent mobility, time outdoors and the availability of other children. At present little is known about who children spend their time with after school, how this relates to time spent indoors or outdoors and activity in these locations. This study aimed to quantify who children spend their time with when indoors or outdoors and associations with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Participants were 427 children aged 10–11 from Bristol, UK. Physical activity was recorded using an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) and matched to Global Positioning System receiver (Garmin Foretrex 201) data to differentiate indoor and outdoor location. Children self-reported who they spent time with after school until bed-time using a diary. Each 10 second epoch was coded as indoors or outdoors and for ‘who with’ (alone, friend, brother/sister, mum/dad, other grown-up) creating 10 possible physical activity contexts. Time spent and MVPA were summarised for each context. Associations between time spent in the different contexts and MVPA were examined using multiple linear regression adjusting for daylight, age, deprivation and standardised body mass index. Results During the after school period, children were most often with their mum/dad or alone, especially when indoors. When outdoors more time was spent with friends (girls: 32.1%; boys: 28.6%) than other people or alone. Regression analyses suggested hours outdoors with friends were positively associated with minutes of MVPA for girls (beta-coefficient [95% CI]: 17.4 [4.47, 30.24]) and boys (17.53 [2.76, 32.31]). Being outdoors with brother/sister was associated with MVPA for girls (21.2 [14.17, 28.25]) but not boys. Weaker associations were observed for time indoors with friends (girls: 4.61 [1.37, 7.85]; boys: (7.42 [2.99, 11
Ting, Kan Lin; Siew, Nyet Moi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of outdoor school ground lessons on Year Five students' science process skills and scientific curiosity. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, one subjected to the experimental treatment, defined as…
Lloyd, Amanda; Gray, Tonia; Truong, Son
This study investigates innovative ways that outdoor educators can actively promote young participants' authentic voice in educational research and, in turn, increase our understanding of their worldview through accurately recording what children are seeing, hearing, doing, and touching when they are beyond our researcher's gaze. The study was…
Cassidy, Alice L. E. V.; Wright, W. Alan; Strean, William B.; Watson, Gavan P. L.
In this paper, we use a day-long professional development workshop for higher education faculty conducted in an outdoor setting as the starting point for an examination of the value of such activities. We explore the potential benefits, in terms of learning and holistic well-being, of educational activities designed to provide participants with…
Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff
The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the…
Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.
This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future
Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liang, Ching-Ping
Taiwan is surrounded by oceans, and therefore numerous pleasure beaches attract millions of tourists annually to participate in recreational swimming activities. However, impaired water quality because of fecal pollution poses a potential threat to the tourists' health. This study probabilistically characterized the health risks associated with recreational swimming engendered by waterborne enterococci at 13 Taiwanese beaches by using quantitative microbial risk assessment. First, data on enterococci concentrations at coastal beaches monitored by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration were reproduced using nonparametric Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The ingestion volumes of recreational swimming based on uniform and gamma distributions were subsequently determined using MCS. Finally, after the distribution combination of the two parameters, the beta-Poisson dose-response function was employed to quantitatively estimate health risks to recreational swimmers. Moreover, various levels of risk to recreational swimmers were classified and spatially mapped to explore feasible recreational and environmental management strategies at the beaches. The study results revealed that although the health risks associated with recreational swimming did not exceed an acceptable benchmark of 0.019 illnesses daily at all beaches, they approached to this benchmark at certain beaches. Beaches with relatively high risks are located in Northwestern Taiwan owing to the current movements.
Giseli do Prado Siqueira
Full Text Available Created in 2007 , the project extension Itinerant Workshops : recreating the world ( s of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais , Campus Poços de Caldas is an inseparable experience in research of teaching and extension. With this title " recreating worlds " seek to express the experience that has been possible for us to live over the years of execution of this project . Our experience is theoretically referenced by understanding that German thinkers Meister Eckhart (1260-1327 and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 shows us about what is the man in they on existence. Such an understanding is expressed in the phenomenon of serenity ( Gelassenheit , let it be understood as simply what we are . Our research on this phenomenon Gelassenheit (Serenity , guide the relationships we establish with the external community , where we understand that the existence of man in his essential condition , is a shared existence. The other is imposed on us and we never fail to be sympathetic to their fears and anxieties , because these same fears and anxieties are also ours possibilities . This relationship of consideration makes us all ( teachers , students , community solidarity in our existential angst before the unexpected, the unknown . It is when we can see ourselves through another , in what we truly are and can be.
Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi
The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...
Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.
Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.
Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.
The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)
Barfod, Karen Seierøe
Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...
Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton
Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)
Monz, Christopher A.; Cole, David N.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L.
Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors’ perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects.
Full Text Available Recreation is considered an important ecosystem services (ES in urban woodlands and puts pressure on other ES. Visitor management strategies can be tools to safeguard biodiversity and ES. On-site data are necessary to evaluate the demand for outdoor recreation opportunities in urban woodlands, but also for providing more reliable values for monetization as a basis for multifunctional forest management, and for raising awareness for the importance of urban proximate forests. Such information can also be used for the assessment and monetization of socio-cultural ES, and hence, contribute to developing market-based mechanisms or to promoting these ES. In our paper, we demonstrate methods to describe recreational demand by collecting data from interviews and using camera traps in two forests in the north of Munich for visitor counting. Visitor numbers in the forests were much greater than rough estimations; visitors also had quite long travelling distances to the forests. Jogging or Nordic walking were proven to be important recreational activities. In some of the monitored locations, almost half of the recreationists carried out these sports. Depending on the method chosen, the calculative monetary value of recreation reached up to 15,440 Euro per hectare per year.
Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung
(1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users' experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: "health", "social connectedness", "affordable", "support", and "design and promotion"; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users' experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users' experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts.
Lee, Janet Lok Chun; Lo, Temmy Lee Ting
(1) Background: An outdoor gym (OG) is environmental infrastructure built in a public open space to promote structured physical activity. The provision of OGs is increasingly seen as an important strategy to realize public health agendas promoting habitual physical activity. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize characteristics of OG and OG users’ experiences and perceptions in different cultural contexts; (2) Methods: Online searches of multidisciplinary databases were conducted in health, sport and recreation, and urban planning disciplines. Characteristics of OGs were synthesized by integrating evidence from quantitative, qualitative, and mix-methods studies. The experiences and perceptions of OG users from both qualitative data and survey responses were synthesized through framework analysis; (3) Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (three quantitative studies, four mixed-methods studies, and two pure qualitative studies). None were excluded on the basis of quality. OGs mainly serve adult and older adult population groups. Their size, design, and instructional support vary across studies. The inclusion of functional types of equipment did not have a unified standard. Regarding experiences and perceptions of OGs, five major themes emerged: “health”, “social connectedness”, “affordable”, “support”, and “design and promotion”; (4) Conclusions: The OG characteristics synthesis guides the direction in further studies regarding exploration of design parameters. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis revealed that health was a central theme of users’ experiences. OGs are also spaces where community-dwellers can find social connectedness while participating in structured physical activity at no cost. Findings from this review create knowledge support for OG as environmental infrastructure for further research and facilitate the understanding of users’ experiences and perceptions of OGs in different cultural contexts
Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.
A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed
Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)
Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe
The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)
S.M. Burn; P.L. Winter
Depreciative behaviors and other undesirable recreationist actions continue to be a topic of great interest for recreation management (fig. 1). Maintaining park ecosystems involves responding to and preventing damage from depreciative recreationist behavior, and recreation managers are charged with developing and selecting eff ective tools to address the costly and...
Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.
Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...
Spooner, Charles S.
The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…
Management of national forest recreation has long focused on the needs and habits of White visitors because this traditionally has been the largest group. That is changing all over the country, but nowhere more than in southern California. Here, social scientists are studying the needs and recreation patterns of Latino visitors to better understand this rapidly growing...
logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.
David N. Cole
Most greenways are created with multiple goals in mind. Two of the foremost are providing recreational opportunities and conserving nature. Although these two goals frequently enhance each other, sometimes pursuing both simultaneously can result in conflicts. In some cases, recreational use can so severely degrade an area that not only is the environment damaged but...
David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres
Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....
Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.
This booklet on recreation, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook suggests ways to plan recreation expenses for special activities, equipment, and vacation travel. Section 1 looks at the need for recreation…
..., Non-motorized Outfitter and Guide Recreation, Local Environmental, State Tourism, Local Government...: a. A State tourism official to represent the State; b. A person who represents affected Indian... and per diem expenses for regularly scheduled committee meetings. All Recreation RAC meetings are open...
... is extensive. Swimming, fishing, boating, and other water oriented activities have regional and local economic benefit as well as recreational benefit. (b) The Commission shall cooperate with public and... programs and projects within the basin and shall: (1) Promote public access to and recreational use of...
Morrison, Thomas A.
Implications of building codes upon design and construction of recreation facilities are investigated (national building codes, recreation facility standards, and misperceptions of design requirements). Recreation professionals can influence architectural designers to correct past deficiencies, but they must understand architectural and…
Jackson, Devin Joseph Guilford
Science education is moving away from memorization of facts to inquiry based learning. Adding outdoor instruction can be an effective way to promote this exploratory method of learning. The limited number of empirical studies available have shown significant increase in attitudes and learning with outdoor science instruction. An eight-week quasi-experimental teacher research study was conducted to further this research and assess the value of schoolyard science instruction on student engagement and learning. Participants were 60 students in two sixth grade middle school Earth Science classes. A crossover study design was used with two classes alternating as experimental and control groups. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission curriculum was used (NASA/GPM, 2011). While the results did not show a clear increase in student engagement and content knowledge, the study adds to the body of knowledge on outdoor instruction and identifies limitations to consider in future studies.
... nurse with responsibility for the participant, social worker, recreational therapist and other... in the participant's physical, mental, or social condition. (3) Review of assessments. Program... plan related to changes in service needs and changes in functional status that prompted another level...
This study used the Catharsis Theory and the Stimulation Theory to examine the relationship between sedentary leisure participation (watching television (TV), videos or DVDs and computer or video game playing) and active leisure participation (strength sport, recreational sport and team sport) within a sample of 1134 ...
Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…
Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.
Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…
Diodati, Melissa R.
Leisure participation is influential on the quality of life of individuals. Individuals with disabilities can face barriers in leisure participation, impacting their quality of life. IDEA (2004) recognizes recreation as a related service as one way to enhance the leisure experiences for students with disabilities. The purpose of this embedded case…
Jiawen Chen; Sonja Wilhelm Stanis; Carla Barbieri; Shuangyu. Xu
Since the release of the movie "Twister" in 1996, storm chasing has become an increasingly popular form of recreation. Storm chasing tour agencies have emerged to provide technical assistance and guidance to individuals wishing to participate in this activity. However, little is known about the participants' perceptions of their storm chasing tours....
Elif Zeynep ÖZER
Full Text Available Recreation is the activities that person attends voluntarily in his/her spare time to refreshing, relaxing and motivation. Activities that are made in rural area are option for recreational activities. There is an increase in consumer demand for rural tour ism as an alternative tourism option. Participants get a chance to know different cultural structures and chance to see natural beauties by attending rural activities. Events that are performed with attendees form different destinations are support area fr om economy, development and advertising point of view. Objective of this work is making contribution to development rural tourism and recreational activities by defining the effect of local events to rural tourism as a recreational activity. In this work, the effect of participation of recreational tourism activities to rural tourism is investigated. Data that is required is gathered by semi structured interview technique. The result of this work has a potential to use a resource to lead event managers. Thi s work also has a potential to use a resource for studies that are related to recreation tourism, local activities and rural tourism.
Deka, Pallav; Berg, Kris; Harder, Jeanette; Batelaan, Herman; McGRATH, Melanie
Badminton, as an Olympic sport, is popular worldwide. However, the benefits of recreational badminton match play are not well known. The purpose of the study was to determine the oxygen cost of recreational badminton match play. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BL), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), step count and energy expenditure were also assessed. Fourteen male recreational badminton players aged 35.9±6.62 years participated in test sessions to assess oxygen uptake (VO2) and the related physiological responses of match play. During the match play sessions, participants played singles badminton matches for 30 min while wearing a portable metabolic system. VO2 and HR were continuously recorded while blood lactate and RPE were determined following warm-up, at 15 minutes and 30 minutes of match play. Step count was recorded at 15 minutes and 30 minutes of play. VO2 over 30 minutes was 34.4±5.8 mL/kg/min which was 76.1% of maximal oxygen uptake. Across three 10-minute periods of play, VO2 was not significantly different while HR was higher in the third 10-minute period than the first and second 10-minute periods (P=0.001). Mean HR over 30 minutes was 167.9±9.4 bpm. BL was significantly higher at 15 and 30 minutes than following warm-up while RPE of 17.57±1.91 after 30 minutes was significantly higher (P=0.009) than RPE of 15.79±1.63 at 15 minutes. Step count did not vary between the two 15-minute periods of play with a total of 2404±360 steps while energy expenditure over 30 minutes of play was 391.7±66 kcal. Recreational badminton match play can be categorized as vigorous intensity suggesting that it can be a viable means of achieving recommended physical activity and improving aerobic fitness.
Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.
Hanson, Heather M; Schiller, Claire; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa; Curran, Eileen; Donaldson, Meghan G; Pitman, Beverley; Scott, Vicky; McKay, Heather A; Ashe, Maureen C
For older adults, the ability to navigate walking routes in the outdoor environment allows them to remain active and socially engaged, facilitating community participation and independence. In order to enhance outdoor walking, it is important to understand the interaction of older adults within their local environments and the influence of broader stakeholder priorities that impact these environments. Thus, we aimed to synthesize perspectives from stakeholders to identify elements of the built and social environments that influence older adults' ability to walk outdoors. We applied a concept mapping approach with the input of diverse stakeholders (N=75) from British Columbia, Canada in 2012. A seven-cluster map best represented areas that influence older adults' outdoor walking. Priority areas identified included sidewalks, crosswalks, and neighborhood features. Individual perceptions and elements of the built and social environments intersect to influence walking behaviors, although targeted studies that address this area are needed. © 2013.
Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.
Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....
... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...
... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...
Auer, Matthew R.
There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…
Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt
Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....
The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…
... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...
Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad
Marion, Jeffrey L.
The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service
Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip
Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…
Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy
Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…
Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.
Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform todays cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive
Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon
Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…
Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.
Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines
The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…
History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…
Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna
Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…
Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…
Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…
van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.
CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was
Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja
Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…
Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Tremblay, Mark S
Previous studies have shown that children who spend more time outdoors are more active and spend less time sedentary, but these studies were limited by the use of small convenience samples. We examined the relationship between outdoor time and measures of physical activity (PA), screen time and sedentary time in a nationally-representative sample of young children. Parental reports of outdoor time were obtained for 594 children aged 3-6 years (47.8% girls) who participated in the 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Participants were asked to wear an Actical accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Outdoor time and screen time were assessed by parent reports. The relationships between outdoor time and measures of PA, screen time and sedentary time were examined with linear regression models. Adherence to PA guidelines was estimated based on a betabinomial distribution, and adherence with the screen time guidelines was assessed through logistic regression models. All analyses were stratified by age group (3-4 and 5-6 year olds) and adjusted for sex, parental education and household income. Among 5-6 year olds, each additional hour spent outdoors was associated with an additional 10 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (95% CI: 6-14), 27,455 more accelerometer counts/day (95% CI: 11,929-42,980) and an increased likelihood of meeting the PA guidelines (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.68-3.82). No significant relationships were observed among 3-4 year olds. Outdoor time has a large effect on PA among 5-6 year olds at a population level. Future studies should examine the correlates of outdoor time to inform novel PA promotion interventions.
Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas
A personal best marathon time has been reported as a strong predictor variable for an Ironman race time in recreational female Ironman triathletes. This raises the question whether recreational female Ironman triathletes are similar to recreational female marathoners. We investigated similarities and differences in anthropometry and training between 53 recreational female Ironman triathletes and 46 recreational female marathoners. The association of anthropometric variables and training characteristics with race time was investigated using bi- and multi-variate analysis. The Ironman triathletes were younger (P marathoners. Overall weekly training hours were higher in the Ironman triathletes (P marathoners (P marathon split time for the Ironman triathletes (P = 0.01) and to marathon race time for the marathoners (P = 0.01). To conclude, although personal best marathon time is a strong predictor variable for performance in recreational female Ironman triathletes, there are differences in both anthropometry and training between recreational female Ironman triathletes and recreational female marathoners and different predictor variables for race performance in these two groups of athletes. These findings suggest that recreational female Ironman triathletes are not comparable to recreational female marathoners regarding the association between anthropometric and training characteristics with race time.
Solari-Twadell, P A
Recreational drug use presents a challenge to society and, in particular, the profession of nursing. Recreational drug use must be appreciated for the implications it presents for the episodes of abuse and development of chronic health problems. The effects and recreational use of volatile substances, cannabis, opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine, psychedelics, and designer drugs as well as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine must be acknowledged and understood if options for change are to be considered. The resultant cost of recreational drug use as well as health care implications, public safety, and prevention are significant issues society is faced with today. These issues will continue to be significant unless the current posture toward recreational drug use and abuse is addressed. The profession of nursing continues to be faced with the problems associated with recreational drug use not only through caring for clients, but immediately by the effects of recreational drug use on individual professional nurses. To respond effectively, nursing education and nursing research must be challenged to create an emphasis on this focus. Only through this type of multifocal approach will long-term substantial change be affected for the betterment of future generations.
Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi
The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…
Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y
Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.
Sugiyama, Takemi; Gunn, Lucy D; Christian, Hayley; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie
We examined associations between specific public open space (POS) attributes and recreational walking to local POS. Between October 2004 and December 2006, 1465 adults of the RESIDential Environments Project, conducted in Perth, Australia, reported whether they walk to a POS for recreation. For each participant, we identified all open spaces larger than 0.8 hectares within 1.6 kilometers from home. On the basis of field audit data, we created 3 scores (presence, count, size-weighted presence) for 19 specific open space attributes. With logistic regression analyses, we found that walking to a POS was associated with the presence of gardens, grassed areas, walking paths, water features, wildlife, amenities, dog-related facilities, and off-leash areas for dogs. It was also associated with the highest number of these attributes in a single open space, but not with the total number of attributes in all POSs within 1.6 kilometers of home. Building 1 high-quality local park may be more effective in promoting recreational walking than is providing many average-quality parks.
C. А. Пашкевич
Full Text Available Research objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing sports massage in recreation of kickboxing students to improve their sports performance. Materials and methods. The research used: review and analysis of literature, pedagogical observations, physiological (relay test, strength endurance test, fatigue intensity assessment and statistical methods. The participants of the research were three groups (5 persons in each group. The first group of students (C1 received preliminary warming massage (20 min, the second group (C2 received recreational massage after the training (20 min, the third group (C3 had passive rest before and after the training (20 min. Before and after the massage session, assessment of the response rate and strength endurance took place three times during the training (at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end with regard to the level of the students’ fatigue intensity during the training. For the rough evaluation of the cause-effect relationship between the influencing factor and the effect appearance, the research used the relative risk indicator (RR. Research results. The sports massage reduced the athletes’ fatigue during the training (RR = 5.0, p < 0.05, i.e. the coach could increase the training load without any significant impact on the functional systems of the athletes. The preliminary massage had a more distinct positive effect on the students’ response rate and endurance indicators. The recreational massage improved only the students’ endurance processes during the training.
Krustrup, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Krustrup, Birgitte
To examine the effects of regular participation in recreational soccer on health profile, 38 healthy untrained Danish males aged 20-43 years were randomised into a soccer group (SO; n=14), a running group (RU; n=13) and a control group (CO; n=11). Training was performed for one hour two-three times.......05) in SO and RU, respectively, after 12 weeks. No changes in any of the measured variables were observed for CO. In conclusion, participation in regular recreational soccer training, organised as small-sided drills, has significant beneficial effects on health profile and physical capacity for untrained...
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The main reasons for non-participation were: 'no time' (68%), transport problems (8%) ... The university management should address the constraints to promote ...