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Sample records for outcomes adolescents reported

  1. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  2. A systematic review of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in child and adolescent burn research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Armstrong-James, L; White, P; Rumsey, N; Pleat, J; Harcourt, D

    2015-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) can identify important information about patient needs and therapeutic progress. The aim of this review was to identify the PROMs that are being used in child and adolescent burn care and to determine the quality of such scales. Computerised and manual bibliographic searches of Medline, Social Sciences Index, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Psycharticles, AMED, and HAPI, were used to identify English-language articles using English-language PROMs from January 2001 to March 2013. The psychometric quality of the PROMs was assessed. 23 studies met the entry criteria and identified 32 different PROMs (31 generic, 1 burns-specific). Overall, the psychometric quality of the PROMs was low; only two generic scales (the Perceived Stigmatisation Questionnaire and the Social Comfort Scale) and only one burns-specific scale (the Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire for children aged 5-18) had psychometric evidence relevant to this population. The majority of PROMs did not have psychometric evidence for their use with child or adolescent burn patients. To appropriately identify the needs and treatment progress of child and adolescent burn patients, new burns-specific PROMs need to be developed and validated to reflect issues that are of importance to this population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  4. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls: self-report of psychosocial status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14 to 16 years, with a detailed self-report interview technique. Hyperactivity was a risk factor for later development, even allowing for the coexistence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity predicted academic problems and interpersonal relationship problems. Relationships with parents, by contrast, were not portrayed to be as problematic as relationships with peers and the opposite sex. Their psychological, social and occupational functioning was objectively rated to be more deviant and their self-report showed them to be more ambivalent about their future. There was a trend for hyperactivity to be self-reported as a risk for the development of continuing symptomatology but neither hyperactivity nor conduct problems were self-reported to be a risk for antisocial behaviour, substance misuse or low self-esteem in adolescence. However, they were at risk for the development of state anxiety. The results suggested girls' pattern of functioning may differ from that of boys because girls self-report a more pervasive range of social dysfunction than that previously reported in boys.

  5. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  6. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  7. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  8. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hancock Hoskins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of the influence of parenting behaviors and styles on adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Empirical work focusing on the associations between parenting and adolescent outcomes is important because the influence of parenting during adolescence continues to affect behaviors into adulthood. Additionally, there has been considerable attention paid to the mechanisms that shape parenting that then influence adolescent outcomes. For instance, researchers have found that neighborhood conditions moderated the association between parenting and adolescent development. In this paper, several covariates and contextual effects associated with parenting and adolescent outcomes will be discussed. Also, parental behaviors, parental styles and adolescent outcomes are discussed in this literature review. This review provides an assessment of the literature on parenting and adolescent outcomes from the past decade and includes advancements in parenting research. The review concludes with a summary of major research findings, as well as a consideration of future directions and implications for practice and policy.

  11. Measuring mental health and wellbeing outcomes for children and adolescents to inform practice and policy: a review of child self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against

  12. Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; S O'Malley, Stephanie

    2018-04-26

    Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms. In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores. The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes. Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. Adolescent smoking in pregnancy and birth outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Attia, Eman; Drammond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking amongst pregnant adolescents is a preventable risk factor associated with low birthweight ( <2,500 g), preterm birth ( <37 weeks) and infant mortality. The aim of this study was to compare birth outcomes of adolescents who smoke during pregnancy with those who do not

  15. Obstetric outcomes and antenatal access among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T Govender

    Conclusion: Adolescent pregnancy was associated with late booking and reduced ANC visits, which was a risk for adverse maternal health ..... Mkalipi M. The fight to stop teenage pregnancy [Internet]. .... outcomes and risk factors in Malaysia.

  16. Outcome of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ozdogan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to review the sociodemographic characteristics, maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancy. Subjects and method: The records of all adolescent pregnancies (aged 13–19 years delivered at Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, over a period of two years were reviewed. Structured survey was conducted with adolescent mothers over the phone. Results: The incidence of adolescent pregnancy was 7.06%; 91.1% of the cases were reported to be married. Consanguineous marriage was found to be 27.6%. Maternal anaemia was detected in 43.1% of cases. Premature birth rate was 6.3%. The rate of Cesarean section was 31.8%. Adolescent mothers were categorized into two groups: 17 years and below and above 17 years. The maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions: Health policies should be revised and improved to take the necessary steps for providing adequate health services for adolescents and for improving prenatal, natal and postnatal care of pregnant adolescents.

  17. Evaluating Questionnaires Used to Assess Self-Reported Physical Activity and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cognitive Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Physical activity is increasingly being studied as a way to improve psychosocial outcomes (e.g., quality of life, self-efficacy, physical self-perceptions, self-esteem, body image, posttraumatic growth) among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. Assessing levels of and associations between self-reported physical activity and psychosocial outcomes requires clear, appropriate, and relevant questionnaires. To explore how survivors of AYA cancer interpreted and responded to the following eight published questionnaires: Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), cognitive interviews were conducted with three men and four women age 18-36 years who were diagnosed with cancer at age 16-35 years. Initially, the first seven questionnaires listed above were assessed. Summaries of the interviews were prepared and compared across participants. Potential concerns were identified with the FACT-G; thus, a second interview was conducted with participants to explore the clarity, appropriateness, and relevance of the RAND-36. Concerns identified for the FACT-G related mostly to the lack of relevance of items pertaining to cancer-specific aspects of quality of life given that participants were posttreatment. No or few concerns related to comprehension and/or structure/logic were identified for the other questionnaires. In general, the questionnaires assessed were clear, appropriate, and relevant. Participants' feedback suggested they could be used to assess self-reported physical activity and varied psychosocial outcomes in studies with survivors of AYA cancer, either with or without slight modifications.

  18. Learning Outcomes Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Burgoyne, Louise; O’Tuathaigh, Colm

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study The learning outcomes study, conducted as part of WP3 of the BioApp project, has as objectives: (a) generating a comprehensive list of the learning outcomes; (b) reaching an agreement on the scope and priority of the learning outcomes, and (c) making suggestions for the further

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Self-Report Pubertal Timing and Menarcheal Age on Adolescent Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes in Female Youths from Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Strong, Carol

    2017-08-01

    Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7 th - and 9 th -grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007. Subjective PT was defined using the Pubertal Developmental Scale (PDS), which mainly measures pubertal changes. MA was recalled by participants themselves. Various psychological and behavioral factors were recorded and measured until the age of 20, including the use of alcohol and cigarettes, psychological well-being, sexual activity, and socially problematic behaviors. A χ 2 test for linear-by-linear association and one-way analysis of variance followed by multivariate regression models were used to dissect the differential effects of PT and MA in the association with the outcome variables. In total, 1545 female participants with an average age of 14.5 (±1.1) years were deemed valid for analysis. Among them, 257 (16.6%) participants perceived themselves as having early PT, defined as more than 1 standard deviation above the mean PDS score, and 82 (5.3%) had early MA (occurring before the 4 th grade). In univariate analysis, participants with early PT had higher rates of smoking and sexual activity, and MA was not related to their psychobehavioral outcomes. After multivariate adjustment, only late PT was significantly correlated with lower amounts of cigarette smoking and sexual activity before the age of 20. Conceptual and actual pubertal developments may be differentially associated with psychobehavioral outcomes among young Taiwanese girls. Clinical attention should be given to adolescent self-perception of

  20. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  1. Impact of Mentors During Adolescence on Outcomes Among Gay Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N

    2016-06-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community.

  2. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  3. Pediatric patient-reported outcome instruments for research to support medical product labeling: report of the ISPOR PRO good research practices for the assessment of children and adolescents task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Patrick, Donald L; Riley, Anne W; Alexander, John J; Rajmil, Luis; Pleil, Andreas M; Bullinger, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for children and adolescents are often included in clinical trials with the intention of collecting data to support claims in a medical product label. The purpose of the current task force report is to recommend good practices for pediatric PRO research that is conducted to inform regulatory decision making and support claims made in medical product labeling. The recommendations are based on the consensus of an interdisciplinary group of researchers who were assembled for a task force associated with the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). In those areas in which supporting evidence is limited or in which general principles may not apply to every situation, this task force report identifies factors to consider when making decisions about the design and use of pediatric PRO instruments, while highlighting issues that require further research. Five good research practices are discussed: 1) Consider developmental differences and determine age-based criteria for PRO administration: Four age groups are discussed on the basis of previous research (<5 years old, 5-7 years, 8-11 years, and 12-18 years). These age groups are recommended as a starting point when making decisions, but they will not fit all PRO instruments or the developmental stage of every child. Specific age ranges should be determined individually for each population and PRO instrument. 2) Establish content validity of pediatric PRO instruments: This section discusses the advantages of using children as content experts, as well as strategies for concept elicitation and cognitive interviews with children. 3) Determine whether an informant-reported outcome instrument is necessary: The distinction between two types of informant-reported measures (proxy vs. observational) is discussed, and recommendations are provided. 4) Ensure that the instrument is designed and formatted appropriately for the target age group. Factors to

  4. Health and school outcomes during children's transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2013-02-01

    Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 6. Outcomes and Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Objectives: These were to determine obstetric outcomes associated with adolescent pregnancies and those of older women at the UTH, identify factors associated with and compare the obstetric outcomes between the two age groups with determining the scale of adolescent pregnancy. Materials and methods: ...

  6. Naturally Acquired Mentoring Relationships and Young Adult Outcomes among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…

  7. Do postoperative radiographically verified technical success, improved cosmesis, and trunk shift corroborate with patient-reported outcomes in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shallu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Andersen, Thomas; Sun, Haolin; Wu, Chunsen; Hansen, Ebbe Stender

    2015-07-01

    To examine correlation between postoperative radiographic and cosmetic improvements in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with patients' self-rated outcomes of health and disability at follow-up as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30), Oswestry Disability Index score (ODI) and measure of overall health quality Euroqol-5d (EQ-5D). 24 Lenke 1C scoliosis patients, mean age 16.5 (12.8-38.1) years, treated with posterior pedicle screw-only construct, were included. The coronal profile indices (radiographic and cosmetic) regarding magnitude of spinal deformity and truncal balance were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. A comprehensive index of overall back symmetry was also measured by means of the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). Pearson's correlation analysis determined the association between the radiographic-cosmetic indices and patient-rated outcomes. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.4 (±1.86) years. The thoracic apical vertebra-first thoracic vertebra horizontal distance (AV-TI) correction had significant correlation with function, self-image, and mental health SRS-30 scores (0.55, 0.54, 0.66). Similarly, thoracic apical vertebra horizontal translation from central sacral vertical line (AV-CSVL) correction at follow-up had significant correlation with self-image and management domains (0.57, 0.50). Follow-up POTSI correlated well with SRS-30 and EQ-5D scores (r = -0.64, -0.54). Postoperative leftward trunk shift/spinal imbalance did not influence overall cosmesis and outcomes; significant spinal realignment was evident in follow-up resulting in physiological balance and acceptable cosmesis and outcomes. Significant, but less than "perfect" correlations were observed between the radiographic, cosmetic measures and patient-rated outcomes. Thoracic AV-CSVL, AV-T1 correction and POTSI associated significantly with SRS-30 scores. Whereas, thoracic Cobb angle, Cobb correction, and

  8. Mental health outcomes of developmental coordination disorder in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan

    2017-09-01

    To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pcommunication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  9. Parent-child relationships, parental attitudes towards sex, and birth outcomes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-10-01

    To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. United States. 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7-12 in 1994-95 and followed up in 2007-2008. Birthweight and gestational age. For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, P Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  11. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  12. An auto-SCT-based total therapy resulted in encouraging outcomes in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: report from a single center of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Zou, D-H; Li, Z-J; Fu, M-W; Xu, Y; Zhao, Y-Z; Qi, J-Y; Feng, S-Z; Liu, B-C; Lin, D; Mi, Y-C; Han, M-Z; Wang, J-X; Qiu, L-G

    2012-08-01

    Application of auto-SCT in the post-remission therapy for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL is controversial. We analyzed the outcomes of 79 AYAs (15-24 years) with ALL who received our designed total therapy protocol with auto-SCT in first CR from 1990 to 2009. The estimated OS and EFS at 5 years for the cohort were 62.8±5.9 and 61.5±5.7%. The cumulative non-relapse mortality and relapse rate at 5 years for the cohort were 7.2±3.1 and 33.6±5.8%. Time to CR >4 weeks was the only independent unfavorable factor associated with OS, EFS and relapse in multivariate analysis. Patients in standard risk (SR) group and high risk (HR) group had better OS (78.3±7.4, 63.8±10.2 vs 38.1±11.6%) and EFS (78.0±7.4, 63.4±9.4 vs 32.4±11.3%), and lower relapse rate (15.9±6.5, 31.5±9.5 vs 65.7±11.8%) compared with patients in very high risk (VHR) group. Our data confirmed that auto-SCT-based total therapy might be an optional treatment strategy for AYAs with ALL in SR. Patients in HR also could get benefit from such schedule. But for those in VHR, allogenetic SCT is still the prior recommendation for the frequent recurrence after auto-SCT.

  13. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Health Disparities in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery: Nationwide Outcomes and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A

    2017-11-01

    Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between clinician turnover and adolescent treatment outcomes: An examination from the client perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R.; Funk, Rodney R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2012-01-01

    The turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff has been assumed to adversely impact treatment effectiveness, yet only limited research has empirically examined this assumption. Representing an extension of prior organizational-level analyses of the impact of staff turnover on client outcomes, this study examined the impact of SUD clinician turnover on adolescent treatment outcomes using a client perspective. Multilevel regression analysis did reveal that relative to those adolescents who did not experience clinician turnover, adolescents who experienced both direct and indirect clinician turnover reported a significantly higher percentage of days using alcohol or drugs at 6-month follow-up. However, clinician turnover was not found to have significant associations (negative or positive) with the other five treatment outcomes examined (e.g., substance-related problems, involvement in illegal activity). Thus, consistent with our prior findings, the current study provides additional evidence that turnover of SUD clinicians is not necessarily associated with adverse treatment outcomes. PMID:23083980

  16. Outcomes of 50 patients entering an adolescent bariatric surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Billy; Doyle, Jacqueline; Matschull, Kirsten; Adamo, Marco; Christie, Deborah; Nicholls, Dasha; Kinra, Sanjay; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Viner, Russell M

    2017-08-09

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities currently available. Little is known about adolescents entering National Health Service (NHS) bariatric programmes. We aimed to characterise those entering a pathway and report their outcomes. Prospective service evaluation of patients assessed within a single NHS adolescent bariatric service. 50 patients assessed between 26 July 2007 and 27 January 2014; 6 (12%) were not eligible for surgery, 7 (14%) actively opted out, 8 (16%) were lost to follow-up and 29 (58%) underwent surgery (18 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 11 Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 0 adjustable gastric band). Mean (SD) age at initial assessment was 16.0 (1.3) years and 18.3 (1.3) at surgery (youngest 15.7 years). Mean time taken to surgery was 1.8 years; longer in those with higher body mass index (BMI) and aged below 14 at first assessment. Mean (SD) BMI at surgery was 53.1 (8.3) kg/m 2 , lower in those undergoing RYGB (-5.2, 95% CI -11.6 to 1.13). Follow-up was inconsistent and challenging; 1/29 (3.5%) was transferred to a regional centre, 10/29 (34.5%) attended ongoing follow-up within our protocol, 6/29 (20.7%) had intermittent monitoring and 12/29 (41.4%) were lost to follow-up. Mean BMI change at 1 year (-14.0 kg/m 2 ) and complications were similar to published cohorts. Data from 11 lost to follow-up were obtained and outcomes appeared similar to those who actively followed up. Adolescent bariatric surgery in the NHS appears effective, with outcomes similar to those reported internationally. Further work is needed to optimise postsurgical surveillance and reduce age at surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A systematic review of the association between family meals and adolescent risk outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Samantha S; Tarver, Will L; Locher, Julie L; Preskitt, Julie; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-10-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between family meals and adolescent health risk outcomes. We performed a systematic search of original empirical studies published between January 1990 and September 2013. Based on data from selected studies, we conducted logistic regression models to examine the correlates of reporting a protective association between frequent family meals and adolescent outcomes. Of the 254 analyses from 26 selected studies, most reported a significant association between family meals and the adolescent risk outcome-of-interest. However, model analyses which controlled for family connectedness variables, or used advanced empirical methods to account for family-level confounders, were less likely than unadjusted models to report significant relationships. The type of analysis conducted was significantly associated with the likelihood of finding a protective relationship between family meals and the adolescent outcome-of-interest, yet very few studies are using such methods in the literature. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy on adolescents' behavior and outcomes in conflicts with mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-06-01

    The current study investigated whether manipulations of affective and cognitive empathy have differential effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes in adolescent-mother conflict discussions. We further examined how these situational empathy inductions interact with preexisting empathic dispositions. To promote ecological validity, we conducted home visits to study conflict discussions about real disagreements in adolescent-mother relationships. We explored the roles of sex, age, and maternal support and power as covariates and moderators. Results indicated that the affective empathy manipulation had no significant effects on behavior, although a trend in the hypothesized direction suggested that affective empathy might promote active problem solving. The cognitive empathy manipulation led to lower conflict escalation and promoted other-oriented listening for adolescents low in dispositional cognitive empathy. State-trait interactions indicated that the empathy manipulations had significant effects on self-reported outcomes for adolescents lower in dispositional empathic concern. For these adolescents, both manipulations promoted outcome satisfaction, but only the cognitive manipulation promoted perceived fairness. This suggests that cognitive empathy, in particular, allows adolescents to distance themselves from the emotional heat of a conflict and listen to mothers' point of view, leading to outcomes perceived as both satisfying and fair. These findings are relevant for interventions and clinicians because they demonstrate unique effects of promoting affective versus cognitive empathy. Because even these minimal manipulations promoted significant effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes, particularly for low-empathy adolescents, stronger structural interventions are likely to have marked benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-Pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes Among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W

    2014-07-01

    Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birth weight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/1996), II (1996), and IV (2007/2008) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (N = 558) self-reported infants' birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age, parent education, age at pregnancy, time between reporting abuse and birth, and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black).On average, births occurred 2 years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birth weight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared with non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birth weight (pdating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Reducing physical dating violence in adolescent relationships prior to pregnancy may improve Black adolescent mothers' birth outcomes. Intervening on long-term violence may be particularly important.

  20. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-12-19

    Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda. Adolescents between 13 and 17 and their caregivers participated in a household survey, which included measures of adolescent anxiety and depression, and caregiver depression. Analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression models, and results were reported for the full sample and for each site separately. In Kiryandongo, a one-unit increase in a caregiver's depression score tripled the odds that the adolescent would have high levels of anxiety symptoms (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1), while in Adjumani, caregiver depression did not remain significant in the final model. Caregiver depression, gender and exposure to violence were all associated with higher symptoms of adolescent depression in both sites and the full sample, for example, a one unit increase in caregiver depression more than tripled the odds of higher levels of symptoms of adolescent depression (AOR: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.2). Caregiver depression is a consistently significantly associated with adverse mental health outcomes for adolescents in this study. Adolescent well-being is significantly affected by caregiver mental health in this refugee context. Child protection interventions in humanitarian contexts do not adequately address the influence of caregivers' mental health, and there are opportunities to integrate child protection programming with prevention and treatment of

  1. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  2. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Predictors of outcome at 1 year in adolescents with DSM-5 restrictive eating disorders: report of the national eating disorders quality improvement collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Sara F; McKenzie, Nicole; Hehn, Rebecca; Monge, Maria C; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Mammel, Kathleen A; Callahan, S Todd; Sigel, Eric J; Bravender, Terrill; Romano, Mary; Rome, Ellen S; Robinson, Kelly A; Fisher, Martin; Malizio, Joan B; Rosen, David S; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Buckelew, Sara M; Jay, M Susan; Lindenbaum, Jeffrey; Rickert, Vaughn I; Garber, Andrea; Golden, Neville H; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2014-12-01

    The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative evaluated data of patients with restrictive eating disorders to analyze demographics of diagnostic categories and predictors of weight restoration at 1 year. Fourteen Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs participated in a retrospective review of 700 adolescents aged 9-21 years with three visits, with DSM-5 categories of restrictive eating disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Data including demographics, weight and height at intake and follow-up, treatment before intake, and treatment during the year of follow-up were analyzed. At intake, 53.6% met criteria for AN, 33.9% for atypical AN, and 12.4% for ARFID. Adolescents with ARFID were more likely to be male, younger, and had a longer duration of illness before presentation. All sites had a positive change in mean percentage median body mass index (%MBMI) for their population at 1-year follow-up. Controlling for age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, and prior higher level of care, only %MBMI at intake was a significant predictor of weight recovery. In the model, there was a 12.7% change in %MBMI (interquartile range, 6.5-19.3). Type of treatment was not predictive, and there were no significant differences between programs in terms of weight restoration. The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative provides a description of the patient population presenting to a national cross-section of 14 Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs and categorized by DSM-5. Treatment modalities need to be further evaluated to assess for more global aspects of recovery. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  5. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Austin, Stephen Fitzgerald; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for anxiety and depressive disorders are an important aspect of measurement-based care. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a clinimetric analysis of two PROMs scales in patents with depression and anxiety. METHODS: Patients completed...... recruited from two Danish mental health centers with anxiety or depression. The standardization of the SCL-10 and WHO-5 by T-scores indicated that a T-score of 65 corresponding to being moderately in need of treatment and a T-score of 75 to be severely in need of treatment. The coefficient of alpha...... with anxiety or depression undergoing psychotherapy treatment....

  6. Association between perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation and fruit and vegetables consumption in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately just a few number of children and adolescents use sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation in adolescent girls in Shahrekord city.This is a descriptive analytic study conducted on 308 high school girls (first grade who were selected by cluster sampling method in Shahrekord, Iran in 2013-2014. A researcher made questionnaire was used to collect the needed data like demographic variables, substructures of perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation. In order to investigate the fruit and vegetables consumption status, the standard questionnaire of FFQ was used. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software, using descriptive and analytic tests such as one way variance analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation. The mean scores of fruit and vegetables consumption and vegetables consumption were reported as 1.45±0.68 and 1.47±0.95 respectively as well. There was a direct significant association between adolescents’ perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectations. A direct significant association was also observed between fruit consumption and both outcome evaluation and perceived self-efficacy Regarding the status of fruit and vegetables consumption and the mean scores of outcome evaluation, outcome expectations and perceived self-efficacy in adolescents which was low, and also the importance of promoting healthy diet in the critical period of adolescence, it seems necessary to use efficient patterns and theories of health education and promotion in which the roles of individuals, family and environment has been considered.

  7. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  8. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  9. Neuropsychiatric Outcome of an Adolescent Who Received Deep Brain Stimulation for Tourette's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Pullen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study followed one adolescent patient who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation of the centromedian parafascicular complex (CM-Pf for debilitating, treatment refractory Tourette's syndrome for a period of 1.5 years. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant changes between baseline and follow-up assessments. Psychiatric assessment revealed positive outcomes in overall adaptive functioning and reduction in psychotropic medication load in this patient. Furthermore, despite significant baseline psychiatric comorbidity, this patient reported no suicidal ideation following electrode implantation. Deep brain stimulation is increasingly being used in children and adolescents. This case reports on the positive neurologic and neuropsychiatric outcome of an adolescent male with bilateral CM-Pf stimulation.

  10. Treatment outcomes for substance abuse among adolescents with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer W; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McCormick, Marie C

    2006-07-01

    This paper assesses whether chemically dependent adolescents with comorbid learning disorders (LDs) derived less effective treatment results when compared to chemically dependent adolescents without LD and examines the moderating effects of prior treatments, treatment length, and treatment completion. Two hundred one adolescents were recruited between 1992 and 1993 from Massachusetts residential treatment centers and subsequently followed up 6 months after enrollment. Compared to chemically dependent teenagers without LD, those with LD were twice as likely to re-use substances at least once by follow-up. LD teenagers were more likely to attend Alcoholics/Narcotics Anonymous if they had prior admissions to treatment programs and longer treatment length. LD teenagers who completed treatment also experienced a greater decrease in current depression compared to LD teenagers not completing the treatment. This study is the first to consider outcomes of substance abuse treatment for adolescents with LD and contributes to the growing literature on comorbidity and substance abuse treatment.

  11. Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.

  12. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-09-01

    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An Outcome Study of Anorexia Nervosa in an Adolescent Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent girls (N=21) treated for anorexia nervosa in a hospital operating a strict refeeding program were examined 3 years after treatment. Outcome was considered good for 10 girls, intermediate for 4 girls, and poor for 5 girls. Found lack of separation from parents at follow-up. Discusses relevance of findings to treatment approach and to…

  14. Community Reintegration Outcomes for Formerly Incarcerated Adolescent Fathers and Nonfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Data from the study, Transition Research on Adjudicated Youth in Community Settings, were used to examine community integration outcomes for the subgroup of adolescent fathers. Juvenile offenders who were fathers were found to return to the correctional system at a higher rate than nonfathers, but fathers who remained in the community were…

  15. Differential outcomes of adolescents with chronically ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically

  16. Impact of hospitalisation on the outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowers, S G; Weetman, J; Shore, A; Hossain, F; Elvins, R

    2000-02-01

    Owing to the lack of controlled trials of treatment setting in adolescent anorexia nervosa, the benefits and costs of in-patient treatment are not established. To clarify the relationship between a range of presenting features, treatment received and medium- to long-term outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa. A range of presenting variables were rated for 75 cases of DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa at presentation to an adolescent service, including the Morgan-Russell Global Assessment Score. Cases were followed up at 2-7 years and outcome rated according to reliable methods. Setting of treatment received was also recorded. Two out of 75 cases had died by the time of follow-up. Adequate data for 72 enabled an outcome category to be assigned. The 21 who had received inpatient treatment had a significantly worse outcome than the 51 never admitted to hospital. Multivariate analysis suggests admission to be the major predictor of poor outcome. The benefits and costs of admission to hospital require further investigation, ideally in a randomised-controlled trial. The negative consequences of in-patient treatment are neglected in research.

  17. What predictors matter: Risk factors for late adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Chateau, Dan G; Rosella, Laura C

    2016-06-27

    A life course approach and linked Manitoba data from birth to age 18 were used to facilitate comparisons of two important outcomes: high school graduation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). With a common set of variables, we sought to answer the following questions: Do the measures predicting high school graduation differ from those that predict ADHD? Which factors are most important? How well do the models fit each outcome? Administrative data from the Population Health Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy were used to conduct one of the strongest observational designs: multilevel modelling of large population (n = 62,739) and sibling (n = 29,444) samples. Variables included are neighbourhood characteristics, measures of family stability, and mental and physical health conditions in childhood and adolescence. The adverse childhood experiences important for each outcome differ. While family instability and economic adversity more strongly affect failing to graduate from high school, adverse health events in childhood and early adolescence have a greater effect on late adolescent ADHD. The variables included in the model provided excellent accuracy and discrimination. These results offer insights on the role of several family and social variables and can serve as the basis for reliable, valid prediction tools that can identify high-risk individuals. Applying such a tool at the population level would provide insight into the future burden of these outcomes in an entire region or nation and further quantify the burden of risk in the population.

  18. Do Savings Mediate Changes in Adolescents' Future Orientation and Health-Related Outcomes? Findings From Randomized Experiment in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2015-10-01

    This present study tests the proposition that an economic strengthening intervention for families caring for AIDS-orphaned adolescents would positively affect adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes through increased asset accumulation (in this case, by increasing family savings). Using longitudinal data from the cluster-randomized experiment, we ran generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors clustering on individual observations. To examine whether family savings mediate the effect of the intervention on adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes, analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) testing the effect of intervention on mediator; (2) testing the effect of mediator on outcomes, controlling for the intervention; and (3) testing the significance of mediating effect using Sobel-Goodman method. Asymmetric confidence intervals for mediated effect were obtained through bootstrapping-to address the assumption of normal distribution. Results indicate that participation in a matched Child Savings Account (CSA) program improved adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes by reducing hopelessness, enhancing self-concept, and improving adolescents' confidence about their educational plans. However, the positive intervention effect on adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes was not transmitted through saving. In other words, participation in the matched CSA program improved adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes regardless of its impact on reported savings. Further research is necessary to understand exactly how participation in economic strengthening interventions, for example, those that employ matched CSAs, shape adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes: what, if not savings, transmits the treatment effect and how? Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence : Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S; Verhulst, Frank C; Robbers, Sylvana C C; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van Oort, Floor V A

    OBJECTIVE: To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood. METHOD: A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was

  20. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  1. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  2. Implementation of the Kids-CAT in clinical settings: a newly developed computer-adaptive test to facilitate the assessment of patient-reported outcomes of children and adolescents in clinical practice in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, D; Fischer, K I; Nolte, S; Otto, C; Meyrose, A-K; Reisinger, S; Dabs, M; Thyen, U; Klein, M; Muehlan, H; Ankermann, T; Walter, O; Rose, M; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2016-03-01

    To describe the implementation process of a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents in two pediatric clinics in Germany. The study focuses on the feasibility and user experience with the Kids-CAT, particularly the patients' experience with the tool and the pediatricians' experience with the Kids-CAT Report. The Kids-CAT was completed by 312 children and adolescents with asthma, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The test was applied during four clinical visits over a 1-year period. A feedback report with the test results was made available to the pediatricians. To assess both feasibility and acceptability, a multimethod research design was used. To assess the patients' experience with the tool, the children and adolescents completed a questionnaire. To assess the clinicians' experience, two focus groups were conducted with eight pediatricians. The children and adolescents indicated that the Kids-CAT was easy to complete. All pediatricians reported that the Kids-CAT was straightforward and easy to understand and integrate into clinical practice; they also expressed that routine implementation of the tool would be desirable and that the report was a valuable source of information, facilitating the assessment of self-reported HRQoL of their patients. The Kids-CAT was considered an efficient and valuable tool for assessing HRQoL in children and adolescents. The Kids-CAT Report promises to be a useful adjunct to standard clinical care with the potential to improve patient-physician communication, enabling pediatricians to evaluate and monitor their young patients' self-reported HRQoL.

  3. Effects of Adolescent Sport Practice on Health Outcomes of Adult Amateur Endurance Cyclists: Adulthood Is Not Too Late to Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Paris-Garcia, Federico; Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Oviedo-Caro, Miguel Angel; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of adolescent sport practice on the training, performance, and health outcomes of adult amateur endurance cyclists and compared health outcomes of 3 adult groups: amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence, amateur endurance cyclists who did not practice sports during adolescence, and inactive individuals. In 859 (751 men and 108 women) adult cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined adolescent sport practice, current training status, quality of life, quality of sleep, anxiety and depression, and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity, physical fitness, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Independent of gender, no significant differences in training, performance, or health outcomes were observed between amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not. Independent of gender, cyclists reported significantly better health outcomes than inactive individuals in all variables, except depression. Training, performance, and health outcomes did not differ between adult amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not, but their health outcomes were significantly improved compared with inactive individuals, except for depression.

  4. Working memory capacity and addiction treatment outcomes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jon M; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2018-01-01

    Brief addiction treatments including motivational interviewing (MI) have shown promise with adolescents, but the factors that influence treatment efficacy in this population remain unknown. One candidate is working memory, the ability to hold a fact or thought in mind. This is relevant, as in therapy, a client must maintain and manipulate ideas while working with a clinician. Working memory depends upon brain structures and functions that change markedly during neurodevelopment and that can be negatively impacted by substance use. In a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial for adolescent substance use comparing alcohol/marijuana education and MI, we evaluated the relationship between working memory and three-month treatment-outcomes with the hypothesis that the relationship between intervention conditions and outcome would be moderated by working memory. With a diverse sample of adolescents currently using alcohol and/or marijuana (N = 153, 64.7% male, 70.6% Hispanic), we examined the relationship between baseline measures of working memory and alcohol and cannabis-related problem scores measured at the three-month follow-up. The results showed that lower working memory scores were associated with poorer treatment response only for alcohol use, and only within the education group. No relationship was found between working memory and treatment outcomes in the MI group. The results suggest that issues with working memory capacity may interfere with adolescents' ability to process and implement didactic alcohol and marijuana content in standard education interventions. These results also suggest that MI can be implemented equally effectively across the range of working memory functioning in youth.

  5. Paternal involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervan, S.; Granic, I.; Solomon, T.; Blokland, K.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from

  6. Verification of adolescent self-reported smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentala, Jukka; Utriainen, Pekka; Pahkala, Kimmo; Mattila, Kari

    2004-02-01

    Smoking and the validity of information obtained on it is often questioned in view of the widespread belief that adolescents tend to under- or over-report the habit. The aim here was to verify smoking habits as reported in a questionnaire given in conjunction with dental examinations by asking participants directly whether they smoked or not and performing biochemical measurements of thiocyanate in the saliva and carbon monoxide in the expired air. The series consisted of 150 pupils in the ninth grade (age 15 years). The reports in the questionnaires seemed to provide a reliable estimate of adolescent smoking, the sensitivity of the method being 81-96%, specificity 77-95%. Biochemical verification or control of smoking proved needless in normal dental practice. Accepting information offered by the patient provides a good starting point for health education and work motivating and supporting of self-directed breaking of the habit.

  7. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Orkin, F Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents' capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support ("cash, care and classroom"). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine programmes that increase availability of

  8. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  9. The Characteristics and Short-Term Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung Seo; Lee, Sung Ryul; Byun, Geon Young; Hwang, Seong Bae; Koo, Bum Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Most adolescent gynecomastia is resolved spontaneously in 3 years. But, persistent gynecomastia could have a negative influence on psychoemotional development on adolescence. The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics of adolescent gynecomastia patients who received the surgeries, and discuss the short-term surgical outcomes. Of the 1454 patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery at Damsoyu hospital from January 2014 to May 2016, 71 were adolescents. Subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction was performed for adolescent patients who had gynecomastia for more than 3 years and showed psychosocial distress. Demographic and outcome variables were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 17.5 ± 0.77 years old. All gynecomastia cases were bilateral. Simon's grade IIa (35 patients, 49.3%) was the most common, and grade III was not observed. Fifty-one patients (71.8%) were classified as having a glandular-type breast component. Fourteen patients (19.7%) had complications, but only 3 cases (4.2%) required revision. Most of the patients (70 patients, 98.6%) were satisfied with the esthetic results, and the average 5-point Likert score was 4.85 ± 0.40. Recurrence was not observed. As the Simon's grade increased from I to IIA, a higher BMI, larger amounts of breast tissue, and longer operation times were observed. Gynecomastia that did not regress spontaneously was mostly the glandular type, so not only liposuction but also surgical removal of glandular tissue is necessary. Surgical treatment, selectively performed in patients who have had gynecomastia for 3 years, and have experienced psychosocial distress, could be an acceptable treatment for adolescent gynecomastia. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the table of contents or the online instructions to authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228

  11. Anterolateral ankle impingement in adolescents: outcomes of nonoperative and operative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric W; Chambers, Reid; Kaufman, Elizabeth; Chambers, Henry G

    2010-03-01

    Ankle sprains in adolescents usually resolve with conservative management but a few patients may develop ankle impingement syndrome. There have been adult studies addressing surgical treatment of this pathology, but our study evaluated the surgical management of anterolateral ankle impingement in adolescents by comparing their outcomes after nonoperative treatment and subsequent surgical intervention. Thirteen patients (children and adolescents) diagnosed with ankle impingement by history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging during a 9-year period at our institution underwent eventual arthroscopic debridement. A retrospective chart review of these patients was performed and they were evaluated using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) functional rating scale on 3 separate occasions: (1) initial presentation, (2) termination of nonoperative management, and (3) final postoperative follow-up visit. Thirteen adolescents (11 girls and 2 boys; 14 ankles) with a mean age of 15.6 (11.9-18.3) years met the inclusion criteria; of these, all had arthroscopic surgery. Mean duration of reported symptoms was 9.6 (4-15) months and mean duration of nonoperative management (physical therapy, activity modifications) was 6.9 (2-12) months. The mean AOFAS rating (out of 100 total) at initial presentation was 68.4 (40-84) and after nonoperative management was no better with a mean of 68.2 (63-76). The mean AOFAS rating at final follow-up was 90.6 (52-100), which was statistically significant (Pankle impingement in the adolescent population.

  12. Comparison of neurological health outcomes between two adolescent cohorts exposed to pesticides in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Ismail

    Full Text Available Pesticide-exposed adolescents may have a higher risk of neurotoxic effects because of their developing brains and bodies. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed this risk among adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare neurological outcomes from two cohorts of Egyptian adolescents working as pesticide applicators. In 2005 and 2009, two cohorts of male adolescents working as pesticide applicators for the cotton crop were recruited from Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. The same application schedule and pesticides were used at both times, including both organophosphorus, and pyrethroid compounds. Participants in both cohorts completed three neurobehavioral tests, health and exposure questionnaires, and medical and neurological screening examinations. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure butyryl cholinesterase (BChE activity. Pesticide applicators in both cohorts reported more neurological symptoms and signs than non-applicators, particularly among participants in the 2005 cohort (OR ranged from 1.18 to 15.3. Except for one test (Trail Making B, there were no significant differences between either applicators or non-applicators of both cohorts on the neurobehavioral outcome measures (p > 0.05. The 2005 cohort showed greater inhibition of serum BChE activity than the 2009 cohort (p < 0.05. In addition, participants with depressed BChE activity showed more symptoms and signs than others without BChE depression (p < 0.05. Our study is the first to examine the consistency of health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure across two cohorts tested at different times from the same geographical region in rural Egypt. This similar pattern of findings across the two cohorts provides strong evidence of the health impact of exposure of adolescents to pesticides.

  13. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  14. Sex differences in adult outcomes by changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood: results from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene E; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Maslow, Gary R; Halpern, Carolyn T; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood may be associated with varying social, vocational, economic, and educational outcomes, which may differ by sex. We studied whether there are differences in adult outcomes by sex for different weight status changes in the transition to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, participants were categorized by weight status from adolescence into adulthood. We examined self-reported outcomes in adulthood for living with parents, being married, being a parent, employment, receipt of public assistance, income, and college graduation by weight groupings (healthy-healthy, healthy-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-healthy). The effect of changes in weight status on the adult outcomes was modeled, controlling for sex, age, parental education, and race/ethnicity. There were differences by sex for many of the self-reported outcomes, especially educational and economic outcomes. Female subjects who became overweight/obese between adolescence and adulthood or remained so had worse economic and educational findings as adults compared to male subjects. Overall, for female subjects, becoming and remaining overweight/obese was associated with worse outcomes, while for male subjects, adolescent obesity was more important than isolated adult obesity. The relationship between obesity and life situations may be more negative for female subjects in the transition to adulthood. The findings emphasize that adolescent obesity, and not just obesity isolated in adulthood, is important for characteristics achieved in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Newcomer immigrant adolescents: A mixed-methods examination of family stressors and school outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita G; Clarke, Annette V; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E; Wickham, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods design, we used quantitative methods to explore interactions between family separation, acculturative family conflict, and family life events to predict 2 school outcomes, academic achievement (via grade point average [GPA]), and externalizing problems (student- and teacher-reported). The sample included 189 newcomer immigrant public high school students from 34 countries of origin. Quantitative measures included the Multicultural Events Scale for Adolescents, Family Conflicts Scale, and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured interview. Quantitative results found that more family life events were associated with lower GPA, but this association was weaker for participants who had been separated from their parents. More family conflict was associated with more externalizing symptoms (both youth- and teacher-reported). However, the association between family conflict and teacher-reported externalizing symptoms was found only among participants reporting a greater than average number of life events. Qualitative results show that separation from extended family networks was among the most stressful of experiences, and demonstrate the highly complex nature of each family stressor domain. At a time when immigration is rapidly changing our school system, a better understanding of early risk factors for new immigrants can help teachers, administrators, and mental health practitioners to identify students with greatest need to foster behavioral, academic, and emotional well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Differential Reporting of Adolescent Stress as a Function of Maternal Depression History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Burke, Taylor A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    The depression-distortion hypothesis posits that depressed mothers report child characteristics in a negatively-biased manner, motivating research on discrepant reporting between depressed mothers and their children. However, the literature has predominately focused on report discrepancies of youth psychopathological and behavioral outcomes, with limited focus on youth stress despite the marked increase of stressful events during adolescence. The current study investigated whether the presence versus absence of a maternal history of major depressive disorder differentially influenced reporting of adolescent stress when compared to her child's report, utilizing a community sample of diverse adolescents. As hypothesized, mothers with a history of depression were more likely to report more youth stress than their children reported. Specifically, mothers with a history of depression were more likely than nondepressed mothers to report more familial, social, and youth-dependent stressors relative to their children; nondepressed mothers were more likely to report less independent stressors than their children.

  17. Game on… girls: associations between co-playing video games and adolescent behavioral and family outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Stockdale, Laura; Day, Randal D

    2011-08-01

    Video game use has been associated with several behavioral and health outcomes for adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between parental co-play of video games and behavioral and family outcomes. Participants consisted of 287 adolescents and their parents who completed a number of video game-, behavioral-, and family-related questionnaires as part of a wider study. Most constructs included child, mother, and father reports. At the bivariate level, time spent playing video games was associated with several negative outcomes, including heightened internalizing and aggressive behavior and lowered prosocial behavior. However, co-playing video games with parents was associated with decreased levels of internalizing and aggressive behaviors, and heightened prosocial behavior for girls only. Co-playing video games was also marginally related to parent-child connectedness for girls, even after controlling for age-inappropriate games played with parents. This is the first study to show positive associations for co-playing video games between girls and their parents. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent deliveries in semi-urban Cameroon: prevalence and adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Agbor, Valirie Ndip

    2017-06-26

    Adolescent pregnancies are high risk due to the increased probability of adverse outcomes; as adolescents are usually considered to be ill-equipped to deal with the burden of pregnancy. We sought to determine the prevalence of adolescent deliveries in a secondary-level care hospital in semi-urban Cameroon-Bamenda, the adverse neonatal outcomes and to assess if previous obstetric history could preclude adolescents from having adverse outcomes in their present pregnancy. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 8.7% (95% CI 7.01-10.73%). The neonates of adolescent mothers were more likely to have severe asphyxia (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2-12.9; p = 0.03) and low birth weight (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4; p adolescents were just as likely to have complications as multipara adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries (8.7%) in the Regional Hospital Bamenda is high. Their babies are at a high risk of adverse neonatal outcomes irrespective of their previous obstetric history (previous delivery) emphasising that adolescents are generally ill-prepared to deal with pregnancy. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of adolescent deliveries should be investigated and implemented in view of attaining the sustainable development goals.

  19. Admissions to acute adolescent psychiatric units: a prospective study of clinical severity and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries have established or are planning acute psychiatric in-patient services that accept around-the-clock emergency admission of adolescents. Our aim was to investigate the characteristics and clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients at four Norwegian units. Methods We used a prospective pre-post observational design. Four units implemented a clinician-rated outcome measure, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA, which measures mental health problems and their severity. We collected also data about the diagnoses, suicidal problems, family situations, and the involvement of the Child Protection Service. Predictions of outcome (change in HoNOSCA total score were analysed with a regression model. Results The sample comprised 192 adolescents admitted during one year (response rate 87%. Mean age was 15.7 years (range 10-18 and 70% were girls. Fifty-eight per cent had suicidal problems at intake and the mean intake HoNOSCA total score was 18.5 (SD 6.4. The largest groups of main diagnostic conditions were affective (28% and externalizing (26% disorders. Diagnoses and other patient characteristics at intake did not differ between units. Clinical psychiatric disorders and developmental disorders were associated with severity (on HoNOSCA at intake but not with outcome. Of adolescents ≥ 16 years, 33% were compulsorily admitted. Median length of stay was 8.5 days and 75% of patients stayed less than a month. Compulsory admissions and length of stay varied between units. Mean change (improvement in the HoNOSCA total score was 5.1 (SD 6.2, with considerable variation between units. Mean discharge score was close to the often-reported outpatient level, and self-injury and emotional symptoms were the most reduced symptoms during the stay. In a regression model, unit, high HoNOSCA total score at intake, or involvement of the Child Protection Service predicted improvement during admission

  20. Parenting Styles, Adolescents' Attributions, and Educational Outcomes in Nine Heterogeneous High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Kristan L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes. Found that adolescents who perceived their parents as nonauthoritative were more likely than peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or low ability. The higher the proportion of dysfunctional…

  1. Outcomes of a rapid refeeding protocol in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sloane; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Clarke, Simon; Touyz, Stephen; Hay, Phillipa; Kohn, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The impact of severe malnutrition and medical instability in adolescent Anorexia Nervosa (AN) on immediate health and long-term development underscores the need for safe and efficient methods of refeeding. Current refeeding guidelines in AN advocate low initial caloric intake with slow increases in energy intake to avoid refeeding syndrome. This study demonstrates the potential for more rapid refeeding to promote initial weight recovery and correct medical instability in adolescent AN. Seventy-eight adolescents with AN (12-18 years), hospitalised in two specialist paediatric eating disorder units, for medical instability (bradycardia, hypotension, hypothermia, orthostatic instability and/or cardiac arrhythmia) were followed during a 2.5 week admission. Patients were refed using a standardised protocol commencing with 24-72 hours of continuous nasogastric feeds (ceased with daytime medical stability) and routine oral phosphate supplementation, followed by nocturnal feeds and a meal plan of 1200-2400 kcal/day aiming for a total caloric intake of 2400-3000 kcal/day. Along with indicators of medical stability, weight, phosphate and glucose levels were recorded. All patients gained weight in week one (M = 2.79 kg, SD = 1.27 kg) and at subsequent measurement points with an average gain of 5.12 kg (SD = 2.96) at 2.5 weeks. No patient developed hypophosphatemia, hypoglycaemia, or stigmata of the refeeding syndrome. The refeeding protocol resulted in immediate weight gain and was well tolerated with no indicators of refeeding syndrome. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the treatment sites, suggesting the protocol is replicable. Australian Clinical Trials Register number: ACTRN012607000009415.

  2. A review of depression and quality of life outcomes in adolescents post bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Kathryn A; Graves, Joyce K

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review: Depression and quality of life of adolescents after bariatric surgery. Reported changes in depression and quality of life among adolescents after bariatric surgery were assessed, along with the choice of tools, length of follow-up, and age and gender trends. Medical and psychosocial electronic databases. The majority of published studies of adolescents post bariatric surgery showed a positive reduction in depression and improvements in quality of life regardless of the amount of weight lost or type of surgery performed. Four studies measured changes only within the first year and three within 2 years; it is unknown if positive psychological benefits persisted. Patients' ages ranged from 9 to 20 years, with an average age of 16.6. A 7:3 female/male ratio presented for surgery. Three depression and six quality of life instruments were utilized; two instruments were validated for adult use only. Consistent qualitative and quantitative measures of psychological issues and quality of life specific to adolescents are necessary. Multicenter longitudinal studies are warranted to more effectively track outcomes and patients needing more support. Thus informed, a nurse or health practitioner can better advocate for the patient during the preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up periods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  4. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.

  5. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Michael; Shung, Joseph; Pearce, Stephanie; Bompadre, Viviana; Andrews, James R

    2018-04-01

    The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions in adolescent athletes has increased over the past 2 decades. Clinical results in this population have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and return to sport after UCL reconstruction in a large group of adolescent baseball players. We hypothesized that excellent clinical outcomes and high rates of return to sport would be observed in this population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We reviewed 140 adolescent (aged ≤19 years) baseball players who underwent UCL reconstruction with the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique by a single surgeon. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, injury characteristics, operative details, and surgical complications. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Conway scale, the Andrews-Timmerman (A-T) score, the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) score, and a 0- to 100-point subjective scale for elbow function and satisfaction. Return to sporting activity was assessed using a custom-designed questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery was 18.0 years (range, 13-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 57.9 months (range, 32.4-115.4 months). Over half (60%) of patients were high school athletes. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 6.9 months (range, 0.5-60.0 months). Partial tears were identified in 57.9% of patients, and 41.3% of patients had preoperative ulnar nerve symptoms. Graft type included the ipsilateral palmaris in 77.1% of patients. Concomitant procedures were performed in 25% of patients. Outcomes on the Conway scale were "excellent" in 86.4% of patients. The mean A-T and KJOC scores were 97.3 ± 6.1 and 85.2 ± 14.6, respectively. Mean patient satisfaction was 94.4. Overall, 97.8% of patients reported returning to sport at a mean of 11.6 months (range, 5-24 months), and 89.9% of patients returned to sport at the same level of

  7. Adolescents: Your Children and Mine. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demo, Mary Penasack

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 10 items from the ERIC collection covering various aspects of adolescence: the impact of pop music, attitudes about drinking, television viewing, the effect of the new morality, the adolescent learning process, popular books, attitudes toward school, and others. (JMF)

  8. The Role of Religiousness on Substance-Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Battle, DuWayne; Pagano, Maria E.; Andrade, Fernando H.; Bradley, Jaclyn C.; Delva, Jorge; Johnson, Shannon M.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares 41 Black and 124 White adolescents at intake and discharge from a residential treatment program for substance-use disorders. Study data were obtained as part of a larger study (N = 195) that sought to assess the relationship of helping behavior and addiction recovery. This post-hoc analysis aims to identify cultural strengths that may be associated with recovery from substance-use disorders among Black adolescents. Using regression analyses and controlling for the severity of substance use and background variables that distinguish racial groups, religious practices and behaviors at intake were examined. Specifically, Black youth and White youth were compared on treatment outcomes, including alcohol or drug use during treatment, drug craving, 12-Step work, and 12-Step helping. The burden of health and socioeconomic disparities at intake did not disproportionately disfavor Black adolescents. Outcomes related to 12-Step measures were similar between Black and White youth. White adolescents reported higher craving scores at discharge, and Black adolescents were more likely to use drugs during treatment. High levels of religiousness at treatment intake were linked to greater 12-Step work and greater 12-Step helping at discharge. High levels of religiousness at intake were not related to drug use during treatment or to craving scores at discharge. The relationship between intake levels of religiousness and treatment-related outcomes did not differ by race. PMID:22970338

  9. Association of adverse oral health outcomes with socioeconomic inequalities and dental needs in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Rossi Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to explore the relations between adverse oral outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and self-rated oral health variables and to describe their distribution. Principal component analysis was conducted on data from adolescents in the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey (N = 5,445. Higher loadings were found for crowding (0.6, maxillary and mandibular irregularities (0.5, and count of communitary periodontal index (CPI sextants with bleeding and dental calculus (0.5. The mean rates for periodontal and occlusal disorders were at least two times higher in adolescents from lower income families and those reporting the need for dental prostheses, as well as those dissatisfied with their dental and overall oral health. Increased mean rates of occlusal disorders were associated with schooling delay and history of toothache in the previous six months. The mean scores suggested accumulation of at least one of the negative oral health indicators in the lower income strata, among adolescents with schooling delay, and in those reporting dental needs. The results suggest priorities for planning and monitoring as a function of oral health requirements.

  10. Association of adverse oral health outcomes with socioeconomic inequalities and dental needs in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela de Rossi; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2017-06-05

    This study aimed to explore the relations between adverse oral outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and self-rated oral health variables and to describe their distribution. Principal component analysis was conducted on data from adolescents in the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey (N = 5,445). Higher loadings were found for crowding (0.6), maxillary and mandibular irregularities (0.5), and count of communitary periodontal index (CPI) sextants with bleeding and dental calculus (0.5). The mean rates for periodontal and occlusal disorders were at least two times higher in adolescents from lower income families and those reporting the need for dental prostheses, as well as those dissatisfied with their dental and overall oral health. Increased mean rates of occlusal disorders were associated with schooling delay and history of toothache in the previous six months. The mean scores suggested accumulation of at least one of the negative oral health indicators in the lower income strata, among adolescents with schooling delay, and in those reporting dental needs. The results suggest priorities for planning and monitoring as a function of oral health requirements.

  11. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  12. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle O'Connor, MSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998 in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1. Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing >14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms, beta (CI = 53 (0–107. After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  13. Culture and ethnicity influence outcomes of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lee Jae; Kawakami, Noriaki; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Diab, Mohammad

    2012-05-20

    Retrospective comparative study. To report preoperative differences in the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-30) between multiple US ethnicities and native Japanese and Korean children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The SRS-24 was developed in a US cohort with AIS. Comparative studies using the SRS-24 between US and Japanese patients showed differences, suggesting that culture might affect functional outcome. Preoperative SRS-30 outcomes were collected from 1853 children with AIS from 6 different ethnic groups: US white (1234), black (213), Hispanic (78), and Asian (29), as well as native Japanese (192) and Koreans (107). Analysis of covariance of 4 SRS-30 domains (pain, appearance, activity, and mental) was compared between groups adjusting for differences in age, sex, major curve magnitude, and body mass index. Pairwise comparisons of the 4 SRS-30 domains were adjusted for multiple comparisons, using Bonferroni correction. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Significant differences between ethnicities were found in all domains (P Culture and ethnicity influence SRS-30 outcomes in AIS. Whites reported more pain than Japanese and Koreans. Japanese and Koreans had the lowest appearance scores. Koreans additionally were distinguished by the lowest activity, mental, and total scores. These cultural and ethnic differences must be taken into account when counseling patients with AIS and studying functional outcomes.

  14. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored...

  15. How does family functioning effect the outcome of family based treatment for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between family functioning, adolescent-parent attachment and remission, as well as changes in these variables over time for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa treated with family based treatment (FBT). Understanding how families respond to treatment is important because the family will be the ongoing context for psychosocial development in the longer term. The relationship between family functioning and outcome is also an important variable because it is potentially modifiable during treatment and this may improve outcome. Fifty-seven female adolescents treated with FBT in a randomised controlled trial were assessed at baseline, FBT session 20 and 12-months post FBT session 20. Data on family functioning and adolescent-parent attachment was collected from patients and their parents at each time point. A series of regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between family functioning and comorbidity at baseline, and the relationship with remission status over time. Repeat measure mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in family functioning and attachment quality over time. Greater adolescent perceived family functioning impairment was positively related to psychiatric comorbidity at the start of treatment. Conversely, better family functioning predicted higher self-esteem and stronger attachment quality. Adolescent's reporting better general family functioning, communication and problem solving were more likely to be remitted at session 20, but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no overall improvement in family functioning for any respondent either during treatment or at follow-up, and no significant relationship between change and remission at either session 20 or follow-up. The adolescent's perspective on family functioning at the start of treatment impacts on a positive outcome. Addressing family issues earlier in FBT may be important for some patients. Further

  16. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report

  17. The effect of driven exercise on treatment outcomes for adolescents with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; DclinPsy, Bryony Bamford; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of driven exercise (DE) and its role in treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were 201 adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) (80 with BN and 121 with AN) presenting for outpatient treatment at two specialist clinics. All adolescents participated in one of two randomized controlled trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted to evaluate the presence and frequency of baseline DE. Exploratory hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate the effect of baseline DE on treatment outcomes. About 66.3% of adolescents with BN and 23.1% of adolescents with AN presented with baseline DE. The presence of baseline DE predicted significantly worse outcomes for adolescents with AN in terms of ED symptom severity (ps adolescents with BN (ps adolescents with BN and AN. However, DE may be related to different constructs for adolescents with AN than those with BN, suggesting differences in treatment needs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Esophageal achalasia in adolescence - two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Vaz Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achalasia is a rare disorder, particularly in pediatrics, characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and inadequate relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Its etiology remains unclear. Cases: We describe two adolescents with dysphagia for solids and liquids, vomiting, weight loss and nocturnal cough for a few months. Initially it was considered to be an eating disorder, and the diagnosis of achalasia was reached later by esophageal manometry in one case and by intraoperative biopsy in another. The patients were submitted to Heller myotomy with an antireflux procedure, laparoscopically in one case, and by laparotomy in another, both with a favorable outcome. Discussion/Conclusions: We emphasize the rarity and diagnostic challenge of these cases. The nonspecific symptoms often lead to the diagnosis of an eating disorder, delaying the correct treatment. If symptoms persist achalasia must be considered and the esophageal manometry is the diagnostic test of choice. The gold standard in treatment is surgical, and we highlight the effectiveness of the techniques applied.

  19. Radiological Outcomes in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients More Than 22 Years After Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Christensen, Steen Bach; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term radiologic outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients more than 22 years after treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although treatment for AIS is prophylactic and is aimed at preventing curve progression......, very few studies report long-term outcomes of treatment. METHODS: AIS patients treated with Boston brace or posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with Harrington-dorso-transverse traction (DTT) instrumentation from 1983 to 1990 were requested to return to clinic. Subsequently, 36-inch standing radiographs were...... obtained after patient consent. Cobb angles were compared with pretreatment and immediate posttreatment radiographs. Any evidence of adjacent-level disease or local kyphosis was also noted. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (78%) of 219 patients were available for follow-up, 66 braced and 93 surgical...

  20. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  1. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  2. Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Treated with Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…

  3. Birth outcomes in adolescent pregnancy in an area with intense malaria transmission in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wort, Ulrika Uddenfeldt; Warsame, Marian; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effects of malaria for the mother and young baby are well described in developing countries, there is very little data on the consequences for adolescent pregnancies. This paper analyses birth outcome in adolescent pregnancy in an area of Tanzania with intense malaria

  4. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  5. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  6. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  7. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  8. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  9. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  10. The Longitudinal Impact of Adolescent Drug Use on Socioeconomic Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how drug use in adolescence contributes to socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Several studies have investigated whether drug problems alter the life course in ways that are detrimental to young adult achievement, but findings are inconsistent. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to…

  11. Adolescents with congenital heart disease: the importance of perceived parenting for psychosocial and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip

    2011-11-01

    : Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.

  12. Contingency management improves smoking cessation treatment outcomes among highly impulsive adolescent smokers relative to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Pittman, Brian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive adolescents have difficulty quitting smoking. We examined if treatments that provide behavioral incentives for abstinence improve treatment outcomes among impulsive adolescent smokers, who have been shown to be highly sensitive to reward. We ran secondary data analyses on 64 teen smokers (mean age=16.36 [1.44]; cigarettes/day=13.97 [6.61]; 53.1% female; 90.6% Caucasian) who completed a four-week smoking cessation trial to determine whether impulsive adolescents differentially benefit from receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), contingency management (CM), or the combination of the two (CM/CBT). Indices of treatment efficacy included self-report percent days abstinent and end of treatment biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence (EOT abstinence). We assessed self-reported impulsivity using the Brief Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. We used univariate Generalized Linear Modeling to examine main effects and interactions of impulsivity and treatment condition as predictors of self-reported abstinence, and exact logistic regression to examine EOT abstinence. CM/CBT and CM were comparably effective in promoting abstinence, so analyses were conducted comparing the efficacy of CBT to treatments with a CM component (i.e., CM and CM/CBT). CBT and deficient self-regulation predicted lower self-reported abstinence rates within the total analytic sample. Treatments containing CM were more effective than CBT in predicting 1) self-reported abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents (% days abstinent: CM 77%; CM/CBT 81%; CBT 30%) and 2) EOT point prevalence abstinence among behaviorally impulsive adolescents and adolescents with significant deficits in self-regulation. CM-based interventions may improve the low smoking cessation rates previously observed among impulsive adolescent smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between hunger and mental health outcomes among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.

  14. Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, K L; Dornbusch, S M; Troyer, L; Steinberg, L; Ritter, P L

    1997-06-01

    This article examined the contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and 4 educational outcomes. Data were collected from adolescents attending 6 high schools in California and 3 high schools in Wisconsin during the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. The results of path analyses partially confirmed the central hypotheses. Adolescents who perceived their parents as being nonauthoritative were more likely than their peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or to low ability. Furthermore, the higher the proportion of dysfunctional attributions made for academic successes and failures, the lower the levels of classroom engagement and homework 1 year later. Although adolescents' attributional style provided a bridge between parenting style and 2 educational outcomes, it did not fully explain the impact of parenting on those outcomes. Additional analyses within gender and ethnic subgroups reinforced the overall pattern of findings observed within the entire sample.

  15. Development of a patient-reported outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    removed from the original 69. A multidimensional questionnaire, divided into five subscales, was developed from the remaining 34 items: mobility; symptoms; sleep disturbance; everyday activity and pain; and participation in everyday life. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 5-subscale structure......OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-reported outcome evaluating the impact of neck pain. The results of item generation and reduction and subscale structure in support of the content and construct validity of the measure are reported. METHODS: Items were generated from the literature and through focus...

  16. Between- and within-person associations between negative life events and alcohol outcomes in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Louie, Kristine T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-09-01

    Escalations in alcohol use during adolescence may be linked with exposure to negative life events, but most of this research has focused on between-person associations. Moreover, adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be an especially vulnerable population, reporting more life events and alcohol involvement and may even be more sensitive to the effects of life events on alcohol outcomes compared with those without ADHD. We tested the between- and within-person effects of the number and perceptions of negative life events on the development of alcohol use outcomes from age 14 to 17 years in 259 adolescents with and without ADHD using generalized estimating equations. Between-person differences in exposure to negative life events across adolescence, but not the perception of those events, were associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years. Within-person differences in life events were associated with alcohol use above and beyond that predicted by an adolescents' typical trajectory over time. Parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with more negative perceptions of life events and with greater alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years, but symptoms did not moderate the life event-alcohol association. Interventions should consider the variables that produce vulnerability to life events as well as the immediate impact of life events. That the accumulation of life events, rather than their perceived negativity, was associated with alcohol outcomes indicates that interventions targeting the reduction of negative events, rather than emotional response, may be more protective against alcohol use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Narcolepsy in Adolescence-A Missed Diagnosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anoop K; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Grover, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is an uncommon sleep cycle disorder with a usual onset in adolescence, but it is often misdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. Rarely is the tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis seen in patients. The clinical characteristics of narcolepsy are often confused with many psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Lack of clinical awareness about narcolepsy leads to frequent prescriptions of antiepileptics and psychotropics, which can adversely affect the quality of life of children and adolescents. We report a case of an adolescent male who presented with all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy and had been misdiagnosed with epilepsy, psychosis, and depression. We discuss various issues regarding narcolepsy in children and adolescents.

  18. Consumer satisfaction with the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and its association with treatment outcome: a 3-4-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Cathrine; Larsson, Bo; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Consumer satisfaction studies with the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) have mainly assessed evaluations in a short-term follow-up perspective. Adolescent reports with CAMHS have not been included nationally. The purposes of this study were to explore adolescent and parental satisfaction with the CAMHS in a 3-4-year follow-up perspective, and to examine the relationships between reported consumer satisfaction and clinical parameters such as reason for adolescent referral, emotional/behavioral symptoms and treatment outcome. Of 190 adolescent-parent pairs in a sample of CAMHS outpatients, 120 completed a Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire. Parents assessed adolescent emotional/behavior problems both at baseline and at follow-up by completing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Correlations were examined between adolescent and parental evaluations. The relationships between service satisfaction and symptom load at baseline and follow-up and treatment outcome at follow-up were explored. Overall, adolescents and parents were satisfied with the services received from the CAMHS. The correlations between adolescent and parent consumer satisfaction ratings were low to moderate. Consumer satisfaction was significantly and negatively correlated with symptom load on the CBCL Total Problems scores at baseline, but not at follow-up. There was no difference in satisfaction levels between those who improved after treatment and those who did not. Given the differences in informant ratings of consumer satisfaction, it is important to include both adolescent and parental perceptions in evaluations of CAMHS services and treatment outcomes. Consumer satisfaction should serve as a supplement to established standardized outcome measures.

  19. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-05

    This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10-19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions

  20. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (psocial support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  1. Aphasia rehabilitation during adolescence: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; McCusker, Tiffany; Hartley, Leila L

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of speech-language interventions addressing the unique aspects of aphasia in adolescence appear to be nonexistent. The current paper presents the case of a male adolescent who experienced a stroke with resultant aphasia and the speech and language therapy he received. Furthermore, we discuss the issues that are unique to an adolescent with aphasia and how they were addressed with this particular patient. Traditional language and apraxia therapy was provided to this patient with inclusion of technology and academic topics. The patient demonstrated improvements in his speech and language abilities, most notably his reading comprehension and speech production. Age-related issues, including academic needs, group treatment, socialization, adherence/compliance, independence and family involvement, emerged during intervention. Although aphasia therapy for adolescents may be similar in many aspects to selected interventions for adults, it is necessary for the clinician to be mindful of age-related issues throughout the course of therapy. Goals and interventions should be selected based on factors salient to an adolescent as well as the potential long-term impact of therapy. Implications for Research Aphasia and its treatment in adolescence need to be further explored. Academics and technology are important aspects of aphasia treatment in adolescence. Issues specific to adolescence such as socialization, adherence/compliance, and independence are important to address in speech-language therapy.

  2. The bi-directional relationship between parent-child conflict and treatment outcome in treatment-resistant adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B; Ryan, Neal D; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or without the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study. The Conflict Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess adolescent (CBQ-A) and parent-reported (CBQ-P) parent-child discord. The impact of remission on parent-child conflict, and the differential impact of medication and CBT on the CBQ-A and CBQ-P, were assessed using generalized linear models. Although there were no differential treatment effects on parent or adolescent-report of conflict, remission was associated with improvement in the CBQ-P. In general, intake family conflict did not predict remission, except in the sub-group of participants whose parents reported clinically significant parent-child conflict at intake, for whom high levels of parent-reported conflict predicted a lower likelihood of remission. Conflict also did not moderate treatment response. Remission of depression may be sufficient to reduce parent-reported parent-child conflict. However, higher parent-reported conflict, in the clinically significant range, predicts a lower likelihood of remission from depression. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00018902. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subthreshold and threshold attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in adolescence in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén Selinus, E; Molero, Y; Lichtenstein, P; Anckarsäter, H; Lundström, S; Bottai, M; Hellner Gumpert, C

    2016-12-01

    To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse. All outcomes were controlled for symptoms of diagnostic categories other than ADHD. Increasing levels of ADHD symptoms in childhood were associated with higher proportions of adolescents who displayed negative psychosocial outcomes. More girls than boys reported internalizing problems (all levels) and risky drug use (screen-intermediate and screen-positive only). More boys reported antisocial behaviour at the screen-negative and screen-intermediate levels, but at the screen-positive level, similar proportions of girls and boys displayed antisocial behaviour. The findings support the view that ADHD symptoms, as well as their negative outcomes, are dimensionally distributed in the population and that adolescent girls and boys display different risk profiles. The findings confirm that ADHD symptoms are associated with higher risk of drug misuse in girls. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adolescents' reported consequences of having oral sex versus vaginal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2007-02-01

    The present study examined whether adolescents' initial consequences of sexual activity differ according to type of sexual activity and gender. Surveys were administered to 618 adolescents recruited from 2 public high schools in the autumn of ninth grade (2002) and at 6-month intervals until the spring of tenth grade (2004). Analyses were limited to the 275 adolescents (44%) who reported engaging in oral sex and/or vaginal sex at any assessment. Participants were 14 years of age at study entry, 56% female, and of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. In comparison with adolescents who engaged in oral sex and/or vaginal sex, adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were less likely to report experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection, feeling guilty or used, having their relationship become worse, and getting into trouble with their parents as a result of sex. Adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were also less likely to report experiencing pleasure, feeling good about themselves, and having their relationship become better as a result of sex. Boys were more likely than girls to report feeling good about themselves, experiencing popularity, and experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection as a result of sex, whereas girls were more likely than boys to report feeling bad about themselves and feeling used. Adolescents experience a range of social and emotional consequences after having sex. Our findings have implications for clinical practice and public health campaigns targeted toward youth.

  5. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  6. Adolescent friendship relations and developmental outcomes: ethnic and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The

  7. Exercise during school hours when added to patient education improves outcome for 2 years in adolescent patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, M S; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, J L

    2015-01-01

    -management of pain and information on PFP. Exercise therapy consisted of supervised exercises on school premises (3/week for 3 months) and instructions on home-based exercises. Adherence to exercises was assessed as attendance and weekly text messages. Primary outcome measure was self-reported recovery (seven......BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common among adolescents and associated with long-lasting pain and disability. Patient education and exercise therapy are commonly used treatments in primary and secondary care but the effect of these treatments in adolescents is unknown. We aimed...... to determine the effect of exercise therapy as an add-on therapy to patient education compared with education alone. METHODS: 121 adolescents from 15-19 years of age were cluster randomised to patient education or patient education combined with exercise therapy. Patient education covered self...

  8. Patient-reported Outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Christopher H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been tremendous progress in the area of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). A PRO instrument is defined as any measure of a patient's health status that is elicited directly from the patient and assesses how the patient “feels or functions with respect to his or her health condition.” The advances seen in clinical research regarding PROs has been mirrored in research in cystic fibrosis (CF). A large number of instruments have been used for both therapeutic and ...

  9. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  10. Perceived and Police-Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and body mass index (BMI). Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N = 2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. BMI was measured by research staff. Participants' mean age was 14.6 (standard deviation = 2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents' safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  12. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Nii-Boye Quarshie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude, at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  13. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…

  15. In-session behaviours and adolescents' self-concept and loneliness: A psychodrama process-outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Azoulay, Bracha; Snir, Sharon; Regev, Dafna

    2017-11-01

    As adolescents spend many hours a day in school, it is crucial to examine the ways in which therapeutic practices in schools promote their well-being. This longitudinal pilot study examined the contribution of school-based psychodrama group therapy to the self-concept dimensions and perceived loneliness of 40 Israeli adolescents (aged 13-16, 60% boys) in public middle schools. From a process-outcome perspective, we also examined the understudied trajectory of adolescents' in-session behaviours (process variables) and its associations with changes in their self-concepts and loneliness (outcome variables). Psychodrama participants reported increases in global, social, and behavioural self-concepts and a decrease in loneliness compared to the control group. In-session productive behaviours increased and resistance decreased throughout the therapy, but varied process-outcome relationships were found. The study suggests that conducting further research into the process-outcome relationships in psychodrama group therapy is warranted to pinpoint specific mechanisms of change. Suggestions for future studies are provided. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...

  17. Parenting programs during adolescence: Outcomes from universal and targeted interventions offered in real-world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Elin K; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Anders G

    2018-04-26

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to explore short and long-term outcomes of five different group-based parenting programs offered to parents of 10 to 17-year-olds. Three hundred and fifteen parents (277 mothers and 38 fathers) who had enrolled in a parenting program (universal: Active Parenting, COPE; Connect; targeted: COMET; Leadership training for parents of teenagers [LFT]) answered questionnaires at three measurement waves (baseline, post-measurement, and one-year follow-up). The questions concerned parenting style, parental mental health, family climate and adolescent mental health. Results revealed small to moderate changes in almost all outcome variables and in all parenting programs. Overall, parents in COMET reported the largest short and long-term changes. No substantial differences in change were seen between the other programs. The results support the general effectiveness of parenting programs for parents of adolescents. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intraclass correlation values for adolescent health outcomes in secondary schools in 21 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shackleton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for improving health. A key feature of CRCTs is that individuals in clusters are often more alike than individuals in different clusters, irrespective of treatment. This similarity within clusters needs to be taken into account when planning CRCTs to obtain adequate sample sizes, and when analysing clustered data to obtain correct estimates. Methods: Nationally representative data from 15 to 16 year olds were analysed, from 21 of the 35 countries that participated in the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Within country school level intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for substance use (self-reported alcohol use, regular alcohol use, binge drinking, any smoking, regular smoking, and illicit drug use and psychosocial health (depressive mood and self-esteem. Unadjusted and adjusted ICCs are presented. ICCs are adjusted for student sex and socioeconomic status. Results: ICCs ranged from 0.01 to 0.21, with the highest (0.21 reported for regular smoking. Within country school level ICCs varied substantially across health outcomes, and among countries for the same health outcomes. Estimated ICCs were consistently higher for substance use (range 0.01–0.21, than for psychosocial health (range 0.01–0.07. Within country ICCs for health outcomes varied by changes in the measurement of particular health outcomes, for example the ICCs for regular smoking (range 0.06–0.21 were higher than those for having smoked at all in the last month (range 0.03–0.17. Conclusions: For school level ICCs to be effectively utilised in informing sample size requirements for CRCTs and adjusting estimates from meta-analyses, the school level ICCs need to be both country and outcome specific. Keywords: Intra-class correlation, Schools, Adolescents, Substance use, Mental health

  19. Intermediate and Long-term Outcomes of Giant Fibroadenoma Excision in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Felecia E; Pruthi, Sandhya; Boughey, Judy C; Simmons, Patricia S; Salje, Barbara; Nuzzi, Laura C; Lemaine, Valerie; Labow, Brian I

    2015-01-01

    Giant fibroadenomas (5 cm or greater) are benign breast masses that often present in adolescence and require surgical excision. Long-term outcomes, recurrence rates, and the need for additional reconstructive surgery in this population are unknown. Patients aged 11-25 years whose pathology reports indicated the presence of a giant fibroadenoma were eligible for this study. Medical records were reviewed for presentation, treatment, and outcomes. A subset of patients completed an investigator-designed long-term outcome survey to measure additional outcomes and the desire or need for subsequent reconstructive surgery. Forty-six patients with at least one giant fibroadenoma (mean size 7.4 ± 2.8 cm) were identified. Most patients underwent excision with a periaroeolar incision (n = 31), and an enucleation technique (n = 41), and four patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction. Thirty-three patients had complete medical records with a mean follow-up time of 2.2 ± 4.1 years and no complaints of asymmetry, additional breast deformities, or reconstructive surgery procedures documented. In addition, nine patients completed the investigator-designed survey with a mean follow-up time of 10.1 ± 8.7 years (range 1.5-27.0). Three of these patients reported postoperative breast asymmetry and the desire to pursue reconstructive surgery. Aesthetic outcomes of giant fibroadenoma excision may be satisfactory for many patients without immediate reconstruction, but for others, the need for reconstructive surgery may arise during development. Providers should address this potential need prior to discussing treatment options and during postoperative follow-up. Caution should be exercised before recommending immediate reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott

    2013-08-15

    Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage. Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3). A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power. Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Defining a core outcome set for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleuver, Marinus; Faraj, Sayf S A; Holewijn, Roderick M; Germscheid, Niccole M; Adobor, Raphael D; Andersen, Mikkel; Tropp, Hans; Dahl, Benny; Keskinen, Heli; Olai, Anders; Polly, David W; van Hooff, Miranda L; Haanstra, Tsjitske M

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - Routine outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. National spine surgery registries have been initiated in 5 Nordic countries. However, there is no agreement on which outcomes are essential to measure for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) that will facilitate benchmarking within and between the 5 countries of the Nordic Spinal Deformity Society (NSDS) and other registries worldwide. Material and methods - From August 2015 to September 2016, 7 representatives (panelists) of the national spinal surgery registries from each of the NSDS countries participated in a modified Delphi study. With a systematic literature review as a basis and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework as guidance, 4 consensus rounds were held. Consensus was defined as agreement between at least 5 of the 7 representatives. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results - Consensus was reached on the inclusion of 13 core outcome domains: "satisfaction with overall outcome of surgery", "satisfaction with cosmetic result of surgery", "pain interference", physical functioning", "health-related quality of life", "recreation and leisure", "pulmonary fatigue", "change in deformity", "self-image", "pain intensity", "physical function", "complications", and "re-operation". Panelists agreed that the SRS-22r, EQ-5D, and a pulmonary fatigue questionnaire (yet to be developed) are the most appropriate set of patient-reported measurement instruments that cover these outcome domains. Interpretation - We have identified a COS for a large subgroup of spinal deformity patients for implementation and validation in the NSDS countries. This is the first study to further develop a COS in a global perspective.

  2. Household food insecurity and its association with morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Belachew, Tefera

    2018-01-13

    Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done from October to November, 2013. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires through interview of students and their caregivers. A total of 1000 students were selected by using simple random sampling methods using their rosters as a frame. Data were also checked for missing values and outliers, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between independent and dependent variables using odds ratios and 95% of confidence intervals. Results Adolescents from food insecure households had more reported illness (39.3%) than adolescents from food secure households (24.7%) (p insecure households were two times more exposed to morbidity [AOR = 2.04(1.32, 3.14)] than adolescents from food secure households. This study also showed that males had 48% less reported illness [AOR = 0.52(0.01, 0.23)] than females. Adolescents who had attended health education had less reported illness [AOR = 0.57(0.38, 0.86)] than those who did not ever attend. This study also showed that having a farmer [AOR = 0.46(0.28, 0.74)] and government employee [AOR = 0.33 (0.17, 0.64)] father were inversely associated with adolescent morbidity. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that household food insecurity, female gender and lack of attending health education had a significant contribution to adolescent morbidity. Therefore, there is a need

  3. A Rights-Based Sexuality Education Curriculum for Adolescents: 1-Year Outcomes From a Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Louise A; Berglas, Nancy F; Jerman, Petra; Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Chou, Chih-Ping; Constantine, Norman A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a rights-based sexuality education curriculum on adolescents' sexual health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes 1 year after participation. Within 10 urban high schools, ninth-grade classrooms were randomized to receive a rights-based curriculum or a basic sex education (control) curriculum. The intervention was delivered across two school years (2011-2012, 2012-2013). Surveys were completed by 1,447 students at pretest and 1-year follow-up. Multilevel analyses examined curriculum effects on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes, including four primary outcomes: pregnancy risk, sexually transmitted infection risk, multiple sexual partners, and use of sexual health services. Students receiving the rights-based curriculum had higher scores than control curriculum students on six of nine psychosocial outcomes, including sexual health knowledge, attitudes about relationship rights, partner communication, protection self-efficacy, access to health information, and awareness of sexual health services. These students also were more likely to report use of sexual health services (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.78) and more likely to be carrying a condom (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.80) relative to those receiving the control curriculum. No effects were found for other sexual health behaviors, possibly because of low prevalence of sexual activity in the sample. The curriculum had significant, positive effects on psychosocial and some behavioral outcomes 1 year later, but it might not be sufficient to change future sexual behaviors among younger adolescents, most of whom are not yet sexually active. Booster education sessions might be required throughout adolescence as youth initiate sexual relationships. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Sperm Banking in Adolescents Newly Diagnosed With Cancer: Examination of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Factors Influencing Fertility Preservation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Wang, Fang; Russell, Kathryn M; Zhang, Hui; Flynn, Jessica S; Huang, Lu; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Albritton, Karen H; Gupta, Abha A; Casillas, Jacqueline; Colte, Paul; Kutteh, William H; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer and to identify factors associated with banking outcomes. Patients and Methods A prospective, single-group, observational study design was used to test the contribution of sociodemographic, medical, psychological/health belief, communication, and developmental factors to fertility preservation outcomes. At-risk adolescent males (N = 146; age 13.00 to 21.99 years; Tanner stage ≥ 3), their parents, and medical providers from eight leading pediatric oncology centers across the United States and Canada completed self-report questionnaires within 1 week of treatment initiation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for specified banking outcomes (collection attempt v no attempt and successful completion of banking v no banking). Results Among adolescents (mean age, 16.49 years; standard deviation, 2.02 years), 53.4% (78 of 146) made a collection attempt, with 43.8% (64 of 146) successfully banking sperm (82.1% of attempters). The overall attempt model revealed adolescent consultation with a fertility specialist (OR, 29.96; 95% CI, 2.48 to 361.41; P = .007), parent recommendation to bank (OR, 12.30; 95% CI, 2.01 to 75.94; P = .007), and higher Tanner stage (OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 1.75 to 16.78; P = .003) were associated with an increased likelihood of a collection attempt. Adolescent history of masturbation (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.25 to 28.50; P = .025), banking self-efficacy (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.45; P = .012), and parent (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.46 to 14.73; P = .010) or medical team (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.43; P = .008) recommendation to bank were associated with increased likelihood of sperm banking completion. Conclusion Although findings suggest that banking is underutilized, modifiable adolescent, parent, and provider factors associated with banking outcomes were identified and should be targeted in future

  5. The developmental origin of adolescent alcohol use: findings from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, Rosa; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M; O'Callaghan, Michael; Bor, William; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Williams, Gail M

    2008-11-01

    It is unclear whether fetal alcohol exposure contributes to alcohol use in adolescence. In this study, we examine the association between maternal alcohol use in pregnancy and adolescents' drinking patterns at age 14. The association of maternal alcohol exposure with early drinking was examined in 4363 adolescents taking part to the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes, a population based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane (Australia) in 1981. Mothers and children were followed up at birth, 5 and 14 years after the initial interview. Maternal alcohol use was assessed before and during pregnancy and at the 5 years follow-up. Adolescents' alcohol use was assessed at child age 14. In multivariable analysis those born of mothers who consumed 3+ glasses during pregnancy were at increased risk to report drinking 3+ glasses compared with those whose mothers reported no drinking or drinking up to 2 glasses. Comparisons controlling for drinking before pregnancy and at age 5 found the averaged odds ratio of maternal drinking in pregnancy on risk of reporting alcohol consumption of 3 and more glasses at age 14 was 2.74 (CI 1.70, 4.22). Our study suggests that they maybe a biological origin of early drinking. Further studies are needed to better disentangle the nature of the association and the role of other possible confounding factors.

  6. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...

  7. Sport-specific fitness testing and intervention for an adolescent with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Sleeper, Mark D; Tovin, Melissa M

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a fitness-related intervention program that addressed the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. The participant in this case was a 16-year-old African American male with spastic diplegia. The participant joined his high school wrestling team and asked to focus his physical therapy on interventions that would improve his wrestling performance. An examination was performed using the muscle power sprint test, the 10 x 5-m sprint test, strength tests, the 10-m shuttle run test, and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The intervention consisted of interval training, which focused on the demands of wrestling. Scores on all tests and measures were higher after the intervention. The outcomes of this case report seem to support the use of a fitness-related intervention program for addressing the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy.

  8. Traumatic Events and Suicide-Related Outcomes among Mexico City Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…

  9. Systematic review of psychological and social outcomes of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery, and predictors of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B; Doyle, J; Colville, S; Nicholls, D; Viner, R M; Christie, D

    2015-12-01

    The psychological and social outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, together with psychological and social predictors of success, were systematically reviewed. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and PsychInfo were searched on July 2014. Existing data were sparse; 15 were suitable for qualitative review and six for meta-analysis (four quality of life [QOL], two depression). One study was a randomized controlled trial. A total of 139 subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 202 underwent adjustable gastric band and 64 underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Overall QOL improved after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgical type with peak improvement at 6-12 months. Meta-analysis of four studies showed changed in overall QOL at latest follow-up of 2.80 standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-4.37). Depression improved across all studies, regardless of procedure (effect size -0.47 SD [95% CI -0.76, -0.18] at 4-6 months). Two cohorts reported changes in both overall QOL and depression following a quadratic trajectory, with overall improvement over 2 years and deterioration in the second post-operative year. There were limited data on other psychological and social outcomes. There were insufficient data on psychosocial predictors of outcome to form evidence-based recommendations for patient selection for bariatric surgery at this time. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational Weight Gain and Perinatal Outcomes in Adolescent Mothers: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSween, Kayla; Whelan, Emily; Woolcott, Christy G

    2016-04-01

    Optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may differ for adolescents since they themselves may continue to grow throughout pregnancy. We examined the associations between GWG and perinatal outcomes among adolescents aged gestational age (SGA; gestational age (LGA; > 90th percentile), and delivery by Caesarean section. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models. Adolescent mothers with GWG above the recommendations (relative to mothers who gained within the recommendations) had higher odds of having an LGA neonate (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.62 to 2.99) and having a Caesarean section (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.64), but lower odds of having an SGA neonate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84). Adolescent mothers with low GWG had decreased odds of having an LGA neonate (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98) and increased odds of having an SGA neonate (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.30 to 2.27). Among adolescents, GWG was significantly associated with several perinatal outcomes. More research considering other outcomes is needed to determine the optimal GWG for adolescent women. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motivation and substance use outcomes among adolescents in a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Shipley, Leandra; Stewart, David G

    2016-02-01

    The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) have been well studied in adult populations. However, fewer studies have examined how the stages of change are related to adolescent substance use. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have examined how the stages of change relate to outcomes in a school-based intervention. To better capture adolescent motivation, we added an additional group to the Transtheoretical Model of Change, which we titled Coerced Action, to represent adolescents that made changes to their substance use despite low problem recognition (representing the internal motivation of Precontemplation and the change behaviors of the Action group). We then examined how the stages of change were related to a thorough assessment of substance use at baseline and corresponding treatment outcomes. Our sample consisted of 264 adolescents (mean age: 16.1, 44.5% Caucasian, 37.5% female) who participated in an 8-week, school-based Motivational Enhancement intervention. Results indicated significant group differences across the stages of change in substance use patterns (alcohol use, negative consequences, affective dysregulation), as well as treatment outcomes (alcohol use and negative consequences). For instance, adolescents in the Action group demonstrated more negative consequences at 16weeks follow-up than those in Precontemplation and Coerced Action, F(1, 3)=8.23, pmotivation among adolescent substance users within school-based settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlates of Adolescent-reported and Parent-reported Family Conflict Among Canadian Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Vanessa; Swampillai, Brenda; Hatch, Jessica; Scavone, Antonette; Collinger, Katelyn; Boulos, Carolyn; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-01-01

    Family conflict exacerbates the course of bipolar disorder (BP) among adults. However, few studies have examined family conflict among adolescents with BP, and fewer have looked at adolescent-reported and parent-reported family conflict separately. Subjects were 89 adolescents, aged 13 to 19 years, with a diagnosis of BP on the basis of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Subjects were divided into high-conflict and low-conflict groups using a median split on the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (child report and parent report). The χ(2) analyses and independent samples t tests were performed for univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on variables with Padolescent-reported Conflict Behavior Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated (r=0.50, Padolescent-reported family conflict was positively associated with recent manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation, and negatively associated with socioeconomic status and lifetime psychiatric hospitalization. Bipolar subtype was significantly associated with high versus low family conflict. The limitations of this study included being a cross-sectional study, use of a medium-sized sample, and lack of a control group. Despite substantial agreement between adolescents and parents regarding the amount of family conflict, there were meaningful differences in the factors associated with adolescent-reported and parent-reported conflict. These findings demonstrate the importance of ascertaining family conflict from adolescents as well as from parents. Moreover, these findings can potentially inform family therapy, which is known to be effective for adolescents with BP.

  14. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganchimeg, T; Ota, E; Morisaki, N; Laopaiboon, M; Lumbiganon, P; Zhang, J; Yamdamsuren, B; Temmerman, M; Say, L; Tunçalp, Ö; Vogel, J P; Souza, J P; Mori, R

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescents in 29 countries. Secondary analysis using facility-based cross-sectional data of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. Twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East. Women admitted for delivery in 359 health facilities during 2-4 months between 2010 and 2011. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between young maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. A total of 124 446 mothers aged ≤24 years and their infants were analysed. Compared with mothers aged 20-24 years, adolescent mothers aged 10-19 years had higher risks of eclampsia, puerperal endometritis, systemic infections, low birthweight, preterm delivery and severe neonatal conditions. The increased risk of intra-hospital early neonatal death among infants born to adolescent mothers was reduced and statistically insignificant after adjustment for gestational age and birthweight, in addition to maternal characteristics, mode of delivery and congenital malformation. The coverage of prophylactic uterotonics, prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean section and antenatal corticosteroids for preterm delivery at 26-34 weeks was significantly lower among adolescent mothers. Adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy prevention strategies and the improvement of healthcare interventions are crucial to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among adolescent women in low- and middle-income countries. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  15. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Unique Outcomes in the Narratives of Young Adults Who Experienced Dating Violence as Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Smith, Carolyn; Mazurczyk, Jill; Thomas, Destini; Ramirez, Patricia; McNealy, Kim; Thomas, Jade; Martsolf, Donna S

    2016-01-01

    Narrative therapy, an approach based on the reauthoring of life narratives, may be a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for youth who have experienced dating violence. A cornerstone of narrative therapy is the concept of unique outcomes, which are moments that stand in contrast to a client's otherwise problem-saturated narratives. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize unique outcomes embedded in narratives about adolescent dating violence. Text units representing unique outcomes were extracted from transcripts of interviews with 88 young adults who had experienced dating violence and were categorized using standard content analytic techniques. Six categories of unique outcome stories were identified: facing-facts stories, standing-up-for-myself stories, cutting-it-off stories, cutting-'em-loose stories, getting-back-on-track stories, and changing-it-up stories. This typology of unique outcomes can inform clinicians who work with clients who have a history of adolescent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  18. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  19. Characteristics and early outcomes of children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study found DRV/r-, RAL- and ETR-containing regimens to be effective in a group of treatment-experienced children and adolescents with multidrug-resistant HIV. Although the treatment regimens in this study were individualised based on HIV genotyping results, further research evaluating the safety and efficacy of ...

  20. Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, F.J.; Skinner, T.C.; Beaufort, C.E. de

    2008-01-01

    -parent disagreement on responsibility for diabetes care practices (F = 8.46; d.f. = 2; P gender or insulin treatment regimen......Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate...... a questionnaire. Family demographic factors that were associated with metabolic outcomes included: parents living together (t = 4.1; P 2; d.f. = 3; P diabetes care (r = 0.11; P

  1. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 ye...

  2. A Self-Report Measure of Assertiveness in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jane M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…

  3. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Cole

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation, possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome.Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years. Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents' Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points.In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up.This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness.

  4. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Engagement Within a Mobile Phone-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adolescents and its Association With Participant Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Castro, Raquel; Haug, Severin; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    Although mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation programs are a promising way to promote smoking cessation among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents might actually use them. The aim of this study was to determine adolescents' trajectories of engagement with a mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation program over time and the associations these trajectories have with baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes. We performed secondary data analysis on a dataset from a study that compared a mobile phone-delivered integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention with a smoking cessation only intervention for adolescents recruited in vocational and upper secondary school classes (N=1418). Throughout the 3-month intervention, participants in both intervention groups received one text message prompt per week that either assessed smoking-related target behaviors or encouraged participation in a quiz or a message contest. Sequence analyses were performed to identify engagement trajectories. Analyses were conducted to identify predictors of engagement trajectory and associations between engagement trajectories and treatment outcomes. Three engagement trajectories emerged: (1) stable engagement (646/1418, 45.56%), (2) decreasing engagement (501/1418, 35.33%), and (3) stable nonengagement (271/1418, 19.11%). Adolescents who were younger, had no immigrant background, perceived more benefits of quitting smoking, and reported binge drinking preceding the baseline assessment were more likely to exhibit stable engagement. Due to different reach of more engaged and less engaged participants at follow-up, three statistical models (complete-cases, last-observation-carried-forward, and multiple imputation) for the associations of engagement trajectory and smoking outcome were tested. For 7-point smoking abstinence, no association was revealed to be statistically significant over all three models. However, decreasing engagement with the program was associated

  6. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  7. Developmental cascade effects of the New Beginnings Program on adolescent adaptation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Darya Bonds; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-11-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9-12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid- to late adolescence (15-19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality that was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results were also consistent with a model in which the program increased maternal effective discipline that was related to decreased child externalizing problems, which was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use, and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development.

  8. Exploring socioeconomic disparities in self-reported oral health among adolescents in california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of

  9. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  10. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva; de Roos, Carlijn; van Wesel, Floryt; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS), including a parallel six-session parents' group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13-18 years). STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  11. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  12. Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to test a model of contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behaviors and of sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. Using Waves I and II from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimated a structural model in which intrapersonal factors such as adolescents' attitudes about sex, perceived parental norms, knowledge about sexual health, and birth-control self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of contextual factors such as parent-adolescent relationship quality, school connectedness, and exposure to AIDS and pregnancy education on a number of risky sexual behaviors and outcomes: early sex initiation, sex under the influence of substances, condom use at last intercourse, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Different patterns of direct and mediated effects emerged for each sexual outcome. Results are discussed in terms of the complex interplay between environment and individual and in terms of how, when, and with whom to intervene in order to improve adolescent sexual health outcomes.

  13. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  14. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Schneck-Seif, Stefanie; Weigand, Tobias; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ellgring, Heiner; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2008-07-23

    In the majority of cases short-term treatment outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder is rather favourable. In contrast, the long-term course seems to be less positive, but meaningful results are still fragmentary. The aim of this follow-up study is to bridge this gap to some extent describing the long-term outcome of juvenile dissociative disorder in a clinical sample. To our knowledge there is no comparable other long-term follow-up study which is based on a case definition according to actual classification systems using standardized interviews for individual assessment of the patients at the time of follow-up. The total study group was made up of all patients treated for dissociative disorder at our department for child and adolescent psychiatry between 1983 and 1992 (N = 62). Two of these former patients committed suicide during the follow-up period (3%). We got information on the clinical course of 27 former patients (44%). 17 out of these 27 former patients were female (63%). The mean age of onset of dissociative disorder was 11.7 years and the mean follow-up time was 12.4 years. Most of the patients were reassessed personally (n = 23) at a mean age of 24.8 years using structured interviews covering dissociative disorders, other Axis I disorders and personality disorders (Heidelberg Dissociation Inventory HDI; Expert System for Diagnosing Mental Disorders, DIA-X; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SCID-II). Social adjustment was assessed by a semi-structured interview and by patient self report (Social Adjustment Scale - Self Report, SAS-SR). Psychosocial outcome variables were additionally assessed in 36 healthy controls (67% female, mean age = 22.9 years). At the time of follow-up investigation 82.6% of the patients met the criteria for some form of psychiatric disorder, while 26.1% were still suffering from dissociative disorder. A total of 56.5% presented with an Axis I disorder (especially anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders

  15. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting Styles, Prosocial Behaviors, and Academic Outcomes in U.S. Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M. B.; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2018-01-01

    This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M[subscript age] = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades.…

  16. Sex reassignment: outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Y. L. S.; Van Goozen, Stephanie Helena Maria; Kuiper, A. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background. We prospectively studied outcomes of sex reassignment, potential differences between subgroups of transsexuals, and predictors of treatment course and outcome.\\ud \\ud Method. Altogether 325 consecutive adolescent and adult applicants for sex reassignment participated: 222 started hormone treatment, 103 did not; 188 completed and 34 dropped out of treatment. Only data of the 162 adults were used to evaluate treatment. Results between subgroups were compared to determine post-operat...

  17. Parent and Adolescent Agreement for Reports of Life Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we investigated the extent and nature of informant discrepancies on parent- and adolescent self-report versions of a checklist measuring youth exposure to life stressors. Specifically, we examined (a) mean-level differences, relative consistency, and consensus for family-level and youth-specific stressors and (b) the utility of parent-youth discrepancies in accounting for variance in youth temperament and psychopathology. Participants were 106 parent-child dyads (47 male, 59 female; 90.6% mothers) aged 13 to 18 years old ( M = 16.01, SD = 1.29). The results revealed evidence for both congruence and divergence in parent and youth reports, particularly with respect to respondents' accounts of youth-specific stressors. Discrepancies for youth-specific stressors were associated with adolescents' negative affectivity, surgency, effortful control, and internalizing problems. Discrepancies for youth stressors may therefore reveal individual differences in emotionality and self-regulation, thus reflecting meaningful variance in adolescents' functioning.

  18. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Outcome in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James

    2008-01-01

    The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.

  20. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  1. What Older Adolescents Expect from Physical Activity: Implicit Cognitions Regarding Health and Appearance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, K.; Berry, T. R.; McHugh, T. F.; Rodgers, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adolescents' reflective and impulsive thoughts about health- and social/appearance-related physical activity (PA) outcomes and investigate how those thoughts relate to their PA behavior. Participants: One hundred and forty-four undergraduate students (109 women; 35 men) aged 17-19 years (M = 18.11, SD = 0.65)…

  2. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Violence, Parenting Styles, and Developmental Outcomes among Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…

  4. Trends in pregnancy outcomes in Malawian adolescents receiving antimalarial and hematinic supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msyamboza, Kelias; Savage, Emma; Kalanda, Gertrude; Kazembe, Peter; Gies, Sabine; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To describe pregnancy outcomes of adolescent and adult primigravidae receiving antimalarials and hematinic supplementation and compare findings with a survey in this area a decade earlier. Design. Cross-sectional surveys in intervention and control sites. Setting. Community, antenatal and

  5. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low

  6. Detained Adolescent Females' Multiple Mental Health and Adjustment Problem Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…

  7. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  8. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  9. The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury during Adolescence on Career Plans and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Tammy; Hyde, Nellemarie; Colantonio, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often occurs during the years when individuals are aiming for vocational goals and acquiring skills needed to achieve vocational success. This exploratory study aimed to describe the perceived long-term impact on career outcomes for individuals who were hospitalized with a TBI during adolescence. This study used a…

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese children and adolescents, treatment methods and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Holm, Jens-Christian; Homøe, Preben

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and discuss the outcome of treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: In February 2016 Pub Med was searched using a predetermined string to retrieve all relevant articles. The search identified 518 publications. In total...... 10 and 38%. Positive airway pressure was effective for treating OSA, but the mean nightly use was needed...

  11. Bullying development across adolescence, its antecedents, outcomes, and gender-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Deković, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2017-08-01

    In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation in the outcomes, with a number of studies (but not all) showing increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. We used a developmental framework and data from 2,230 participants of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) to examine bullying perpetration across adolescence, to test the links with various antecedents in preadolescence, and to elucidate the outcomes in early adulthood. Latent growth models indicated significant variance in initial bullying perpetration levels and an overall decrease between pre- and late adolescence. Individual, family, and peer factors were associated with initial levels and partially associated with bullying development over time. Bullying perpetration was linked to later maladjustment and substance use, although only in girls. Finally, bullying perpetration appears to function as an intermediate variable between preadolescent individual, family, and peer risk and substance use more than 10 years later. These results have important implications for understanding the gender-specific nature of bullying perpetration and its outcomes and for demonstrating that bullying carries early risk into adulthood.

  12. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  13. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  14. Bullying development across adolescence, its antecedents, outcomes, and gender-specific patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Dekovíc, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation

  15. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  16. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.

  17. Reports of adolescent emotion regulation and school engagement mediating the relation between parenting and adolescent functioning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V; Ward, Rose M; Raval, Pratiksha H; Trivedi, Shwetang S

    2017-02-07

    Much like other parts of Asia, late adolescence in India is a particularly stressful time with academic pressures of a highly competitive examination system that determines future occupational success. The present study examined interrelations among reports of parenting, adolescents' regulation of academics-related emotions, school engagement, adolescent socio-emotional functioning and state-exam performance. Four hundred and fifty 10th and 12th graders from suburban high schools in India participated, along with their mothers. At the beginning of the school year, mothers completed measures of parenting, and adolescents completed measures of emotion regulation, school engagement and behaviour problems. At the end of the school year, grades from state exams were obtained from the schools. A multiple mediator model was tested using structural equation modelling. Authoritarian parenting was positively related to adolescent behaviour problems, but not adolescent state-exam performance. Maternal non-supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion were indirectly positively related to adolescent behaviour problems through adolescent emotion dysregulation. Adolescent school engagement mediated the positive relation between maternal supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion and adolescent state-exam performance. These findings underscore the relevance of adolescent emotions for their academic functioning, with implications for the development of interventions for those who struggle during these highly stressful years. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Functional outcomes of childhood dorsal rhizotomy in adults and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Edward A; Marciniak, Christina M; Daunter, Alecia K; Haapala, Heidi J; Stibb, Stacy M; McCormick, Sarah F; Muraszko, Karin M; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    In this descriptive study the authors evaluated medical outcomes, interventions, satisfaction with life, and subjective impressions about selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in older adolescents and adults who had undergone the procedure as children. A survey was administered to older adolescents (16-20 years old) and adults with CP who had undergone SDR between 1986 and 2000 at two academic centers. The patients or their caregivers participated in telephone or clinic interviews. Subjective impressions about the SDR and a history of post-SDR medical interventions were obtained. Current functional status, history and ratings of pain, educational achievement, living situation, and subjective health status were also recorded. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was administered. Eighty-eight participants, mean age 25.6 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation), were interviewed at a mean of 19.6 ± 3.0 years after surgery. The distribution of current reported Gross Motor Function Classification System levels was as follows: I, 7%; II, 18%; III, 23%; IV, 36%; and V, 16%. Moreover, 56% of respondents were living with parents and 25% were living alone. Thirty-five percent were employed, and 39% were still in school. The mean overall SWLS score was 26.0 ± 7.3, indicating a high level of satisfaction with life. According to 65% of the patients, the SDR was helpful; 31% were uncertain about the procedure's efficacy. Sixty-five percent would recommend the procedure to others. Fifty-eight percent reported excellent to very good health. Forty-four percent reported pain in the past week. Fifty-one percent reported chronic back pain in general. Logistic regression analysis suggested that an increased satisfaction with life was a predictor (p = 0.01) of an affirmative response to the question about recommending the procedure to others and that better overall health showed a trend toward being such a predictor (p = 0.08). Additional interventions were frequently performed

  19. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  20. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  1. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  2. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. An Examination of Incentive Strategies to Increase Participation in Outcomes Research for an Adolescent Inpatient Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Carolyn; Madan, Alok; Long, Tessa A; Sharp, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Tracking adolescent outcomes after inpatient hospitalization is important in informing clinical care for this age group, as inpatient care is one of the most expensive treatment modalities. This study examined 4 incentive strategies used to maintain adolescent participation in follow-up research (at 6, 12, and 18 mo) after their discharge from the hospital (N=267). A generalized estimation equation approach was taken to investigate whether different incentive strategies predicted adolescent completion of the follow-up assessments at each time point. Findings demonstrate that implementation of social worker contact significantly differed from other incentive strategies in increasing adolescent completion of follow-up assessments (Z=2.51, P=0.012) over the 3 time points, even when controlling for age and sex. Although these findings ultimately need to be confirmed through a randomized controlled study of incentive strategies, they provide preliminary support for the notion that relational incentives, such as maintaining contact with a member of the clinical team at the hospital, may be particularly important in promoting adolescent participation in outcomes research.

  4. Anterior or posterior surgery for right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)? A prospective cohorts' comparison using radiologic and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul R P; Grevitt, Michael P; Sell, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Prospective cohort study. Prospectively compare patient-reported as well as clinical and radiologic outcomes after anterior or posterior surgery for right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in a single center by the same surgeons. Anterior and posterior spinal instrumentation and arthrodesis are both well-established treatments of thoracic AIS. The majority of studies comparing the 2 approaches have focused on radiographic outcomes. There remains a paucity of prospectively gathered patient-reported outcomes comparing surgical approaches. Forty-two consecutive patients with right thoracic AIS were treated in a single center by one of 2 surgeons with either anterior (n=18) or posterior (n=24) approaches and followed up for over 2 years. Radiographic, clinical, and patient-reported outcomes of the Modified Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument were gathered and analyzed by an independent surgeon. Patients reported significant improvements in all areas of the Modified Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument, especially pain and self-image domains. There were no significant differences in the degree of improvement in any domains between the groups. Posterior and anterior surgery corrected rib hump by 53% and 61%, respectively (P=0.4). The Main thoracic curve Cobb angle was corrected from 69 to 26 degrees (62%) by posterior surgery and 61 to 23 degrees (64%) by anterior surgery (P=0.6). Posterior surgery significantly reduced kyphosis and lumbosacral lordosis. Anterior surgery had no overall affect of sagittal alignment but seemed able to correct those hypokyphotic preoperatively. Complications differed and were largely approach-related--intrathoracic in anterior and wound-related in posterior surgery. Patients with right thoracic AIS of differing curve types but otherwise similar preoperatively demonstrated that anterior and posterior surgery are largely equivalent. Patient-reported outcomes are improved similarly by either approach. Both offer

  5. Distinct patterns of outcome valuation and amygdala-prefrontal cortex synaptic remodeling in adolescence and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStolyarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R, dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R, and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward choices in adolescents, but not in adult animals. Increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in adolescents may index increased structural plasticity and represent a neural correlate of a reward sensitive endophenotype.

  6. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  7. Province-level income inequality and health outcomes in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-03-01

    To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Participants (aged 12-17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Adolescent and parent motivation for change affects psychotherapy outcomes among youth with poorly controlled diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Deborah A; Berio, Heidi; Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Investigate effect of baseline motivation for change on treatment fidelity, therapeutic alliance, treatment dose, and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of family therapy for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Seventy-four adolescents and caregivers completed measures of motivation for change. Measures of fidelity, alliance, dose, and youth health status were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of motivation on treatment outcomes. Parent motivation was significantly related to alliance and fidelity. Only alliance was significantly related to posttreatment metabolic control. In adolescent models, only motivation was significantly related to alliance. In both models, motivation had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through alliance. Findings demonstrate the importance of parent and youth initial motivational status and treatment alliance to treatment outcome among youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Additional research on treatment techniques that promote motivation for change is needed.

  9. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  10. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  11. Adverse outcomes of poor micronutrient status in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fernando E; Gonzalez, Horacio

    2002-05-01

    The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies and excesses in children up to reproductive age are presented. A summary of risks and adverse functional and health outcomes associated with deficient and excessive intakes and nutrition status of iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D, folate, vitamin B12, and riboflavin is presented. Nutrient-nutrient interactions of micronutrients, age, gender, and other host and environmental conditions, such as pregnancy, genetic conditions, overall nutrition, force of infection, and social conditions are considered as covariates in trying to define causation and outcomes due to specific micronutrients. The outcomes analyzed focus on growth and development, mental and neuromotor performance, immunocompetence, physical working capacity, morbidity, and in the case of pregnancy, overall reproductive performance. The results presented include responses to specific and multiple "experimental" interventions. A brief analysis of possible public health programs is presented, with emphasis on prevention.

  12. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF). EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis) and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion). Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the plastic nature of

  13. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean Poon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF. EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion. Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the

  14. [WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS WITH A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ABUSE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of violence in childhood and adolescence and the impact on educational outcomes: evidence from the 2013 Peruvian national survey on social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Deborah; Anderson, Jeanine; Hidalgo, Rainaldo J T; Elizalde, Aldo; Casey, Tabitha; Rodriguez, Rosario; Martin, Amanda; Oroz, Carmen; Gamarra, Jhon; Padilla, Karina; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    This study provides, for the first time, national population-based estimates describing violence during childhood and adolescence in Peru and the impact on educational outcomes. A population-based school survey was conducted among children aged 9-11 (n=1587) and adolescents aged 12-17 (n=1489). The relationship between violence and educational outcomes were analysed using bivariate logistic regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors. The results show that psychological (75.6%) and physical violence (72.5%) at home were the most prevalent forms of violence experienced by adolescent girls. Adolescent boys reported experiencing similar levels of psychological violence from their peers (69.4%) and at home (68.1%). For the younger cohort, peer-to-peer psychological violence was reported more frequently among girls (70.6%) and boys (74.0%) than other forms of violence. Equal percentages of adolescent girls and boys reported experiencing sexual violence in their lifetime (42.0%). The relationship between violence experiences and educational outcomes varied by gender with strong associations between violence at home and failing a course or repeating a grade for girls and being expelled for boys. Sexual violence experienced by boys was associated with all negative educational outcomes. The relationship between violence in childhood and poorer educational outcomes is multi-faceted, potentially bi-directional, and manifests differently between genders. This research highlights the need for targeted research, policy and programming responses for prevention of violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment in Adolescents: Examining Psychometrics Using Self-Report and Actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Alyson E; Lin-Dyken, Deborah C; Han, Joan C

    The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has self-reported health measures available for both pediatric and adult populations, but no pediatric measures are available currently in the sleep domains. The purpose of this observational study was to perform preliminary validation studies on age-appropriate, self-reported sleep measures in healthy adolescents. This study examined 25 healthy adolescents' self-reported daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep patterns. Healthy adolescents completed a physical exam at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD), had no chronic medical conditions, and were not taking any chronic medications. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (v. 1.0; 8a), and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment (v. 1.0; 8b) questionnaires were completed, and sleep patterns were assessed using actigraphy. Total scores on the three sleep questionnaires were correlated (all Spearman's r > .70, p psychometrically sound sleep questionnaires. Findings suggest the potential research and clinical utility of adult versions of PROMIS sleep measures in adolescents. Future studies should include larger, more diverse samples and explore additional psychometric properties of PROMIS sleep measures to provide age-appropriate, validated, and reliable measures of sleep in adolescents.

  17. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  18. Goal Internalization and Outcome Expectancy in Adolescent Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety has been conceptualized in terms of increased avoidance motivation and higher expectancies of undesirable outcomes. However, anxiety research has hitherto not examined an important qualitative aspect of motivation: the degree to which reasons for goal pursuit are experienced as controlling and originating outside the core self. We asked 70…

  19. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear…

  20. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  1. Outcomes and Return to Sport After Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Michael; Pearce, Stephanie; Shung, Joseph; Zondervan, Robert; Ostrander, Roger; Andrews, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of adolescent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is rising with increased participation in higher level athletics at earlier ages. With an increasing number of primary ACL reconstructions (ACLRs) comes a rise in the incidence of revision ACLRs. Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of revision ACLR across a group of high-level adolescent athletes with at least 2-year follow-up. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of 21 adolescent athletes (age range, 10-19 years) who underwent revision ACLR with at least 2-year follow-up was conducted. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity level scale, and modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Return to sport (RTS) and overall patient satisfaction were also assessed. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 16.5 years (range, 14-19 years), and the mean follow-up was 46.4 months (range, 24-97 months); 42.9% of patients were female, and 52.4% of patients participated in collision sports. The mean time to failure after primary ACLR was 13.1 ± 8.0 months, and the most common mechanism of failure was noncontact in at least 66.7% of cases. The revision graft type included bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) in 71.4% of cases; 26.7% of BPTB grafts were from the contralateral extremity. Concomitant procedures were performed for intra-articular lesions in 71.4% of patients. The mean patient satisfaction rate was 95.3%. There were 3 cases of a graft reinjury at a mean of 25 months postoperatively. The mean PROM scores were as follows: IKDC, 87.5 ± 12.7; Tegner, 7.2 ± 2.0; Lysholm, 93.7 ± 9.8; and Cincinnati, 93.4 ± 10.0. Of those attempting to RTS, 68.4% of patients successfully returned at the same level of competition. Patients with a lateral compartment chondral injury were less likely to RTS (P < .05

  2. The Relationships Between Female Adolescents' Media Use, Indoor Tanning Outcome Expectations, and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E

    2017-06-01

    Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. A survey of adolescent females ( N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.

  3. Outcomes of an inpatient medical nutritional rehabilitation protocol in children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Rebecka; Lesser, Andrew; Park, Courtney Cheek; Heckert, Kerri; Timko, C Alix; Lantzouni, Eleni; Liebman, Ronald; Weaver, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Medical stabilization through inpatient nutritional rehabilitation is often necessary for patients with eating disorders (EDs) but includes the inherent risk of refeeding syndrome. Here we describe our experience of implementing and sustaining an inpatient nutritional rehabilitation protocol designed to strategically prepare patients with EDs and their families for discharge to a home setting in an efficient and effective manner from a general adolescent medicine unit. We report outcomes at admission, discharge, and 4-weeks follow-up. Protocol development, implementation, and unique features of the protocol, are described. Data were collected retrospectively as part of a continuous quality improvement (QI) initiative. Safety outcomes were the clinical need for phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium supplementation, other evidence of refeeding syndrome, and unexpected readmissions within one month of discharge. The value outcome was length of stay (LOS). Treatment outcomes were the percentage median BMI (MBMI) change from admission to discharge, and from discharge to 4-weeks follow-up visit. A total of 215 patients (88% F, 12% M) were included. Patients averaged 15.3 years old (5.8-23.2y); 64% had AN, 18% had atypical anorexia (AtAN), 6% bulimia nervosa (BN), 5% purging disorder (PD), 4% avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), and 3% had an unspecified food and eating disorder (UFED). Average LOS was 11 days. Initial mean calorie level for patients at admission was 1466 and at discharge 3800 kcals/day. Phosphorus supplementation for refeeding hypophosphatemia (RH) was needed in 14% of inpatients; full-threshold refeeding syndrome did not occur. Only 3.8% were rehospitalized in the thirty days after discharge. Patients averaged 86.1% of a median MBMI for age and gender, 91.4% MBMI at discharge, and 100.9% MBMI at 4-weeks follow-up. Mean percentage MBMI differences between time points were significantly different (admission-discharge: 5.3%, p  <0

  4. Dating Violence: Outcomes Following a Brief Motivational Interviewing Intervention Among At-risk Adolescents in an Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Shope, Jean T.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Methods Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Results Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. PMID:23758302

  5. Dating violence: outcomes following a brief motivational interviewing intervention among at-risk adolescents in an urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M; Whiteside, Lauren K; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Shope, Jean T; Bingham, C Raymond; Blow, Frederic C; Walton, Maureen A

    2013-06-01

    A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p violence, alcohol use, and dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Gendered Harassment Perpetration and Victimization on Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Sarah J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Bub, Kristen L

    2017-08-01

    Gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and homophobic name-calling, is prevalent in adolescents and is linked to negative outcomes including depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance abuse, and personal distress. However, much of the extant literature is cross-sectional and rarely are perpetrators of these behaviors included in studies of outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of longitudinal changes in gendered harassment perpetration and victimization on changes in mental health outcomes among a large sample of early adolescents. Given that these behaviors commonly occur in the context of a patriarchal society (males hold power), we also investigated the impact of gender on gendered harassment. Participants included 3,549 students from four Midwestern middle schools (50.4% female, 49% African American, 34% White) at two time points (13 and 17 years old). Results indicated that increases from age 13 to 17 years in sexual harassment perpetration and victimization and homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization predicted increases in depression symptoms and substance use. Gender did not moderate these pathways. These findings highlight that negative outcomes are associated with changes in gendered harassment among adolescents and emphasize the importance of prevention efforts. Implications for school interventions are discussed.

  9. Exit examinations, peer academic climate, and adolescents' developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D

    2013-02-01

    Implications of high school exit examination performance were examined with a sample of 672 racial/ethnic minority students. Exit examination failure in the 10th grade was negatively linked to subsequent grade point average, school engagement, and school belonging one year later, controlling for outcomes prior to taking the examination. Academically incongruent students-those who failed the exit examination but were in schools where their same-race/ethnicity peers were performing well academically-seemed to be at particular risk for struggling grades and poorer socioemotional well-being (e.g., experiencing greater depressive symptoms and loneliness). Findings contribute to the limited research base on exit examinations and highlight the links between exit examination performance and developmental outcomes beyond the oft-studied academic domain. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of family-planning service quality reported by adolescents and young adult women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Lozano, Rafael; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Associations between age and patient-reported quality of family planning services were examined among young women in Mexico. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2006, 2009, and 2014 was performed. Data from women aged 15-29years who had not undergone sterilization and were currently using a modern contraceptive method were included. The primary outcome was high-quality care, defined as positive responses to all five quality items regarding contraceptive services included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and marginal probabilities were used to compare adolescents and women aged 20-29years. The responses of respondents using different contraceptive methods were compared. Data were included from 15 835 individuals. The multivariable analysis demonstrated lower odds of reporting high-quality care among women aged 15-19years (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) and 20-24years (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96) compared with women aged 25-29years. Adolescents using hormonal and long-acting reversible contraception had significantly lower odds of reporting high-quality care compared with women aged 25-29. Adolescents in Mexico reported a lower quality of family planning services compared with young adult women. Continued research and policies are needed to improve the quality of contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshuah M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often experience a host of negative academic outcomes and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (grades 6–8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student GPA and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and ODD symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. PMID:26783650

  12. Defining a core outcome set for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kleuver, Marinus; Faraj, Sayf S A; Holewijn, Roderick M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - Routine outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. National spine surgery registries have been initiated in 5 Nordic countries. However, there is no agreement on which outcomes are essential to measure for adolescent and young...... adult patients with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) that will facilitate benchmarking within and between the 5 countries of the Nordic Spinal Deformity Society (NSDS) and other registries worldwide. Material and methods - From August 2015 to September...... consensus rounds were held. Consensus was defined as agreement between at least 5 of the 7 representatives. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results - Consensus was reached on the inclusion of 13 core outcome domains: "satisfaction with overall outcome of surgery", "satisfaction...

  13. Depressive symptoms, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations: Predict fitness among adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather; Heenan, Adam; Sweet, Shane; Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Sigal, Ronald J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test if outcome expectancy mediated the relationship between fitness and self-efficacy, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.Adolescents with obesity ( n = 228) completed measures of perceived stress and depressive symptoms at baseline, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy at baseline and 3 months, and fitness at baseline and 6 months. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that self-efficacy was positively associated with fitness via outcome expectancies. For females, fewer depressive symptoms were linked to fitness via self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. Exercise interventions that enhance exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and reduce depressive symptoms may increase fitness.

  14. Process and Outcome Evaluation of a Community Intervention for Orphan Adolescents in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise D.; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Itindi, Janet

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year pilot randomized controlled trial (N = 105) in a high HIV-prevalence area in rural western Kenya to test whether providing young orphan adolescents with uniforms, school fees, and community visitors improves school retention and reduces HIV risk factors. The trial was a community intervention, limited to one community. In this paper, we examined intervention implementation and its association with outcomes using longitudinal data. We used both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the community-based model for orphan HIV prevention, with recommendations for future studies. Despite promising effects after 1 year, GEE analyses showed null effects after 2 years. Volunteer community visitors, a key element of the intervention, showed little of the expected effect although qualitative reports documented active assistance to prevent orphans' school absence. For future research, we recommend capturing the transition to high school, a larger sample size, and biomarker data to add strength to the research design. We also recommend a school-based intervention approach to improve implementation and reduce infrastructure costs. Finally, we recommend evaluating nurses as agents for improving school attendance and preventing dropout because of their unique ability to address critical biopsychosocial problems. PMID:22350730

  15. Process and outcome evaluation of a community intervention for orphan adolescents in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise D; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Itindi, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a 2-year pilot randomized controlled trial (N = 105) in a high HIV-prevalence area in rural western Kenya to test whether providing young orphan adolescents with uniforms, school fees, and community visitors improves school retention and reduces HIV risk factors. The trial was a community intervention, limited to one community. In this paper, we examined intervention implementation and its association with outcomes using longitudinal data. We used both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the community-based model for orphan HIV prevention, with recommendations for future studies. Despite promising effects after 1 year, GEE analyses showed null effects after 2 years. Volunteer community visitors, a key element of the intervention, showed little of the expected effect although qualitative reports documented active assistance to prevent orphans' school absence. For future research, we recommend capturing the transition to high school, a larger sample size, and biomarker data to add strength to the research design. We also recommend a school-based intervention approach to improve implementation and reduce infrastructure costs. Finally, we recommend evaluating nurses as agents for improving school attendance and preventing dropout because of their unique ability to address critical biopsychosocial problems.

  16. Young adult outcomes of children growing up with chronic illness: an analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Haydon, Abigail A; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-03-01

    To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults growing up with a chronic illness. Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from wave III (in 2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. United States. The analytic sample comprised 13 236 young adults aged 18 to 28 years at wave III. Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with asthma or nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) were compared with individuals without these conditions. Self-report of high school graduation, ever having employment, currently having employment, living with a parent/guardian, and ever receiving public assistance. Three percent of young adults had nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy), and 16.0% had asthma. Most young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81.3%) and currently had employment (60.4%). However, compared with healthy young adults, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have had employment, or currently have employment and were more likely to receive public assistance. Compared with young adults with asthma, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Most young adults growing up with a chronic illness graduate high school and have employment. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones.

  17. Reproductive health outcomes of insured adolescent and adult women who access oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W; Goler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    To assess the level of risk for adolescents and women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and women aged 15-44 years who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531 (67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127 (56.6%) adolescents and women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264 (10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for adolescents and women who accessed it through the call center-1,569 (10.8%) and office visits-695 (10.1%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056 (9.6%) adolescents and women became pregnant. Adolescents and women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however, they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.60). Among adolescents and women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689 (7.8%) and 928 (7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Protocols to routinely address unmet needs for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits, including visits with primary care providers, should be investigated.

  18. Smart Device Use and Perceived Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes among Hong Kong Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wai Hang Kwok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive electronic screen-based activities have been found to be associated with negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalences and patterns of smart device activities and the purposes and perceived outcomes related to smart device use, and the differences in patterns of smart device activities between adolescents who did and did not perceive these outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong primary and secondary school students. Demographic characteristics, purpose and pattern of the activities, and frequencies of the outcomes were measured. Data from 960 adolescents aged 10–19 were analyzed. Nearly 86% of the sample use smart device daily. The one-week prevalence of perceived sleep deprivation, eye discomfort, musculoskeletal discomfort, family conflict and cyberbullying victimization related to smart device use were nearly 50%, 45%, 40%, 20% and 5% respectively. More than 25% of the respondents were at risk of negative outcomes related to smart device activities for more than 1 h per day, browsing and gaming on at least 4 days per week and watching TV/movies and posting on more than 2 days per week. Their patterns of smart device activities may put a significant number of them at risk of negative outcomes.

  19. Quality of rearing practices as predictor of short-term outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J; Toro, J; Cruz, M

    2000-01-01

    Studies of family relationships in anorexia nervosa have produced conflicting results. Some authors claim that family factors are related to short-term outcomes. Perceived rearing practices, as measured by the EMBU (Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran: 'My memories of Upbringing') were examined in a sample (N = 158) of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and compared with the perceptions of adolescents (N = 159) from the general population. A further comparison was made between the groups of patients with good and bad short-term outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of different variables on short-term outcome. Overall, small differences were observed in the perceptions of rearing practices as expressed by the controls and the anorexic patients. Patients with bad short-term outcome perceived more rejection and control-overprotection from both parents than those with good outcome. In the logistic regression analysis only Rejection from father and the EAT (Eating Attitudes Test) total score gave independent prediction of treatment response. Taken as a whole, these results do not support the idea of altered rearing practices in anorexic patients, at least in young patients with a short evolution of the disease. Perceived rearing practices, especially 'rejection', appear to have an appreciable effect on the short-term outcome.

  20. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  1. Ecologically Based Family Therapy Outcome with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, N.; Prestopnik, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Runaway youth report a broader range and higher severity of substance-related, mental health and family problems relative to non-runaway youth. Most studies to date have collected self-report data on the family and social history; virtually no research has examined treatment effectiveness with this population. This study is a treatment development…

  2. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (hemoglobin concentration below 7 g/dL was observed in 5% of

  3. Is Cannabis Use Associated With the Worst Inpatient Outcomes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikinkumar S; Patel, Priya; Shah, Kaushal; Kaur, Mandeep; Mansuri, Zeeshan; Makani, Ramkrishna

    2018-01-07

    Objective To determine the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) on the inpatient outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents Background Previous studies have evaluated the impact of CUD on the health-related quality of life in ADHD patients. Methods We used the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from years 2010--2014. We identified ADHD and cannabis use (CU) as the primary and the other diagnosis, respectively, using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-9--CM) codes. We used the binomial logistic regression model to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Results We analyzed a total of 11,232 ADHD adolescent hospital admissions from years 2010-2014; of these, 1.79% had CUD. The mean age of adolescents was 14.1 years (SD = 1.79). The prevalence of CUD was highest in ADHD adolescents of 15-18 years (73%) and common in the white race (71%). A higher proportion of ADHD with CUD was transferred to acute care hospitals and skilled/other nursing facilities (5.4% and 7.4% vs. 1.1% and 2.6%, respectively, p-value $12,247 (median) by 0.6 times (aOR = 1.835; p-value = 0.002) and increases the risk of inpatient stay > 5 days (median) by 0.7 times (aOR = 2.099; p-value ADHD with CUD adolescents by 0.8 times (aOR = 0.448; p-value = 0.017), and the implication of behavioral therapy in the management of ADHD with CUD adolescents was reduced by 0.9 times (aOR = 0.412; p-value = 0.048). Also, there is a 2.8 times higher risk of comorbid alcohol abuse in ADHD with CUD adolescents (aOR = 17.141; p-value ADHD in adolescents. It has been determined that comorbid CUD in patients with ADHD not only increases the risk of acute inpatient care but also prolongs the inpatient stay, thus increasing the healthcare cost. Surprisingly, comorbid CUD decreases the utilization of psychotropic medications and behavioral therapy in ADHD. Another major

  4. The Role of Transport Use in Adolescent Wilderness Treatment: Its Relationship to Readiness to Change and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Anita R.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Norton, Christine L.; Comart, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective: This study of 350 adolescents in…

  5. Trochleoplasty as a Solitary Treatment for Recurrent Patellar Dislocation Results in Good Clinical Outcome in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camathias, Carlo; Studer, Katrin; Kiapour, Ata; Rutz, Erich; Vavken, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    The essential static patellar stabilizer is a normal-shaped trochlear groove. A dysplastic groove destabilizes the patella. Trochleoplasty approaches this underlying condition and reshapes the trochlea. However, studies have reported on trochleoplasty for revision cases or as accompanied by other interventions. The effect of trochleoplasty alone remains unexplained. To introduce trochleoplasty as a stand-alone treatment for recurrent patellar dislocation and to compare its pre- to postoperative functional and clinical variables. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A trochleoplasty was performed in 50 knees (27 right) in 44 patients (30 females; mean ± SD age, 15.6 ± 2.0 years). The indication for surgery was recurrent patellar dislocation not responding to nonoperative treatment (>6 months), with types B through D dysplasia and closed or closing physes in adolescents aged 10 to 20 years. Assessment included J-sign and apprehension test, Kujala and Lysholm scores, patients' subjective assessment and activity level according to the International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire, and patients' overall satisfaction. The Caton-Deschamps ratio and the lateral condyle index were measured. Pre- versus postoperative values were compared with a paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The minimum follow-up was 24 months (33 ± 10.6 months). The Kujala score improved from 71 preoperatively to 92 postoperatively (P debridement. In this study, trochleoplasty as a solitary treatment for recurrent patellofemoral dislocations in patients with trochlear dysplasia resulted in good clinical outcomes if severe torsional and axial malalignment was excluded. Kujala and Lysholm scores increased postoperatively, as well as subjective International Knee Documentation Committee assessment of outcomes, activity level, and overall satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J; Robertson, Mary M; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-07-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence.

  7. Hemispheric surgery for refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents: outcome regarding seizures, motor skills and adaptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ana Paula; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Centeno, Ricardo; Costa, Livia Vianez; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Junior, Henrique Carrete; Gomez, Nicolas Garofalo; Marinho, Murilo; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to report the seizure outcome, motor skills and adaptive motor functions in a series of children and adolescents who underwent hemispheric surgery, analysing the risk-benefits of surgery. The clinical course, seizure and motor function outcomes of 15 patients who underwent hemispheric surgery were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 9.5, with 1-9 years follow-up. The underlying pathologies were Rasmussen encephalitis, vascular disorders, and hemimegalencephaly. All the patients presented with severe epilepsy and different degrees of hemiparesis, although motor functionality was preserved in 80% of the patients. At last follow-up, 67% were seizure free, and 20% rarely experienced seizures. Antiepileptic drugs were reduced in 60%, and complete withdrawal from such drugs was successful in 20% of the patients. The motor outcome following the surgery varied between the patients. Despite the motor deficit after surgery, the post-operative motor function showed unchanged for gross motor function in most (60%), while 27% improved. Similar results were obtained for the ability to handle objects in daily life activities. Sixty percent of the children were capable of handling objects, with somewhat reduced coordination and/or motor speed. Pre-surgical motor function continues to play a role in the pre-surgical evaluation process in order to provide a baseline for outcome. Hemispheric surgery, once regarded as a radical intervention and last treatment resource, may become routinely indicated for refractory hemispheric epilepsy in children and adolescents, with oftentime favourable motor outcomes. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; de la Cruz, Lorena Fernández; Monzani, Benedetta; Bowyer, Laura; Anson, Martin; Cadman, Jacinda; Heyman, Isobel; Turner, Cynthia; Veale, David; Mataix-Cols, David

    2017-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in the short term, but longer-term outcomes remain unknown. The current study aimed to follow up a group of adolescents who had originally participated in a randomized controlled trial of CBT for BDD to determine whether treatment gains were maintained. Twenty-six adolescents (mean age = 16.2, SD = 1.6) with a primary diagnosis of BDD received a course of developmentally tailored CBT and were followed up over 12 months. Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Secondary outcomes included measures of insight, depression, quality of life, and global functioning. BDD symptoms decreased significantly from pre- to posttreatment and remained stable over the 12-month follow-up. At this time point, 50% of participants were classified as responders and 23% as remitters. Participants remained significantly improved on all secondary outcomes at 12-month follow-up. Neither baseline insight nor baseline depression predicted long-term outcomes. The positive effects of CBT appear to be durable up to 12-month follow-up. However, the majority of patients remained symptomatic and vulnerable to a range of risks at 12-month follow-up, indicating that longer-term monitoring is advisable in this population. Future research should focus on enhancing the efficacy of CBT in order to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  11. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  12. Outcome discrepancies and selective reporting: impacting the leading journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem.

  13. Rationale for Using Social Media to Collect Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kt; Harris, Merissa; Khavari, Nasim; Khosla, Chaitan

    2014-02-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are increasingly interconnected through social media, exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management. Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use.

  14. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, William James

    1979-01-01

    The study is an examination of the relationship between adolescents' self-reported and peer-reported self-esteem and how this relationship is affected by sex, race, and age variables. Significant sex and race variations interacted with age. Explanatory hypotheses for these findings are given. (Author/KC)

  16. Convergence in Reports of Adolescents' Psychopathology: A Focus on Disorganized Attachment and Reflective Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Palmer, Alexandra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Sharp, Carla

    2017-12-13

    Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Compared with organized adolescents, disorganized adolescents had lower parent-youth convergence in reports of their internalizing symptoms and higher convergence in reports of their externalizing symptoms; low adolescent self-focused RF was associated with low convergence in parent-adolescent reports of internalizing symptoms, whereas low adolescent global RF was associated with high convergence in parent-adolescent reports of externalizing symptoms. Among adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, disorganized attachment and lower RF were associated with weaker internalizing symptom convergence and greater externalizing symptom convergence, which if replicated, could inform assessment strategies and treatment planning in this setting.

  17. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  18. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…

  19. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  20. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  1. Accuracy of Self-Reported Weight Among Adolescent and Young Adults Following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Todd M; Boyce, Tawny W; Ralph Buncher, C; Zeller, Meg H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Evans, Mary; Inge, Thomas H

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates accuracy of self-reported weight in adolescent bariatric surgery patients. During follow-up visits, participants self-reported weight and had weight measured. The differences between self-reported and measured weights were analyzed from 60 participants. Participants were 70% (n = 42) female, 72% (n = 43) white, mean age of 20.8 years and a median body mass index of 36.6 kg/m 2 . At an average of 3.5 years following surgery, females underestimated weight (0.5 kg, range: -18.7 to 5.6 kg), while males overestimated (1.1 kg, range: -7.8 to 15.2 kg). Most (80%, n = 48) reported within 5 kg of measured weight. The majority of adolescents who previously underwent bariatric surgery reported reasonably accurate weights, but direction of misreporting varied by gender. Self-reported weights could be utilized when measured values are unavailable without markedly biasing the interpretation of outcomes.

  2. OUTCOME OF MULTIVISCERAL ECHINOCOCCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajric Zlata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogen of multivisceral echinococcosis is the same agent as for single-organ echinococcosis: Echinococcus granulosus.According to the consensus of experts under the aegis of the WHO-IWGE - WHO-Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis options of treatment should be: (1 percutaneous treatment, (2 surgery, (3 anti-infective drug treatment or (4 watch and waitapproach or combinations thereof. Case report: The presented case was a seven-year-old Caucasian boy, a permanent resident of rural region near Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, who had a history of asymptomatic giant liver and small lung hydatid cyst (multivisceral echinococcosis. We consider that the patient was in the phase of secondary hydatidosis even before undergoing the first treatment PAIR method of liver and continued with adjunctive chemotherapy. Two weeks after discharge, during the adjunctive chemotherapy he had one of possible complication where pre-existed smal lung hydatid cyst gotinflamed and performed an abscess massand potential septic risk, which required surgical and antibiotic treatment. Surgery and early postoperative course were normal and the patient was discharged with recommendation to continue with previously started adjunctive chemotherapy (Albendazol according to treatment protocol. Conclusion: Most infected persons are asymptomatic and clinical manifestations vary according to the anatomic location of the cyst, so we want to indicate the importance of routine ultrasound screening of preschool children, and eventually X ray chest scan.This case report highlights the necessity of caution with choosing appropriate treatment, even though size of cyst can be irrelevant to take surgical treatment in first line instead of medical therapy.

  3. Patient reported outcomes in hip arthroplasty registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2014-05-01

    -retest). I found that the translated PRO had good feasibility, an excellent response rate, no floor effect, but a high ceiling effect (as was expected with our postoperative patients) and few patients missed too many items to calculate a sum score. The translated PRO had high test-retest reliability and very high internal consistency, and appears to be a valid and reliable tool for outcome studies on THA patients in a hip registry setting. The MCII and PASS study included 1,335 patients, and I estimated that one year after THA, an improvement of 38-55% from mean baseline PRO score and absolute follow-up scores of 57-91% of the maximum score correspond to a minimal important improvement and acceptable symptom state, respectively.

  4. Naturalistic Outcome of Family-Based Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Inger; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Nilsen, Jan-Vegard; Rø, Øyvind

    2018-03-01

    Outpatient family-based treatment (FBT) is the best-documented treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), but research is scarce on FBT adapted to inpatient settings. The naturalistic outcome of inpatient FBT for adolescent AN was investigated. Thirty-seven (65%) of 57 patients who received inpatient FBT at a tertiary adolescent eating disorders (ED) unit participated in a follow-up interview (mean 4.5 ± 1.8, range 1-7 years) that assessed ED symptoms and general psychological functioning. A majority (65%) had achieved a normal body weight (body mass index ≥18.5). Thirty-six per cent (n = 12) were classified as fully recovered, as defined by body mass index ≥18.5, ED Examination Questionnaire global ≤2.5, and no binge eating/purging over past 3 months. Sixteen (43%) participants met criteria for one or more additional comorbid disorders. Inpatient family-based therapy for AN may be a promising therapeutic approach for adolescents that fail to respond to outpatient treatment and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Andrew A; Haher, Thomas R; Brkaric, Mario; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Mathur, Samir; Kohani, Omid; Lowe, Thomas G; Lenke, Larry G; Wenger, Dennis R; Newton, Peter O; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire (SRS 24). To evaluate the patient based outcome of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A paucity of information exists with respect to patient measures of outcome regarding the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To our knowledge, no prospective outcome study on this topic thus far exists. Using the SRS 24 questionnaire, seven scoliosis centers agreed to prospectively assess outcome for surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were collected before surgery and at 24 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using paired and independent samples t test for all seven SRS 24 questionnaire domains (Pain, General Self-Image, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, Function From Back Condition, General Level of Activity, and Satisfaction) using Statistical Package for Social Science. The domains were analyzed with respect to the total cohort, gender, curve magnitude, and type of surgery using independent-samples t tests. A total of 242 patients were included in our analysis. A baseline preoperative pain level of 3.68 of 5 was found. This improved to 4.63 after surgery, representing an improvement of 0.95 points. Surgical intervention was associated with improving outcome when compared with preoperative status. Pain, General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity all demonstrated statistically significant improvement as compared with preoperative status (P adolescent scoliosis population. Pain scores were improved in our study population at the 2-year postsurgical follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were likewise seen in the General Self-Image, Function From Back Condition, and Level of Activity domains. The present study demonstrates the ability of surgery to improve the outcome of patients afflicted with

  6. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Robert J; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (Grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2 years post-high school, self-reported serious crimes through 2 years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1 year post-high school, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2 years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of 5 of the 6 antisocial outcomes-general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis-over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false-positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, at least with respect to predictive validity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  8. Strengths, Risk Factors, and Resilient Outcomes in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the challenges of living with type 1 diabetes, many adolescents achieve "resilient outcomes": high engagement in self-management behaviors such as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), good quality of life (QOL), and within-target glycemic outcomes (HbA1c). Adaptive diabetes...... factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 471 Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes (mean age 15.7 ± 1.9 years; diabetes duration 6.9 ± 4.2 years; 62% female; 53% using insulin pumps) completed a national cross-sectional survey about their diabetes-related strengths, risk factors (depressive....../anxiety symptoms, family conflict), and resilient outcomes (SMBG frequency, general QOL, HbA1c). RESULTS: Greater diabetes strengths were significantly related to resilient outcomes: more frequent SMBG (r = 0.39), lower HbA1c (r = -0.31), and higher general QOL (r = 0.50), as well as to lower risks: fewer...

  9. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  10. How patient outcomes are reported in drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, J

    1999-05-01

    To examine how changes in outcomes are reported in drug advertisements in medical journals. Advertisements from a convenience sample of 38 issues of Canadian Family Physician, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Canadian Medical Association Journal, and the New England Journal of Medicine. Method of reporting changes in clinical outcomes (relative risk reduction [RRR], absolute risk reduction [ARR], number needed to treat [NNT]), name of product, and company marketing product were sought. In the 22 advertisements included in the analysis, 11 reported results as RRRs; two reported results as RRRs, but readers could calculate ARRs or NNTs from figures given in the advertisement; and nine gave no measure of results, but readers could calculate RRRs, ARRs, or NNTs from figures given. Most companies report changes in outcomes as RRRs, and this bias could influence the way physicians prescribe. Changes to the rules governing journal advertising and increased emphasis on critical appraisal skills would help mitigate this bias.

  11. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-04-06

    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; ppobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.

  12. The effects of a multiple family therapy on adolescents with eating disorders: an outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Zoé; Fuso, Silvana; Hendrick, Stephan; Cook-Darzens, Solange; Simon, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Multiple Family Therapy (MFT) has gained increasing popularity in the treatment of eating disorders and many programs have been developed over the past decade. Still, there is little evidence in the literature on the effectiveness on MFT for treating eating disorders. The present study examines the effects of a particular model of Multiple Family Therapy on eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, and percentage of Expected Body Weight (%EBW) in adolescents with eating disorders (ED). Eighty-two adolescents with ED, aged between 11 and 19 years, were assessed before and after treatment using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45) and %EBW. Results showed a significant increase in %EBW between the beginning and end of treatment, with a large effect size. 52.4% of patients achieved an EBW above 85%. Symptoms relative to all EDI dimensions (except for bulimia) significantly decreased during treatment. The three dimensions related to quality of life assessment also improved over the course of MFT. At the end of treatment, 70.7% of patients had a total OQ-45 score below clinical significance. This study suggests that Multiple Family Therapy may benefit adolescents with eating disorders, with improvement on several outcome measures (%EBW, ED symptoms, and quality of life). However, the lack of a comparison group entails caution when drawing conclusions. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  13. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  14. Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Jacob, Gitta A.; Brändle, Laura S.; Schulte-Vels, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662

  15. Reporting clinical outcomes of breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S; Brigic, A; Whiting, P F; Cawthorn, S J; Avery, K N L; Donovan, J L; Blazeby, J M

    2011-01-05

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer requires accurate evaluation to inform evidence-based participatory decision making, but the standards of outcome reporting after breast reconstruction have not previously been considered. We used extensive searches to identify articles reporting surgical outcomes of breast reconstruction. We extracted data using published criteria for complication reporting modified to reflect reconstructive practice. Study designs included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case series. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to critically appraise all study designs. Other criteria used to assess the studies were selection and funding bias, statistical power calculations, and institutional review board approval. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the breadth and frequency of study outcomes, and χ² tests were used to compare the number of studies in each group reporting each of the published criteria. All statistical tests were two-sided. Surgical complications following breast reconstruction in 42,146 women were evaluated in 134 studies. These included 11 (8.2%) randomized trials, 74 (55.2%) cohort studies, and 49 (36.6%) case series. Fifty-three percent of studies demonstrated a disparity between methods and results in the numbers of complications reported. Complications were defined by 87 (64.9%) studies and graded by 78 (58.2%). Details such as the duration of follow-up and risk factors for adverse outcomes were omitted from 47 (35.1%) and 58 (43.3%) studies, respectively. Overall, the studies defined fewer than 20% of the complications they reported, and the definitions were largely inconsistent. The results of this systematic review suggest that outcome reporting in breast reconstruction is inconsistent and lacks methodological rigor. The development of a standardized core outcome set is recommended to improve outcome reporting in breast reconstruction.

  16. Relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Halm, Ethan A; Makam, Anil N

    2016-07-01

    Hospitals that have robust financial performance may have improved publicly reported outcomes. To assess the relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes of care, and to assess whether improved outcome metrics affect subsequent hospital financial performance. Observational cohort study. Hospital financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California in 2008 and 2012 were linked to data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website. Hospital financial performance was measured by net revenue by operations, operating margin, and total margin. Outcomes were 30-day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia (PNA). Among 279 hospitals, there was no consistent relationship between measures of financial performance in 2008 and publicly reported outcomes from 2008 to 2011 for AMI and PNA. However, improved hospital financial performance (by any of the 3 measures) was associated with a modest increase in CHF mortality rates (ie, 0.26% increase in CHF mortality rate for every 10% increase in operating margin [95% confidence interval: 0.07%-0.45%]). Conversely, there were no significant associations between outcomes from 2008 to 2011 and subsequent financial performance in 2012 (P > 0.05 for all). Robust financial performance is not associated with improved publicly reported outcomes for AMI, CHF, and PNA. Financial incentives in addition to public reporting, such as readmissions penalties, may help motivate hospitals with robust financial performance to further improve publicly reported outcomes. Reassuringly, improved mortality and readmission rates do not necessarily lead to loss of revenue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:481-488. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Longitudinal Relations Among Parenting Styles, Prosocial Behaviors, and Academic Outcomes in U.S. Mexican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M B; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2018-03-01

    This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M age  = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades. Authoritative parents were more likely to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors than those who were moderately demanding and less involved. Fathers and mothers who were less involved and mothers who were moderately demanding were less likely than authoritative parents to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors. Prosocial behaviors were positively associated with academic outcomes. Discussion focuses on parenting, prosocial behaviors, and academic attitudes in understanding youth academic performance. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Improving adolescent pregnancy outcomes and maternal health:a case study of comprehensive case managed services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K; Palley, Howard A

    2003-01-01

    Our findings indicate how health outcomes regarding adolescent pregnancy and maternal and infant health care are intertwined with a case management process that fosters measures that are social in nature-the provision of direct services, as well as the encouragement of informal social supports systems. They also show how case managed services in a small, nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a strong commitment to its clients may provide the spontaneity and caring which results in a "match" between client needs and the delivery of services-and positive outcomes for pregnant women, early maternal health and infant health. The delivery of such case managed services in a manner which is intensive, comprehensive, flexible and integrated contributes significantly to such improved health outcomes.

  19. Spiritual well-being and mental health outcomes in adolescents with or without inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sian; Kudel, Ian; Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Pallerla, Harini; Tsevat, Joel; Succop, Paul; Yi, Michael S

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to describe spiritual well-being (existential and religious well-being) in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) versus healthy peers; 2) to examine associations of spiritual well-being with mental health outcomes (emotional functioning and depressive symptoms); and 3) to assess the differential impact of existential versus religious well-being on mental health. A total of 155 adolescents aged 11-19 years from a children's hospital and a university hospital filled out questionnaires including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Covariates in multivariable models included demographics, disease status, and interactions. Participants' mean (SD) age was 15.1 (2.0) years; 80 (52%) were male; and 121 (78%) were of white ethnicity. Levels of existential and religious well-being were similar between adolescents with IBD and healthy peers. In multivariable analyses, existential well-being was associated with mental health (partial R(2) change = .08-.11, p religious well-being and depressive symptoms: that is, the relationships were stronger in adolescents with IBD as compared with healthy peers. Religious well-being was only marginally significantly associated with mental health after controlling for other factors. Although both healthy adolescents and those with IBD had high levels of spiritual well-being, having IBD moderated the relationship between spiritual well-being and mental health. Meaning/purpose was related to mental health more than was connectedness to the sacred.

  20. The Relationship between Spirituality and Religiosity on Psychological Outcomes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Schnabelrauch, Chelsea A.; DeHaan, Laura G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the association between spirituality and religiosity (S/R) and psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults. The outcome measures of risk behavior, depression, well-being, self-esteem, and personality were examined with respect to the influence of S/R across 75 independent…

  1. Immediate and Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescent Female Rape Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, Yewande; Macharia, Muiruri; Lachman, Anusha; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-12-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault. Assessment measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire and initial screening with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), the patient-rated Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). The CATS, CDI, and MASC were repeated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post enrollment. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the clinician-administered Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Child and Adolescent version (MINI-Kid). At baseline, on the MINI-Kid, a definitive diagnosis of major depressive episode was endorsed in 22.6% of the participants. Stress-related disorders were found in 12.9%, whereas 16.1% had anxiety disorders. There was no diminution of symptoms on self-reported psychopathology measures at follow-up assessment over the five follow-up time points, suggesting persistent psychopathology over a 1-year period despite repeated clinical assessments and supportive counseling. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in this sample of adolescent female rape survivors were high at enrollment and found to be persistent, underlining the need for long-term support, screening, and evidence-based follow-up care.

  2. Outcome differences in adolescent blunt severe polytrauma patients managed at pediatric versus adult trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Amelia T; Gross, Brian W; Cook, Alan D; Rinehart, Cole D; Lynch, Caitlin A; Bradburn, Eric H; Heinle, Colin C; Jammula, Shreya; Rogers, Frederick B

    2017-12-01

    Previous research suggests adolescent trauma patients can be managed equally effectively at pediatric and adult trauma centers. We sought to determine whether this association would be upheld for adolescent severe polytrauma patients. We hypothesized that no difference in adjusted outcomes would be observed between pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) and adult trauma centers (ATCs) for this population. All severely injured adolescent (aged 12-17 years) polytrauma patients were extracted from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study database from 2003 to 2015. Polytrauma was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 for two or more AIS-defined body regions. Dead on arrival, transfer, and penetrating trauma patients were excluded from analysis. ATC were defined as adult-only centers, whereas standalone pediatric hospitals and adult centers with pediatric affiliation were considered PTC. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models assessed the adjusted impact of center type on mortality and total complications while controlling for age, shock index, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score, trauma center level, case volume, and injury year. A generalized linear mixed model characterized functional status at discharge (FSD) while controlling for the same variables. A total of 1,606 patients met inclusion criteria (PTC: 868 [54.1%]; ATC: 738 [45.9%]), 139 (8.66%) of which died in-hospital. No significant difference in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.10, 95% CI 0.54-2.24; p = 0.794; area under the receiver operating characteristic: 0.89) was observed between designations in adjusted analysis; however, FSD (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.97; p = 0.043) was found to be lower and total complication trends higher (AOR: 1.78, 95% CI 0.98-3.32; p = 0.058) at PTC for adolescent polytrauma patients. Contrary to existing literature on adolescent trauma patients, our results suggest patients aged 12-17 presenting with polytrauma may experience

  3. Using Patient Reported Outcomes Measures to Promote Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs have been introduced as standardised outcomes, but have not been implemented widely for disease targeted pathways of care, nor for geriatric patients who prefer functional performance and quality of life. Discussion: We describe innovative multipurpose implementation of PROMs as evidenced by two best practices of PROMs application in geriatric and physiotherapy practice. We show that PROMs can show meaningful outcomes in older subjects’ patient journeys, which can at the same time serve individuals and groups of both patients and professionals. Key lesson: PROMs can deliver generic outcomes relevant for older patients, may improve patient-physician relationship, quality of care and prediction of future outcomes in geriatric care, if they are valid, reliable and responsive, but still short and simple. A precondition to make the hard tip from research to practice is that PROMs are carefully positioned in the clinical encounters and in electronic health records.

  4. Empirical Evidence for the Outcomes of Therapeutic Video Games for Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Background Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers. The growing discrepancy between demand for, and access to, clinical interventions for anxiety has led to the development of a range of eHealth (health care practice supported by electronic processes and communication) and mHealth (versions of eHealth using mobile devices) interventions. One such protocol is therapeutic games, which aim to provide clinical frameworks in dynamic, adaptable, and personalized virtual environments. Although some evidence exists to suggest therapeutic games are associated with reductions in subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity, there is currently, to our knowledge, no systematic review of the adherence to, and effectiveness of, therapeutic games for adolescent anxiety. Objective The aim of this review was to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic games in making clinically measurable reductions in anxiety symptoms in adolescent samples. Methods A systematic search of the existing academic literature published between 1990 and July 2017 was conducted using the databases Journal of Medical Internet Research, Journal Storage, Psychology Articles, Psychology Info, ScienceDIRECT, and Scopus. Records linked to empirical papers on therapeutic games for anxiety using adolescent samples were evaluated. Results A total of 5 studies (N=410 participants) met the inclusion criteria, and 3 gamified anxiety interventions for adolescents were identified. The papers included a mixture of randomized controlled trials

  5. Empirical Evidence for the Outcomes of Therapeutic Video Games for Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven; Prescott, Julie

    2018-02-28

    Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers. The growing discrepancy between demand for, and access to, clinical interventions for anxiety has led to the development of a range of eHealth (health care practice supported by electronic processes and communication) and mHealth (versions of eHealth using mobile devices) interventions. One such protocol is therapeutic games, which aim to provide clinical frameworks in dynamic, adaptable, and personalized virtual environments. Although some evidence exists to suggest therapeutic games are associated with reductions in subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity, there is currently, to our knowledge, no systematic review of the adherence to, and effectiveness of, therapeutic games for adolescent anxiety. The aim of this review was to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic games in making clinically measurable reductions in anxiety symptoms in adolescent samples. A systematic search of the existing academic literature published between 1990 and July 2017 was conducted using the databases Journal of Medical Internet Research, Journal Storage, Psychology Articles, Psychology Info, ScienceDIRECT, and Scopus. Records linked to empirical papers on therapeutic games for anxiety using adolescent samples were evaluated. A total of 5 studies (N=410 participants) met the inclusion criteria, and 3 gamified anxiety interventions for adolescents were identified. The papers included a mixture of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and

  6. Patient reported outcomes: looking beyond the label claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doward Lynda C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of patient reported outcome scales in clinical trials conducted by the pharmaceutical industry has become more widespread in recent years. The use of such outcomes is particularly common for products developed to treat chronic, disabling conditions where the intention is not to cure but to ameliorate symptoms, facilitate functioning or, ultimately, to improve quality of life. In such cases, patient reported evidence is increasingly viewed as an essential complement to traditional clinical evidence for establishing a product's competitive advantage in the marketplace. In a commercial setting, the value of patient reported outcomes is viewed largely in terms of their potential for securing a labelling claim in the USA or inclusion in the summary of product characteristics in Europe. Although, the publication of the recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance makes it difficult for companies to make claims in the USA beyond symptom improvements, the value of these outcomes goes beyond satisfying requirements for a label claim. The European regulatory authorities, payers both in the US and Europe, clinicians and patients all play a part in determining both the availability and the pricing of medicinal products and all have an interest in patient-reported data that go beyond just symptoms. The purpose of the current paper is to highlight the potential added value of patient reported outcome data currently collected and held by the industry for these groups.

  7. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (pcongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  8. Daily emotional states as reported by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R; Lampman-Petraitis, C

    1989-10-01

    Hour-to-hour emotional states reported by children, ages 9-15, were examined in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotional variability. These youths carried electronic pagers for 1 week and filled out reports on their emotional states in response to signals received at random times. To evaluate possible age-related response sets, a subset of children was asked to use the same scales to rate the emotions shown in drawings of 6 faces. The expected relation between daily emotional variability and age was not found among the boys and was small among the girls. There was, however, a linear relation between age and average mood states, with the older participants reporting more dysphoric average states, especially more mildly negative states. An absence of age difference in the ratings of the faces indicated that this relation could not be attributed to age differences in response set. Thus, these findings provide little support for the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotionality but indicate significant alterations in everyday experience associated with this age period.

  9. Associations of Child and Adolescent Mastery Motivation and Self-Regulation With Adult Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica

    2017-05-01

    This 20-year prospective longitudinal study focuses on the contribution of mastery motivation and self-regulation to adult outcomes for individuals with Down syndrome. In earlier phases of the research, 25 participants completed measures of cognitive ability, mastery motivation and self-regulation in childhood (4 to 6 years) and adolescence (11 to 15 years). In the adult phase reported here, self-determination and adaptive behavior were assessed in 21 of the original participants at age 23 to 26 years. Mastery motivation and self-regulation made unique contributions to adult outcomes, over and above the effects of cognitive ability. The findings provide powerful evidence about the important role of child and adolescent mastery motivation and self-regulation for the adult lives of individuals with Down syndrome.

  10. Psychosocial outcomes in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents in Western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Gilbert, Tracy; Kasimbie, Kazie; Reid, Gail; Williams, Shelly Ann

    2018-02-05

    Background Psychosocial factors interact with adolescent development and affect the ability of HIV-infected adolescents to cope with and adhere to treatment. Aim To evaluate psychosocial outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVAs) in Western Jamaica after psychosocial intervention. Methods The Bright Futures Paediatric Symptom Checklist (BF-PSC) was used for psychological screening of PHIVAs in Western Jamaica. Referred patients were evaluated using the Youth version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS). Demographic, laboratory and clinical data obtained between July 2014 and June 2016 were evaluated retrospectively and outcomes were reviewed before and after psychosocial intervention. Results Sixty PHIVAs were enrolled and 36 (60%) had a positive BF-PSC score that necessitated referral. The BF-PSC correctly identified 89% of patients with impaired psychosocial assessment by CIS scores. Referred patients were less likely to adhere to treatment, to be virologically suppressed or to have a CD4+ count of >500 cells/μl, and were more likely to be in the late teenage group or to be of orphan status. After intervention, the prevalence of viral suppression increased and median viral load decreased. A difference in mean CD4+ cell count was detected before but not after intervention in teenage and orphan groups. Conclusions The BF-PSC identified at-risk PHIVAs with impaired psychosocial functioning. Increased vulnerability was noted in orphans and older teenagers. Psychosocial interventions (including family therapy) reduced psychosocial impairment and improved virological suppression. Mental health intervention should be instituted to facilitate improved clinical outcomes, autonomy of care and transition to adult care.

  11. Outcome parameters associated with perceived helpfulness of family-based treatment for adolescent eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simar; Accurso, Erin C; Hail, Lisa; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2018-04-10

    Family-based treatment (FBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent eating disorders, yet it is not routinely implemented in clinical practice. Given that consumers play a role in treatment selection, this study sought to examine families' perspectives on FBT and remission markers associated with increased treatment satisfaction across families. Participants were 40 adolescents and 43 caregivers who received outpatient FBT. FBT helpfulness was assessed using a treatment follow-up questionnaire, and eating disorder symptomatology was assessed using percent expected body weight (%EBW) and the eating disorder examination (EDE). Regression analyses were used to assess whether changes in symptoms from baseline to end-of-treatment (EOT) were significantly associated with helpfulness reports. On average, patients and their parents perceived FBT as "quite helpful" and "extremely helpful," respectively. Improvements in all EDE subscales, with the exception of restraint, were significantly associated with adolescent report of helpfulness (all p < .05); increase in %EBW was significantly associated with maternal report of helpfulness (p = .03). There were no significant findings for paternal report. Both patients and their parents perceived FBT as helpful, but patients seemed to prioritize cognitive improvements while mothers prioritized physical improvements in rating their satisfaction with FBT. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Prevalence of Chronic Gastritis or Helicobacter pylori Infection in Adolescent Sleeve Gastrectomy Patients Does Not Correlate with Symptoms or Surgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashanti L; Koeck, Emily S; Hamrick, Miller C; Qureshi, Faisal G; Nadler, Evan P

    2015-08-01

    In adults undergoing gastric bypass surgery, it is routine practice to perform pre-operative testing for Helicobacter pylori infection. Evidence suggests that infection impairs anastomotic healing and contributes to complications. There currently are no data for adolescents undergoing bariatric procedures. Despite few patients with pre-operative symptoms, we noted occasional patients with H. pylori detected after sleeve gastrectomy. We reviewed our experience with our adolescent sleeve gastrectomy cohort to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection, its predictive factors, and association with outcomes. We hypothesized that H. pylori infection would be associated with pre-operative symptoms, but not surgical outcomes. All patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy at our hospital were included. We conducted a chart review to determine pre- or post-operative symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD or gastritis, operative complications, and long-term anti-reflux therapy after surgery. Pathology reports were reviewed for evidence of gastritis and H. pylori infection. 78 adolescents had laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy from January 2010 through July 2014. The prevalence of chronic gastritis was 44.9% (35/78) and 11.4% of those patients had H. pylori (4/35). Only one patient with H. pylori had pre-operative symptoms, and only 25.7% (9/35) of patients with pathology-proven gastritis had symptoms. One staple line leak occurred but this patient did not have H. pylori or gastritis. Mean patient follow-up was 10 (3-26) mos. There is a moderate prevalence of gastritis among adolescents undergoing sleeve gastrectomy, but only a small number of these patients had H. pylori infection. Neither the presence of chronic gastritis nor H. pylori infection correlated with symptoms or outcomes. Thus, in the absence of predictive symptomology or adverse outcome in those who are infected, we advocate for continued routine pathologic evaluation without the required need for pre

  14. Independent Versus Co-occurring Substance Use in Relation to Gambling Outcomes in Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Bittinger, Joyce N; Di Lodovico, Cory M; Liu, Junny

    2017-05-01

    Gambling is prevalent among college students and can be associated with significant negative consequences. Students who report gambling also tend to report use of alcohol and cannabis, but little research has explored the associated risks of using these substances in relation to gambling episodes. This study explored associations between the independent and co-occurring use of alcohol and cannabis before/during gambling episodes and gambling outcomes. Students (n = 1,834) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling frequency, amount lost, negative gambling consequences, gambling problem severity, and substance use. As hypothesized, individuals who reported using either alcohol or cannabis alone or both substances before/while gambling endorsed greater gambling quantity, frequency, negative consequences, and problem severity than individuals who used alcohol and cannabis in general but denied use of either substance before/while gambling. Use of both substances compared to use of alcohol alone was associated with greater gambling quantity, frequency, and negative consequences, although these groups did not differ on gambling problem severity. Cannabis use alone was no different on any outcome than use of both substances, and alcohol use alone was no different than cannabis use alone on any outcome. Use of cannabis alone before/while gambling may confer the same level of risk for negative gambling outcomes as use of both cannabis and alcohol. Prevention efforts may, therefore, benefit from targeting cannabis use in relation to gambling. Additional investigation is needed in light of recent and upcoming state legislation on the legalization of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-informant agreement between parent-reported and adolescent self-reported problems in 25 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c...

  16. Long-Term Outcomes Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood and Adolescence: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study of a Wide Range of Medical and Social Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sariaslan

    2016-08-01

    psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.9-2.0; 6,632 versus 37,095 events, disability pension (aRR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.7-1.8; 4,691 versus 29,778 events, and premature mortality (aRR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.6-1.9; 799 versus 4,695 events. These risks were only marginally attenuated when the comparisons were made with their unaffected siblings, which implies that the effects of TBI were consistent with a causal inference. A dose-response relationship was observed with injury severity. Injury recurrence was also associated with higher risks-in particular, for disability pension we found that recurrent TBI was associated with a 3-fold risk increase (aRR = 2.6; 95% CI: 2.4-2.8 compared to a single-episode TBI. Higher risks for all outcomes were observed for those who had sustained their first injury at an older age (ages 20-24 y with more than 25% increase in relative risk across all outcomes compared to the youngest age group (ages 0-4 y. On the population level, TBI explained between 2%-6% of the variance in the examined outcomes. Using hospital data underestimates milder forms of TBI, but such misclassification bias suggests that the reported estimates are likely conservative. The sibling-comparison design accounts for unmeasured familial confounders shared by siblings, including half of their genes. Thus, residual genetic confounding remains a possibility but will unlikely alter our main findings, as associations were only marginally attenuated within families.Given our findings, which indicate potentially causal effects between TBI exposure in childhood and later impairments across a range of health and social outcomes, age-sensitive clinical guidelines should be considered and preventive strategies should be targeted at children and adolescents.

  17. Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions and effect on communication outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Bluethmann, Shirley; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2015-03-01

    Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions aim to reduce sexual risk behaviors by bolstering parental protective behaviors. Few studies of theory use, methods, applications, delivery and outcomes of parent-based interventions have been conducted. A systematic search of databases for the period 1998-2013 identified 28 published trials of U.S. parent-based interventions to examine theory use, setting, reach, delivery mode, dose and effects on parent-child communication. Established coding schemes were used to assess use of theory and describe methods employed to achieve behavioral change; intervention effects were explored in meta-analyses. Most interventions were conducted with minority parents in group sessions or via self-paced activities; interventions averaged seven hours, and most used theory extensively. Meta-analyses found improvements in sexual health communication: Analysis of 11 controlled trials indicated a medium effect on increasing communication (Cohen's d, 0.5), and analysis of nine trials found a large effect on increasing parental comfort with communication (0.7); effects were positive regardless of delivery mode or intervention dose. Intervention participants were 68% more likely than controls to report increased communication and 75% more likely to report increased comfort. These findings point to gaps in the range of programs examined in published trials-for example, interventions for parents of sexual minority youth, programs for custodial grandparents and faith-based services. Yet they provide support for the effectiveness of parent-based interventions in improving communication. Innovative delivery approaches could extend programs' reach, and further research on sexual health outcomes would facilitate the meta-analysis of intervention effectiveness in improving adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. A multicenter study analyzing the relationship of a standardized radiographic scoring system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip L; Newton, Peter O; Wenger, Dennis R; Haher, Thomas; Merola, Andrew; Lenke, Larry; Lowe, Thomas; Clements, David; Betz, Randy

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study examining the association between radiographic and outcomes measures in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the association between an objective radiographic scoring system and patient quality of life measures as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument. Although surgical correction of scoliosis has been reported to be positively correlated with patient outcomes, studies to date have been unable to demonstrate an association between radiographic measures of deformity and outcomes measures in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A standardized radiographic deformity scoring system and the Scoliosis Research Society outcome tool were used prospectively in seven scoliosis centers to collect data on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 354 data points for 265 patients consisting of those with nonoperative or preoperative curves >or=10 degrees, as well as those with surgically treated curves, were analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed to identify significant relationships between any of the radiographic measures, the Harms Study Group radiographic deformity scores (total, sagittal, coronal), and the seven Scoliosis Research Society outcome domains (Total Pain, General Self-Image, General Function, Activity, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, and Satisfaction) as well as Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument total scores. Radiographic measures that were identified as significantly correlated with Scoliosis Research Society outcome scores were then entered into a stepwise regression analysis. The coronal measures of thoracic curve and lumbar curve magnitude were found to be significantly correlated with the Total Pain, General Self-Image, and total Scoliosis Research Society scores (P Society domain and total scores. No radiographic measures taken after surgery were significantly correlated with the postoperative domains of the Scoliosis Research Society

  19. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakawa, Glenn R.; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C.; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury...

  20. Identifying disordered eating behaviours in adolescents: how do parent and adolescent reports differ by sex and age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.

  1. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  2. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  3. Gender differences in adolescent smoking: mediator and moderator effects of self-generated expected smoking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Anderson, Cheryl B; Pollak, Kathryn I; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    To examine relations among gender, self-generated smoking-outcome expectancies, and smoking in adolescents. Students from one all-girls' (n=350; 53%) and one all-boys' (n=315; 47%) Catholic high school participated. Analyses included binary and ordinal logistic regression. For boys, smoking behavior was associated with buzz (odds radio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.83, p exercise/sport impairment (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.68-4.81, p gender-smoking relationship. Moderators included negative social (beta = -0.45, p = .021) and enhance self-esteem (beta = -1.07, p = .024). Interventions might benefit from tailoring on gender differences in smoking-outcome expectancies.

  4. The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, T; Brooks-Gunn, J

    2000-03-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being. The first section reviews key methodological issues. The following section considers links between neighborhood characteristics and child outcomes and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status (SES) for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes. The third section identifies 3 pathways (institutional resources, relationships, and norms/collective efficacy) through which neighborhoods might influence development, and which represent an extension of models identified by C. Jencks and S. Mayer (1990) and R. J. Sampson (1992). The models provide a theoretical base for studying neighborhood mechanisms and specify different levels (individual, family, school, peer, community) at which processes may operate. Implications for an emerging developmental framework for research on neighborhoods are discussed.

  5. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Eddy, Kamryn T; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Field, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders

  6. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  7. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  8. Self-reported violence amongst adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie Louise; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence of adolescents' exposure to different types of violence (at home and outside the home) and associations between severe violence and alcohol consumption, taking account of gender and the influence of other factors. METHODS: A multimedia computer-based survey amongst...... a nationally representative sample of 9th grade pupils included comprehensive data on exposure to physical violence, use of alcohol and additional socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Analyses included gender disaggregated cross tabulations and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Around 9.3% of girls and 12.......3% of boys reported being victims of physical violence within the last 12 months. Also, 2.7% of girls and 3.5% of boys reported severe violence. Gender differences existed in place of occurrence; girls were more frequently assaulted at home, boys outside the home. Alcohol was only associated with violence...

  9. Preoperative and perioperative factors effect on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sturm, Peter F; Diab, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Prospective multicenter database. To identify factors associated with outcomes from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery outcomes and especially poor results. Because AIS is rarely symptomatic during adolescence, excellent surgical results are expected. However, some patients have poor outcomes. This study seeks to identify factors correlating with results and especially those making poor outcomes more likely. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared to 2-year postoperative Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) scores in 477 AIS surgical patients using stepwise linear regression to identify factors predictive of 2-year domain and total scores. Poor postoperative score patients (>2 SD below mean) were compared using t tests to those with better results. The SRS instrument exhibited a strong ceiling effect. Two-year scores showed more improvement with greater curve correction (self-image, pain, and total), and were worse with larger body mass index (pain, mental, total), larger preoperative trunk shift (mental and total), larger preoperative Cobb (self-image), and preoperative symptoms (function). Poor results were more common in those with Lenke 3 curve pattern (pain), less preoperative coronal imbalance, trunk shift and rib prominence (function), preoperative bracing (self-image), and anterior procedures (mental). Poor results also had slightly less average curve correction (50% vs. 60%) and larger curve residuals (31° vs. 23°). Complications, postoperative curve magnitude, and instrumentation type did not significantly contribute to postoperative scores, and no identifiable factors contributed to satisfaction. Curve correction improves patient's self-image whereas pain and poor function before surgery carry over after surgery. Patients with less spinal appearance issues (higher body mass index, Lenke 3 curves) are less happy with their results. Except in surgical patient selection, many of these factors are beyond physician control.

  10. Motivation to change and perceptions of the admission process with respect to outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Simona; Dempfle, Astrid; Seitz, Jochen; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Bühren, Katharina

    2015-07-02

    In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), there is evidence that readiness to change is an important predictor of outcome with respect to weight gain and improvement in eating disorder psychopathology. In particular, young patients are characterized by a low level of motivation for recovery and perceive more coercion at hospitalization. Thus, a better understanding of the variables that influence readiness to change and perception of the admission process in adolescent AN may help to support patients in initiating change and staying motivated for treatment. In 40 adolescent patients diagnosed with AN according to DSM-IV criteria, we assessed in a prospective clinical cohort study the motivation to change using the Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ) at admission to inpatient treatment, in week 9 after admission and at discharge. Additional variables were assessed, including depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), eating disorder-specific psychopathology (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-2), body mass index (BMI) and the percentage of expected body weight (%EBW). The patients' perceptions of the admission process and their perceived need for hospitalization were assessed using a self-report scale developed by Guarda et al. (2007). Younger patients perceived more coercion than older patients did. Low %EBW and more severe eating disorder-specific psychopathology were associated with a greater perceived need for hospitalization. Moreover, low %EBW at admission and a longer duration of illness were accompanied by a greater motivation to change at admission, whereas more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with a low motivation to change. The motivation to change increased significantly between admission and discharge. Patients with a greater motivation to change at admission exhibited a higher weekly weight gain during treatment but did not show better outcome in eating disorder-specific psychopathology and depression

  11. Spondylolysis outcomes in adolescents after direct screw repair of the pars interarticularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura A; Shufflebarger, Harry; O'Brien, Michael F; Thind, Harjot; Theodore, Nicholas; Kakarla, Udaya K

    2014-09-01

    Isthmic spondylolysis can significantly decrease functional abilities, especially in adolescent athletes. Although treatment can range from observation to surgery, direct screw placement through the fractured pars, or Buck's procedure, may be a more minimally invasive procedure than the more common pedicle screw-hook construct. Review of surgical databases identified 16 consecutive patients treated with Buck's procedure from 2004 to 2010. Twelve patients were treated at Miami Children's Hospital and 4 at Barrow Neurological Institute. Demographics and clinical and radiographic outcomes were recorded and analyzed retrospectively. The 16 patients had a median age of 16 years, and 14 were 20 years or younger at the time of treatment. Symptoms included axial back pain in 100% of patients with concomitant radiculopathy in 38%. Pars defects were bilateral in 81% and unilateral in 19% for a total of 29 pars defects treated using Buck's procedure. Autograft or allograft augmented with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein as well as postoperative bracing was used in all cases. Postoperatively, symptoms resolved completely or partially in 15 patients (94%). Of 29 pars defects, healing was observed in 26 (89.6%) prior to 1 revision surgery, and an overall fusion rate of 97% was observed at last radiological follow-up. There were no implant failures. All 8 athletes in this group had returned to play at last follow-up. Direct screw repair of the pars interarticularis defect as described in this series may provide a more minimally invasive treatment of adolescent patients with satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes, including return to play of adolescent athletes.

  12. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) pathway: genetic variants and outcomes of HIV-1 infection in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Aissani, Brahim; Song, Wei; Shendre, Aditi; Wilson, Craig M; Kaslow, Richard A; Tang, Jianming

    2010-10-14

    Immunological and clinical outcomes can vary considerably at the individual and population levels during both treated and untreated HIV-1 infection. Cytokines encoded by the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) family have broad immunomodulatory function in viral persistence, and several SNPs in the IL10 promoter sequence have been reported to influence pathogenesis or acquisition of HIV-1 infection. We examined 104 informative SNPs in IL10, IL19, IL20, IL24, IL10RA and IL10RB among 250 HIV-1 seropositive and 106 high-risk seronegative African American adolescents in the REACH cohort. In subsequent evaluation of five different immunological and virological outcomes related to HIV-1 infection, 25 SNPs were associated with a single outcome and three were associated with two different outcomes. One SNP, rs2243191 in the IL19 open reading frame (Ser to Phe substitution) was associated with CD4(+) T-cell increase during treatment. Another SNP rs2244305 in IL10RB (in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs443498) was associated with an initial decrease in CD4(+) T-cell by 23 ± 9% and 29 ± 9% every 3 months (for AA and AG genotypes, respectively, compared with GG) during ART-free period. These associations were reversed during treatment, as CD4(+) T-cell increased by 31 ± 0.9% and 17 ± 8% every 3 months for AA and AG genotype, respectively. In African Americans, variants in IL10 and related genes might influence multiple outcomes of HIV-1 infection, especially immunological response to HAART. Fine mapping coupled with analysis of gene expression and function should help reveal the immunological importance of the IL10 gene family to HIV-1/AIDS.

  13. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants\\' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame.

  14. Adolescent Maternal Lifecourse Outcomes: Implications from an Integrated Mental Health Services Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Russell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Family intervention literature on adolescent parenting describes the pathways between outcomes for adolescent mothers and their children and the contexts of the pregnancy itself (e.g., poverty, low or no prenatal care, lower educational attainment. The aim of these descriptions is often to inform intervention designs that promote adaptive functioning for the child, the mother, and the dyad. Mental health services are an important component of many of these interventions; these services may be delivered by a clinician within the organization providing the intervention, or the organization may connect mothers with external mental health services in their communities. Using in-house clinicians rather than external providers may be beneficial by decreasing the high attrition rates common to this population. Although this service delivery approach is theoretically appealing, it has not been subject to rigorous empirical evaluation. In the current randomized study, we examine outcomes for teenage mothers based on two service delivery methods: Integrated Mental Health Services (IMHS and the Standard of Care (SoC which outsources clients’ mental health needs through community referrals. Information about the effectiveness of service delivery strategies can help program providers make decisions about how best to allocate limited funds to provide effective services.

  15. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  16. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents with Self-Reported Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.

  18. Body hair transplantation: Case report of successful outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of body hair in to scalp has been suggested as an option to treat extensive cases of baldness with poor donor scalp. However, evidence about its long-term efficacy is yet lacking, with very few published reports and the routine use of the technique is still controversial. We report the satisfactory outcome in a case of extensive baldness in whom hairs from different donor areas such as chest, abdomen, arms, thighs were transplanted on to scalp.

  19. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  20. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, Psurgery types (Psurgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  1. Association of Adolescent- and Caregiver-Reported Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence with HIV Viral Load Among Perinatally-infected South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kirsty; Asafu-Agyei, Nana Akua; Hoare, Jacqueline; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Rabie, Helena; Nuttall, James; Roux, Paul; Stein, Dan J; Zar, Heather J; Myer, Landon

    2018-03-01

    Accurate measurement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence remains challenging and there are few data assessing the validity of self-reported adherence among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. We examined adolescent and caregiver reports of adolescent adherence among perinatally-infected adolescents aged 9-14 years in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored factors that may modify associations between reported adherence and elevated viral load (VL). Among 474 adolescents (median age 12.0 years; median duration of ART use 7.5 years), elevated VL and caregiver- and adolescent-report of missed ART doses were common. Elevated VL was particularly prevalent among older, male adolescents. Low-moderate concordance was observed between caregiver and adolescent report. Among adolescents aged ≥ 12 years, caregiver- and adolescent-reported adherence was associated with elevated VL across most items assessed, but few significant associations were observed among adolescents adolescents who require adherence interventions are needed in this context.

  2. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  3. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  4. The long read t recovery: treatment outcome and cost among adolescents treated for anorexia nervosa in specialized care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Sipilä, Pyry; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    We investigated factors affecting treatment outcome and cost of treatment among adolescents treated for anorexia nervosa in specialized care. Records of 47 patients with anorexia nervosa treated at the adolescent eating disorder unit were reviewed retrospectively. Individual differences in the need for treatment and cost of treatment were considerable. Nearly one third of patients required treatment at multiple wards in addition to outpatient care. The majority of costs (76%) incurred from treating a minority (29 %) of patients. Psychiatric comorbidity, particularly depression, was associated with a greater need for treatment and higher costs. The cost of treatment of anorexia nervosa is considerable, but many of those requiring intensive treatment have a favorable outcome.

  5. Child and Adolescent Adherence With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety: Predictors and Associations With Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis; Zehgeer, Asima; Ginsburg, Golda S; McCracken, James; Keeton, Courtney; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Walkup, John; Peris, Tara; Albano, Anne Marie; Compton, Scott

    2017-04-27

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics, therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6% White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia, who participated in CBT in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Adherence was defined in three ways (session attendance, therapist-rated compliance, and homework completion). Multiple regressions revealed several significant predictors of youth adherence with CBT, but predictors varied according to the definition of adherence. The most robust predictors of greater adherence were living with both parents and fewer youth comorbid externalizing disorders. With respect to outcomes, therapist ratings of higher youth compliance with CBT predicted several indices of favorable outcome: lower anxiety severity, higher global functioning, and treatment responder status after 12 weeks of CBT. Number of sessions attended and homework completion did not predict treatment outcomes. Findings provide information about risks for youth nonadherence, which can inform treatment and highlight the importance of youth compliance with participating in therapy activities, rather than just attending sessions or completing homework assignments.

  6. [Outcome Quality in Medical Rehabilitation: Relationship Between "Patient-Reported Outcomes" (PROs) and Social Security Contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübling, R; Kaluscha, R; Krischak, G; Kriz, D; Martin, H; Müller, G; Renzland, J; Reuss-Borst, M; Schmidt, J; Kaiser, U; Toepler, E

    2017-02-01

    Aim of the Study The outcome quality of medical rehabilitation is evaluated often by "Patient Reported Outcomes" (PROs). It is examined to what extent these PROs are corresponding with "hard" or "objective" outcomes such as payments of contributions to social insurance. Methods The "rehabilitation QM outcome study" includes self-reports of patients as well as data from the Rehabilitation Statistics Database (RSD) of the German pension insurance Baden-Wurttemberg. The sample for the question posed includes N=2 947 insured who were treated in 2011 in 21 clinics of the "health quality network" and who were either employed or unemployed at the time of the rehabilitation application (e. g. the workforce or labour force group, response rate: 55%). The sample turned out widely representative for the population of the insured persons. Results PROs and payment of contributions to pension insurance clearly correspond. In the year after the rehabilitation improved vs. not improved rehabilitees differed clearly with regard to their payments of contributions. Conclusions The results support the validity of PROs. For a comprehensive depiction of the outcome quality of rehabilitation PROs and payments of contributions should be considered supplementary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Kidney outcomes three years after bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehus, Edward J; Khoury, Jane C; Inge, Thomas H; Xiao, Nianzhou; Jenkins, Todd M; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2017-02-01

    A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery. At surgery, mean age of participants was 17 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 51 kg/m 2 . In those with decreased kidney function at baseline (eGFR under 90 mL/min/1.73m 2 ), mean eGFR significantly improved from 76 to 102 mL/min/1.73m 2 at three-year follow-up. Similarly, participants with albuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g and more) at baseline demonstrated significant improvement following surgery: geometric mean of ACR was 74 mg/g at baseline and decreased to 17 mg/g at three years. Those with normal renal function and no albuminuria at baseline remained stable throughout the study period. Among individuals with a BMI of 40 kg/m 2 and more at follow-up, increased BMI was associated with significantly lower eGFR, while no association was observed in those with a BMI under 40 kg/m 2 . In adjusted analysis, eGFR increased by 3.9 mL/min/1.73m 2 for each 10-unit loss of BMI. Early kidney abnormalities improved following bariatric surgery in adolescents with evidence of preoperative kidney disease. Thus, kidney disease should be considered as a selection criteria for bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents who fail conventional weight management. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure’s (PROMs) Conference Oxford 2017: Advances in Patient Reported Outcomes Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Galina; Valderas, Jose M.; Potter, Caroline; Batchelder, Laurie; A’Court, Christine; Baker, Matthew; Bostock, Jennifer; Coulter, Angela; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Forder, Julien; Fox, Diane; Geneen, Louise; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Jones, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Peters, Michele; Mulhern, Brendan; Labeit, Alexander; Rowen, Donna; Meadows, Keith; Elliott, Jackie; Brazier, John E.; Knowles, Emma; Keetharuth, Anju; Brazier, John E.; Connell, Janice; Carlton, Jill; Buck, Lizzie Taylor; Ricketts, Thomas; Barkham, Michael; Goswami, Pushpendra; Salek, Sam; Ionova, Tatyana; Oliva, Esther; Fielding, Adele K.; Karakantza, Marina; Al-Ismail, Saad; Collins, Graham P.; McConnell, Stewart; Langton, Catherine; Jennings, Daniel M.; Else, Roger; Kell, Jonathan; Ward, Helen; Day, Sophie; Lumley, Elizabeth; Phillips, Patrick; Duncan, Rosie; Buckley-Woods, Helen; Aber, Ahmed; Jones, Gerogina; Michaels, Jonathan; Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Davey, Antoinette; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Haywood, Kirstie; Hansen, Stine Thestrup; Valderas, Jose; Roberts, Deb; Gumber, Anil; Podmore, Bélène; Hutchings, Andrew; van der Meulen, Jan; Aggarwal, Ajay; Konan, Sujith; Price, Andrew; Jackson, William; Bottomley, Nick; Philiips, Michael; Knightley-Day, Toby; Beard, David; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Gooding, Kate; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Valderas, Chema; Wright, Judy; Dalkin, Sonia; Meads, David; Black, Nick; Fawkes, Carol; Froud, Robert; Carnes, Dawn; Price, Andrew; Cook, Jonathan; Dakin, Helen; Smith, James; Kang, Sujin; Beard, David; Griffiths, Catrin; Guest, Ella; Harcourt, Diana; Murphy, Mairead; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Salisbury, Chris; Carlton, Jill; Elliott, Jackie; Rowen, Donna; Gao, Anqi; Price, Andrew; Beard, David; Lemanska, Agnieszka; Chen, Tao; Dearnaley, David P.; Jena, Rajesh; Sydes, Matthew; Faithfull, Sara; Ades, A. E.; Kounali, Daphne; Lu, Guobing; Rombach, Ines; Gray, Alastair; Jenkinson, Crispin; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Holch, Patricia; Holmes, Marie; Rodgers, Zoe; Dickinson, Sarah; Clayton, Beverly; Davidson, Susan; Routledge, Jacqui; Glennon, Julia; Henry, Ann M.; Franks, Kevin; Velikova, Galina; Maguire, Roma; McCann, Lisa; Young, Teresa; Armes, Jo; Harris, Jenny; Miaskowski, Christine; Kotronoulas, Grigorios; Miller, Morven; Ream, Emma; Patiraki, Elizabeth; Geiger, Alexander; Berg, Geir V.; Flowerday, Adrian; Donnan, Peter; McCrone, Paul; Apostolidis, Kathi; Fox, Patricia; Furlong, Eileen; Kearney, Nora; Gibbons, Chris; Fischer, Felix; Gibbons, Chris; Coste, Joel; Martinez, Jose Valderas; Rose, Matthias; Leplege, Alain; Shingler, Sarah; Aldhouse, Natalie; Al-Zubeidi, Tamara; Trigg, Andrew; Kitchen, Helen; Davey, Antoinette; Porter, Ian; Green, Colin; Valderas, Jose M.; Coast, Joanna; Smith, Sarah; Hendriks, Jolijn; Black, Nick; Shah, Koonal; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Ramos-Goni, Juan-Manuel; Kreimeier, Simone; Herdman, Mike; Devlin, Nancy; Finch, Aureliano Paolo; Brazier, John E.; Mukuria, Clara; Zamora, Bernarda; Parkin, David; Feng, Yan; Bateman, Andrew; Herdman, Mike; Devlin, Nancy; Patton, Thomas; Gutacker, Nils; Shah, Koonal

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings contain 36 papers. The topics discussed include: using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in cancer care; validation of the long-term conditions questionnaire (LTCQ) in a diverse sample of health and social care users in England; the national institutes of health

  9. Contributing Factors and Mental Health Outcomes of First Suicide Attempt During Childhood and Adolescence: Results From a Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Stordeur, Coline; Lebeau, Gaële; Blanco, Carlos; McMahon, Kibby; Basmaci, Romain; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Delorme, Richard

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether risk factors for suicide attempts differ in children and adolescents and to categorize adulthood mental health outcomes of child and adolescent suicide attempters in the general population. Using a large (N = 34,653), nationally representative US adult sample, the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined whether individuals who first attempted suicide during childhood (under the age of 13 years) differ from those who first attempted suicide during adolescence (13 through 17 years) in (1) contributing factors for first suicide attempt, including mental disorders and traumatic experiences that occurred before the first suicide attempt, parental history of mental disorders, and family poverty and (2) adulthood mental health outcomes, including lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and quality of life measures. Suicide attempts during childhood (n = 104) were more strongly related to childhood maltreatment, while suicide attempts during adolescence (n = 415) were more strongly associated with major depressive episode. Compared to first suicide attempts during adolescence, first attempts during childhood were associated with increased risk for multiple suicide attempts (61.3% vs 32.6%), several psychiatric disorders (mania, hypomania, and panic disorder), and poorer social functioning during adulthood (all P values childhood maltreatment and early intervention for psychiatric disorders may have broad benefits to reduce not only the suffering of these children and adolescents, but also the burden of suicide. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Measuring Patient-Reported Outcomes: Key Metrics in Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Nelson, Jonas A; Klassen, Anne F; Pusic, Andrea L

    2018-01-29

    Satisfaction and improved quality of life are among the most important outcomes for patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery for a variety of diseases and conditions. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are essential tools for evaluating the benefits of newly developed surgical techniques. Modern PROMs are being developed with new psychometric approaches, such as Rasch Measurement Theory, and their measurement properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness) are rigorously tested. These advances have resulted in the availability of PROMs that provide clinically meaningful data and effectively measure functional as well as psychosocial outcomes. This article guides the reader through the steps of creating a PROM and highlights the potential research and clinical uses of such instruments. Limitations of PROMs and anticipated future directions in this field are discussed.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms reporting in Malaysian adolescents: do adolescents, parents and teachers agree with each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Salwina, Wan Ismail; Baharudin, Azlin; Nik Ruzyanei, Nik Jaafar; Midin, Marhani; Rahman, Fairuz Nazri Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical diagnosis relying on persistence of symptoms across different settings. Information are gathered from different informants including adolescents, parents and teachers. In this cross-sectional study involving 410 twelve-year old adolescents, 37 teachers and 367 parents from seven schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, reliability of ADHD symptoms among the various informants were reported. ADHD symptoms (i.e. predominantly hyperactive, predominantly inattentive and combined symptoms) were assessed by adolescents, teachers and parents, using Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-report Scale (CASS), Conner's Teachers Rating Scale (CTRS) and Conner's Parents Rating Scale (CPRS) respectively. For predominantly hyperactive symptoms, there were statistically significant, weak positive correlations between parents and teachers reporting (r=0.241, pADHD symptoms among Malaysian adolescents. While multiple informant ratings are required to facilitate the diagnosis of ADHD, effort should be taken to minimize the disagreement in reporting and better utilize the information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinician-Reported Outcome Assessments of Treatment Benefit: Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcome Assessment Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H; Patrick, Donald L; Walton, Marc K; Marquis, Patrick; Cano, Stefan; Hobart, Jeremy; Isaac, Maria; Vamvakas, Spiros; Slagle, Ashley; Molsen, Elizabeth; Burke, Laurie B

    2017-01-01

    A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status. This is the second of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment-Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. The first report provided an overview of COAs including definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement practices. This report focuses specifically on issues related to ClinRO assessments. In this report, we define three types of ClinRO assessments (readings, ratings, and clinician global assessments) and describe emerging good measurement practices in their development and evaluation. The good measurement practices include 1) defining the context of use; 2) identifying the concept of interest measured; 3) defining the intended treatment benefit on how patients feel, function, or survive reflected by the ClinRO assessment and evaluating the relationship between that intended treatment benefit and the concept of interest; 4) documenting content validity; 5) evaluating other measurement properties once content validity is established (including intra- and inter-rater reliability); 6) defining study objectives and end point(s) objectives, and defining study end points and placing study end points within the hierarchy of end points; 7) establishing interpretability in trial results; and 8) evaluating operational considerations for the implementation of

  13. The Effects of School-Based Discrimination on Adolescents of Color Sexual Health Outcomes: A Social Determinants Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respress, Brandon N; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Opara, Ijeoma

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are at the heart of disparities in sexual health outcomes among African American and Latino/a adolescents living in the United States. Schools are typically the largest and primary context in youth development. School characteristics such as peer and teacher discrimination and school performance were examined to determine whether such characteristics predict sexual behavior in adolescents of color. This study utilized a representative sample of high school age students to assess sexual risk behavior. Findings indicate that there was a clear disparity in sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. School characteristics such as teacher discrimination and Grade Point Average were significant predictors to sexual risky behaviors among adolescents of color. The study adds to the literature in examining contextual factors that are associated with adolescent sexual risk behavior, and findings provide implications for future prevention work.

  14. Using patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia: the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert; Cameron, Rosie; Norrie, John

    2009-02-01

    The primary aim of the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study (SSOS) was to assess the feasibility and utility of routinely collecting outcome data in everyday clinical settings. Data were collected over three years in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS). There were two secondary aims of SSOS: first, to compare data from patient-rated, objective, and clinician-rated outcomes, and second, to describe trends in outcome data and service use across Scotland over the three years of the study (2002-2005). This study used a naturalistic, longitudinal, observational cohort design. A representative sample of 1,015 persons with ICD-10 F20-F29 diagnoses (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorders, or delusional disorders) was assessed annually using the clinician-rated measure, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS), and the patient-reported assessment, the Avon Mental Health Measure (Avon). Objective outcomes data and information on services and interventions were collected. Data were analyzed with regression modeling. Of the 1,015 persons recruited, 78% of the cohort (N=789) completed the study. Over the study period, significant decreases were seen in the number of hospitalizations, incidence of attempted suicide and self-harm, and civil detentions. Avon scores indicated significant improvement on all subscales (behavior, social, access, and mental health) and on the total score. However, HoNOS scores on the behavior and symptom subscales did not change, scores on the impairment subscale increased significantly (indicating increased levels of impairment), and scores on the social subscale decreased significantly (indicating improved social functioning). This study has demonstrated that it is feasible within the Scottish NHS to routinely collect meaningful outcomes data in schizophrenia. Patient-reported assessments were also successfully collected and used in care plans. This model shows that it is possible to incorporate patient-reported assessments into routine

  15. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments.

  16. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: a modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froud, R.; Eldridge, S.; Kovacs, F.

    2011-01-01

    trials. METHODS: We presented experts with clinicians' views on different reporting methods and asked them to rate and comment on the suitability reporting methods for inclusion in a standardized set. Panellists developed a statement of recommendation over three online rounds. We used a modified Delphi......BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common and expensive health complaint. Many low back pain trials have been conducted, but these are reported in a variety of ways and are often difficult to interpret. AIM: To facilitate consensus on a statement recommending reporting methods for future low back pain...... process and the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method as a formal framework for establishing appropriateness and quantifying panel disagreement. RESULTS: A group of 63 experts from 14 countries participated. Consensus was reached on a statement recommending that the continuous patient-reported outcomes...

  17. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Field, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Method Eating disorders were ascertained at 14 and 16 years of age in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years following predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. Results All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR]=1.39 [95% CIs: 1.00-1.94]; BN: OR=3.39[1.25-9.20]; BED: OR=2.00 [1.06-3.75]; PD: OR=2.56 [1.38-4.74]). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR=5.72[2.22-14.72], PD: OR=4.88[2.78-8.57], subthreshold BN: OR=3.97[1.44-10.98], subthreshold BED: OR=2.32[1.43-3.75]). Whilst BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR=3.58 [1.06-12.14] and OR=6.42 [1.69-24.30]), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Conclusions Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders among adolescents. PMID:26210334

  18. Adolescent ecstasy use and depression: cause and effect, or two outcomes of home environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark; Higgins, Kathryn; Perra, Oliver; McCartan, Claire; McLaughlin, Aisling

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association between adolescent ecstasy use and depressive symptoms in adolescence. The Belfast Youth Development Study surveyed a cohort annually from age 11 to 16 years. Gender, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire emotional subscale, living arrangements, parental affluence, parent and peer attachment, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and ecstasy use were investigated as predictors of Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) outcome. Of 5371 respondents, 301 (5.6%) had an SMFQ > 15, and 1620 (30.2) had missing data for SMFQ. Around 8% of the cohort had used ecstasy by the end of follow-up. Of the non-drug users, ∼2% showed symptoms of depression, compared with 6% of those who had used alcohol, 6% of cannabis users, 6% of ecstasy users and 7% of frequent ecstasy users. Without adjustment, ecstasy users showed around a 4-fold increased odds of depressive symptoms compared with non-drug users [odds ratio (OR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10, 0.68]. Further adjustment for living arrangements, peer and parental attachment attenuated the association to under a 3-fold increase (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.94). There were no differences by frequency of use. Ecstasy use during adolescence may be associated with poorer mental health; however, this association can be explained by the confounding social influence of family dynamics. These findings could be used to aid effective evidence-based drug policies, which concentrate criminal justice and public health resources on reducing harm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia in childhood and adolescence. Clinical features and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Mima, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia has increasingly been recognized, but few investigations have examined younger patients. This study investigated 50 cases of CSF hypovolemia onset in childhood and adolescence. We analyzed causes, outcomes, and clinical features of these child and adolescent CSF hypovolemia cases. The 50 patients (25 boys, 25 girls) had shown the onset earlier than age 15. Diagnosis of probable CSF hypovolemia was made basically on clinical symptoms and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Radioisotope (RI) cisternography. For treatment, we defined epidural blood patch (EBP) indication as the early bladder filling (early BF) and all of the 50 cases received EBP. All patients suffered from one or more symptoms such as intractable headache, neck pain, vertigo, fatigue, tinnitus and visual disturbance. These symptoms did not recover with any conventional treatments. Twenty eight cases (56.0%) showed normal results on MRI. In RI cisternography, 16 cases (32.0%) showed CSF leaks (CL), 34 cases (68.0%) showed early BF. About 90% of the patients were improved by EBP. In particular, 96.0% of cases showed good or moderate recovery when onset of CSF hypovolemia and the first treatment was less than 1 year. CSF hypovolemia is not yet well recognized particularly in child and adolescent cases. Some children were misdiagnosed as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, Barre-Lieou syndrome or depression. This study indicated that EBP is also effective for younger patients. If patients suffer from various intractable symptoms including orthostatic headache, CSF hypovolemia should be considered for the differential diagnosis. (author)

  20. Contemporary outcomes of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Sudhakar; Jose, John; George, Oommen K

    Catheter based treatment has gained wide acceptance for management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ever since its introduction. Percutaneous closure in adults can be challenging because of anatomical factors including large sizes, associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and co-morbidities. This study aimed to provide comprehensive contemporary data on the safety and efficacy of percutaneous device closure of PDA in adult and adolescent population at a large referral center. This single-center retrospective analysis included 70 patients (33 adolescents and 37 adults) who underwent successful percutaneous device closure of PDA between January 2011 and February 2017.Baseline patient demographics, clinical characteristics, procedural and device related variables, and immediate outcomes during hospital stay were recorded. Patients were followed up for residual shunt and complications. Of 70 PDA device closure cases, 71.4% were females; the mean age was 23 years (range:10-58years). Devices used were 4-Cook's detachable coils, 64-occluders (ADO-I and II, Lifetech, Cardi-O-Fix), 1-vascular plug and 1-ventricular septal occluder device. Device success was achieved in all including those with very large PDAs. At 24-h post-procedure, the success rate of transcatheter intervention was 95.7%. At 6-months follow up, complete closure was observed in all (mean follow up duration-531days). In patients with severe PAH, significant immediate and sustained reduction of the mean pulmonary pressure was observed(77mmHg to 33mmHg;P=0.014). No procedure-related complications including death, device embolization and stenosis of aorta or pulmonary artery occurred. In contemporary practice, percutaneous device closure is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescent and adult PDA patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Contemporary outcomes of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catheter based treatment has gained wide acceptance for management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA ever since its introduction. Percutaneous closure in adults can be challenging because of anatomical factors including large sizes, associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH and co-morbidities. This study aimed to provide comprehensive contemporary data on the safety and efficacy of percutaneous device closure of PDA in adult and adolescent population at a large referral center. Methods: This single-center retrospective analysis included 70 patients (33 adolescents and 37 adults who underwent successful percutaneous device closure of PDA between January 2011 and February 2017.Baseline patient demographics, clinical characteristics, procedural and device related variables, and immediate outcomes during hospital stay were recorded. Patients were followed up for residual shunt and complications. Results: Of 70 PDA device closure cases, 71.4% were females; the mean age was 23 years (range:10-58years. Devices used were 4-Cook’s detachable coils, 64-occluders (ADO-I and II, Lifetech, Cardi-O-Fix, 1-vascular plug and 1-ventricular septal occluder device. Device success was achieved in all including those with very large PDAs. At 24-h post-procedure, the success rate of transcatheter intervention was 95.7%. At 6-months follow up, complete closure was observed in all (mean follow up duration-531 days. In patients with severe PAH, significant immediate and sustained reduction of the mean pulmonary pressure was observed(77 mmHg to 33 mmHg;P = 0.014. No procedure-related complications including death, device embolization and stenosis of aorta or pulmonary artery occurred. Conclusions: In contemporary practice, percutaneous device closure is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescent and adult PDA patients. Keywords: Patent ductus arteriosus, Amplatzer duct occluder, Lifetech duct occluder, Cera device, Residual shunt

  2. Italian cancer figures, report 2012: Cancer in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    children worldwide (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10- 14 years for paediatric tumours and 15-19 years for adolescents). Incidence trend analyses included cancer registries with three or more years of registration in the 5-year period, using Poisson regression models. Observed survival was computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The estimate of expected cases in the next decade was based on observed incidence rates in the most recent period, extended to the Italian estimated population of children and adolescents in the periods 2011-2015 and 2016-2020. The AIEOP database (Modello 1.01) allowed us to compare the number of patients treated and followed-up in specialized centres with expected cases based on AIRTUM estimates. The AIEOP database also provided information regarding health care migration throughout Italian regions and the number of foreign (immigrated) children treated in Italian AIEOP centres. In the period 2003-2008, 31 cancer registries reported 4,473 incident malignant neoplasms, 2,855 in children and 1,618 in adolescents. Cancer incidence rates were 164 cases per million in children aged 14 years or below and 269 cases per million in patients aged 15-19 years. Limited geographical variations emerged. In children (0-14 years) a significant increase in malignant cancer incidence was observed until 1997 (APC: +3.2%), followed by a plateau (APC: -1.1%not statistically significant).Until the late Nineties, a statistically significant increase was also observed in the incidence of all leukaemias in males (APC: +5.7%), lymphoid leukaemias (APC: +5.6%), representing 80% of all leukaemias, Hodgkin and non- Hodgkin lymphomas (APC: +6.3%). A significant decrease emerged for lymphoid leukaemia starting in 1995 (APC: -1.9%), while no substantial change in cancer incidence rates was observed in the last decade of observation for all malignant neoplasms and lymphomas. In addition, no variation emerged for malignant (according to the most recent classification) central nervous system

  3. Multicentre study of treatment outcomes in Australian adolescents and young adults commencing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischock, Leah; Kennedy, Sean E; Hayen, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of outcomes and complications of dialysis in adolescents and young adults (AYA) to inform decisions about dialysis modality in this patient population. Registry data on Australian AYA aged 13 to 20 years who commenced dialysis between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2013 were retrieved from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry and analyzed to determine associations between demographic characteristics, dialysis modality and outcomes. During the study period 300 AYA commenced dialysis at a median age of 17.2 years (IQR 15.6 to 18.6 years). Haemodialysis (HD) was the initial dialysis modality in 201 patients (67%). No significant differences between AYA receiving HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) were noted in patient gender, age, race, primary renal disease, treating centre type, remoteness of residential area, lateness of referral or period of study. Mean haemoglobin levels were lower in the HD group (P = 0.005) and significantly fewer HD patients attended school full time compared to patients managed on PD (P = 0.002 first year; P = 0.05 second year). Dialysis modality choice does not appear to be influenced by patient characteristics nor dialysis outcomes. Future research is required to examine the reasons that HD is preferred over PD and to determine the optimal method of dialysis for this age group. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Clinical Significance and Predictors of Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Diedrich, Alice; Neumayr, Christina; Fumi, Markus; Naab, Silke; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance as well as predictors of outcome for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) treated in an inpatient setting. Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms [Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2)], general psychopathology and depression were assessed in 238 patients at admission and discharge. BMI increased from 14.8 + 1.2 to 17.3 + 1.4 kg/m(2). Almost a fourth (23.6%) of the patients showed reliable changes, and 44.7% showed clinically significant changes (EDI-2). BMI change did not significantly differ between those with reliable or clinically significant change or no reliable change in EDI-2. Length of stay, depression and body dissatisfaction were negative predictors of a clinically significant change. Inpatient treatment is effective in about two thirds of adolescents with AN and should be considered when outpatient treatment fails. About one third of patients showed significant weight gain, but did not improve regarding overall ED symptomatology. Future studies should focus on treatment strategies for non-responders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Patient- and clinician- reported outcome in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Gudex, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross....... This association was not observed in bulimia nervosa (BN). We did not find a correlation between SF-36 scores and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups....

  6. [Long-term outcomes after hypospadias surgery: Sexual reported outcomes and quality of life in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, L; Bouali, O; Moscovici, J; Huyghe, E; Pienkowski, C; Rischmann, P; Galinier, P; Game, X

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate outcomes and long-term sexual quality of life after hypospadias surgery. Seventeen-years-old patients operated for a posterior hypospadias in childhood were included in a transversal study. Fifteen patients, among the forty children treated since 1997, accepted to participate. These young men (mean age at the first surgery was 27.9±20months) were clinically reviewed and responded to questionnaires (EUROQOL 5, IIEF15 and non-validated questionnaire). This study arises about 8.4±5years after the last visit in paediatric department. Mean study age was 21.2±4.7years. One third of patients thought that global quality of life was distorted. Although 33% of the patients had erectile dysfunction, 80% were satisfied with their sexual quality of life. The most important complains were relative to the penile appearance. Number of procedures was not predictive of patient's satisfaction about penile function and appearance. Thirty-three percents of the patients would have been satisfied to have psychological and medical support. They would be interested in having contact with patients who suffered from the same congenital abnormality. These patients had functional and esthetical disturbances. This visit leads to a specific visit in 20% cases. In this study, medical follow-up does not seem to be counselling and had to be adapted. Adequate follow-up transition between paediatric and adult departments especially during adolescence seems to be necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer relationships and adolescents' academic and non-academic outcomes: same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of school engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (≤16 years of age had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.6 and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5. In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n = 356 and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa.

  9. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  10. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  11. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI) in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Glenn R; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-01-01

    Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours). In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau), in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.

  12. Behavioral and pathophysiological outcomes associated with caffeine consumption and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Yamakawa

    Full Text Available Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI, we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours. In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau, in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.

  13. Effects of outcome on the covariance between risk level and brain activity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Dai, Shouping; Gao, Peihong; Du, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Du, Guijin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often have impaired risky decision-making abilities, and IGD-related functional changes have been observed during neuroimaging studies of decision-making tasks. However, it is still unclear how feedback (outcomes of decision-making) affects the subsequent risky decision-making in individuals with IGD. In this study, twenty-four adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the balloon analog risk task (BART) to evaluate the effects of prior outcomes on brain activity during subsequent risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD. The covariance between risk level and activation of the bilateral ventral medial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right ventral striatum (VS), left hippocampus/parahippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus/fusiform gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus demonstrated interaction effects of group by outcome ( P  brain activation was significantly greater in adolescents with IGD compared with HCs after a negative outcome occurred ( P  brain regions related to value estimation (prefrontal cortex), anticipation of rewards (VS), and emotional-related learning (hippocampus/parahippocampus), which may be one of the underlying neural mechanisms of disadvantageous risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD.

  14. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  15. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure’s (PROMs Conference Sheffield 2016: advances in patient reported outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Croudace

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents S1 Using computerized adaptive testing Tim Croudace S2 Well-being: what is it, how does it compare to health and what are the implications of using it to inform health policy John Brazier O1 “Am I going to get better?”—Using PROMs to inform patients about the likely benefit of surgery Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street O2 Identifying Patient Reported Outcome Measures for an electronic Personal Health Record Dan Robotham, Samantha Waterman, Diana Rose, Safarina Satkunanathan, Til Wykes O3 Examining the change process over time qualitatively: transformative learning and response shift Nasrin Nasr, Pamela Enderby O4 Developing a PROM to evaluate self-management in diabetes (HASMID: giving patients a voice Jill Carlton, Donna Rowen, Jackie Elliott, John Brazier, Katherine Stevens, Hasan Basarir, Alex Labeit O5 Development of the Primary Care Outcomes Questionnaire (PCOQ Mairead Murphy, Sandra Hollinghurst, Chris Salisbury O6 Developing the PKEX score- a multimodal assessment tool for patients with shoulder problems Dominic Marley, James Wilson, Amy Barrat, Bibhas Roy O7 Applying multiple imputation to multi-item patient reported outcome measures: advantages and disadvantages of imputing at the item, sub-scale or score level Ines Rombach, Órlaith Burke, Crispin Jenkinson, Alastair Gray, Oliver Rivero-Arias O8 Integrating Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs into routine primary care for patients with multimorbidity: a feasibility study Ian Porter, Jaheeda Gangannagaripalli, Charlotte Bramwell, Jose M. Valderas O9 eRAPID: electronic self-report and management of adverse-events for pelvic radiotherapy (RT patients Patricia Holch, Susan Davidson, Jacki Routledge, Ann Henry, Kevin Franks, Alex Gilbert, Kate Absolom & Galina Velikova O10 Patient reported outcomes (PROMs based recommendation in clinical guidance for the management of chronic conditions in the United Kingdom Ian Porter, Jose M.Valderas O11 Cross-sectional and

  16. Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Carolina Bertagnoli; Petty, Maria Luiza Blanques; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130-0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  18. The role of siblings in adoption outcomes and experiences from adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Flood, Margaux E; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-04-01

    In many families, siblings play important roles in shaping each other's outcomes and experiences across development. In adoptive families, siblings may affect adoptees' feelings about adoption and birth family contact. Among "target adoptees" (i.e., 1 participating adopted individual within adoptive families) with siblings who may have also been adopted or the biological children of the adoptive parents, we examined how adoption experiences and individual adjustment from adolescence into emerging adulthood were associated with sibling relationship dynamics. We present 3 studies using longitudinal, mixed method data within the same overarching sample of adoptive families. Study 1 was a follow-up to Berge et al.'s (2006) study of adolescent adoptees and their adopted siblings with birth family contact; we found evidence of changes in the status of contact collectively experienced by 26 adopted sibling pairs when target adoptees were emerging adults. In Study 2, we found that target adoptees (n = 91) with siblings (adopted or not) who were more involved with target adoptees' birth family contact demonstrated more favorable behavioral outcomes than target adoptees who had uninvolved siblings. Finally in Study 3, for target adoptees with siblings who were also adopted (n = 51), results showed that target adoptees felt more positively about their own adoption when siblings expressed similar positive feelings about individual adoption experiences. Implications of our findings are discussed in terms of the enduring contributions of sibling relationships from childhood into adulthood and the unique ways in which adoptive siblings are important in shaping one another's experiences of adoption. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Multiple Atraumatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures in an Adolescent with Suprasellar Germinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Wong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with multiple atraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures in an adolescent with suprasellar germinoma and also review of relevant literature. The patient suffered from a rare adolescent brain tumour with common complications which are often overlooked and give rise to significant morbidity. Suprasellar germinoma is an intracranial neoplasm, that in addition to its rarity, has variable clinical presentation. Despite appropriate treatment and good outcome, tumour related morbidity is still of concern for these patients.

  20. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  1. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  2. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  3. Predictors of parent-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Arnaud, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Parent-reporting is needed to examine Quality of Life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) across all severities. This study examines whether QoL changes between childhood and adolescence, and what predicts adolescent QoL. METHOD: SPARCLE is a European cohort study of children with CP...... domain). Associations were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Between childhood and adolescence, average QoL reduced in six domains (1.3-3.8 points, pChildhood...... QoL was a strong predictor of all domains of adolescent QoL. Severe impairments of motor function, IQ or communication predicted higher adolescent QoL on some domains; except that severe motor impairment predicted lower adolescent QoL on the Autonomy domain. More psychological problems and higher...

  4. Adolescents in Public Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: The Impacts of Sex and Race on Referrals and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…

  5. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  6. Adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents: a study of self-image and outcome at an intensive outpatient program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezelius, Christina; Wahlund, Björn; Carlsson, Lars; Wiberg, Britt

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this clinical study was to explore how adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents report their perceived self-image, using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), before and after treatment at an intensive outpatient program. Another aim was to relate the self-image of the young patients to the outcome measures body mass index (BMI) and Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) score. A total of 93 individuals (32 adolescents, 34 mothers, and 27 fathers) completed the SASB self-report questionnaire before and after family-based treatment combined with an individual approach at a child and youth psychiatry day care unit. The patients were also assessed using the C-GAS, and their BMI was calculated. The self-image (SASB) of the adolescent patients was negative before treatment and changed to positive after treatment, especially regarding the clusters self-love (higher) and self-blame (lower). A positive correlation between change in self-love and in C-GAS score was found, which rose significantly. Increased self-love was an important factor, explaining a variance of 26 %. BMI also increased significantly, but without any correlation to change in SASB. The patients' fathers exhibited low on the cluster self-protection. Mothers' profiles were in line with a non-clinical group. Results indicate that the self-image of adolescent patients change from negative to positive alongside with a mainly positive outcome of the ED after treatment. Low self-protection according to SASB among fathers suggests the need for greater focus on their involvement.

  7. An Online Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls: Posttest and 1-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.

  8. Do Sublaminar Polyester Bands Affect the Outcomes of Postoperative Infections After Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Samir P; Angelliaume, Audrey; Vidal, Christophe; Mazda, Keyvan; Ilharreborde, Brice

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) after adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery ranges from 0.5% to 7%. There is currently a regain of interest in hybrid constructs, combining lumbar pedicle screws and thoracic sublaminar bands, but some authors have raised concerns about the risk of SSI and the difficulty of bacterial eradication. The goal of this study was therefore to assess the outcomes of SSI after AIS surgery using sublaminar bands. A total of 524 consecutive patients operated for AIS using sublaminar bands between June 2006 and June 2014 were included. SSI cases were identified and analyzed retrospectively. Radiologic and functional outcomes were evaluated at follow-up using EOS imaging and SRS 30 scores, and compared with a control group. The overall SSI rate was 5.3%, with a majority of monomicrobial (86%) infections occurring in the first 6 weeks postoperative (93%). The most frequent pathogens were skin germs (Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes) with a community profile. Patients were treated successfully with surgical debridement without implants removal, associated with 6 weeks of antibiotherapy. However, 25% of patients required >1 surgical debridement. Instrumentation removal was decided in the 2 cases with late SSI, and performed uneventfully. Radiologic and functional outcomes at follow-up were not affected by the occurrence of SSI. Sublaminar bands are not associated with a higher risk of infection. However, the SSI rate in the current study stands in the upper range of the literature, and other preventive strategies should be considered. In case of early infection, bands removal is not necessary to obtain pathogen eradication, but the sublaminar implants can be pulled out safely in case of late SSI. The occurrence of SSI does not alter the outcomes at follow-up. Level III.

  9. Systematic review of effectiveness of universal self-regulation-based interventions and their effects on distal health and social outcomes in children and adolescents: review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anuja; Hale, Daniel; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell

    2017-08-29

    Growing evidence suggests that childhood and adolescence self-regulation contributes to multiple health, educational and social outcomes. Considering the potential impact of self-regulation skills on improved life chances in conjunction with evidence suggesting that self-regulation can be modified by interventions, there is a need to identify interventions which are most effective in improving childhood and adolescence self-regulation. The present systematic review was designed to determine the effectiveness of universal interventions focused on enhancing the self-regulation of children and adolescents. As secondary outcomes, we will also examine the effectiveness of such interventions on distal health and social outcomes. Eligible studies include randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) reporting on universal interventions designed to improve self-regulation in childhood and adolescence (age 0-19 years). The following databases will be searched for peer-reviewed publications using an iterative search strategy: Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL Plus, British Education Index, Child Development & Adolescent Studies and CENTRAL without applying language or date filters. Additionally, reference lists and citations of included studies will be searched for eligible studies. A 10% proportion of the total titles and abstracts will be randomly selected and screened independently by two reviewers (AP and DH). Results will be compared to ensure less than 5% discrepancy, followed by screening of all results by one reviewer (AP). Full-text review and data collection will be independently performed by two reviewers. Any discrepancies will be solved by mutual discussion, and if unresolved, a third reviewer (RV) will be consulted. Meta-analysis will be conducted to quantify trial effects, if the data is sufficiently homogenous to allow quantitative synthesis. Otherwise, results will be described narratively. The evidence derived from the systematic

  10. SRTR center-specific reporting tools: Posttransplant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, D M; Shearon, T H; O'Keefe, J; Wong, H-H; Berg, C L; Rosendale, J D; Delmonico, F L; Webb, R L; Wolfe, R A

    2006-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring performance--be it waiting list and posttransplant outcomes by a transplant center, or organ donation success by an organ procurement organization and its partnering hospitals--is an important component of ensuring good care for people with end-stage organ failure. Many parties have an interest in examining these outcomes, from patients and their families to payers such as insurance companies or the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; from primary caregivers providing patient counseling to government agencies charged with protecting patients. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients produces regular, public reports on the performance of transplant centers and organ procurement organizations. This article explains the statistical tools used to prepare these reports, with a focus on graft survival and patient survival rates of transplant centers--especially the methods used to fairly and usefully compare outcomes of centers that serve different populations. The article concludes with a practical application of these statistics--their use in screening transplant center performance to identify centers that may need remedial action by the OPTN/UNOS Membership and Professional Standards Committee.

  11. Brief Report: Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Woody, Mary L.; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11–18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. PMID:27498000

  12. Perceived health status in self-reported adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort.......A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort....

  13. Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes in the Wild: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabitza, Federico; Dui, Linda Greta

    2018-01-01

    Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) is generally seen as an effective way to assess the efficacy and appropriateness of medical interventions, from the patients' perspective. In 2016 the Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute established a digitized program of PROs collection from spine, hip and knee surgery patients. In this work, we re-port the findings from the data analysis of the responses collected so far about the complementarity of PROs with respect to the data reported by the clinicians, and about the main biases that can undermine their validity and reliability. Although PROs collection is recognized as being far more complex than just asking the patients "how they feel" on a regular basis and it entails costs and devoted electronic platforms, we advocate their further diffusion for the assessment of health technology and clinical procedures.

  14. Long-Term Outcome of Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Adolescents: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 950 Patients with a Minimum of 3 years Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoar, Saeed; Mahmoudzadeh, Habibollah; Naderan, Mohammad; Bagheri-Hariri, Shahram; Wong, Catherine; Parizi, Ahmad Shahabeddin; Shoar, Nasrin

    2017-12-01

    Obesity in pediatric and adolescent population has reached a universal pandemic. This study aimed to summarize the literature on the longest available outcome of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese adolescents. A systematic review was conducted to pool available data on the longest available (>3 years) weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcome in adolescent bariatric surgery. A total of 14 studies reporting the result of bariatric surgery after 3 years in 950 morbidly obese adolescents were included. Preoperative age and BMI ranged from 12 to 19 years and from 26 to 91 kg/m 2 , respectively. Females were the predominant gender (72.8%). Laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 453) and adjustable gastric banding (n = 265) were the most common bariatric procedure performed. The number of patients at the latest follow-up was 677 (range from 2 to 23 years). On average, patients lost 13.3 kg/m 2 of their BMI. Among comorbidities, only diabetes mellitus resolved or improved dramatically. Of 108 readmissions, 91 led to reoperation. There was a weight regain adolescents who underwent a bariatric procedure. Although bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of adolescent morbid obesity, long-term data is scarce regarding its nutritional and developmental complication in this growing population of patients.

  15. Evidence, Goals, and Outcomes in Stuttering Treatment: Applications With an Adolescent Who Stutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Anne K

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this clinical focus article is to summarize 1 possible process that a clinician might follow in designing and conducting a treatment program with John, a 14-year-old male individual who stutters. The available research evidence, practitioner experience, and consideration of individual preferences are combined to address goals, treatment procedures, and outcomes for John. The stuttering treatment research literature includes multiple well-designed reviews and individual studies that have shown the effectiveness of prolonged speech (and smooth speech and related variations) for improving stuttered speech and for improving social, emotional, cognitive, and related variables in adolescents who stutter. Based on that evidence, and incorporating the additional elements of practitioner experience and client preferences, this clinical focus article suggests that John would be likely to benefit from a treatment program based on prolonged speech. The basic structure of 1 possible such program is also described, with an emphasis on the goals and outcomes that John could be expected to achieve.

  16. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  17. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  18. Educational and emotional health outcomes in adolescence following maltreatment in early childhood: A population-based study of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambati, Nisreen; Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan

    2018-07-01

    Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years. 1118 (8.0%) children were emotionally maltreated and 375 (2.7%) were physically maltreated before the age of 5. There were too few cases of sexual abuse to be considered. Positive outcomes were operationalized as achieving 5 or more grade A*-C GCSE exam grades at 16 years and scores above the cohort median on the self-report Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and Bachmann Self-Esteem Scale at 17.5 years. The associations of individual, family and community covariates with successful adaptation to the adversity of maltreatment were investigated using logistic regression. School related factors, including engagement in extracurricular activities, satisfaction with school and not being bullied were the most important in facilitating resilience in educational attainment, self-esteem and wellbeing. Good communication and social skills was the most protective individual trait. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that family factors were associated with resilience to maltreatment. School-based interventions are recommended to promote positive adaptation following parental maltreatment. Future research should evaluate outcomes across the life-course to understand whether the protective influences of school persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Experiences of weight teasing in adolescence and weight-related outcomes in adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Wall, Melanie M; Chen, Chen; Bryn Austin, S; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-07-01

    Weight-based teasing is common among youth, but little is known about its long-term impact on health outcomes. We aimed to 1) identify whether weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts adverse eating and weight-related outcomes 15years later; and 2) determine whether teasing source (peers or family) affects these outcomes. Data were collected from Project EAT-IV (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) (N=1830), a longitudinal cohort study that followed a diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (baseline) to 2015 (follow-up). Weight-based teasing at baseline was examined as a predictor of weight status, binge eating, dieting, eating as a coping strategy, unhealthy weight control, and body image at 15-year follow-up. After adjusting for demographic covariates and baseline body mass index (BMI), weight-based teasing in adolescence predicted higher BMI and obesity 15years later. For women, these longitudinal associations occurred across peer and family-based teasing sources, but for men, only peer-based teasing predicted higher BMI. The same pattern emerged for adverse eating outcomes; weight-based teasing from peers and family during adolescence predicted binge eating, unhealthy weight control, eating to cope, poor body image, and recent dieting in women 15years later. For men, teasing had fewer longitudinal associations. Taken together, this study shows that weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts obesity and adverse eating behaviors well into adulthood, with differences across gender and teasing source. Findings underscore the importance of addressing weight-based teasing in educational and health initiatives, and including the family environment as a target of anti-bullying intervention, especially for girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations of Marital Satisfaction to Peer Outcomes in Adolescent Boys: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    1995-01-01

    Examined connection between parents' marital relationship and parenting styles to peer-related outcomes. Analysis of boys' (n=62) and parents' reports on marriage over a four-year period indicate that children who experience emotional closeness within the family might not need high levels of social attention and approval from peers. (RJM)

  1. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...

  2. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Kristian; Ghazanfar, Misbah N.; Thomsen, Simon F.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is an itching skin disease which persists for more than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria has great impact on the daily life of the patient, and the fluctuating nature of the symptoms complicates the monitoring and treatment of the disease. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers...... to identify and measure disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Consequently, use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is crucial when evaluating and monitoring different aspects of chronic urticaria such as disease activity/severity, disease control, and quality of life. We present an overview...... of seven different PROs used in chronic urticaria and highlight their strengths, limitations, and use in clinical practice and research....

  3. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  4. Adolescent with tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue.

  5. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teachers of adolescents with AS/HFA completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The informants reported significantly more psychiatric symptoms, especially withdrawn, anxious/depressed, social and attention problems, in adolescents with AS/HFA than in controls. In contrast to findings in the general population, the psychiatric problems of adolescents with AS/HFA are well acknowledged by multiple informants, including self-reports. However, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more commonly reported by adolescents with AS/HFA and their teachers than their parents, indicating that some emotional distress may be hidden from their parents.

  6. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  7. Posterior cortex epilepsy surgery in childhood and adolescence: Predictors of long-term seizure outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramantani, Georgia; Stathi, Angeliki; Brandt, Armin; Strobl, Karl; Schubert-Bast, Susanne; Wiegand, Gert; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; van Velthoven, Vera; Zentner, Josef; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Bast, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the long-term seizure outcome of children and adolescents who were undergoing epilepsy surgery in the parietooccipital cortex and determine their predictive factors. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 50 consecutive patients aged 11.1 (mean) ± 5.1 (standard deviation) years at surgery. All patients but one had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible lesion. Resections were parietal in 40%, occipital in 32%, and parietooccipital in 28% cases; 24% patients additionally underwent a resection of the posterior border of the temporal lobe. Etiology included focal cortical dysplasia in 44%, benign tumors (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, angiocentric glioma, and pilocystic astrocytoma) in 32%, peri- or postnatal ischemic lesions in 16%, and tuberous sclerosis in 8% cases. At last follow-up (mean 8 years, range 1.5-18 years), 60% patients remained seizure-free (Engel class I): 30% had discontinued and 20% had reduced antiepileptic drugs. Most seizure recurrences (71%) occurred within the first 6 months, and only three patients presented with seizures ≥2 years after surgery. Independent predictors of seizure recurrence included left-sided as well as parietal epileptogenic zones and resections. Longer epilepsy duration to surgery was identified as the only modifiable independent predictor of seizure recurrence. Our study demonstrates that posterior cortex epilepsy surgery is highly effective in terms of lasting seizure control and antiepileptic drug cessation in selected pediatric candidates. Most importantly, our data supports the early consideration of surgical intervention in children and adolescents with refractory posterior cortex epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Asthma outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple morbidities: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Leo, Harvey L; Baptist, Alan P; Cao, Yanyun; Brown, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    More Americans are managing multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and trends are particularly alarming in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of 9 chronic conditions in children and adolescents with and without asthma, and adverse asthma outcomes associated with having MCCs. Cross-sectional interview data from the National Health Interview Survey were analyzed (N = 66,790) between 2007 and 2012 in youth 0 to 17 years of age. Bivariate analysis methods and multivariate generalized linear regression were used to examine associations. Five percent of children with asthma had 1 or more coexisting health conditions. The prevalence of 1 or more comorbidities was greater among those with asthma than those without (5.07% [95% CI: 4.5-5.6] vs. 2.73% [95% CI: 2.6-2.9]). Those with asthma were twice as likely to have co-occurring hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5-3.2]) and arthritis (PR = 2.7 [95% CI: 1.8-4.0]) compared with those without asthma. Every additional chronic condition with asthma was associated with a greater likelihood of an asthma attack (PR = 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2]), all-cause emergency department visits (PR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]), and missed school days (PR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.7-3.2]). Children and adolescents with asthma in the US who suffer from MCCs have increased asthma symptoms, missed school days, and all-cause emergency department visits. Further research on optimal management strategies for this group is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  10. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  11. Health-related quality of life and cognitive outcomes among child and adolescent survivors of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Jang, Ren-Chin; Liao, Yu-Mei; Yang, Pinchen

    2010-12-01

    Long-term survival of childhood leukemia has become a reality with treatment advancement; hence, the need to assess the survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQL) is essential. Although a growing number of Western studies have documented the considerable impact of diagnosis and treatment on HRQL in pediatric leukemia survivors, little finding has been reported in non-Western developing countries. We used a previously validated 14-dimensional questionnaire, Child Health Questionnaire 50-item Parent Form (CHQ-PF 50), to examine the perceived HRQL of 32 child/adolescent survivors, currently aged 13.17 ± 2.49 years, who had experienced first complete continuous remission from leukemia for at least 3 years. The HRQL status was compared with that obtained from community subjects (N = 154) and survivors' nonadult siblings (N = 30). Intelligence quotients (IQ) and computerized neuropsychological assessments were performed for subjects. The HRQL of leukemia survivors was noted to be worse than that of community children and nonadult siblings as reflected by significantly lower scores in both the physical summary and the psychosocial summary score of CHQ-PF 50. 15.6% of the survivors had impaired intelligence (estimated IQ below 70). 27.8% of the adolescents were impaired in the cognitive domains as assessed by neuropsychological tests. In this Taiwanese single institution experience, pediatric leukemia survivors carried a morbidity burden into their teen years as reflected by worse HRQL than controls. These findings may guide the support required by this population.

  12. Gas tax fund and public transit fund outcomes report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Federal gas tax and public transit agreements were signed in 2005 by the Government of Canada, the Province of Ontario, the Association of Municipalities of Ontario (AMO) and the City of Toronto in order to address long-term community sustainability and invest in municipal infrastructure. The agreement committed to providing $1.9 billion to Ontario municipalities over a 5-year period. An additional $2.4 billion has been provided for a further 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. The funds are used by communities to invest in capacity building or environmentally sustainable municipal infrastructure projects. This report identified the intermediate and ultimate outcomes of the federal gas tax fund and public transit fund as of December 2008. Outcomes were presented in the categories of community energy systems, public transit, water and wastewater, solid waste, and roads and bridges. Funding highlights and economic spin-offs for the projects were also presented, as well as summaries of ancillary social outcomes. 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Measurement Properties of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire in Adolescent Patients With Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Gabriel; Joncas, Julie; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Beauséjour, Marie; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Prospective validation of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire French-Canadian version (SRS-22fv) in adolescent patients with spondylolisthesis. To determine the measurement properties of the SRS-22fv. The SRS-22 is widely used for the assessment of health-related quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and other spinal deformities. Spondylolisthesis has an important effect on quality of life. The instrument was previously used in this population, although its measurement properties remained unknown. We aim to determine its reliability, factorial, concurrent validity, and its discriminant capacity in an adolescent spondylolisthesis population. The SRS-22fv was tested in 479 subjects (272 patients with spondylolisthesis, 143 with AIS, and 64 controls) at a single institution. Its reliability was measured using the coefficient of internal consistency, concurrent validity by the short form-12 (SF-12v2 French version) and discriminant validity using multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and multivariate linear regression. The SRS-22fv showed a good global internal consistency (spondylolisthesis: Cronbach α = 0.91, AIS: 0.86, and controls: 0.78) in all its domains for spondylolisthesis patients. It showed a factorial structure consistent with the original questionnaire, with 60% of explained variance under four factors. Moderate to high correlation coefficients were found for specifically corresponding domains between SRS-22fv and SF-12v2. Boys had higher scores than do girls, scores worsened with increasing age and body mass index. Analysis of covariance showed statistically significant differences between patients with spondylolisthesis, patients with AIS, and controls when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, pain, function, and self-image scores. In the spondylolisthesis group, scores on all domains and mean total scores were significantly lower in surgical candidates and in patients with high

  14. Effects of outcome on the covariance between risk level and brain activity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD often have impaired risky decision-making abilities, and IGD-related functional changes have been observed during neuroimaging studies of decision-making tasks. However, it is still unclear how feedback (outcomes of decision-making affects the subsequent risky decision-making in individuals with IGD. In this study, twenty-four adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the balloon analog risk task (BART to evaluate the effects of prior outcomes on brain activity during subsequent risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD. The covariance between risk level and activation of the bilateral ventral medial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right ventral striatum (VS, left hippocampus/parahippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus/fusiform gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus demonstrated interaction effects of group by outcome (P < 0.05, AlphaSim correction. The regions with interactive effects were defined as ROI, and ROI-based intergroup comparisons showed that the covariance between risk level and brain activation was significantly greater in adolescents with IGD compared with HCs after a negative outcome occurred (P < 0.05. Our results indicated that negative outcomes affected the covariance between risk level and activation of the brain regions related to value estimation (prefrontal cortex, anticipation of rewards (VS, and emotional-related learning (hippocampus/parahippocampus, which may be one of the underlying neural mechanisms of disadvantageous risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD.

  15. Cognitive reserve and patient-reported outcomes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation and compensation in the face of changing pathology may be better understood by considering the concept of cognitive reserve, which may protect against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present work investigates the relationship between cognitive reserve and demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Cross-sectional data (n=1142) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures, the O*NET occupational classification system, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. PROs were assessed using generic (SF -12v2, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Ryff Psychological Well-Being, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale) and disease-specific (Patient-Determined Disease Steps, Performance Scales) measures. Psychometric analysis created unidimensional cognitive reserve subscales. Regression models examined relationships between cognitive reserve, demographic characteristics, and PROs. The cognitive reserve measures assessed distinct but related constructs. Individuals with high cognitive reserve were more likely to report lower levels of perceived disability and perceived cognitive deficits, and higher levels of physical health, mental health, and well-being. Both active and passive reserve are associated with better outcomes, independent of demographic factors, and these associations apply to both generic and disease-specific outcomes. This expanded measurement of cognitive reserve captures both the passive and active aspects of the construct, and there is a consistent and substantial relationship with PROs. Individuals with high passive and/or active reserve are healthier and experience higher levels of well-being.

  16. Selective versus hyperselective posterior fusions in Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: comparison of radiological and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, B; Ferrero, E; Angelliaume, A; Lefèvre, Y; Accadbled, F; Simon, A L; de Gauzy, J Sales; Mazda, K

    2017-06-01

    Recent literature has reported that the ]progression risk of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) during adulthood had been underestimated. Surgery is, therefore, proposed more to young patients with progressive curves. However, choice of the approach and fusion levels remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the length of posterior fusion on clinical and radiological outcomes in Lenke 5 AIS. All Lenke 5 AIS operated between 2008 and 2012 were included with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups according to the length of fusion. In the first group (selective), the upper instrumented level (UIV) was the upper end vertebra of the main structural curve and distally the fusion was extended to the stable and neutral vertebra, according to Lenke's classification. In the second group (hyperselective), shorter fusions were performed and the number of levels fused depended on the location of the apex of the curve (at maximum, 2 levels above and below, according to Hall's criteria). Apart from the fusion level selection, the surgical procedure was similar in both groups. Radiological outcomes and SRS-22 scores were reported. 78 patients were included (35 selective and 43 hyperselective). The number of levels fused was significantly higher in the first group (7.8 ± 3 vs 4.3 ± 0.6). None of the patients was fused to L4 in selective group. No correlation was found between length of fusion and complication rate. Eight patients had adding-on phenomenon among which 6 (75%) had initially undergone hyperselective fusions and had significantly higher postoperative lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt. In the adding-on group, LIV was located above the last touching vertebra (LTV) in 62.5% of the cases and above the stable vertebra (SV) in 87.5%. Patients in the selective group reported a significantly lower score in the SRS function domain. Coronal alignment was restored in both groups. Hyperselective

  17. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES (PROs): PUTTING THE PATIENT PERSPECTIVE IN PATIENT-CENTERED OUTCOMES RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Claire F.; Jensen, Roxanne E.; Segal, Jodi B.; Wu, Albert W.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to improve care quality and patient outcomes by providing information that patients, clinicians, and family members need regarding treatment alternatives, and emphasizing patient input to inform the research process. PCOR capitalizes on available data sources and generates new evidence to provide timely and relevant information and can be conducted using prospective data collection, disease registries, electronic medical records, aggregated results from prior research, and administrative claims. Given PCOR’s emphasis on the patient perspective, methods to incorporate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are critical. PROs are defined by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration as “Any report coming directly from patients… about a health condition and its treatment.” However, PROs have not routinely been collected in a way that facilitates their use in PCOR. Electronic medical records, disease registries, and administrative data have only rarely collected, or been linked to, PROs. Recent technological developments facilitate the electronic collection of PROs and linkage of PRO data, offering new opportunities for putting the patient perspective in PCOR. This paper describes the importance of and methods for using PROs for PCOR. We (1) define PROs; (2) identify how PROs can be used in PCOR, and the critical role of electronic data methods for facilitating the use of PRO data in PCOR; (3) outline the challenges and key unanswered questions that need to be addressed for the routine use of PROs in PCOR; and (4) discuss policy and research interventions to accelerate the integration of PROs with clinical data. PMID:23774513

  18. Poor Outcomes in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Adolescents Undergoing Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Paryani, Roma; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Manglani, Mamta; Valiyakath, Asmaa; Saranchuk, Peter; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10–19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) project in Mumbai, India. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. Results The median age was 16 (IQR 14–18) years and 54% were female. Five (46%) adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB), two (18%) extrapulmonary disease (EPTB) and four (36%) had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8–250.5). By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5%) patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64%) had poor outcomes: four (36.5%) died and three (27%) defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100%) on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs): two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. Conclusions Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  19. Poor outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Isaakidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF project in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. RESULTS: The median age was 16 (IQR 14-18 years and 54% were female. Five (46% adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB, two (18% extrapulmonary disease (EPTB and four (36% had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8-250.5. By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5% patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64% had poor outcomes: four (36.5% died and three (27% defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100% on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs: two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial

  20. Poor outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Paryani, Roma; Khan, Samsuddin; Mansoor, Homa; Manglani, Mamta; Valiyakath, Asmaa; Saranchuk, Peter; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV-co-infected adolescents. This study aimed to present the intermediate outcomes of HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-19 years receiving second-line anti-TB treatment in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) project in Mumbai, India. A retrospective review of medical records of 11 adolescents enrolled between July 2007 and January 2013 was undertaken. Patients were initiated on either empirical or individualized second-line ambulatory anti-TB treatment under direct observation. The median age was 16 (IQR 14-18) years and 54% were female. Five (46%) adolescents had pulmonary TB (PTB), two (18%) extrapulmonary disease (EPTB) and four (36%) had both. Median CD4 count at the time of MDR-TB diagnosis was 162.7 cells/µl (IQR: 84.8-250.5). By January 2013, eight patients had final and 3 had interim outcomes. Favourable results were seen in four (36.5%) patients: one was cured and three were still on treatment with negative culture results. Seven patients (64%) had poor outcomes: four (36.5%) died and three (27%) defaulted. Three of the patients who died never started on antiretroviral and/or TB treatment and one died 16 days after treatment initiation. Two of the defaulted died soon after default. All patients (100%) on-treatment experienced adverse events (AEs): two required permanent discontinuation of the culprit drug and two were hospitalized due to AEs. No patient required permanent discontinuation of the entire second-line TB or antiretroviral regimens. Early mortality and mortality after default were the most common reasons for poor outcomes in this study. Early mortality suggests the need for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, and adolescents might benefit from active contact-tracing and immediate referral. Default occurred at different times, suggesting the need for continuous, intensified and individualized psychosocial support for co-infected adolescents

  1. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure?s (PROMs) Conference Sheffield 2016: advances in patient reported outcomes research

    OpenAIRE

    Croudace, Tim; Brazier, John; Gutacker, Nils; Street, Andrew; Robotham, Dan; Waterman, Samantha; Rose, Diana; Satkunanathan, Safarina; Wykes, Til; Nasr, Nasrin; Enderby, Pamela; Carlton, Jill; Rowen, Donna; Elliott, Jackie; Brazier, John

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents S1 Using computerized adaptive testing Tim Croudace S2 Well-being: what is it, how does it compare to health and what are the implications of using it to inform health policy John Brazier O1 “Am I going to get better?”—Using PROMs to inform patients about the likely benefit of surgery Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street O2 Identifying Patient Reported Outcome Measures for an electronic Personal Health Record Dan Robotham, Samantha Waterman, Diana Rose, Safarina Satkunanathan, Til W...

  2. Brief report: The role of three dimensions of sexual well-being in adolescents' life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated With Participation and Change Over Time in Domestic Life, Peer Relations, and School for Adolescents With and Without Self-Reported Neurodevelopmental Disorders. A Follow-Up Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Lygnegård

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though participation in everyday events is a vital part in the fulfillment of human rights, adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD often face participation restrictions in every-day activities. Few studies have investigated the predictors for participation in different contexts, over time and in relation to the same outcome variables.Objective: Objective of the current study was therefore to investigate predictors of change in participation operationalized as frequency of attendance and perceived importance in domestic life activities, peer related activities, and school activities as experienced by adolescents with and without self-reported neurodevelopmental disorders.Method: Associations with participation, both in terms of frequency and perceived importance, in domestic life, peer relations, and the school setting were investigated using six independent variables measuring experience of time and self, sex, age, stress, support from siblings, and atmosphere in family at two-time (with ~2 years in between. The sample consisted of adolescents with and without self-reported NDD (n = 916. Adolescents with self-reported NDD were n = 154 and adolescents without self-reported NDD was n = 762. Data was collected via self-reported questionnaires administered in schools.Results: Three key findings are presented. (1 more factors were associated with participation outcomes at time1 for adolescents without NDD than for adolescents with NDD, but this difference in the number of factors decreases with time; (2 few associations were related to time for both adolescents with and without NDD; and (3 patterns of predicting variables were different for adolescents with and without NDD.Conclusion: The findings indicate that the factors related to participation in and outside school differs between groups, when the impairment or disability is not considered as a predictor for participation. This study supports the need for using a multidimensional

  4. Overcoming barriers to implementing patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Christopher A; Listhaus, Alyson; Covarrubias, Constanza M; Schmidt, Siegfried Of; Mackey, Sean; Carek, Peter J; Fillingim, Roger B; Hurley, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, the authors describe the implementation of a system for collecting patient-reported outcomes and integrating results in an electronic health record. The objective was to identify lessons learned in overcoming barriers to collecting and integrating patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record. The authors analyzed qualitative data in 42 documents collected from system development meetings, written feedback from users, and clinical observations with practice staff, providers, and patients. Guided by the Unified Theory on the Adoption and Use of Information Technology, 5 emergent themes were identified. Two barriers emerged: (i) uncertain clinical benefit and (ii) time, work flow, and effort constraints. Three facilitators emerged: (iii) process automation, (iv) usable system interfaces, and (v) collecting patient-reported outcomes for the right patient at the right time. For electronic health record-integrated patient-reported outcomes to succeed as useful clinical tools, system designers must ensure the clinical relevance of the information being collected while minimizing provider, staff, and patient burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A comparative analysis of functional outcomes in adolescents and young adults with lower-extremity bone sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Rai, Shesh N; Carlson, Claire A; Meadows, Anna T; Hinds, Pamela S; Spearing, Elena M; Zhang, Lijun; Callaway, Lulie; Neel, Michael D; Rao, Bhaskar N; Marchese, Victoria G

    2007-12-01

    Comparison of functional mobility and quality of life is performed in patients with lower-extremity bone sarcoma following either amputation, limb-sparing surgery, or rotationplasty with four different types of outcome measures: (1) an objective functional mobility measure that requires patients to physically perform specific tasks, functional mobility assessment (FMA); (2) a clinician administered tool, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Scale (MSTS); (3) a patient questionnaire, Toronto Extremity Salvage Scale (TESS); and (4) a health-related quality of life (HRQL) measure, Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v.2). This is a prospective multi-site study including 91 patients with lower-extremity bone sarcoma following amputation, limb-sparing surgery, or rotationplasty. One of three physical therapists administered the quality of life measure (SF-36v.2) as well as a battery of functional measures (FMA, MSTS, and TESS). Differences between patients who had amputation, limb-sparing surgery, or rotationplasty were consistently demonstrated by the FMA. Patients with limb sparing femur surgery performed better than those patients with an above the knee amputation but similarly to a small number of rotationplasty patients. Several of the more conventional self-report measures were shown to not have the discriminative capabilities of the FMA in these cohorts. In adolescents with lower-extremity bone sarcoma, it may be advantageous to consider the use of a combination of outcome measures, including the FMA, for objective functional mobility assessment along with the TESS for a subjective measure of disability and the SF-36v.2 for a quality-of-life measure. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  6. Does adolescent self-esteem predict later life outcomes? A test of the causal role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.

  7. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.

  8. Extremely prematurely born adolescents self-report of anxiety symptoms, and the mothers' reports on their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...... differences, cross-informant correlations and relative risks for elevated anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Self-reported anxiety symptoms did not significantly differ, although the upper confidence limit (95% CI: -3.3 to 5.1) supported an odds ratio of 2 for the preterm-born participants. Mothers of the preterm......-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...

  9. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  10. Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of childhood and adolescent Ewing's sarcoma in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, A; Binesh, F; Hashemi, A; Shamshiri, H

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family is a group of small round cells tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of Ewing's sarcoma in children and adolescents in Yazd, Iran. All patients under 19 years with documented pathology of Ewing's sarcoma family tumor who referred to Shahid Ramazanzadeh Radiotherapy center between 2002 to 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Overall survival and disease free survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Among approximately 80,000 patients who referred to Shahid Sadoughi pathology department, over an 8-year period, the total number of patients with Ewing sarcoma was 32, of which, 18 cases were under the age 19 . The mean age was 13.72 years. Five patients (27.8%) had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Complete response had been achieved in 8 (44.4%) of the patients. Local recurrence occurred in 4 (22.2%) of the patients. During the follow up 13 (72.2%) of the patients showed metastases. The mean overall survival was 34.79 months (95% CI: 22.27-47.32) .One, two, four and five year survival was 72%, 39%, 25% and 17% respectively. Complete remission occurred in 10 patients (63.6%). A trend of better overall survival was found in these patients (p=0. 55). When the brain and bone metastases occurred, the overall survival decreased significantly (p=0. 003 ). The overall survival rate of Ewing's sarcoma is very low in comparison with other parts of the world.

  11. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  12. Evaluation of Patient Outcome and Satisfaction after Surgical Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Scoliosis Research Society-30

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandehari, Hasan; Mahabadi, Maryam Ameri; Mahdavi, Seyed Mani; Shahsavaripour, Ali; Seyed Tari, Hossein Vahid; Safdari, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) may lead to physical and mental problems. It also can adversely affect patient satisfaction and the quality of life. In this study, we assessed the outcomes and satisfaction rate after surgical treatment of AIS using scoliosis research society-30 questionnaire (SRS-30). Methods: We enrolled 135 patients with AIS undergoing corrective surgery. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. We compared pre- and post-operative x-rays in terms of Co...

  13. Pharmacological treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: functional outcomes in children and adolescents from non-Western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Murat; El-Shafei, Ahmed A; Yu, Maria; Desaiah, Durisala; Treuer, Tamas; Zavadenko, Nikolay; Gao, Hong Yun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Functional outcomes were measured over a 12-month period in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after they received monotherapy. Design: Prospective, observational, noninterventional study. Setting: Conducted in six non-Western countries. Participants: Outpatients 6 to 17 years of age with a verified diagnosis of ADHD in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), together with t...

  14. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...

  15. Early life predictors of adolescent suicidal thoughts and adverse outcomes in two population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dykxhoorn

    Full Text Available Understanding suicidality has proven challenging given the complex aetiology in early childhood. Being able to accurately predict groups at increased risk of developing suicidal thoughts may aid in the development of targeted prevention programs that mitigate increased vulnerability. Further, the predictors of suicidal thoughts may be shared with other outcomes in adolescence. Previous research has linked many factors to suicidality, so the objective of this study was to consider how these factors may act together to increase risk of suicidal thoughts and other non-mental health outcomes.Two longitudinal datasets were used in this analysis: the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY and the Avon Longitudinal Survey of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A Classification and Regression Tree model comprised of 75 factors describing early childhood was constructed to identify subgroups of adolescents at high risk of suicidal thoughts in the NLSCY and was validated in ALSPAC. These subgroups were investigated to see if they also had elevated rates of antisocial behaviour, substance misuse, poor physical health, poor mental health, risky health behaviours, and/or poor academic performance.The sensitivity was calculated to be 22·7%, specificity was 89·2%, positive predictive value 17·8%, and negative predictive value 91·8% and had similar accuracy in the validation dataset. The models were better at predicting other adverse outcomes compared to suicidal thoughts.There are groups of risk factors present in early life that can predict higher risk of suicidality in adolescence. Notably, these factors were also predictive of a range of adverse outcomes in adolescence.

  16. Effects of outcome on the covariance between risk level and brain activity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Dai, Shouping; Gao, Peihong; Du, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Du, Guijin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often have impaired risky decision-making abilities, and IGD-related functional changes have been observed during neuroimaging studies of decision-making tasks. However, it is still unclear how feedback (outcomes of decision-making) affects the subsequent risky decision-making in individuals with IGD. In this study, twenty-four adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging w...

  17. Adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of health-related quality of life: an analysis of validity and reliability of PedsQL 4.0 among a sample of Malaysian adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartina, Sanker; Chin, Yit Siew; Fara Wahida, Rezali; Woon, Fui Chee; Hiew, Chu Chien; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2015-04-08

    The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) 4.0 is a generalized assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report. This study aims to determine the construct validity and reliability of PedsQL 4.0 among a sample of Malaysian adolescents and parents. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three selected public schools in the state of Selangor. A total of 379 Malaysian adolescents completed the PedsQL 4.0 adolescent self-report and 218 (55.9%) parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 parent proxy-report. Weight and height of adolescents were measured and BMI-for-age by sex was used to determine their body weight status. There were 50.8% male and 49.2% female adolescents who participated in this study (14.25 ± 1.23 years). The prevalence of overweight and obesity (25.8%) was four times higher than the prevalence of severe thinness and thinness (6.1%). Construct validity was analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Based on CFA, adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report met the criteria of convergent validity (factor loading > 0.5, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) > 0.5, Construct Reliability > 0.7) and showed good fit to the data. The adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report exhibited discriminant validity as the AVE values were larger than the R(2) values. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the adolescent self-report (α = 0.862) and parent proxy-report (α = 0.922) showed these instruments are reliable. Parents perceived the HRQoL of adolescents was poorer compared to the perception of the adolescent themselves (t = 5.92, p 0.05). Parent proxy-report was negatively associated with the adolescents' BMI-for-age (r = -0.152, p 0.05). Adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of the PedsQL 4.0 are valid and reliable to assess HRQoL of Malaysian adolescents. Future studies are recommended to use both adolescent self-report and parent-proxy report of HRQoL as

  18. Patient-Reported Outcome and Observer-Reported Outcome Assessment in Rare Disease Clinical Trials: An ISPOR COA Emerging Good Practices Task Force Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Katy; Vernon, Margaret K; Patrick, Donald L; Perfetto, Eleanor; Nestler-Parr, Sandra; Burke, Laurie

    Rare diseases (RDs) affect a small number of people within a population. About 5000 to 8000 distinct RDs have been identified, with an estimated 6% to 8% of people worldwide suffering from an RD. Approximately 75% of RDs affect children. Frequently, these conditions are heterogeneous; many are progressive. Regulatory incentives have increased orphan drug designations and approvals. To develop emerging good practices for RD outcomes research addressing the challenges inherent in identifying, selecting, developing, adapting, and implementing patient-reported outcome (PRO) and observer-reported outcome (ObsRO) assessments for use in RD clinical trials. This report outlines the challenges and potential solutions in determining clinical outcomes for RD trials. It follows the US Food and Drug Administration Roadmap to Patient-Focused Outcome Measurement in Clinical Trials. The Roadmap consists of three columns: 1) Understanding the Disease or Condition, 2) Conceptualizing Treatment Benefit, and 3) Selecting/Developing the Outcome Measure. Challenges in column 1 include factors such as incomplete natural history data and heterogeneity of disease presentation and patient experience. Solutions include using several information sources, for example, clinical experts and patient advocacy groups, to construct the condition's natural history and understand treatment patterns. Challenges in column 2 include understanding and measuring treatment benefit from the patient's perspective, especially given challenges in defining the context of use such as variations in age or disease severity/progression. Solutions include focusing on common symptoms across patient subgroups, identifying short-term outcomes, and using multiple types of COA instruments to measure the same constructs. Challenges in column 3 center around the small patient population and heterogeneity of the condition or study sample. Few disease-specific instruments for RDs exist. Strategies include adapting existing

  19. Patient reported outcome measures in male incontinence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M G B; Yip, J; Uveili, K; Biers, S M; Thiruchelvam, N

    2014-10-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were used to evaluate outcomes of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and the AdVance™ (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, US) male sling system (AVMS) for the symptomatic management of male stress urinary incontinence. All male patients with stress urinary incontinence referred to our specialist clinic over a two-year period completed the ICIQ-UI SF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire on Urinary Incontinence Short Form) and the ICIQ-MLUTS LF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire on Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Long Form) at consultation as well as at subsequent follow-up appointments. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for non-parametric paired data was used for pre and postoperative comparisons. The chi-squared test was used for categorical variables. Thirty-seven patients (forty surgical cases) completed a preoperative and at least one follow-up questionnaire. There was a statistically significant improvement in PROMs postoperatively, regardless of mode of surgery (p25) had greater improvement with an AUS than with the AVMS (p<0.01). This prospective study shows that completion and collection of PROMs as part of routine clinical practice is achievable and useful in the assessment of male stress incontinence surgery. PROMs are important instruments to assess effectiveness of healthcare intervention and they are useful adjuncts in surgical studies.

  20. Patient- and clinician- reported outcome in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Gudex, Claire; Hørder, Kirsten; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross-sectional study compared data assessed by the clinician to patient-reported measures in patients with a history of EDs. We included data from a cohort of patients with EDs (n=544) referred to a specialized ED unit in Denmark. Patient-reported measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and clinical data included remission status and body mass index (BMI). We found a positive association between BMI and EDI-2 scores for anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), reflecting increasing ED symptomatology with increasing BMI. This association was not observed in bulimia nervosa (BN). We did not find a correlation between SF-36 scores and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Equity Considerations for Developing and Reporting Patient-reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Barton, Jennifer L; Flurey, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    , and (6) consideration of statistical power of subgroup analyses for outcome reporting. CONCLUSION: There is a need to (1) conduct a systematic review to assess how equity and population characteristics have been considered in PROM development and whether these differences influence the ranking...

  2. One-year course and predictors of outcome of adolescent depression: a case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Miettunen, Jouko; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2008-05-01

    Clinical studies on the outcome of adolescent depression beyond treatment trials are scarce. To investigate the impact of characteristics of the depressive episode and current comorbidity on the 1-year outcome of depression. A sample of 174 consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients (aged 13 through 19 years) and 17 school-derived matched controls, all with unipolar depressive disorders at baseline, were reinterviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders at 12 months. The study was conducted between January 1998 and May 2002. The outpatients had equal recovery rate and episode duration but shorter time to recurrence than the controls. Among the outpatients, Axis II comorbidity predicted shorter time to recurrence (p = .02). Longer time to recovery was predicted by earlier lifetime age at onset for depression (p = .02), poor psychosocial functioning (p = .003), depressive disorder diagnosis (p outcome better than co-morbidity. Axis II comorbidity has prognostic value in adolescent depression.

  3. Hyperammonemia: A Report of Maternal Biliary Cirrhosis and Neonatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana J. Hussamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uncommon during pregnancy, cirrhosis results in multiple medical complications impacting both mother and fetus. Previous reports suggest liver dysfunction in pregnancy causes accumulation of neurotoxins within the maternal compartment that increases neonatal morbidity through placental transfer. We present a case of a 36-year-old G2P1 female with history of biliary cirrhosis presenting at 32-weeks' gestation with hepatic congestion progressing to hepatic encephalopathy prompting delivery. Umbilical cord sampling and postnatal infant testing demonstrated elevated ammonia levels which resolved by 12 hours of life without intervention. At discharge, the infant did not demonstrate evidence of neurologic deficit. We conclude that acute maternal hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia due to chronic liver disease do not portend adverse neonatal outcomes, notably encephalopathy.

  4. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfson, Ola; Bohm, Eric; Franklin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group have evaluated and recommended best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty registries. The 2 generic PROMs in common use...... are the Short Form health surveys (SF-36 or SF-12) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D). The Working Group recommends that registries should choose specific PROMs that have been appropriately developed with good measurement properties for arthroplasty patients. The Working Group recommend the use of a 1-item pain...... should consider the absolute level of pain, function, and general health status as well as improvement, missing data, approaches to analysis and case-mix adjustment, minimal clinically important difference, and minimal detectable change. The Working Group recommends data collection immediately before...

  5. Self-reported barriers to medication adherence among chronically ill adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Signe; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2014-01-01

    's views. Data was analyzed using a thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Of 3,655 records 28 articles with both quantitative, qualitative, and q-methodology study designs were included in the review. The synthesis led to the following key themes: Relations, adolescent development, health and illness......, forgetfulness, organization, medicine complexity, and financial costs. Most reported barriers to adherence were not unique to specific diseases. CONCLUSION: Some barriers seem to be specific to adolescence; for example, relations to parents and peers and adolescent development. Knowledge and assessment...

  6. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2005-01-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were...

  7. Patient Compliance With Electronic Patient Reported Outcomes Following Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Higgins, John D; Hamamoto, Jason T; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-11-01

    To determine the patient compliance in completing electronically administered patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores following shoulder arthroscopy, and to determine if dedicated research assistants improve patient compliance. Patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, were prospectively enrolled into an electronic data collection system with retrospective review of compliance data. A total of 143 patients were included in this study; 406 patients were excluded (for any or all of the following reasons, such as incomplete follow-up, inaccessibility to the order sets, and inability to complete the order sets). All patients were assigned an order set of PROs through an electronic reporting system, with order sets to be completed prior to surgery, as well as 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Compliance rates of form completion were documented. Patients who underwent arthroscopic anterior and/or posterior stabilization were excluded. The average age of the patients was 53.1 years, ranging from 20 to 83. Compliance of form completion was highest preoperatively (76%), and then dropped subsequently at 6 months postoperatively (57%) and 12 months postoperatively (45%). Use of research assistants improved compliance by approximately 20% at each time point. No differences were found according to patient gender and age group. Of those completing forms, a majority completed forms at home or elsewhere prior to returning to the office for the clinic visit. Electronic administration of PRO may decrease the amount of time required in the office setting for PRO completion by patients. This may be mutually beneficial to providers and patients. It is unclear if an electronic system improves patient compliance in voluntary completion PRO. Compliance rates at final follow-up remain a concern if data are to be used for establishing quality or outcome metrics. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North

  8. AMCP Partnership Forum: Improving Quality, Value, and Outcomes with Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), which provide a direct measure of a patient's health status or treatment preferences, represent a key component of the shift toward patient-centered health care. PROs can measure the state of a patient's disease-specific and overall health throughout the care continuum, enabling them to have a variety of uses for key health care stakeholders. Currently, PROs are used in drug development, aligning patient and clinician goals in care, quality-of-care measures, and coverage and reimbursement decisions. While there have been significant strides by key health care stakeholders to further the development and use of PROs, there are a number of challenges limiting more widespread use. In light of these current challenges and the potential for PROs to improve health care quality and value, on October 19, 2017, the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy convened a forum of key stakeholders representing patients, payers, providers, government, and pharmaceutical companies to discuss and identify solutions to the current challenges and barriers to further use of PROs. These discussions informed the development of participants' ideal future state in which PROs maximize the goals of all health care stakeholders and the actionable steps required to make the future state a reality. While stakeholders shared unique perspectives throughout the forum, they had consensus on 2 overarching issues: the importance of PROs in defining value, improving patient care, and implementing value-based payment models and the need for strong organizational and operational systems to achieve optimal adoption and use. Participants identified several key challenges in PRO use and adoption: achieving a representative patient population, inclusion of PRO data in medication labels, the necessity for both standardized and customizable PROs, and operational and organizational barriers to collecting and analyzing PROs. To overcome these challenges, participants recommended that

  9. Outcomes important to burns patients during scar management and how they compare to the concepts captured in burn-specific patient reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; Calvert, Melanie; Moiemen, Naiem; Deeks, Jonathan J; Bishop, Jonathan; Kinghorn, Philip; Mathers, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Pressure garment therapy (PGT) is an established treatment for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring; however, there is limited evidence for its effectiveness. Burn survivors often experience multiple issues many of which are not adequately captured in current PGT trial measures. To assess the effectiveness of PGT it is important to understand what outcomes matter to patients and to consider whether patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can be used to ascertain the effect of treatments on patients' health-related quality of life. This study aimed to (a) understand the priorities and perspectives of adult burns patients and the parents of burns patients who have experienced PGT via in-depth qualitative data, and (b) compare these with the concepts captured within burn-specific PROMs. We undertook 40 semi-structured interviews with adults and parents of paediatric and adolescent burns patients who had experienced PGT to explore their priorities and perspectives on scar management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The outcomes interpreted within the interview data were then mapped against the concepts captured within burn-specific PROMs currently in the literature. Eight core outcome domains were identified as important to adult patients and parents: (1) scar characteristics and appearance, (2) movement and function, (3) scar sensation, (4) psychological distress, adjustments and a sense of normality, (5) body image and confidence, (6) engagement in activities, (7) impact on relationships, and (8) treatment burden. The outcome domains presented reflect a complex holistic patient experience of scar management and treatments such as PGT. Some currently available PROMs do capture the concepts described here, although none assess psychological adjustments and attainment of a sense of normality following burn injury. The routine use of PROMs that represent patient experience and their relative contribution to trial

  10. Brief Report: Bifactor Modeling of General vs. Specific Factors of Religiousness Differentially Predicting Substance Use Risk in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; Holmes, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Religiousness is important to adolescents in the U.S., and the significant link between high religiousness and low substance use is well known. There is a debate between multidimensional and unidimensional perspectives of religiousness (Gorsuch, 1984); yet, no empirical study has tested this hierarchical model of religiousness related to adolescent health outcomes. The current study presents the first attempt to test a bifactor model of religiousness related to substance use among adolescents...

  11. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Kisa Karakaya, Burcu; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Tasci, Yasemin; Erkaya, Salim

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women. We conducted this prospective cross-sectional study on 365 singleton adolescent pregnancies (aged between 16 and 20 years) at a Maternity Hospital, between December 2014 and March 2015. We divided participants into two groups based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): overweight and obese adolescent (BMI at or above 25.0 kg/m) and normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and 24.99 kg/m) adolescent. We used multivariate analysis to evaluate the association of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pre-pregnancy BMI. The prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and normal weight was 34.6% (n = 80) and 65.4% (n = 261) in the study population, respectively. Compared with normal-weight teens (n = 234), overweight/obese teens (n = 71) were at higher risk for cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.4), preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.9) and small of gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.9). BMI increased during pre-pregnancy could be an important preventable risk factor for poor obstetric complications in adolescent pregnancies, and for these patients prevention strategies (e.g., nutritional counseling, weight-loss, regular physical activity) for obesity are recommended before getting pregnant.

  13. Interviewing to develop Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measures for clinical research: eliciting patients’ experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients’ expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process. PMID:24499454

  14. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Romashkin, Anna; Morrison, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions. Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit), physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures. Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24). Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30), which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18), high triglycerides (β = 0.61), and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39). The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits. The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  15. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir Turel

    Full Text Available Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions.Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit, physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures.Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24. Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30, which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18, high triglycerides (β = 0.61, and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39. The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits.The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  16. Puzzling Findings in Studying the Outcome of “Real World” Adolescent Mental Health Services: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, Frederike; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Daniëlle E. M. C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use and costs of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (MHS) urge us to assess the effectiveness of these services. The aim of this paper is to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with and without MHS use in a naturalistic setting. Method and Findings Participants are 2230 (pre)adolescents that enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Response rate was 76%, mean age at baseline 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls. We used data from the first three assessment waves, covering a six year period. Multiple linear regression analysis, propensity score matching, and data validation were used to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents with and without MHS use. The association between MHS and follow-up problem score (β 0.20, SE 0.03, p-value<0.001) was not confounded by baseline severity, markers of adolescent vulnerability or resilience nor stressful life events. The propensity score matching strategy revealed that follow-up problem scores of non-MHS-users decreased while the problem scores of MHS users remained high. When taking into account future MHS (non)use, it appeared that problem scores decreased with limited MHS use, albeit not as much as without any MHS use, and that problem scores with continuous MHS use remained high. Data validation showed that using a different outcome measure, multiple assessment waves and multiple imputation of missing values did not alter the results. A limitation of the study is that, although we know what type of MHS participants used, and during which period, we lack information on the duration of the treatment. Conclusions The benefits of MHS are questionable. Replication studies should reveal whether a critical examination of everyday care is necessary or an artefact is responsible for these results. PMID:23028584

  17. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.

  18. Neurocognitive Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia: Longitudinal Stability and Predictive Utility for Short-Term Functional Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Burdick, Katherine E.; Cottone, John G.; Rhinewine, Joseph P.; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Previous cross-sectional studies in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS; onset of psychotic symptoms by 18 years of age) have reported patterns of generalized neurocognitive deficits as compared to healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). Here, the authors examined the longitudinal stability of neuropsychological deficits in…

  19. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns.

  20. Cognitive outcome in adolescents and young adults after repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålnacke, Johanna; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Norberg, Hanna; Norman, Mikael; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids have long-term effects on cognitive and psychological functioning. In a prospective cohort study, 58 adolescents and young adults (36 males) who had been exposed to 2-9 weekly courses of betamethasone in utero were assessed with neuropsychological tests and behavior self-reports. Unexposed subjects (n = 44, 25 males) matched for age, sex, and gestational age at birth served as a comparison group. In addition, individuals exposed in utero to a single course (n = 25, 14 males) were included for dose-response analysis. Group differences were investigated using multilevel linear modeling. Mean scores obtained in 2 measures of attention and speed were significantly lower in subjects exposed to 2 or more antenatal corticosteroids courses (Symbol Search, P = .009; Digit Span Forward, P = .02), but these were not dose-dependent. Exposure to repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids was not associated with general deficits in higher cognitive functions, self-reported attention, adaptability, or overall psychological function. Although this study indicates that repeat exposure to antenatal corticosteroids may have an impact on aspects of executive functioning, it does not provide support for the prevailing concern that such fetal exposure will have a major adverse impact on cognitive functions and psychological health later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brief Report: Sexual Attraction and Relationships in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Pang, Ken C.; Williams, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests more variation in sexual attraction in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using clinical samples. This study utilised a population representative group of 14/15 year olds from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Ninety-four adolescents (73 males, 21 females) with ASD and 3454 (1685 males, 1675 females) without…

  2. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  3. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; O'Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny I; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis therapy. Key stakeholders including 8 patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policymakers, industry, and researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations, flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time, deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity, understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes, and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive, and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality indicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials) and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C.; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; O’Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision-making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient-centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis. Key stakeholders including eight patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policy makers, industry, researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations; flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time; deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity; understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes; and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality ndicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials), and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment, and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27497527

  5. Sample selection may bias the outcome of an adolescent mental health survey: results from a five-year follow-up of 4171 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, V; Kivimäki, P; Valtonen, H; Hintikka, J; Tolmunen, T; Lehto, S M; Laukkanen, E

    2015-02-01

    The representativeness of the data is one of the main issues in evaluating the significance of research findings. Dropping out is common in adolescent mental health research, and may distort the results. Nevertheless, very little is known about the types of systematic bias that may affect studies in a) the informed consent phase and b) later in follow-up phases. The authors addressed this gap in knowledge in a five-year follow-up study on a sample of adolescents aged 13-18 years. The data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The baseline sample consisted of 4171 adolescents, 1827 (43.8%) of whom gave consent to be contacted for a follow-up survey, but only 797 (19.1%) participated in the follow-up. Binary logistic regression models were used to explain the participation. Young age, female gender, a high number of hobbies, good performance at school in the native language and general subjects, family disintegration such as divorce, high parental employment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with both consent and participation. However, the effect of mental health aspects was smaller than the effect of age and gender. This study confirmed the possibility of systematic selection bias by adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics. The representativeness of the study sample might have been improved by more intense recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  8. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  9. "Keep on Keeping on, Even When It's Hard!": Predictors and Outcomes of Adolescent Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.; Dyer, W. Justin; Black, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined adolescent persistence as a mediator between authoritative parenting and adolescents' school engagement, prosocial behavior, and delinquency. Participants were taken from Time 2, 3, and 4 of the Flourishing Families Project and included 325 two-parent families with a child between the ages of 11 and 14 at Time 2 (mean…

  10. Comparison of Family Therapy Outcome with Alcohol-Abusing, Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2009-01-01

    Treatment evaluation for alcohol problem, runaway adolescents and their families is rare. This study recruited primary alcohol problem adolescents (N = 119) and their primary caretakers from two runaway shelters and assigned them to (a) home-based ecologically based family therapy (EBFT), (b) office-based functional family therapy (FFT), or (c)…

  11. Innovative Adolescent Chemical Dependency Treatment and Its Outcome: A Model Based on Outward Bound Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeake, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes adolescent chemical dependency treatment model developed at Beech Hill Hospital (New Hampshire) which integrated Twelve Step-oriented alcohol and drug rehabilitation program with experiential education school, Hurricane Island Outward Bound School. Describes Beech Hill Hurricane Island Outward Bound School Adolescent Chemical Dependency…

  12. First empirical evaluation of outcomes for mentalization-based group therapy for adolescents with BPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Beck, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a devastating disorder, and it is essential to identify and treat the disorder in its early course. A total of 34 female Danish adolescents between 15 and 18 years old participated in 1 year of structured mentalization-based group therapy. Twent...... with borderline traits. (PsycINFO Database RecordCopyright (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)....

  13. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  14. Linking definition of childhood and adolescent obesity to current health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, A R A; Andersen, Lars Bo; Møller, Karsten Froberg

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of body mass index (BMI) and fat location indices to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents.......To evaluate the ability of body mass index (BMI) and fat location indices to predict clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents....

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Familial Boundary Dissolution: Observations and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission of boundary dissolution (BD) in parent-child relationships from parental behaviors observed in early childhood to adolescent behaviors observed at age 13 and relations to adolescent psychosocial adaptation. The goals of the study are (a) to examine the developmental relation of early childhood BD to several…

  16. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Outcomes and Predictors of Initial Weight Loss Outcomes among Severely Obese Adolescents Receiving Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom B.; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated rates of psychopathology are noted among severely obese youth presenting for weight loss surgery. The role of mental health providers in this population is not well defined, and the selection of candidates is often the result of clinical judgment alone. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate psychiatric symptoms among a large sample of adolescents receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by: (1) examining changes in depressive symptoms and quality of life in the year following surgery, (2) evaluating the interaction between patterns of change in depression, quality of life, and weight post-surgery, and (3) identifying pre-surgical psychological predictors of initial weight change. Method Participants were 101 severely obese adolescents aged 14 to 18. Measures of height, weight, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in the first year following surgery. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and body mass index were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Results Significant changes in total BDI [βslope=−0.885 SE=0.279, psurgery (pAdolescents experienced notable improvements in initial depressive symptoms and quality of life after LAGB, and measures of pre-operative binge eating and family conflict affected post-surgery body mass index among youth. PMID:23140654

  18. Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Older Adolescents with Complicated Mild to Severe TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael; Brown, Tanya Maines; Rochester, Mayo Clinic; McMullen, Kendra M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) versus an internet resources comparison (IRC) condition in reducing behavior problems in adolescents following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Randomized clinical trial with interviewers naïve to treatment condition. Setting Three large tertiary children's hospitals and two general hospitals with pediatric commitment. Participants 132 children ages 12-17 years hospitalized during the previous 6 months for moderate to severe TBI. Interventions Participants in CAPS (n = 65) completed 8-12 online modules providing training in problem solving, communication skills, and self-regulation and subsequent synchronous videoconferences with a therapist. Participants in the IRC group (n = 67) received links to internet resources about pediatric TBI. Main Outcome Measures Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) administered before and after completion of treatment (i.e., approximately six months after treatment initiation). Results Post hoc analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for pre-treatment scores, was used to examine group differences in behavior problems in the entire sample and among older (n=59) and younger adolescents (n=53). Among older but not younger adolescents, CAPS resulted in greater improvements on multiple dimensions of externalizing behavior problems than did IRC. Conclusion Online problem-solving therapy may be effective in reducing behavior problems in older adolescent survivors of moderate-severe TBI. PMID:23640543

  19. Do Executive and Reactive Disinhibition Mediate the Effects of Familial Substance Use Disorders on Adolescent Externalizing Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie; Haller, Moira M.; Bountress, Kaitlin E.; Dandreaux, Danielle; Beltran, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the potential mediating roles of executive and reactive disinhibition in predicting conduct problems, ADHD symptoms, and substance use among adolescents with and without a family history of substance use disorders. Using data from 247 high-risk adolescents, parents, and grandparents, structural equation modeling indicated that reactive disinhibition, as measured by sensation seeking, mediated the effect of familial drug use disorders on all facets of the adolescent externalizing spectrum. Executive disinhibition, as measured by response disinhibition, spatial short term memory, and “trait” impulsivity, was associated with ADHD symptoms. Moreover, although executive functioning weakness were unrelated to familial substance use disorders, adolescents with familial alcohol use disorders were at risk for “trait” impulsivity marked by a lack of planning. These results illustrate the importance of “unpacking” the broad temperament style of disinhibition and of studying the processes that underlie the commonality among facets of the externalizing spectrum and processes that that predict specific externalizing outcomes. PMID:21668077

  20. Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWalt Darren A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.

  1. Communication About Prognosis With Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Cancer: Information Needs, Prognostic Awareness, and Outcomes of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer W; Fasciano, Karen M; Block, Susan D

    2018-04-23

    Purpose Communication about prognosis affects decisions patients and family members make about cancer care, and most patients say they want to know about their chances of cure. We sought to evaluate experiences with prognosis communication among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Patients and Methods We surveyed 203 AYAs with cancer age 15 to 29 years (response rate, 74%) treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and their oncologists. Patients were approached within 6 weeks of diagnosis and asked to report on their prognosis communication preferences and experiences, their beliefs about likelihood of cure, and psychosocial outcomes of communication, such as trust (using an item from the Trust in Physician Scale), peace of mind (using select items from the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale), and anxiety and depression (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Oncologists were asked to report the patient's likelihood of cure. Results Most patients (83%, 167 of 203 patients) considered prognostic information to be extremely or very important. Patients who reported having received more extensive prognostic disclosure had higher odds of trust in the oncologist (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.67; P = .05), peace of mind (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.51; P = .002), and hope related to physician communication (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.59; P = .04), after adjusting for patient sex, age, race or ethnicity, prognosis, and diagnosis. Disclosure was also associated with lower distress related to knowing about prognosis (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.95; P = .03). However, a majority of patients (62%) reported prognostic estimates that exceeded those reported by physicians (McNemar P < .001). Conclusion Most AYAs with cancer value receiving prognostic information, which is positively associated with aspects of well-being. However, most overestimate chances of cure relative to oncologists, highlighting the

  2. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J

    2017-05-01

    Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%). Of those, 1584 youths were successfully interviewed, at age 19, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) to assess current and past CIDI-DSM-IV mental disorders. Four outcome domains were assessed at the same time: economic (e.g. academic achievement, social benefits, financial difficulties), social (early motherhood, interpersonal conflicts, antisocial behavior), psychological (e.g. suicidality, subjective well-being, loneliness), and health behavior (e.g. smoking, problematic alcohol, cannabis use). Out of the 19 outcomes, 14 were predicted by both current and past disorders, three only by past disorders (receiving social benefits, psychiatric hospitalization, adolescent motherhood), and two only by current disorder (absenteeism, obesity). Which type of disorders was most important depended on the outcome. Adjusted for current disorder, past internalizing disorders predicted in particular psychological outcomes while externalizing disorders predicted in particular health behavior outcomes. Economic and social outcomes were predicted by a history of co-morbidity of internalizing and externalizing disorder. The risk of problematic cannabis use and alcohol consumption dropped with a history of internalizing disorder. To understand current functioning, it is necessary to examine both current and past psychiatric status.

  3. Dexamethasone and long-term outcome of tuberculous meningitis in Vietnamese adults and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Estée Török

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis but the long-term outcome of the disease is unknown.Vietnamese adults and adolescents with tuberculous meningitis recruited to a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive dexamethasone were followed-up at five years, to determine the effect of dexamethasone on long-term survival and neurological disability.545 patients were randomised to receive either dexamethasone (274 patients or placebo (271 patients. 50 patients (9.2% were lost to follow-up at five years. In all patients two-year survival, probabilities tended to be higher in the dexamethasone arm (0.63 versus 0.55; p = 0.07 but five-year survival rates were similar (0.54 versus 0.51, p = 0.51 in both groups. In patients with grade 1 TBM, but not with grade 2 or grade 3 TBM, the benefit of dexamethasone treatment tended to persist over time (five-year survival probabilities 0.69 versus 0.55, p = 0.07 but there was no conclusive evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity by TBM grade (p = 0.36. The dexamethasone group had a similar proportion of severely disabled patients among survivors at five years as the placebo group (17/128, 13.2% vs. 17/116, 14.7% and there was no significant association between dexamethasone treatment and disability status at five years (p = 0.32.Adjunctive dexamethasone appears to improve the probability of survival in patients with TBM, until at least two years of follow-up. We could not demonstrate a five-year survival benefit of dexamethasone treatment which may be confined to patients with grade 1 TBM.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01317654.

  4. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  5. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  6. Cognitive control in adolescence: neural underpinnings and relation to self-report behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Andrews-Hanna

    Full Text Available Adolescence is commonly characterized by impulsivity, poor decision-making, and lack of foresight. However, the developmental neural underpinnings of these characteristics are not well established.To test the hypothesis that these adolescent behaviors are linked to under-developed proactive control mechanisms, the present study employed a hybrid block/event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Stroop paradigm combined with self-report questionnaires in a large sample of adolescents and adults, ranging in age from 14 to 25. Compared to adults, adolescents under-activated a set of brain regions implicated in proactive top-down control across task blocks comprised of difficult and easy trials. Moreover, the magnitude of lateral prefrontal activity in adolescents predicted self-report measures of impulse control, foresight, and resistance to peer pressure. Consistent with reactive compensatory mechanisms to reduced proactive control, older adolescents exhibited elevated transient activity in regions implicated in response-related interference resolution.Collectively, these results suggest that maturation of cognitive control may be partly mediated by earlier development of neural systems supporting reactive control and delayed development of systems supporting proactive control. Importantly, the development of these mechanisms is associated with cognitive control in real-life behaviors.

  7. Associations between exposure to information and communication technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kristy; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Parsons, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities.Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure. The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary. The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  8. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  9. Parent-reported suicidal behavior and correlates among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Sun, Zhenxiao; Yang, Yanyun

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal risk begins to increase during adolescence and is associated with multiple biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial factors of parent-reported suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. A community sample of 1920 adolescents in China participated in an epidemiological study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including child suicidal behavior, illness history, mental health problems, family history, parenting, and family environment. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Overall, 2.4% of the sample talked about suicide in the previous 6 months, 3.2% had deliberately hurt themselves or attempted suicide, and 5.1% had either suicidal talk or self-harm. The rate of suicidal behavior increased as adolescents aged. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with elevated risk for suicidal behavior: depressive/anxious symptoms, poor maternal health, family conflict, and physical punishment of parental discipline style. Suicidal behavior was reported by parents. No causal relationships could be made based on cross-sectional data. The prevalence rate of parent-reported suicidal behavior is markedly lower than self-reported rate in previous research. Depressive/anxious symptoms and multiple family environmental factors are associated with suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

  10. Clinical and patient reported outcomes of bleaching effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric Sever, Eva; Budimir, Zrinka; Cerovac, Matea; Stambuk, Mario; Par, Matej; Negovetic Vranic, Dubravka; Tarle, Zrinka

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate clinical and patient reported outcomes of different bleaching products. Thirty participants were randomly divided into three bleaching groups (n = 10). Bleaching was performed with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) - Boost (40%) and Dash (30%), and with prefabricated splints Bite&White (6% HP). Tooth colour was measured before, immediately after, and 1 and 6 months after the bleaching by using classical shade guide and spectrophotometer. Tooth hypersensitivity was self-rated by patients on the Wong-Baker's face scale. Patient satisfaction was evaluated on a 7-point Likert-type scales that measured perceived performance and importance of different characteristics of bleaching treatment. All products were effective in teeth colour change (ΔE > 3.3), which was significantly higher for Boost (p = .016) and Dash (p = .024) than Bite&White treatment. Perception of hypersensitivity was the highest in Boost group, followed by Dash and Bite&White treatment. Most of the patients were satisfied with final tooth colour, length and comfort during treatment, but were dissatisfied with the stability of bleached tooth colour. Materials with the higher concentrations of bleaching agent demonstrated greater bleaching effectiveness than at-home bleaching product, but also a greater hypersensitivity. Lengthening the treatment process, but achieving a more stable tooth colour may improve the perceived value of a bleaching service.

  11. Does CPAP Affect Patient-Reported Voice Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Vance; Gillespie, Amanda; Smith, Libby J; Soose, Ryan J

    2018-04-01

    Upper aerodigestive tract symptoms are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It remains unclear whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves or worsens these otolaryngology symptoms. As therapy-related side effects limit CPAP adherence, this study aimed to determine if CPAP negatively affects voice, sinonasal, and reflux symptoms of the upper airway. Case series with planned data collection was performed at an academic otolaryngology sleep center. Newly diagnosed patients with OSA were evaluated before and 6 months after initiating CPAP therapy. Data collected included CPAP data download, Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10), Sino-Nasal Questionnaire (SNQ), and oral dryness visual analog scale (VAS). For the 11 CPAP-adherent participants, the RSI significantly improved with CPAP (mean RSI, 22.0-9.5; P = .002); however, the VAS, VHI-10, and SNQ did not change after 6 months of CPAP therapy. In a small sample size, patient-reported voice outcomes (VHI-10) and other upper aerodigestive tract symptoms did not worsen with CPAP; rather, CPAP therapy was associated with a reduction in reflux symptoms.

  12. Adolescents' technology and face-to-face time use predict objective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Heissel, Jennifer A; Sladek, Michael R; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined both within- and between-person associations between adolescents' time use (technology-based activities and face-to-face interactions with friends and family) and sleep behaviors. We also assessed whether age moderated associations between adolescents' time use with friends and family and sleep. Adolescents wore an actigraph monitor and completed brief evening surveys daily for 3 consecutive days. Adolescents (N=71; mean age=14.50 years old, SD=1.84; 43.7% female) were recruited from 3 public high schools in the Midwest. We assessed 8 technology-based activities (eg, texting, working on a computer), as well as time spent engaged in face-to-face interactions with friends and family, via questions on adolescents' evening surveys. Actigraph monitors assessed 3 sleep behaviors: sleep latency, sleep hours, and sleep efficiency. Hierarchical linear models indicated that texting and working on the computer were associated with shorter sleep, whereas time spent talking on the phone predicted longer sleep. Time spent with friends predicted shorter sleep latencies, while family time predicted longer sleep latencies. Age moderated the association between time spent with friends and sleep efficiency, as well as between family time and sleep efficiency. Specifically, longer time spent interacting with friends was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only among younger adolescents. Furthermore, longer family time was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only for older adolescents. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of regulating adolescents' technology use and improving opportunities for face-to-face interactions with friends, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rassi, Georges; Takemitsu, Masakazu; Glutting, Joseph; Shah, Suken A

    2013-12-01

    This cohort study aimed to report the compliance of young athletes with nonoperative treatment and to clarify the role of sports modification on clinical outcome of symptomatic spondylolysis. This study included patients with a chief complaint of low back pain participating in regular sports activity, having spondylolysis, and being treated and followed up between 1990 and 2002 in the authors' hospital. One hundred thirty-two athletes were included in this study: 78 males and 54 females. The mean age of the patients was 13 yrs (range, 7-18 yrs). Only 56 patients (42.4%) were compliant to nonoperative treatment. Eighty-six patients (65%) stopped all sports activities for