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Sample records for outcome questions correctly

  1. Correct acceptance weighs more than correct rejection: a decision bias induced by question framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareev, Yaakov; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    We propose that in attempting to detect whether an effect exists or not, people set their decision criterion so as to increase the number of hits and decrease the number of misses, at the cost of increasing false alarms and decreasing correct rejections. As a result, we argue, if one of two complementary events is framed as the positive response to a question and the other as the negative response, people will tend to predict the former more often than the latter. Performance in a prediction task with symmetric payoffs and equal base rates supported our proposal. Positive responses were indeed more prevalent than negative responses, irrespective of the phrasing of the question. The bias, slight but consistent and significant, was evident from early in a session and then remained unchanged to the end. A regression analysis revealed that, in addition, individuals' decision criteria reflected their learning experiences, with the weight of hits being greater than that of correct rejections.

  2. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  3. Corrected ROC analysis for misclassified binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Matthew; Sussman, Jeremy B; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A; Wiitala, Wyndy L

    2017-06-15

    Creating accurate risk prediction models from Big Data resources such as Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is a critical step toward achieving precision medicine. A major challenge in developing these tools is accounting for imperfect aspects of EHR data, particularly the potential for misclassified outcomes. Misclassification, the swapping of case and control outcome labels, is well known to bias effect size estimates for regression prediction models. In this paper, we study the effect of misclassification on accuracy assessment for risk prediction models and find that it leads to bias in the area under the curve (AUC) metric from standard ROC analysis. The extent of the bias is determined by the false positive and false negative misclassification rates as well as disease prevalence. Notably, we show that simply correcting for misclassification while building the prediction model is not sufficient to remove the bias in AUC. We therefore introduce an intuitive misclassification-adjusted ROC procedure that accounts for uncertainty in observed outcomes and produces bias-corrected estimates of the true AUC. The method requires that misclassification rates are either known or can be estimated, quantities typically required for the modeling step. The computational simplicity of our method is a key advantage, making it ideal for efficiently comparing multiple prediction models on very large datasets. Finally, we apply the correction method to a hospitalization prediction model from a cohort of over 1 million patients from the Veterans Health Administrations EHR. Implementations of the ROC correction are provided for Stata and R. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Net improvement of correct answers to therapy questions after pubmed searches: pre/post comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Keepanasseril, Arun; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2013-11-08

    Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

  5. Some Direct and Generalized Effects of Replacing an Autistic Man's Echolalia with Correct Responses to Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Martin J.; Foxx, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of operant procedures was extended to decrease immediate echolalia and increase appropriate responding to questions of a 21-year-old autistic man. Multiple baseline designs demonstrated that echolalia was rapidly replaced with correct stimulus-specific responses. A variety of generalized improvements were observed in verbal responses to…

  6. Patient Satisfaction with Surgical Outcome after Hypospadias Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, E.M.J.; Moues, C.M.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Biezen, J.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypospadias is a congenital malformation in which surgical correction is indicated in most cases. Postoperative patient satisfaction is important because of its influence on the child's psychological development. Objective: To evaluate patient satisfaction with surgical outcome after

  7. Adverse outcome pathways: opportunities, limitations and open questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leist, M.; Ghallab, A.; Graepel, R.; Marchan, R.; Hassan, R.; Bennekou, S.H.; Limonciel, A.; Vinken, M.; Schildknecht, S.; Waldmann, T.; Danen, E.; Ravenzwaay, B. van; Kamp, H.; Gardner, I.; Godoy, P.; Bois, F.Y.; Braeuning, A.; Reif, R.; Oesch, F.; Drasdo, D.; Höhme, S.; Schwarz, M.; Hartung, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Beltman, J.; Vrieling, H.; Sanz, F.; Forsby, A.; Gadaleta, D.; Fisher, C.; Kelm, J.; Fluri, D.; Ecker, G.; Zdrazil, B.; Terron, A.; Jennings, P.; Burg, B. van der; Dooley, S.; Meijer, A.H.; Willighagen, E.; Martens, M.; Evelo, C.; Mombelli, E.; Taboureau, O.; Mantovani, A.; Hardy, B.; Koch, B.; Escher, S.; van Thriel, C.; Cadenas, C.; Kroese, D.; Water, B. van de; Hengstler, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a recent toxicological construct that connects, in a formalized, transparent and quality-controlled way, mechanistic information to apical endpoints for regulatory purposes. AOP links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to the adverse outcome (AO) via key events

  8. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J

    2009-07-01

    To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

  9. "The new history of psychology: Some (different) answers to Lovett's five questions": Correction to Brock (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" by Adrian C. Brock ( History of Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Jun 27, 2016, np). In this article there was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-31594-001.) The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and

  10. Questions never asked. Positive family outcomes of extremely premature childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...

  11. Questioning the Relevancy of Military Corrections -- Should the Department of Defense be in the Prison Business?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines the arguments for and against outsourcing, and concludes that outsourcing military corrections is not in the government's best interest when examined through operational economic...

  12. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  13. Effect of two types of control questions and two question formats on the outcomes of polygraph examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank; Palmatier, John J

    2008-07-01

    Two major variations of polygraph "Control Question" testing, the Zone Comparison (ZoC) and the Modified General Question Test (MGQT) were evaluated. Within each, the type of control question, Exclusive or "time bar" (e.g., "Before you were 21, did you ever...") and Nonexclusive or "no time bar" (e.g., "Did you ever....?") was manipulated in a mock theft scenario, with 80 male and 40 female subjects randomly assigned to be either innocent or guilty. Polygraphic data collected by experienced field examiners were numerically scored by an evaluator blind to all aspects of the study. Decision accuracy was not related to the type of procedure (ZoC/MGQT) used or the subject's sex. Accuracy was significantly related to the type of control question [chi(2) (2) = 11.46, p = 0.003; tau c = 0.29]. Nonexclusive control questions produced greater accuracy than Exclusive control questions on both innocent and guilty subjects. These results and subjects' self-reports support the general "theory" on which control question (CQ) testing is based. The need for better empirical support of accepted dogma and current field practices is strongly indicated by these findings.

  14. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  15. Radiographic Outcomes of Postoperative Taping Following Hallux Valgus Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Pedowitz, David I; Verma, Kushagra; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Winters, Brian S; Raikin, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, hallux valgus operative correction has been accompanied by serial spica taping of the great toe during the postoperative period. We retrospectively reviewed 187 adult patients who underwent proximal first metatarsal osteotomy with a modified McBride procedure in 2008-2009 (n = 83) and 2011-2012 (n = 104). Postoperatively, to maintain the corrected position of the hallux, patients from 2008 through 2009 underwent weekly spica taping, while patients from 2011 through 2012 utilized a toe separator. The hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA) were measured using anteroposterior weight-bearing preoperative, 2-week postoperative non-weight-bearing, and 3-month weight-bearing final follow-up radiographs. A mixed-effects linear regression model identified differences between the treatment groups over time, and a t test compared actual radiographic differences at final follow-up. The mixed-effects model revealed no significant difference in the HVA over time when comparing patients taped to those not taped at the preoperative (33 ± 6 vs 33 ± 6), 2-week postoperative (10 ± 7 vs 9 ± 6), and 3-month follow-up (14 ± 6 vs 11 ± 7) visits (P = .08). At final follow-up, the HVA was lower for the group that was not taped, but the difference (2.5 degrees) was below the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (P = .015, 95% CI 0.5-4.5). For IMA, there was improved maintenance of correction over time in the patients that were not taped compared to those taped at the preoperative (15 ± 3 vs 15 ± 3), 2-week postoperative (2 ± 2 vs 3 ± 3), and 3-month follow-up (5 ± 4 vs 7 ± 4) visits (P = .002). At final follow-up, the IMA was lower for the group that was not taped, but the difference (1.7 degrees) was below the MCID (P = .004, 95% CI 0.7-2.9). We report no radiographic benefit of postoperative taping after hallux valgus correction. The present study challenges the previous dogma of postoperative spica taping as the protocol is cost and

  16. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years) were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men). Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized), additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual. PMID:23102060

  17. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  18. LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing.

  19. Risk-perception and dangerous driving among adolescents: Outcome- and behavior-focused questions yield opposite results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Gormley, Michael

    2016-10-01

    While some studies have found that those who perceive a behavior to be more risky are less likely to engage in it, others have found that those who engage in more risky behaviors see themselves as being more at-risk. Using an online questionnaire we investigated whether such conflicting findings may be due to the types of risk-questions employed in past studies. We assessed risk-perception using outcome-focused questions (e.g. the likelihood of being in an accident) and a behavior-focused question (the riskiness of speeding). Participants who reported engaging in more risky driving gave higher estimates of their chances of experiencing a negative outcome. However, those same participants gave lower estimates of the general riskiness of risky driving. Drivers may think about the risks of risky driving in different ways depending on the focus of the questions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  1. Intensity of early correction of hyperglycaemia and outcome of critically ill patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Johan; Bailey, Michael; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Pilcher, David; Deane, Adam; Abdelhamid, Yasmine Ali; Crisman, Marco; Verma, Brij; MacIsaac, Christopher; Wigmore, Geoffrey; Shehabi, Yahya; Suzuki, Takafumi; French, Craig; Orford, Neil; Kakho, Nima; Prins, Johannes; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the impact of the intensity of early correction of hyperglycaemia on outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admitted to the intensive care unit. We studied adult patients with DKA admitted to 171 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand from 2000 to 2013. We used their blood glucose levels (BGLs) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to determine whether intensive early correction of hyperglycemia to ≤ 180 mg/dL was independently associated with hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, hypo-osmolarity or mortality, compared with partial early correction to > 180 mg/dL as recommended by DKA-specific guidelines. Among 8553 patients, intensive early correction of BGL was applied to 605 patients (7.1%). A greater proportion of these patients experienced hypoglycaemia (20.2% v 9.1%; P < 0.001) and/or hypo-osmolarity (29.4% v 22.0%; P < 0.001), but not hypokalaemia (16.7% v 15.6%; P = 0.47). Overall, 11 patients (1.8%) in the intensive correction group and 112 patients (1.4%) in the partial correction group died (P = 0.42). However, after adjustment for illness severity, partial early correction of BGL was independently associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.30-0.48; P < 0.001), lower risk of hypo-osmolarity (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.98; P < 0.03) and lower risk of death (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.86; P = 0.02). In a large cohort of patients with DKA, partial early correction of BGL according to DKA-specific guidelines, when compared with intensive early correction of BGL, was independently associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia, hypo-osmolarity and death.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK METHODS ON THE OUTCOME AND SELF CONFIDENCE OF YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tzetzis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of three corrective feedback methods, using different combinations of correction, or error cues and positive feedback for learning two badminton skills with different difficulty (forehand clear - low difficulty, backhand clear - high difficulty. Outcome and self-confidence scores were used as dependent variables. The 48 participants were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A received correction cues and positive feedback. Group B received cues on errors of execution. Group C received positive feedback, correction cues and error cues. Group D was the control group. A pre, post and a retention test was conducted. A three way analysis of variance ANOVA (4 groups X 2 task difficulty X 3 measures with repeated measures on the last factor revealed significant interactions for each depended variable. All the corrective feedback methods groups, increased their outcome scores over time for the easy skill, but only groups A and C for the difficult skill. Groups A and B had significantly better outcome scores than group C and the control group for the easy skill on the retention test. However, for the difficult skill, group C was better than groups A, B and D. The self confidence scores of groups A and C improved over time for the easy skill but not for group B and D. Again, for the difficult skill, only group C improved over time. Finally a regression analysis depicted that the improvement in performance predicted a proportion of the improvement in self confidence for both the easy and the difficult skill. It was concluded that when young athletes are taught skills of different difficulty, different type of instruction, might be more appropriate in order to improve outcome and self confidence. A more integrated approach on teaching will assist coaches or physical education teachers to be more efficient and effective

  3. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In the January 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–7), the article "Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords." by Prof. Monica Whitty et al., has an error in wording in the abstract. The sentence in question was originally printed as: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. It should read: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. The authors wish to apologize for the error.

  4. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  5. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  6. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  7. Using Mind Maps to Make Student Questioning Effective: Learning Outcomes of a Principle-Based Scenario for Teacher Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Student questioning is an important learning strategy, but rare in many classrooms, because teachers have concerns if these questions contribute to attaining curricular objectives. Teachers face the challenge of making student questioning effective for learning the curriculum. To address this challenge, a principle-based scenario for guiding effective student questioning was developed and tested for its relevance and practicality in two previous studies. In the scenario, which consists of a sequence of pedagogical activities, mind maps support teachers and students to explore and elaborate upon a core curriculum, by raising, investigating, and exchanging student questions. In this paper, a follow-up study is presented that tested the effectiveness of the scenario on student outcomes in terms of attainment of curricular objectives. Ten teachers and their 231 students participated in the study. Pre- and posttest mind maps were used to measure individual and collective learning outcomes of student questioning. Findings show that a majority of students progressed in learning the core curriculum and elaborated upon it. The findings suggest that visualizing knowledge construction in a shared mind map supports students to learn a core curriculum and to refine their knowledge structures.

  8. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Gillon R. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics. J Med Ethics 2015;41:111–6. The author misrepresented Beauchamp and Childress when he wrote: ‘My own view (unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim ( p. 421)1, is that all moral agents whether or not they are doctors or otherwise involved in healthcare have these prima facie moral obligations; but in the context of answering the question ‘what is it to do good medical ethics ?’ my claim is limited to the ethical obligations of doctors’. The author intended and should have written the following: ‘My own view, unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim (p.421)1 is that these four prima facie principles can provide a basic moral framework not only for medical ethics but for ethics in general’.

  9. Developing a Learning Outcome-Based Question Examination Paper Tool for Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sa'adah; Admodisastro, Novia Indriaty; Kamaruddin, Azrina; Baharom, Salmi; Pa, Noraini Che

    2016-01-01

    Much attention is now given on producing quality graduates. Therefore, outcome-based education (OBE) in teaching and learning is now being implemented in Malaysia at all levels of education especially at higher education institutions. For implementing OBE, the design of curriculum and courses should be based on specified outcomes. Thus, the…

  10. A model-based correction for outcome reporting bias in meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copas, John; Dwan, Kerry; Kirkham, Jamie; Williamson, Paula

    2014-04-01

    It is often suspected (or known) that outcomes published in medical trials are selectively reported. A systematic review for a particular outcome of interest can only include studies where that outcome was reported and so may omit, for example, a study that has considered several outcome measures but only reports those giving significant results. Using the methodology of the Outcome Reporting Bias (ORB) in Trials study of (Kirkham and others, 2010. The impact of outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials on a cohort of systematic reviews. British Medical Journal 340, c365), we suggest a likelihood-based model for estimating the effect of ORB on confidence intervals and p-values in meta-analysis. Correcting for bias has the effect of moving estimated treatment effects toward the null and hence more cautious assessments of significance. The bias can be very substantial, sometimes sufficient to completely overturn previous claims of significance. We re-analyze two contrasting examples, and derive a simple fixed effects approximation that can be used to give an initial estimate of the effect of ORB in practice.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of the Effect of Hering's Law on Outcomes of Surgical Correction of Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Er; Yu, Jiangang; Zhang, Shengchang; Nie, Yunfei; Li, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Several factors may influence aesthetic outcomes of ptosis surgery, especially in patients with asymmetrical ptosis. We retrospectively assessed the effect of Hering's law on surgical outcomes of patients with asymmetrical ptosis. Patients with mild to moderate asymmetrical ptosis (N = 300) who underwent advancement or plication of upper eyelid aponeurosis between January 2014 and July 2016 were enrolled. Fifty patients (group A) underwent surgery without taking into consideration the impact of Hering's law. Of these, 35 patients with unilateral ptosis (subgroup A1) underwent standard surgery on the contralateral side, whereas 15 patients with bilateral ptosis (subgroup A2) were first operated on the milder side followed by the more severely affected side.In 250 patients (group B), surgery was performed taking cognizance of the implications of Hering's law. These included 100 patients with unilateral ptosis (B1) and 150 with bilateral ptosis (B2). Difference in bilateral palpebral fissure symmetry by less than 0.5 mm was considered as satisfactory outcome. Duration of postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 24 months. Satisfactory outcomes were achieved over 60% of patients in group A (A1, 60.6%; A2, 66.67%) and in 96% of patients in group B (B1, 95%; B2, 96.67%). Patients with unsatisfactory outcomes underwent repair according to Hering's law after 3 months and obtained good results. Application of Hering's law may improve outcomes of corrective surgery in patients with asymmetric ptosis.

  12. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  13. Triple osteotomy for the correction of severe hallux valgus deformity: Patient reported outcomes and radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sean; Bhosale, Abhijit; Mustafa, Abubakar; Shenoy, Ravi; Pillai, Anand

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic Hallux valgus can be treated with metatarsal osteotomy combined with proximal phalangeal osteotomy, however this might not be sufficient to treat severe HV deformities. Fifteen feet in eleven female patients treated with double first metatarsal and proximal phalanx osteotomies without lateral release were prospectively studied and outcome measures including radiological angles and validated patient reported outcome scores collected. Mean radiological follow up was 15 months and PROMs data 17 months. Mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles were corrected from 45 to 24.7° and 18.7 to 7.4° respectively. There was an eight degree recurrence of hallux valgus angle. There was no wound problems, non-unions or evidence of avascular necrosis. The EQ-5D descriptive index showed a non-statistically significant improvement. All three elements of the MOxFQ score showed a statistically significant improvement: Forefoot pain (59-26.8), Walking and Stability (49.9-29.6) and Social Interaction (56.4-33.1) CONCLUSION: Triple osteotomy, without a lateral soft tissue release, leads to good radiological and functional outcomes in those with severe hallux valgus deformity. Patients need to be warned of the recovery time and potential for future metalwork removal. The risk of early recurrence suggests that a lateral release should be included in order to maintain a long lasting correction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the Aesthetic Outcome in Scaphocephaly Correction: Hairline Lowering During Vault Remodeling Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Joern; Duncan, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The bossed forehead in patients with scaphocephaly often leads to a high hairline. A new technique to improve the aesthetic outcome of patients undergoing scaphocephaly correction is described. Sixteen patients with scaphocephaly and having a high hairline due to frontal bossing who underwent scaphocephaly correction by subtotal or total vault remodeling were analyzed. The median age at surgery was 18 months. The mean distance between the nasofrontal suture and the hairline was preoperatively 70 mm (range 58-91). An obvious lowering of the hairline could be achieved in all 16 patients. The mean postoperative distance nasofrontal suture to hairline was 59 mm (range 50-73). There were no complications associated with the technique. The hairline lowering technique is a useful addition to vault remodeling techniques and can improve the postoperative aesthetic appearance considerably. The authors recommend this technique in scaphocephaly patients, who present with a high hairline.

  15. Achievement of course outcome in vector calculus pre-test questions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  17. Questioning the Use of Outcome Measures to Evaluate Principal Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ed; Hollingworth, Liz

    2018-01-01

    Policymakers are proposing the use of outcome measures as indicators of effective principal preparation programs. The three most common metrics recommended are: (1) graduates' effectiveness in improving student achievement test scores, (2) graduate job placement rates, and (3) principal job retention once employed. This article explores the use of…

  18. Three-question set from Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument adds independent prognostic information on cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seferovic, Jelena P; Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The self-administered Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is used to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We examined whether the MNSI might also provide information on risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the Aliskiren...

  19. Midterm outcome after correction of hallux valgus deformity using scarf osteotomy in adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ibrahim Alolayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Determining the efficacy of any surgical treatment is the key to achieve better practice and best outcomes for patients. Aims: This study is designed to address midterm outcome in adult patients with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus (HV, who underwent scarf osteotomy from 2012 to 2014. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective cohort study in which charts of all adult patients with moderate-to-severe HV who underwent scarf osteotomy from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed. Subjects and Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, 39 patients (41 feet who underwent scarf osteotomy for correction of HV deformity were retrospectively evaluated. Standard weight-bearing dorsoplantar radiographs were obtained pre- and postoperatively. HV angle (HVA, intermetatarsal angle (IMA and distal metatarsal articular angles (DMAA were measured pre- and postoperatively to evaluate the efficacy of the surgery. The complication rate was reported. The average follow-up was 13.5 months, and the patients' mean age was 37 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were compared using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test whichever was appropriate. All tests were two-sided, and a P> 0.01 was considered statistically significant. Results: The average preoperative HVA and IMA were 32° and 14.3°, which improved to 11° and 7.9°, respectively. The changes were statistically significant (P 0.18. Conclusions: This study suggests that scarf osteotomy surgery is a very versatile osteotomy in correcting moderate-to-severe HV deformity. It offers a greater degree of correction and stability, lower rate of complications and good outcome. However, long-term follow-up studies are still needed.

  20. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv

    2016-12-01

    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; phallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  2. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkuvanci, Ünsal; Ziylan, Orhan; Dönmez, M Irfan; Yucel, Omer Baris; Oktar, Tayfun; Ander, Haluk; Nane, Ismet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years). The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years). Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees) penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees) with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. An unanswered question in pediatric urology: the post pubertal persistence of prepubertal congenital penile curvature correction by tunical plication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Ozkuvanci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze post pubertal results of pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication with non-absorbable sutures in the correction of CPC. Materials and Methods: The files of patients who underwent tunica albuginea plication without incision (dorsal/lateral were retrospectively reviewed. Patients younger than 13 years of age at the time of operation and older than 14 years of age in November 2015 were included. Patients with a penile curvature of less than 30 degrees & more than 45 degrees and penile/urethral anomalies were excluded. All of the patients underwent surgery followed by circumcision. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of the operation was 9.7 years (range, 6-13 years. The mean degree of ventral penile curvature measured during the operation was 39 degrees while it was 41 degrees in the lateral curvatures. All of the patients were curvature-free at the end of the operation. At the time of the follow-up examination, the mean age was 16.7 years (range, 14-25 years. Six patients had a straight (0-10 degrees penis during erection and seven patients had recurrent penile curvatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. Conclusion: Pre pubertal tunica albuginea plication of congenital penile curvature (30-45 degrees with non-absorbable sutures performed without incision is a minimal invasive method especially when performed during circumcision. However, recurrence might be observed in half of the patients after puberty.

  4. Complication Rates and Short-Term Outcomes After Operative Hammertoe Correction in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claire Mackenzie; Boden, Stephanie Ann; Boden, Allison Lee; Maidman, Samuel David; Cutler, Anya; Mignemi, Danielle; Bariteau, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Hammertoe deformities are the most common lesser toe deformity. To date, no studies have looked at outcomes of operative management in the geriatric population, which may be at greater risk for complications or functional compromise because of comorbidities. Data on 58 patients undergoing operative correction of hammertoe deformities were prospectively collected. Clinical outcomes were assessed using preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores with a minimum of 6-month follow-up. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of age at the time of surgery: younger than 65 and 65 and older. Complication rates and mean VAS and SF-36 improvement were compared. Forty-seven patients met inclusion criteria (7 men, 40 women), with 26 patients (37 toes) in the younger cohort and 21 patients (39 toes) in the older cohort. Overall, patients demonstrated significant improvement from baseline to 6 and 12 months postoperatively in VAS ( P < .001 and P < .001) and SF-36 ( P < .001 and P < .001) scores. Mean improvement in VAS and SF-36 scores was not significantly different between the groups at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Complications occurred in 13.5% and 10.3% of patients in the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Outcomes of operative correction of hammertoe deformities in older patients were similar to outcomes in younger patients after greater than 6 months of follow-up. Overall improvement in VAS and SF-36 was statistically significant for both cohorts. There was no associated increase in complications for older patients. Level, III comparative series.

  5. The association between question type and the outcomes of a Dermatology eConsult service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ashley; Joo, Jiyeh; DesGroseilliers, Jean-Pierre; Liddy, Clare; Glassman, Steven; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2017-08-01

    eConsult is a web based service that facilitates communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists, which can reduce the need for face-to-face consultations with specialists. One example is the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialist through eConsultation) service with dermatology being the largest specialty consulted. Dermatology eConsults submitted from July 2011 to January 2015 were reviewed. Post eConsult surveys for PCPs were analyzed to determine the number of traditional consults avoided and perceived value of eConsults. The time it took the PCP to receive a reply and the amount of time reported by the specialist to answer eConsult were proactively recorded and analyzed. A subset of 154 most recent eConsults was categorized for dermatology content and question type (e.g. diagnosis or management) using a validated taxonomy. A total of 965 eConsults were directed to dermatology from 217 unique PCPs. The majority of eConsults (64%) took the specialist between 10 and 15 minutes to answer. The overall value of this service to the provider was rated as very good or excellent in 95% of cases. In 49%, traditional in-person assessments were avoided. In the subset of the most recent cases, diagnosis was the most common question type asked (65.2%) followed by management (29%) and drug treatment (10.6%). The top five subject areas (40%) were: Dermatitis, Infections, Neoplasm, Nevi, and Pruritus. eConsults was feasible and well received by PCPs, which improves access to dermatology care with a potential to reduce wait times for traditional consultation. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. The early functional outcome of Mau osteotomy for the correction of moderate-severe hallux valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanujan Thangarajah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hallux valgus is one of the commonest conditions of the foot and has been reported to affect nearly half of the adult population. It is most effectively treated by a corrective osteotomy of which there a numerous subtypes. The Mau osteotomy confers the greatest structural stability but is not thought to provide adequate correction of moderate-severe deformities. Accordingly, complications such as under correction and non-union are common. The aim of this study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus following a Mau osteotomy. A retrospective review of 23 patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus treated by Mau osteotomy was conducted. Patients were assessed clinically by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scoring system and radiologically by measuring the first intermetatarsal (IM and hallux abductovalgus angles (HAV. The mean AOFAS score had improved from 47 preoperatively to 92 postoperatively (P<0.01. Additionally, preoperative HAV and IM angles improved from 39° and 15° respectively to 15° and 9° respectively (P<0.01. There were no cases of undercorrection or non-union. In this series, the Mau osteotomy was able to achieve good correction of the IM and HAV angles in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus. This was reflected in a significantly higher postoperative AOFAS score. Contrary to other studies there were no cases of undercorrection and despite allowing patients to fully weight-bear postoperatively there were no cases of non-union.

  7. Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database (PROQOLID: Frequently asked questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrier Laure-Lou

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exponential development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO measures in clinical research has led to the creation of the Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database (PROQOLID to facilitate the selection process of PRO measures in clinical research. The project was initiated by Mapi Research Trust in Lyon, France. Initially called QOLID (Quality of Life Instruments Database, the project's purpose was to provide all those involved in health care evaluation with a comprehensive and unique source of information on PRO and HRQOL measures available through the Internet. PROQOLID currently describes more than 470 PRO instruments in a structured format. It is available in two levels, non-subscribers and subscribers, at http://www.proqolid.org. The first level is free of charge and contains 14 categories of basic useful information on the instruments (e.g. author, objective, original language, list of existing translations, etc.. The second level provides significantly more information about the instruments. It includes review copies of over 350 original instruments, 120 user manuals and 350 translations. Most are available in PDF format. This level is only accessible to annual subscribers. PROQOLID is updated in close collaboration with the instruments' authors on a regular basis. Fifty or more new instruments are added to the database annually. Today, all of the major pharmaceutical companies, prestigious institutions (such as the FDA, the NIH's National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Veterans Administration, dozens of universities, public institutions and researchers subscribe to PROQOLID on a yearly basis. More than 800 users per day routinely visit the database.

  8. Questioning gender norms with men to improve health outcomes: evidence of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, G; Ricardo, C; Nascimento, M; Olukoya, A; Santos, C

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a review of 58 evaluation studies of programmes with men and boys in sexual and reproductive health (including HIV prevention, treatment, care and support); father involvement; gender-based violence; maternal, newborn and child health; and gender socialisation more broadly. While few of the programmes go beyond the pilot stage, or a relatively short-term timeframe, they offer compelling evidence that well-designed programmes with men and boys can lead to positive changes in their behaviours and attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health; maternal, newborn and child health; their interaction with their children; their use of violence against women; their questioning of violence with other men; and their health-seeking behaviour. The evidence indicates that programmes that incorporate a gender-transformative approach and promote gender-equitable relationships between men and women are more effective in producing behaviour change than narrowly focused interventions, as are programmes which reach beyond the individual level to the social context.

  9. Does correction of preoperative coronal imbalance make a difference in outcomes of adult patients with deformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubs, Michael D; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Kim, Yongjung J; Hung, Man; Cheh, Gene; Koester, Linda A

    2013-03-15

    Retrospective study with prospectively collected outcomes data. Determine the significance of coronal balance on spinal deformity surgery outcomes. Sagittal balance has been confirmed as an important radiographic parameter correlating with adult deformity treatment outcomes. The significance of coronal balance on functional outcomes is less clear. Eighty-five patients with more than 4 cm of coronal imbalance who underwent reconstructive spinal surgery were evaluated to determine the significance of coronal balance on functional outcomes as measured with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Scoliosis Research Society outcomes questionnaires. Sixty-two patients had combined coronal (>4 cm) and sagittal imbalance (>5 cm), while 23 patients had coronal imbalance alone. Postoperatively, 85% of patients demonstrated improved coronal balance. The mean improvement in the coronal C7 plumb line was 26 mm for a mean correction of 42%. The mean preoperative sagittal C7 plumb line in patients with combined coronal and sagittal imbalance was 118 mm (range, 50-310 mm) and improved to a mean 49 mm. The mean preoperative and postoperative ODI scores were 42 (range, 0-90) and 27 (range, 0-78), for a mean improvement of 15 (36%) (P = 0.00001; 95% CI, 12-20). The mean Scoliosis Research Society scores improved by 17 points (29%) (P = 0.00). Younger age (P = 0.008) and improvement in sagittal balance (P = 0.014) were positive predictors for improved ODI scores. Improvement in sagittal balance (P = 0.010) was a positive predictor for improved Scoliosis Research Society scores. In patients with combined coronal and sagittal imbalance, improvement in sagittal balance was the most significant predictor for improved ODI scores (P = 0.009). In patients with preoperative coronal imbalance alone, improvement in coronal balance trended toward, but was not a significant predictor for improved ODI (P = 0.092). Sagittal balance improvement is the strongest predictor of improved outcomes in

  10. Outcomes of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sharon S W; Chan, Tommy C Y; Ng, Alex L K; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2018-03-28

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common refractive surgery in young patients, which aims at providing a clear distance vision without the use of spectacles. With time, these patients develop symptomatic cataract, which affects activities of daily living, and to improve visual acuity, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be considered. In post-myopic LASIK patients, to allow continuation of spectacle independence, the implantation of presbyopia-correcting IOLs is a suitable option. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to report the visual outcome and quality in post-myopic LASIK eyes after the implantation of AT LISA tri839MP IOL. Twenty eyes of 13 patients with history of myopic LASIK within 20 years underwent phacoemulsification by one single surgeon. All eyes were implanted with AT LISA tri839PMP IOL, and their outcomes were evaluated at 6 months postoperation. The mean postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) is 0.28 ± 0.29, while the corrected distance VA is 0.06 ± 0.14. The mean postoperative uncorrected near VA is 0.02 ± 0.05, while the corrected near VA is 0.01 ± 0.02. The mean postoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (SE) is - 0.92 ± 0.76D. There is a statistically significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative refraction (p = 0.02), which shows a postoperative myopic shift. There is also a statistically significant difference between the mean targeted SE and postoperative manifest refraction SE (p = 0.00). Only one out of 20 eyes (5%) reported halo and glare symptoms. Ten out of 20 eyes (50%) are able to achieve spectacles independence. In conclusion, in post-myopic LASIK eyes, AT LISA tri839MP provides a good visual outcome at both near and distance, but is more predictable at near than at distance. There is a myopic shift in the postoperative SE. Visual quality is satisfactory and has not been exacerbated. Most patients can remain to be

  11. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  12. Using Mind Maps to Make Student Questioning Effective : Learning Outcomes of a Principle-Based Scenario for Teacher Guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Student questioning is an important learning strategy, but rare in many classrooms, because teachers have concerns if these questions contribute to attaining curricular objectives. Teachers face the challenge of making student questioning effective for learning the curriculum. To address this

  13. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  14. Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction after laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of myopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahzib, N.G.; Bootsma, S.J.; Eggink, F.A.G.J.; Nabar, V.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine subjective patient satisfaction and self-perceived quality of vision after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to correct myopia and myopic astigmatism. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. METHODS: A validated

  15. Comparing wavefront-optimized, wavefront-guided and topography-guided laser vision correction: clinical outcomes using an objective decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonecipher, Karl; Parrish, Joseph; Stonecipher, Megan

    2018-05-18

    This review is intended to update and educate the reader on the currently available options for laser vision correction, more specifically, laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). In addition, some related clinical outcomes data from over 1000 cases performed over a 1-year are presented to highlight some differences between the various treatment profiles currently available including the rapidity of visual recovery. The cases in question were performed on the basis of a decision tree to segregate patients on the basis of anatomical, topographic and aberrometry findings; the decision tree was formulated based on the data available in some of the reviewed articles. Numerous recent studies reported in the literature provide data related to the risks and benefits of LASIK; alternatives to a laser refractive procedure are also discussed. The results from these studies have been used to prepare a decision tree to assist the surgeon in choosing the best option for the patient based on the data from several standard preoperative diagnostic tests. The data presented here should aid surgeons in understanding the effects of currently available LASIK treatment profiles. Surgeons should also be able to appreciate how the findings were used to create a decision tree to help choose the most appropriate treatment profile for patients. Finally, the retrospective evaluation of clinical outcomes based on the decision tree should provide surgeons with a realistic expectation for their own outcomes should they adopt such a decision tree in their own practice.

  16. Six-month clinical outcomes after hyperopic correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Arbelaez

    2010-10-01

    Conclusions: LASIK for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism with SCHWIND AMARIS yields very satisfactory visual outcomes. Preoperative refractions were postoperatively reduced to subclinical values with no clinically relevant induction of corneal HOA.

  17. Six-month clinical outcomes after hyperopic correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS Total-Tech laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, María Clara; Vidal, Camila; Arba Mosquera, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative clinical outcomes, and corneal High Order Aberrations, among eyes with hyperopia up to +5 D of spherical equivalent, that have undergone LASIK treatments using the SCHWIND AMARIS laser system. Methods At six-month follow-up, 100 eyes with preoperative hyperopia or hyperopic astigmatism up to +5 D of spherical equivalent were retrospectively analysed. Standard examinations, pre- and postoperative wavefront analysis with a corneal-wavefront-analyzer (OPTIKON Scout) were performed. Aberration-Free aspheric treatments were planned with Custom Ablation Manager software and ablations performed using the SCHWIND AMARIS flying-spot excimer laser system (both SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions). LASIK flaps were created using a LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer Group) in all cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, refractive outcome, safety, and wavefront aberration. Results At six month, 90 % of eyes achieved ≥ 20/25 UCVA and 44 % achieved ≥ 20/16 UCVA. Seventy-four percent of eyes were within ± 0.25D of spherical equivalent and 89 % within ± 0.50D, with 94 % within 0.50D of astigmatism. Mean spherical equivalent was −0.12 ± 0.51D and 0.50 ± 0.51D for the astigmatism. Fifty-two percent of eyes improved BSCVA vs. only 19 % losing lines of BSCVA. Predictability slope for refraction was 1.03 and intercept +0.01 D. On average, negative corneal spherical aberrations were significantly increased by the treatments, no other aberration terms changed from pre- to postoperative values. Conclusions LASIK for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism with SCHWIND AMARIS yields very satisfactory visual outcomes. Preoperative refractions were postoperatively reduced to subclinical values with no clinically relevant induction of corneal HOA.

  18. Considerations for analysis of time-to-event outcomes measured with error: Bias and correction with SIMEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eric J; Shepherd, Bryan E; Lumley, Thomas; Shaw, Pamela A

    2018-04-15

    For time-to-event outcomes, a rich literature exists on the bias introduced by covariate measurement error in regression models, such as the Cox model, and methods of analysis to address this bias. By comparison, less attention has been given to understanding the impact or addressing errors in the failure time outcome. For many diseases, the timing of an event of interest (such as progression-free survival or time to AIDS progression) can be difficult to assess or reliant on self-report and therefore prone to measurement error. For linear models, it is well known that random errors in the outcome variable do not bias regression estimates. With nonlinear models, however, even random error or misclassification can introduce bias into estimated parameters. We compare the performance of 2 common regression models, the Cox and Weibull models, in the setting of measurement error in the failure time outcome. We introduce an extension of the SIMEX method to correct for bias in hazard ratio estimates from the Cox model and discuss other analysis options to address measurement error in the response. A formula to estimate the bias induced into the hazard ratio by classical measurement error in the event time for a log-linear survival model is presented. Detailed numerical studies are presented to examine the performance of the proposed SIMEX method under varying levels and parametric forms of the error in the outcome. We further illustrate the method with observational data on HIV outcomes from the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Contemporary management and outcomes in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Danford, David A; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Tutarel, Oktay

    2018-01-11

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) can occur in isolation, or in combination with other structural cardiac anomalies, most commonly ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid valve disease. Clinical recognition can be challenging, so echocardiography is often the means by which definitive diagnosis is made. The tricuspid valve and right ventricle are on the systemic arterial side of the ccTGA circulation, and are therefore subject to progressive functional deterioration. The natural history of ccTGA is also greatly influenced by the nature and severity of accompanying lesions, some of which require surgical repair. Some management strategies leave the right ventricle as the systemic arterial pump, but carry the risk of worsening heart failure. More complex 'double switch' repairs establish the left ventricle as the systemic pump, and include an atrial baffle to redirect venous return in combination with either arterial switch or Rastelli operation (if a suitable ventricular septal defect permits). Occasionally, the anatomic peculiarities of ccTGA do not allow straightforward biventricular repair, and Fontan palliation is a reasonable option. Regardless of the approach selected, late cardiovascular complications are relatively common, so ongoing outpatient surveillance should be established in an age-appropriate facility with expertise in congenital heart disease care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Factors that impact the outcome of endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Tourchi, Ali; Aryan, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    To identify independent factors that may predict vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) resolution after endoscopic treatment using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) in children free of anatomical anomalies. A retrospective study was conducted in our pediatric referral center from 1998 to 2011 on children with primary VUR who underwent endoscopic injection of Deflux with or without concomitant autologous blood injection (called HABIT or HIT, respectively). Children with secondary VUR or incomplete records were excluded from the study. Potential factors were divided into three categories including preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Success was defined as no sign of VUR on postoperative voiding cystourethrogram. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent factors that may predict success. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) for prediction of success were estimated for each factor. From 485 children received Deflux injection, a total of 372 with a mean age of 3.10 years (ranged from 6 months to 12 years) were included in the study and endoscopic management was successful in 322 (86.6 %) of them. Of the patients, 185 (49.7 %) underwent HIT and 187 (50.3 %) underwent HABIT technique. On univariate analysis, VUR grade from preoperative category (OR = 4.79, 95 % CI = 2.22-10.30, p = 0.000), operation technique (OR = 0.33, 95 % CI = 0.17-0.64, p = 0.001) and presence of mound on postoperative sonography (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI = 0.02-0.16, p = 0.000) were associated with success. On multivariate analysis, preoperative VUR grade (OR = 4.85, 95 % CI = 2.49-8.96, p = 0.000) and identification of mound on postoperative sonography (OR = 0.07, 95 % CI = 0.01-0.18, p = 0.000) remained as independent success predictors. Based on this study, successful VUR correction after the endoscopic injection of Deflux can be predicted with respect to preoperative VUR grade and presence of mound after operation.

  1. Can faith-based correctional programs work? An outcome evaluation of the innerchange freedom initiative in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Grant; King, Michelle

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the InnerChange Freedom Initiative (InnerChange), a faith-based prisoner reentry program, by examining recidivism outcomes among 732 offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2009. Results from the Cox regression analyses revealed that participating in InnerChange significantly reduced reoffending (rearrest, reconviction, and new offense reincarceration), although it did not have a significant impact on reincarceration for a technical violation revocation. The findings further suggest that the beneficial recidivism outcomes for InnerChange participants may have been due, in part, to the continuum of mentoring support some offenders received in the institution and the community. The results imply that faith-based correctional programs can reduce recidivism, but only if they apply evidence-based practices that focus on providing a behavioral intervention within a therapeutic community, addressing the criminogenic needs of participants and delivering a continuum of care from the institution to the community. Given that InnerChange relies heavily on volunteers and program costs are privately funded, the program exacts no additional costs to the State of Minnesota. Yet, because InnerChange lowers recidivism, which includes reduced reincarceration and victimization costs, the program may be especially advantageous from a cost-benefit perspective.

  2. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated.

  3. Immediate postoperative outcome of orthognathic surgical planning, and prediction of positional changes in hard and soft tissue, independently of the extent and direction of the surgical corrections required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Ole; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Jens; Hermund, Niels Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    orthognathic correction using the computerised, cephalometric, orthognathic, surgical planning system (TIOPS). Preoperative cephalograms were analysed and treatment plans and prediction tracings produced by computerised interactive simulation. The planned changes were transferred to models and finally...... with the presently included soft tissue algorithms, the current study shows relatively high mean predictability of the immediately postoperative hard and soft tissue outcome, independent of the extent and direction of required orthognathic correction. Because of the relatively high individual variability, caution...

  4. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  5. Z-LASIK and Trans-PRK for correction of high-grade myopia: safety, efficacy, predictability and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Assaf; Mimouni, Michael; Livny, Eitan; Bahar, Irit

    2018-03-12

    The aim of the study was to examine the outcomes of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (Trans-PRK) and Femtosecond Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Z-LASIK) for the correction of high myopia. A retrospective cohort study design was used. The study group included 792 eyes with high-grade myopia (- 6.0 diopters or higher) or high-grade myopia with astigmatism that were treated with Z-LASIK or Trans-PRK in 2013 through 2014 in an optical outpatient clinic of a large private medical service. The Trans-PRK group comprised of 674 eyes with a spherical equivalent (SE) of - 7.87 ± 1.46 and the Z-LASIK group comprised of 118 eyes with a SE of - 7.19 ± 0.81 (P PRK group was - 0.06 and - 0.02 in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.545). Efficacy index values were 0.92 in the Trans-PRK group and 0.95 in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.083), and corresponding safety index values were 0.95 and 0.97 (P = 0.056). An UCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 94.20% of eyes in the Trans-PRK group, and 98.31% in the Z-LASIK group (P = 0.063). The majority of eyes in both the Trans-PRK and Z-LASIK groups were within ± 0.5D of attempted correction: 59.35 and 64.71%, respectively (P = 0.271). Both Trans-PRK and Z-LASIK demonstrated excellent efficacy, safety and predictability profiles, with results comparable and in some cases superior to the current literature. Results of Z-LASIK were slightly better than those of Trans-PRK, though the preoperative SE of the latter was higher.

  6. Residents and Medical Students Correctly Answer Clinical Questions More Often with Google and UpToDate than With PubMed or Ovid MEDLINE. A Review of: Thiele, R. H., Poiro, N. C., Scalzo, D. C., & Nemergut, E. C. (2010. Speed, accuracy, and confidence in Google, Ovid, PubMed, and UpToDate: Results of a randomised trial. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 86(1018, 459-465. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2010.098053

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Arndt

    2011-06-01

    repeated questions. Otherwise, there was no statistically significant difference in questions answered correctly. Confidence did not differ. When asked to answer new questions, subjects using Google and UpToDate were significantly more likely to find a correct answer than PubMed users. UpToDate users were more confident. There was no statistical difference in primary outcome (correct answer with high confidence between Google, Ovid, and PubMed.Pooled data from parts I and II, removing repeated questions: Subjects using Google and UpToDate were more likely to find correct answers. Confidence was highest among UpToDate users. Average search time per question (limited to 5 minutes per question in ascending order of time spent was: UpToDate, Google, PubMed, and Ovid.Conclusion – While the number of participants is small, the results suggest that the popular search engine Google and the commercially produced secondary online source UpToDate are more useful and efficient for finding answers to questions arising in anesthesiology and critical care practice than tools focused exclusively on indexing the primary literature.

  7. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  8. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  9. Early Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Release for Correction of Sagittal Imbalance in Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen R. Deukmedjian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate a novel surgical technique in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis and present our early experience with the minimally invasive lateral approach for anterior longitudinal ligament release to provide lumbar lordosis and examine its impact on sagittal balance. Methods. All patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD treated with the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion (MIS LIF for release of the anterior longitudinal ligament were examined. Patient demographics, clinical data, spinopelvic parameters, and outcome measures were recorded. Results. Seven patients underwent release of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALR to improve sagittal imbalance. All cases were split into anterior and posterior stages, with mean estimated blood loss of 125 cc and 530 cc, respectively. Average hospital stay was 8.3 days, and mean follow-up time was 9.1 months. Comparing pre- and postoperative 36′′ standing X-rays, the authors discovered a mean increase in global lumbar lordosis of 24 degrees, increase in segmental lumbar lordosis of 17 degrees per level of ALL released, decrease in pelvic tilt of 7 degrees, and decrease in sagittal vertical axis of 4.9 cm. At the last followup, there was a mean improvement in VAS and ODI scores of 26.2% and 18.3%. Conclusions. In the authors’ early experience, release of the anterior longitudinal ligament using the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach may be a feasible alternative in correcting sagittal deformity.

  10. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  11. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  12. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  13. Long-term cognitive outcome of very low birth-weight Saudi preterm infants at the corrected age of 24-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaih, Badr H

    2018-04-01

    To assess infants' cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months, and to identify factors associated with adverse outcome and examine the correlation between Bayley Infants Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) score and Gesell Schedule of Child Development (GSCD). Methods: This retrospective study was performed on Saudi very low birth-weight (VLBW)  infants born   in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1997 and 2014 by the use of BINS as screening test and GSCD as definitive test. Results: Of 561 enrolled infants, 367 (65.4%) continued to follow-up. Three-hundred and fifteen infants (85.6%) had a normal cognitive function. In addition to lower birth weight (beta = -0.003) (p less than 0.001), male gender (OR =3.9) (p=0.001)and cerebral palsy (OR =33.9) (p less than 0.001) were the strongest factors associated with poor cognitive outcome. Approximately 75.4% of infants with normal BINS score had normal cognitive function and 7.6% of total infants had sever cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The majority of VLBW infants in our center have  normal cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months. Male gender, lower birth weight, and cerebral palsy are major predictors of poor outcome. The BINS scores were correlated with GSCD as a valid predictor for future developmental outcome.

  14. Investigating the impact of a combined approach of perceived organisational support for strengths use and deficit correction on employee outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els, C.; Mostert, K.; van Woerkom, M.

    2018-01-01

    Orientation: The positive psychology paradigm suggests a balanced focus on employee strengths and deficits. However, an overemphasis on strengths has raised questions regarding the value of a focus on strengths use, deficit improvement or a combined approach with a balanced focus on both. Research

  15. Outcomes of Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Correction Pulmonary Insufficiency after Primary Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abbassi Teshnisi; Aliasghar Moeinipour; Hamid Hoseinikhah; Seyedeh Zahra Aemmi; Shahla Shirin Bahador; Nahid Zirak

    2016-01-01

    Background Total correction of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) anomaly in early childhood has been practiced in many centers with good results, but in some of patients after few years sever Pulmonary valve insufficiency occurred. Materials and Methods At a cross- sectional study from January 2015 to January 2016, 10 patients who had history of primary repair of TOF with free pulmonary insufficiency (PI) that underwent of pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) with bioprosthetic valves were evaluated. Re...

  16. Long-Term Outcome of Mustard/Senning Correction for Transposition of the Great Arteries in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlstrup, Niels; Sørensen, Keld; Mattsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and leaves the right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. The Mustard and Senning cohort is now well into adulthood and we begin to see the long-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 6 surgical centers that performed Mustard and Senning operations in Sweden and Denmark identified all operated TGA...... patients. Information about death was obtained in late 2007 and early 2008 from the Danish and Swedish Centralised Civil Register by using the patients' unique national Civil Registration Numbers. Four hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing the atrial switch operation were identified. Perioperative 30-day...... of long-term outcome (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.46, P=0.04), once the TGA patient has survived the perioperative period. The risk of reoperation was correlated to the presence of associated defects and where the first Mustard/Senning operation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The long...

  17. An evaluation of calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) for cosmetic nasolabial fold correction: a meta-analysis and patient centric outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhre, G Peter; Perdikis, Galen; Shaddix, Kyle K; Terkonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C

    2009-11-01

    The use of calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse, BioForm Medical, San Mateo, California) for cosmetic soft tissue augmentation has increased significantly in recent years. Only a handful of authors have reported patient satisfaction data. A meta-analysis of published data was performed using a 5-point scale for patient satisfaction to allow data comparison across studies. A patient-centric outcomes study was also performed at our institution, using a blinded questionnaire. Five usable studies were identified for meta-analysis. Patient satisfaction was 4.16 of 5 in 324 patients at 3 to 6 months and 4.15 in 86 patients at 1 year. In our institutional patient-centric outcomes study, the early satisfaction rate was 3.7 of 5. At 1 year the rate was only 2.3 of 5. Calcium hydroxylapatite remains a viable option for augmentation of facial soft tissue structures. However, this report shows that further, accurate, large population outcomes assessments are absolutely required.

  18. Surgery for the correction of hallux valgus: minimum five-year results with a validated patient-reported outcome tool and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, A; Nazarian, N; Chandrananth, J; Tacey, M; Shepherd, D; Tran, P

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to determine the medium-term patient-reported and radiographic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for hallux valgus. A total of 118 patients (162 feet) underwent surgery for hallux valgus between January 2008 and June 2009. The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), a validated tool for the assessment of outcome after surgery for hallux valgus, was used and patient satisfaction was sought. The medical records and radiographs were reviewed retrospectively. At a mean of 5.2 years (4.7 to 6.0) post-operatively, the median combined MOXFQ score was 7.8 (IQR:0 to 32.8). The median domain scores for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction were 10 (IQR: 0 to 45), 0 (IQR: 0 to 32.1) and 6.3 (IQR: 0 to 25) respectively. A total of 119 procedures (73.9%, in 90 patients) were reported as satisfactory but only 53 feet (32.7%, in 43 patients) were completely asymptomatic. The mean (SD) correction of hallux valgus, intermetatarsal, and distal metatarsal articular angles was 18.5° (8.8°), 5.7° (3.3°), and 16.6° (8.8°), respectively. Multivariable regression analysis identified that an American Association of Anesthesiologists grade of >1 (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.67, p-value = 0.011) and recurrent deformity (IRR = 1.77, p-value = 0.003) were associated with significantly worse MOXFQ scores. No correlation was found between the severity of deformity, the type, or degree of surgical correction and the outcome. When using a validated outcome score for the assessment of outcome after surgery for hallux valgus, the long-term results are worse than expected when compared with the short- and mid-term outcomes, with 25.9% of patients dissatisfied at a mean follow-up of 5.2 years. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. Optical design of a novel instrument that uses the Hartmann-Shack sensor and Zernike polynomials to measure and simulate customized refraction correction surgery outcomes and patient satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Fatima M. M.; Matos, Luciana; Cremasco, Antonio; Numajiri, Mirian; Marcato, Rafael; Oliveira, Otavio G.; Sabino, Luis G.; Castro N., Jarbas C.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.

    2016-03-01

    An optical system that conjugates the patient's pupil to the plane of a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor has been simulated using optical design software. And an optical bench prototype is mounted using mechanical eye device, beam splitter, illumination system, lenses, mirrors, mirrored prism, movable mirror, wavefront sensor and camera CCD. The mechanical eye device is used to simulate aberrations of the eye. From this device the rays are emitted and travelled by the beam splitter to the optical system. Some rays fall on the camera CCD and others pass in the optical system and finally reach the sensor. The eye models based on typical in vivo eye aberrations is constructed using the optical design software Zemax. The computer-aided outcomes of each HS images for each case are acquired, and these images are processed using customized techniques. The simulated and real images for low order aberrations are compared using centroid coordinates to assure that the optical system is constructed precisely in order to match the simulated system. Afterwards a simulated version of retinal images is constructed to show how these typical eyes would perceive an optotype positioned 20 ft away. Certain personalized corrections are allowed by eye doctors based on different Zernike polynomial values and the optical images are rendered to the new parameters. Optical images of how that eye would see with or without corrections of certain aberrations are generated in order to allow which aberrations can be corrected and in which degree. The patient can then "personalize" the correction to their own satisfaction. This new approach to wavefront sensing is a promising change in paradigm towards the betterment of the patient-physician relationship.

  20. Outcomes of Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Correction Pulmonary Insufficiency after Primary Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbassi Teshnisi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Total correction of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF anomaly in early childhood has been practiced in many centers with good results, but in some of patients after few years sever Pulmonary valve insufficiency occurred. Materials and Methods At a cross- sectional study from January 2015 to January 2016, 10 patients who had history of primary repair of TOF with free pulmonary insufficiency (PI that underwent of pulmonary valve replacement (PVR with bioprosthetic valves were evaluated. Results Themean age of patients was 6.5 + 0.753 years old (ranged 8-12 years old and male to female ratio was 6/4. The mean of Intensive care unit (ICU stay and Hospital stay was 4.5+ 0.712 days (ranged 3-8 and 11.5+ 0.357 days (ranged 9- 16. Mean of cardiopulmonary bypass time and operation time was 45 + 0.684 min (ranged 32-60 and 83 + 0.317 min (ranged 65-112. In this study we did not find any mortality and ventricular arrhythmia and Heart block. There was only one case (10% with superficial wound infection that was controlled. At 6 months follow up, all of patients were alive, but Echocardiography sign of Right Ventricular (RV failure was present in 2 patients (20% recently. Conclusion Although for Pulmonary insufficiency after primary TOF repair there is controversial in studies, but we had good results of PVR with Bioprosthesis in TOF patients.

  1. Long-term outcome of patients with multiple [corrected] myeloma-related advanced renal failure following auto-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavey, S V; Gertz, M A; Dispenzieri, A; Kumar, S; Buadi, F; Lacy, M; Hayman, S R; Kapoor, P; Dingli, D; McCurdy, A; Hogan, W J; Gastineau, D A; Leung, N

    2013-11-01

    Renal failure commonly complicates multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with reduced survival. It is not clear whether auto-SCT results in improved renal function or attainment of independence from dialysis in patients with advanced renal impairment due to MM. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent auto-SCT for MM complicated by advanced renal failure at our institution over a 10-year period (2000-2010). We aimed to assess the association between auto-SCT and renal outcome in patients with serum creatinine (SCr) over 3 mg/dL, attributable to MM, including those who were dialysis dependent. Thirty patients (2.8% of all auto-SCT patients) met inclusion criteria. Fourteen of 15 patients who were dialysis dependent before auto-SCT remained dialysis dependent in the long term despite hematological response (HR). Of the remaining 15 patients with SCr >3 mg/dL, an improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 15 to 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was noted post auto-SCT (P=0.035); however, neither HR post auto-SCT or pre-existing renal function were independently associated with renal outcome. Auto-SCT was not associated with independence from dialysis in patients with renal failure due to MM at our institution. Although auto-SCT was associated with an improvement in GFR in patients with SCr >3 mg/dL, this improvement was not related to HR.

  2. Can laparoscopic removal of Essure device before embryo transfer correct poor reproductive outcome pattern in IVF? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S A; Peck, A C; Salem, R D; Sills, E Scott

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a successful surgical approach to multiple in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures in the setting of hydrosalpinges, which had been previously treated with Essure inserts. A non-smoking 33-year-old Caucasian G2 P0020 (body mass index: BMI = 22) attended for second opinion. Her history was significant for bilateral hydrosalpinges having been noted on hysterosalpingogram two years earlier. This was managed by hysteroscopic placement of Essure inserts bilaterally. One year later, and now with Essure in situ, the patient completed three IVF cycles elsewhere. Her first and third IVF attempts resulted in biochemical pregnancy, while human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was negative after the second cycle. Upon presentation at the authors' center and before beginning a fourth IVF cycle, further testing and surgical removal of the Essure devices was recommended. Repeat hysteroscopy was unremarkable; laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomy and extirpation of Essure implants was accomplished without difficulty. Following menses, the patient initiated IVF with three embryos transferred. At day 60, a single intrauterine pregnancy was identified with positive cardiac activity (rate > 100/min). Her obstetrical course was uneventful; a healthy 4,195 gram male infant was delivered (breech) by Cesarean at 40 weeks' gestation. Essure inserts comprise inner fibers of polyethylene terephthalate, a stainless steel coil, and a nickel-titanium coil. The product received FDA approval as a contraceptive in 2002 although its use for hydrosalpinx remains off-label. While successful outcomes with IVF following Essure placement have been reported, this is the first description of pregnancy and delivery from IVF after Essure removal. Essure may be considered for sterilization when laparoscopy is contraindicated, but experience with its use specifically for treating hydrosalpinges before IVF is limited. This observed association between prior poor IVF outcomes and Essure with

  3. Matched population comparison of visual outcomes and patient satisfaction between 3 modalities for the correction of low to moderate myopic astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Sheetal Brar, Archana Pawar Phacorefractive Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare toric implantable collamer lens (T-ICL, femto-LASIK, and ReLEx SMILE for the treatment of low to moderate myopic astigmatism in terms of long-term visual and refractive outcomes and predictability of astigmatic correction.Materials and methods: The study included 30 eyes from 30 patients between the age groups of 21 and 40 years, undergoing bilateral surgery with any of the three procedures – T-ICL, femto-LASIK, or ReLEx SMILE – for correction of myopic astigmatism within the range of −3 to −8 D spherical equivalent (SE, with a minimum astigmatism of −0.75 D. Patients were followed up at day 1, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year.Results: At 1 year, the mean cylinder reduced to −0.21±0.28, −0.17±0.36, and −0.22±0.28 D in the T-ICL, femto-LASIK, and ReLEx SMILE group, respectively. The predictability of astigmatism correction was comparable, with no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups (P>0.05. A total of 97% of eyes in ReLEx SMILE achieved a uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, compared to T-ICL (93% and FS-LASIK (90%. However, gain in lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA was maximum in T-ICL group (60%. Four eyes in the femto-LASIK group had loss of CDVA by one line. Three eyes required exchange due to high vault and rotation of the T-ICL, which did not affect the final outcome.Conclusion: All 3 modalities were effective for myopic astigmatism at the end of 1 year. Quality of vision and patient satisfaction with T-ICL and ReLEx SMILE were similar and better than FS-LASIK. However, slight chances of postoperative rotation and exchange exist with T-ICL, which warrant thorough preoperative planning. Keywords: toric implantable collamer lens, femtosecond LASIK, ReLEx SMILE, myopic astigmatism

  4. Refractive outcomes of an advanced aspherically optimized profile for myopia corrections by LASIK: a retrospective comparison with the standard aspherically optimized profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bertram Meyer,1 Georg Sluyterman van Langeweyde,2 Matthias Wottke2 1Augencentrum Köln, Cologne, Germany; 2Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany Purpose: A retrospective comparison of refractive outcomes of a new, aspherically optimized profile with an enhanced energy correction feature (Triple-A and the conventionally used aspherically optimized profile (ASA, or aberration smart ablation for correction of low-to-high myopia.Setting: Augen-OP-Centrum, Cologne, GermanyDesign: Retrospective nonrandomized comparative studyMethods: A central database at the Augen-OP-Centrum was used to gather retrospective data for low-to-high myopia (up to -10 D. One hundred and seven eyes (56 patients were treated with the ASA profile, and 79 eyes (46 patients were treated with the Triple-A profile. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow-up time points.Results: The Triple-A profile showed better predictability indicated by a significantly lower standard deviation of residuals (0.32–0.34 vs 0.36–0.44, Triple-A vs ASA in the 6-month to 1-year period. The Triple-A group had better stability across all time intervals and achieved better postoperative astigmatism improvements with significantly lower scatter. This group achieved better safety at 1 year, with 100% of eyes showing no change or gain in Snellen lines, compared with 97% in the ASA group. A better safety index was observed for the Triple-A group at later time points. The Triple-A group had a better efficacy index and a higher percentage of eyes with an uncorrected Snellen visual acuity of 20/20 or greater at all investigated follow-up time points.Conclusion: The new aspherically optimized Triple-A profile can safely and effectively correct low-to-high myopia. It has demonstrated superiority over the ASA profile in most refractive outcomes. Keywords: Triple-A, wavefront measurements, corneal aberrations, corneal asphericity, ablation profile

  5. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  6. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  7. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Library Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The author uses clicker technology to incorporate polling and multiple choice question techniques into library instruction classes. Clickers can be used to give a keener understanding of how many students grasp the concepts presented in a specific class session. Typically, a student that aces a definition-type question will fail to answer an application-type question correctly. Immediate, electronic feedback helps to calibrate teaching approaches and gather data about learning outcomes. Th...

  8. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  9. Early Ambulation Decreases Length of Hospital Stay, Perioperative Complications and Improves Functional Outcomes in Elderly Patients Undergoing Surgery for Correction of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Fialkoff, Jared; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos

    2017-09-15

    Ambispective cohort review. To examine the effects of early mobilization on patient outcomes, complications profile, and 30-day readmission rates. Prolonged immobilization after surgery can result in functional decline and an increased risk of hospital-associated complications. We conducted an ambispective study of 125 elderly patients (>65 years) undergoing elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. We identified all unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Unplanned readmissions were defined to have occurred as a result of either a surgical or a nonsurgical complication. "Days of immobility" was defined as the number of days until a patient moved out of bed beyond a chair. Patients in the top and bottom quartiles were dichotomized into "early ambulators" and "late ambulators", respectively. Early ambulators were ambulatory within 24 hours of surgery, whereas late ambulators were ambulatory at a minimum of 48 hours after surgery. Complication rates, duration of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission rates were compared between early ambulators and late ambulators. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. Compared with patients with a longer duration of immobility (i.e., late ambulators), the prevalence of at least one perioperative complication was significantly lower in the early ambulators cohort (30% vs. 54%, P = 0.06). The length of inhospital stay was 34% shorter in the early ambulators cohort (5.33 days vs. 8.11 days, P = 0.01). Functional independence was superior in the early ambulators cohort, with the majority of patients discharged directly home after surgery compared with late ambulators (71.2% vs. 22.0%, P = 0.01). Early ambulation after surgery significantly reduces the incidence of perioperative complications, shortens duration of inhospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients. Even a delay of 24 hours to ambulation is

  10. Concomitant surgical correction of severe stress urinary incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse by anterior vaginal wall wrap: 18 months outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargham, Mahtab; Alizadeh, Farshid; Tadayyon, Farhad; Khorrami, Mohammad-Hatef; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kia; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdani, Mohammad; Mazdak, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of an innovative, minimally invasive sling technique with autologous tissue in women with concomitant incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence and AVWP were randomly assigned into two groups: In Group A (26 patients), anterior colporrhaphy (Kelly placation) and sling placement using a strip of anterior vaginal wall were performed, and in Group B (30 patients), transvaginal mesh correction of AVWP and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) insertion (retropubic – craniocaudal route) using polypropylene mesh were carried out. The patients were followed-up for over 18 months and were assessed objectively using a 48 h frequency-volume chart, a 48 h pad test and a standardized stress test. Related surgical complications and outcomes were recorded and compared. Results: Surgical cure rates for Group A and Group B at the first (3 days) and last (18 months) post-operative visits were 62% and 84%; and 54%, and 72%, respectively (P = 0.09 and 0.31). Complications occurred in 9 patients (44%) of Group B, but only 3 patients (12%) in Group A. Conclusion: Vaginal sling surgery using an anterior vaginal wall strip can improve SUI and in comparison with propylene mesh is associated with lower complication rates. Although, the surgical success rate of this technique is lower than T-Sling, larger studies with selected patients will help assess the suitable patients for this pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:24516492

  11. Concomitant surgical correction of severe stress urinary incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse by anterior vaginal wall wrap: 18 months outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zargham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of an innovative, minimally invasive sling technique with autologous tissue in women with concomitant incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP. Materials and Methods : Fifty-six women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI or mixed urinary incontinence and AVWP were randomly assigned into two groups: In Group A (26 patients, anterior colporrhaphy (Kelly placation and sling placement using a strip of anterior vaginal wall were performed, and in Group B (30 patients, transvaginal mesh correction of AVWP and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT insertion (retropubic - craniocaudal route using polypropylene mesh were carried out. The patients were followed-up for over 18 months and were assessed objectively using a 48 h frequency-volume chart, a 48 h pad test and a standardized stress test. Related surgical complications and outcomes were recorded and compared. Results: Surgical cure rates for Group A and Group B at the first (3 days and last (18 months post-operative visits were 62% and 84%; and 54%, and 72%, respectively (P = 0.09 and 0.31. Complications occurred in 9 patients (44% of Group B, but only 3 patients (12% in Group A. Conclusion: Vaginal sling surgery using an anterior vaginal wall strip can improve SUI and in comparison with propylene mesh is associated with lower complication rates. Although, the surgical success rate of this technique is lower than T-Sling, larger studies with selected patients will help assess the suitable patients for this pelvic reconstructive surgery.

  12. Outcomes after corrective surgery for congenital dextro-transposition of the great arteries using the arterial switch technique: a protocol for a scoping systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Forlemu-Kamwa, Doris; Chu, Angela; Thabane, Lehana; Dillenberg, Rejane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is a life-threatening congenital health defect that requires rapid surgery. The most widely used approach is the arterial switch operation (ASO) developed by Jatene in the 1970s. The first set of children who received this intervention are now adults. The objective of this scoping review of the literature was to document the short-term (less than 1 year), medium-term (1–20 years) and long-term (more than 20 years) outcomes in children who underwent the ASO. Our primary income is survival, but we will explore other secondary surgical, cardiovascular, reproductive and quality-of-life outcomes. Methods and analyses Using a systematic scoping review approach, we will conduct a systematic search of the published literature for experimental and observational studies published on children who received the ASO intervention for classic d-TGA. We will search MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) from 1973 (date of the first successful ASO) to February 2014. Identified articles will be screened in duplicate and full text for selected articles will be retrieved. Data extraction will be carried out in duplicate. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Where possible, proportions will be pooled using the inverse variance method. Our findings will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis Of Observational studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this paper will be disseminated as peer-reviewed publications, at conferences and at clinical rounds. Our findings may answer important questions for surgeons who perform the ASO intervention and for clinicians who take care of patients after surgery and throughout their

  13. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  14. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  15. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  16. Single center outcomes after reconstructive surgical correction of adult acquired buried penis: measurements of erectile function, depression, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, James; Larsen, Stephen; Yu, Michelle; Levine, Laurence A

    2014-04-01

    Management of adult acquired buried penis is a troublesome situation for both patient and surgeon. The buried penis has been associated with significant erectile and voiding dysfunction, depression, and overall poor quality of life (QOL). To identify outcomes following reconstructive surgery with release of buried penis, escutcheonectomy, and circumcision with or without skin grafting. We retrospectively identified 11 patients treated by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2011, patient ages were 44-69; complete data review was available on all 11. Validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 15 QOL, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) surveys assessed patient QOL, depression, and erectile function pre- and postoperatively. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 48.8 (42.4-64.6). Mean operative time was 191 minutes (139-272). Mean length of stay was 2.1 days. Ten of 11 patients required phallic skin grafting. There was one perioperative complication resulting in respiratory failure and overnight stay in the intensive care unit. Wound complications were seen in 2/11 patients, and 1 needed surgical debridement for superficial wound infection. Skin graft take was seen in 100% of the patients. Ninety-one percent of patients noted significant improvement in voiding postoperatively. Ninety-one percent of patients reported significant erectile dysfunction preoperatively. Subsequently, IIEF scores improved post surgery by an average of 7.7 points. Clinical depression was noted to be present in 7/11 patients preoperatively and 2/11 postoperatively based on CES-D surveys. QOL improved significantly in 10/11 compared with preoperative baseline; however, many patients noted significant difficulties based on their weight and other comorbidities. Management of adult acquired buried penis is a challenging, yet correctable problem. In our series it appears that by using established surgical

  17. Limitations and ceiling effects with circumferential minimally invasive correction techniques for adult scoliosis: analysis of radiological outcomes over a 7-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Neel; Baron, Eli M; Khandehroo, Babak

    2014-05-01

    Minimally invasive correction of adult scoliosis is a surgical method increasing in popularity. Limited data exist, however, as to how effective these methodologies are in achieving coronal plane and sagittal plane correction in addition to improving spinopelvic parameters. This study serves to quantify how much correction is possible with present circumferential minimally invasive surgical (cMIS) methods. Ninety patients were selected from a database of 187 patients who underwent cMIS scoliosis correction. All patients had a Cobb angle greater than 15°, 3 or more levels fused, and availability of preoperative and postoperative 36-inch standing radiographs. The mean duration of follow-up was 37 months. Preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), coronal balance, lumbar lordosis (LL), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured. Scatter plots were performed comparing the pre- and postoperative radiological parameters to calculate ceiling effects for SVA correction, Cobb angle correction, and PI-LL mismatch correction. The mean preoperative SVA value was 60 mm (range 11.5-151 mm); the mean postoperative value was 31 mm (range 0-84 mm). The maximum SVA correction achieved with cMIS techniques in any of the cases was 89 mm. In terms of coronal Cobb angle, a mean correction of 61% was noted, with a mean preoperative value of 35.8° (range 15°-74.7°) and a mean postoperative value of 13.9° (range 0°-32.5°). A ceiling effect for Cobb angle correction was noted at 42°. The ability to correct the PI-LL mismatch to 10° was limited to cases in which the preoperative PI-LL mismatch was 38° or less. Circumferential MIS techniques as currently used for the treatment of adult scoliosis have limitations in terms of their ability to achieve SVA correction and lumbar lordosis. When the preoperative SVA is greater than 100 mm and a substantial amount of lumbar lordosis is needed, as determined by spinopelvic parameter calculations, surgeons should

  18. Comparing the use of an online expert health network against common information sources to answer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-02-02

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference

  19. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.......In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article....

  20. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  1. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  2. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  3. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  4. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  5. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  6. Neonatal and maternal outcomes of successful manual rotation to correct malposition of the fetal head; A retrospective and prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Nicola; McGuinness, Naomi; Lane, Steven; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with successful operative vaginal births assisted by manual rotation. Prospective and retrospective observational study. Delivery suite in a tertiary referral teaching hospital in England. A cohort of 2,426 consecutive operative births, in the second stage of labour, complicated with malposition of the fetal head during 2006-2013. Outcomes of all births successfully assisted by manual rotation followed by direct traction instruments were compared with other methods of operative birth for fetal malposition in the second stage of labour (rotational ventouse, Kielland forceps and caesarean section). Associated neonatal outcomes (admission to the special care baby unit, low cord pH, low Apgar and shoulder dystocia) and maternal outcomes (massive obstetric haemorrhage (blood loss of >1500ml) and obstetric anal sphincter injury). Births successfully assisted with manual rotation followed by direct traction instruments, resulted in 10% (36/346) of the babies being admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit, 4.9% (17/349) shoulder dystocia, 2% (7/349) massive obstetric haemorrhage and 1.7% (6/349) obstetric anal sphincter injury, similar to other methods of rotational births. Adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with successful manual rotations followed by direct traction instruments were comparable to traditional methods of operative births. There is an urgent need to standardise the practice (guidance, training) and documentation of manual rotation followed by direct traction instrumental deliveries that will enable assessment of its efficacy and the absolute safety in achieving a vaginal birth.

  7. Comparison of ReLEx SMILE and PRK in terms of visual and refractive outcomes for the correction of low myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Sri; Brar, Sheetal; Patel, Utsav

    2018-06-01

    To compare the objective and subjective quality of vision after femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for low myopia. One hundred and twenty eyes from 60 patients (34 females, 26 males) undergoing bilateral correction of low myopia (≤-4 D SE) with either ReLEx SMILE or PRK were included. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and higher-order aberrations were recorded preoperatively and compared postoperatively. A quality of vision questionnaire was scored and analyzed 3 months postoperatively. At 3 months, the SMILE group had significantly better uncorrected and corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), compared to PRK group (p = 0.01). Post-op spherical equivalent (SE) was comparable in both groups (SMILE = -0.15 ± 0.19 D, PRK = -0.14 ± 0.23 D, p = 0.72). However, SE predictability was better in SMILE group with 97% eyes within ±0.05 D compared to 93% eyes in the PRK group. Total higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were significantly higher in PRK compared to the SMILE group (p = 0.022). The SMILE group demonstrated slightly better contrast sensitivity, which was significant at spatial frequency of 12 cpd (p = 0.03). Four eyes in the PRK group had loss of CDVA by one line due to mild haze. Both SMILE and PRK were effective procedures for correction of low myopia. However, SMILE offered superior quality of vision and patient satisfaction due to better postoperative comfort and lower induction of aberrations at 3 months.

  8. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  9. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  10. Neonatal and maternal outcomes of successful manual rotation to correct malposition of the fetal head; A retrospective and prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Tempest

    Full Text Available To evaluate the neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with successful operative vaginal births assisted by manual rotation.Prospective and retrospective observational study.Delivery suite in a tertiary referral teaching hospital in England.A cohort of 2,426 consecutive operative births, in the second stage of labour, complicated with malposition of the fetal head during 2006-2013.Outcomes of all births successfully assisted by manual rotation followed by direct traction instruments were compared with other methods of operative birth for fetal malposition in the second stage of labour (rotational ventouse, Kielland forceps and caesarean section.Associated neonatal outcomes (admission to the special care baby unit, low cord pH, low Apgar and shoulder dystocia and maternal outcomes (massive obstetric haemorrhage (blood loss of >1500ml and obstetric anal sphincter injury.Births successfully assisted with manual rotation followed by direct traction instruments, resulted in 10% (36/346 of the babies being admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit, 4.9% (17/349 shoulder dystocia, 2% (7/349 massive obstetric haemorrhage and 1.7% (6/349 obstetric anal sphincter injury, similar to other methods of rotational births.Adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with successful manual rotations followed by direct traction instruments were comparable to traditional methods of operative births. There is an urgent need to standardise the practice (guidance, training and documentation of manual rotation followed by direct traction instrumental deliveries that will enable assessment of its efficacy and the absolute safety in achieving a vaginal birth.

  11. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  12. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  13. Correction to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehle, Robert; Wieske, Viktoria; Schuetz, Georg M

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this article, published on 19 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The names of the authors Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Buechel and Bernhard A. Herzog were presented incorrectly....

  14. Axial movement of the dual-optic accommodating intraocular lens for the correction of the presbyopia: Optical performance and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Tomás-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia occurs in the aging eye due to changes in the ciliary muscle, zonular fibers, crystalline lens, and an increased lens sclerosis. As a consequence, the capacity of accommodation decreases, which hampers to focus near objects. With the aim of restoring near vision, different devices that produce multiple focuses have been developed and introduced. However, these devices are still unable to restore accommodation. In order to achieve that goal, dual-optic accommodating Intraocular Lenses have been designed, whose anterior optic displaces axially to increase ocular power, and focus near objects. Although dual-optic accommodating IOLs are relatively new, their outcomes are promising, as they provide large amplitudes of accommodation and a greater IOL displacement than single-optic accommodating IOLs. The outcomes show comfortable near vision, higher patients’ satisfaction rates, and minimal postoperative complications like Posterior Capsular Opacification and Anterior Capsular Opacification, due to their design and material.

  15. Axial movement of the dual-optic accommodating intraocular lens for the correction of the presbyopia: optical performance and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Presbyopia occurs in the aging eye due to changes in the ciliary muscle, zonular fibers, crystalline lens, and an increased lens sclerosis. As a consequence, the capacity of accommodation decreases, which hampers to focus near objects. With the aim of restoring near vision, different devices that produce multiple focuses have been developed and introduced. However, these devices are still unable to restore accommodation. In order to achieve that goal, dual-optic accommodating Intraocular Lenses have been designed, whose anterior optic displaces axially to increase ocular power, and focus near objects. Although dual-optic accommodating IOLs are relatively new, their outcomes are promising, as they provide large amplitudes of accommodation and a greater IOL displacement than single-optic accommodating IOLs. The outcomes show comfortable near vision, higher patients' satisfaction rates, and minimal postoperative complications like Posterior Capsular Opacification and Anterior Capsular Opacification, due to their design and material. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  16. Refractive and Biometric Outcomes in Patients with Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated with Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab as Compared with Bevacizumab: A Clinical Study of Correction at Three Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chih; Chen, San-Ni; Yang, Benjamin Chi-Lan; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Cheng, Chieh-Yin

    2018-01-01

    To compare refractive and biometric outcomes in patients with type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) versus bevacizumab (IVB), at a corrected age of 3 years. A retrospective case series compared cycloplegic refractive statuses and biometric statuses in patients who received either IVR or IVB for type 1 ROP, from April 2011 to April 2014. A total of 62 eyes (33 patients) with type 1 ROP were evaluated (26 eyes in 13 IVR patients and 36 eyes in 20 IVB patients). There were no differences in birth statuses including gestational age and birth body weight between the two groups. The prevalence of refractive error greater than 1 D was higher in the IVB group ( p = 0.03), and there was a higher prevalence of high myopia (biometric finding showed that IVB patients had shallower anterior chamber depth ( p = 0.01). Both IVR and IVB showed low refractive errors, even followed at the corrected age of 3 years. No difference was noted between the two groups in refractive statuses. However, IVB was associated with shallower anterior chamber and higher prevalence of refractive error at the corrected age of 3 years. This trial is registered with NCT03334513.

  17. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  18. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  19. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  20. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  1. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  2. Interviewers' question rewording: not always a bad thing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marieke; Ongena, Yfke; Huiskes, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although correct question reading is a fundamental assumption of standardized interviewing, in surveys, interviewers will not always read all questions exactly as worded. In this study the deviations in question reading by interviewers were analyzed. In addition, we studied if these deviations were

  3. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  4. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  5. Tradução e validação do questionário FAOS - FOOT and ankle outcome score para língua portuguesa Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of FOOT and ankle outcome score (FAOS questionnaire into portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mizusaki Imoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: (1 traduzir e validar a versão original da avaliação funcional de tornozelo e pé Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS da língua inglesa para a portuguesa em pacientes com história de entorse de tornozelo em inversão, (2 adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira e (3 correlacionar com o questionário de qualidade de vida SF-36. MÉTODO: O método de tradução e validação utilizado seguiu os critérios descritos por Guillemin et al. Foram incluídos 50 indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de lesão ligamentar lateral do tornozelo por entorse. RESULTADOS: O questionário FAOS mostrou-se com reprodutibilidade de grau forte para todos os domínios intra e inter-examinador (pOBJECTIVE: (1 to translate and validate the original version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS questionnaire from English into Portuguese in patients with diagnosis of lateral ligament injuries with ankle sprain history,(2 to provide cultural adaptation for Brazilian patients (3 to correlate it with the quality of life SF_36 questionnaire. METHOD: The method of translation and validation followed the criteria described by Guillemin et al. Fifty patients with ankle sprain were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: FAOS questionnaire showed good reproducibility for patients with ankle sprain and good reliability for all intraand inter-interviewer sub-scales (p<0.05. The translation and cultural adaptation of FAOS questionnaire had its properties of assessment, reliability and validity measured, showing that this questionnaire is suitable for use in Brazilian patients with lateral ligament ankle injuries.

  6. Evaluation of outcome of corrective ulnar osteotomy with bone grafting and annular ligament reconstruction in neglected monteggia fracture dislocation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Tanmay; Chatterjee, Nd; Pal, Ananda Kisor; Das, Sunil Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Neglected Monteggia fracture dislocation in the paediatric age group constitutes significant disability in respect to pain, stiffness, deformity, neurological compromise and restriction of activities of daily living. A longitudinal prospective study was done on 21 children with old Monteggia fracture-dislocation which included 18 cases of Bado type I and 3 cases of Bado type III at the department of orthopaedics, IPGME&R,SSKM hospital, Kolkata, India between 2007 and 2012. All were treated by modified Hirayama corrective osteotomy of ulna with wedge bone grafting along with restoration of its length and reconstruction of annular ligament using Bell Tawse method and fixation of radial head with transcapitellar Kirschner wire. Average follow up period was 5.5 years. Results were evaluated on the basis of 100 point Mayo Elbow Performance Index, radiology and questionnaire. The mean postoperative increase in Mayo Elbow Performance Index score was 30 with average increase in the range of movement by 30o. In three cases, there was subluxation of radial head and in addition one had transient palsy of posterior interosseous nerve. Three cases showed distortion of the radial head which were insignificant functionally. Results of improvement in mean MEPI were analysed by chi-square test and was significant at 0 .01 level of significance. Study showed good results with modified Hirayama osteotomy with annular ligament reconstruction using Bell Tawse procedure which is a more biological option for restoration of elbow biomechanics.

  7. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  8. The effect of static cyclotorsion compensation on refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris laser platform for the correction of high astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Toliou, Georgia; Padroni, Sara; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Kolli, Sai

    2011-06-01

    To compare the refractive and visual outcomes using the Schwind Amaris excimer laser in patients with high astigmatism (>1D) with and without the static cyclotorsion compensation (SCC) algorithm available with this new laser platform. 70 consecutive eyes with ≥1D astigmatism were randomized to treatment with compensation of static cyclotorsion (SCC group- 35 eyes) or not (control group- 35 eyes). A previously validated optimized aspheric ablation algorithm profile was used in every case. All patients underwent LASIK with a microkeratome cut flap. The SCC and control group did not differ preoperatively, in terms of refractive error, magnitude of astigmatism or in terms of cardinal or oblique astigmatism. Following treatment, average deviation from target was SEq +0.16D, SD±0.52 D, range -0.98 D to +1.71 D in the SCC group compared to +0.46 D, SD±0.61 D, range -0.25 D to +2.35 D in the control group, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Following treatment, average astigmatism was 0.24 D (SD±0.28 D, range -1.01 D to 0.00 D) in the SCC group compared to 0.46 D (SD±0.42 D, range -1.80 D to 0.00 D) in the control group, which was highly statistically significant (p<0.005). There was no statistical difference in the postoperative uncorrected vision when the aspheric algorithm was used although there was a trend to increased number of lines gained in the SCC group. This study shows that static cyclotorsion is accurately compensated for by the Schwind Amaris laser platform. The compensation of static cyclotorsion in patients with moderate astigmatism produces a significant improvement in refractive and astigmatic outcomes than when not compensated. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  10. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  11. Electroweak corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of high accuracy measurements investigating the weak interactions, which are expected to take place at the electron-positron storage ring LEP at CERN and the linear collider SCL at SLAC, offers the possibility to study also the weak quantum effects. In order to distinguish if the measured weak quantum effects lie within the margins set by the standard model and those bearing traces of new physics one had to go beyond the lowest order and also include electroweak radiative corrections (EWRC) in theoretical calculations. These higher-order corrections also can offer the possibility of getting information about two particles present in the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model (GSW), but not discovered up till now, the top quark and the Higgs boson. In ch. 2 the GSW standard model of electroweak interactions is described. In ch. 3 some special techniques are described for determination of integrals which are responsible for numerical instabilities caused by large canceling terms encountered in the calculation of EWRC effects, and methods necessary to get hold of the extensive algebra typical for EWRC. In ch. 4 various aspects related to EWRC effects are discussed, in particular the dependence of the unknown model parameters which are the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson. The processes which are discussed are production of heavy fermions from electron-positron annihilation and those of the fermionic decay of the Z gauge boson. (H.W.). 106 refs.; 30 figs.; 6 tabs.; schemes

  12. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  13. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  14. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  15. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  16. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  17. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  18. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  19. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  20. A question of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Trust lies at the heart of modern science. As scientists, we trust that the papers we read are honest and correct as far as the data, results, techniques and theories in them are concerned. We trust that our colleagues and collaborators are acting properly and ethically - and not being devious, secretive or sloppy. But perhaps even more important is the public's trust in science. After all, much research is funded by taxpayers, who, quite rightly, want to know that the work will not harm them and, preferably, do them some good.

  1. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  2. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  3. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  4. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  5. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  6. Self-correcting quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H; Chhajlany, R W; Horodecki, M; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2013-01-01

    Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)

  7. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  8. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  10. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  11. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  12. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  13. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  14. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  15. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  16. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  17. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during  Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease  Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L; Prescott, Susan L; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J

    2017-02-09

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the  consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to  epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an  allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population  studies  have  also  described  associations  between  folate  status  in  pregnancy  and  the  risk  of  subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing  maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in  early life allergic diseases.

  18. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during  Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease  Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina L. McStay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the  consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to  epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an  allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population  studies  have  also  described  associations  between  folate  status  in  pregnancy  and  the  risk  of  subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing  maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in  early life allergic diseases.

  19. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  20. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  1. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  3. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  4. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  5. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  6. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  8. Comparison of integrated testlet and constructed-response question formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Slepkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed-response (CR questions are a mainstay of introductory physics textbooks and exams. However, because of the time, cost, and scoring reliability constraints associated with this format, CR questions are being increasingly replaced by multiple-choice (MC questions in formal exams. The integrated testlet (IT is a recently developed question structure designed to provide a proxy of the pedagogical advantages of CR questions while procedurally functioning as set of MC questions. ITs utilize an answer-until-correct response format that provides immediate confirmatory or corrective feedback, and they thus allow not only for the granting of partial credit in cases of initially incorrect reasoning, but, furthermore, the ability to build cumulative question structures. Here, we report on a study that directly compares the functionality of ITs and CR questions in introductory physics exams. To do this, CR questions were converted to concept-equivalent ITs, and both sets of questions were deployed in midterm and final exams. We find that both question types provide adequate discrimination between stronger and weaker students, with CR questions discriminating slightly better than the ITs. There is some indication that any difference in discriminatory power may result from the baseline score for guessing that is inherent in MC testing. Meanwhile, an analysis of interrater scoring of the CR questions raises serious concerns about the reliability of the granting of partial credit when this traditional assessment technique is used in a realistic (but nonoptimized setting. Furthermore, we show evidence that partial credit is granted in a valid manner in the ITs. Thus, together with consideration of the vastly reduced costs of administering IT-based examinations compared to CR-based examinations, our findings indicate that ITs are viable replacements for CR questions in formal examinations where it is desirable both to assess concept integration and to

  9. An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

    2011-09-01

    We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

  10. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  11. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  12. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  13. Uncertainty avoidance in PILs: A question of ethics and deontology

    OpenAIRE

    Verplaetse, Heidi; Wermuth, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty Avoidance in PILs: A Question of Ethics and Deontology Enabling patients’ interpretation and correct implementation of the instructions in patient information leaflets (PILs) involves ethical implications in two respects. On the one hand patients’ health and well-being are at stake. But correct usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medication by patients is also part of a country’s financial resources which are apportioned for national health care. This paper aims to inves...

  14. Influence of patient race on the outcome of photorefractive keratectomy for myopia correction Influência racial sobre os resultados da ceratectomia fotorrefrativa para a correção da miopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Betty Cresta

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the effect of patient race on clinical outcomes following excimer laser surgery for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Methods: A total of 116 eyes from Caucasian patients, 16 eyes from Asian patients and 16 eyes from Hispanic patients who underwent PRK were evaluated retrospectively. PRK procedures were performed by the same surgeon using a 193 nm argon- fluoride excimer laser (VISX with 160 mJ/cm² fluence and a 6.5 Hz repetition rate at the Doheny Eye Institute. During 6 months of follow-up, changes in the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, refraction and spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SCVA were evaluated. Pairwise comparisons between races were performed for age, sphere and cylinder using independent sample t tests, while UCVA and SCVA were compared using Fisher's exact tests. The accepted level of significance for all tests was alpha = 0.05/3 = 0.0167. Results: The only differences found were between the Asian versus Caucasian groups related to the spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/15 (p=0.01 and in the Asian versus Hispanic groups related to the mean cylinder (p=0.04 at 3 months postoperatively. The comparison of the mean cylinder showed a statistically significant difference between the Asian versus Hispanic groups at 6 months postoperatively (p=0.04. After 6 months, 72.7% of the eyes in the Asian group, 85.7% of the eyes in the Hispanic group and 87.1% of the eyes in the Caucasian group had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better and the mean sphere and cylinder (±SD were: --0.55 (± 0.88 and 0.97 (± 0.79; --0.75 (± 1.24 and 0.40 (± 0.45; --1.21 (± 2.55 and 0.75 (± 0.89, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, there were no statistically significant differences between the three race groups related to the final visual outcome following photorefractive keratectomy. These preliminary results suggest that the clinical outcomes of PRK are not significantly affected by patient race. Larger populations and

  15. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  16. Analyzing the Curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira using Harden's 10 questions framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasar Albushra; Alneel, Salma

    2017-04-01

    Despite the importance of curriculum analysis for internal refinement of a programme, the approach for such a step in under-described in the literature. This article describes the analysis of the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira (FMUG). This analysis is crucial in the era of innovative medical education since introducing new curricula and curricular changes has become a common occurrence in medical education worldwide. The curriculum analysis was qualitatively approached using descriptive analysis and adopting Harden's 10 Questions of curriculum development framework approach. Answering Harden's questions reflects the fundamental curricular components and how the different aspects of a curriculum framework fit together. The key features highlighted in the curriculum-related material and literature have been presented. The analysis of the curriculum of FMUG reveals a curriculum with interactive components. Clear structured objectives and goals reflect the faculty's vision. The approach for needs assessment is based on a scientific ground, and the curriculum integrated contents have been set to meet national and international requirements. Adopting SPICES strategies helps FMUG and students achieve the objectives of the curriculum. Multiple motivated instructional methods are adopted, fostering coping with the programme objectives and outcomes. A wide range of assessment methods has been adopted to assess the learning outcomes of the curriculum correctly, reliably, and in alignment with the intended outcomes. The prevailing conducive educational environment of FMUG is favourable for its operation and profoundly influences the outcome of the programme. And there is a well-defined policy for curriculum management, monitoring and evaluation. Harden's 10 questions are satisfactorily addressed by the multi-disciplinary and well-developed FMUG curriculum. The current curriculum supports the well-written faculty missions and educational

  17. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  18. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  19. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  20. Interaction and Self-Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Lucila Satne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I address the question of how to account for the normative dimension involved in conceptual competence in a naturalistic framework. First, I present what I call the Naturalist Challenge (NC, referring to both the phylogenetic and ontogenetic dimensions of conceptual possession and acquisition. I then criticize two models that have been dominant in thinking about conceptual competence, the interpretationist and the causalist models. Both fail to meet NC, by failing to account for the abilities involved in conceptual self-correction. I then offer an alternative account of self-correction that I develop with the help of the interactionist theory of mutual understanding arising from recent developments in Phenomenology and Developmental Psychology.

  1. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Silicone implant correction of pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechselberger, G; Ohlbauer, M; Haslinger, J; Schoeller, T; Bauer, T; Piza-Katzer, H

    2001-11-01

    Between May 1989 and December 2000 in 24 adult patients with pectus excavatum, a subcutaneous implantation of silicone prostheses was performed. Of the 24 patients, 20 were followed. During follow-up the authors encountered seroma complications in 13 patients and postoperative hematoma in 4 patients. The patients stayed in the hospital 5 days on average, and showed excellent aesthetic results in 80% (N = 16), good results in 10% (N = 2), and fair results in 10% (N = 2). Patient satisfaction was also taken into consideration. A follow-up survey questioned whether patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. On a scale of 1 to 5 points, with 1 point being the highest level of satisfaction, 85% of patients used ratings of 1 and 2 to express satisfaction levels. Silicone implant correction of pectus excavatum in adult patients without any impairment of cardiopulmonary function has value. The major advantages are the minimally invasive operation, the short hospital stay, good aesthetic results, and high patient satisfaction

  3. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  4. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  7. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.

  8. Beyond hypercorrection: remembering corrective feedback for low-confidence errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Lauren; Higham, Philip A

    2018-02-01

    Correcting errors based on corrective feedback is essential to successful learning. Previous studies have found that corrections to high-confidence errors are better remembered than low-confidence errors (the hypercorrection effect). The aim of this study was to investigate whether corrections to low-confidence errors can also be successfully retained in some cases. Participants completed an initial multiple-choice test consisting of control, trick and easy general-knowledge questions, rated their confidence after answering each question, and then received immediate corrective feedback. After a short delay, they were given a cued-recall test consisting of the same questions. In two experiments, we found high-confidence errors to control questions were better corrected on the second test compared to low-confidence errors - the typical hypercorrection effect. However, low-confidence errors to trick questions were just as likely to be corrected as high-confidence errors. Most surprisingly, we found that memory for the feedback and original responses, not confidence or surprise, were significant predictors of error correction. We conclude that for some types of material, there is an effortful process of elaboration and problem solving prior to making low-confidence errors that facilitates memory of corrective feedback.

  9. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  10. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  11. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  12. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  13. Subject-Auxillary Inversion Errors and Wh Question Acquisition: What Children Do Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Pine, Julian M.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed correct wh-question production and subject-auxiliary inversion errors in one child's wh-question data. Argues that two current movement rule accounts cannot explain patterning of early wh-questions. Data can be explained by the child's knowledge of particular lexically-specific wh-word+auxiliary combinations, and inversion and universion…

  14. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  15. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  17. Students’ Use of Optional Online Reviews and Its Relationship to Summative Assessment Outcomes in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K.; Rahman, Shuhebur; Lund, Terry J. S.; Armstrong, Patrick I.; Lamm, Monica H.; Reason, Robert D.; Coffman, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to produce significant enhancements in student learning of course information, but the extent to which students make use of retrieval to learn information on their own is unclear. In the current study, students in a large introductory biology course were provided with optional online review questions that could be accessed as Test questions (requiring students to answer the questions before receiving feedback) or as Read questions (providing students with the question and correct answer up-front). Students more often chose to access the questions as Test compared with Read, and students who used the Test questions scored significantly higher on subsequent exams compared with students who used Read questions or did not access the questions at all. Following an in-class presentation of superior exam performance following use of the Test questions, student use of Test questions increased significantly for the remainder of the term. These results suggest that practice questions can be an effective tool for enhancing student achievement in biology and that informing students about performance-based outcomes coincides with increased use of retrieval practice. PMID:28408408

  18. Paralegals in Corrections: A Proposed Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Marilyn D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the legal assistance program currently offered by the Texas Department of Corrections which demonstrates the wide range of questions and problems that the paralegal can address. Reviews paralegal's functions in the prison setting and the services they can provide in assisting prisoners to maintain their rights. (Author/ABB)

  19. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  20. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  1. Correctional Practitioners on Reentry: A Missed Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Gunnison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature on reentry of formerly incarcerated individuals revolves around discussions of failures they incur during reintegration or the identification of needs and challenges that they have during reentry from the perspective of community corrections officers. The present research fills a gap in the reentry literature by examining the needs and challenges of formerly incarcerated individuals and what makes for reentry success from the perspective of correctional practitioners (i.e., wardens and non-wardens. The views of correctional practitioners are important to understand the level of organizational commitment to reentry and the ways in which social distance between correctional professionals and their clients may impact reentry success. This research reports on the results from an email survey distributed to a national sample of correctional officials listed in the American Correctional Association, 2012 Directory. Specifically, correctional officials were asked to report on needs and challenges facing formerly incarcerated individuals, define success, identify factors related to successful reentry, recount success stories, and report what could be done to assist them in successful outcomes. Housing and employment were raised by wardens and corrections officials as important needs for successful reentry. Corrections officials adopted organizational and systems perspectives in their responses and had differing opinions about social distance. Policy implications are presented.

  2. Using Pre-Assessment and In-Class Questions to Change Student Understanding of Molecular Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how different types of molecules move through cell membranes is a fundamental part of cell biology. To identify and address student misconceptions surrounding molecular movement through cell membranes, we surveyed student understanding on this topic using pre-class questions, in-class clicker questions, and subsequent exam questions in a large introductory biology course. Common misconceptions identified in student responses to the pre-class assessment questions were used to generate distractors for clicker questions. Two-tier diagnostic clicker questions were used to probe incoming common student misconceptions (first tier and their reasoning (second tier. Two subsequent lectures with assessment clicker questions were used to help students construct a new framework to understand molecular movement through cell membranes. Comparison of pre-assessment and post-assessment (exam performance showed dramatic improvement in students’ understanding of molecular movement: student answers to exam questions were 74.6% correct with correct reasoning while only 1.3% of the student answers were correct with correct reasoning on the pre-class assessment. Our results show that students’ conceptual understanding of molecular movement through cell membranes progressively increases through discussions of a series of clicker questions and suggest that this clicker-based teaching strategy was highly effective in correcting common student misconceptions on this topic.

  3. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crist, D. [Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul, MN (United States); Spencer, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  4. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  5. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  6. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  7. Answering PICO Clinical Questions: a Semantic Graph-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Latiri , Chiraz

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we tackle the issue related to the retrieval of the best evidence that fits with a PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) question. We propose a new document ranking algorithm that relies on semantic based query expansion bounded by the local search context to better discard irrelevant documents. Experiments using a standard dataset including 423 PICO questions and more than 1,2 million of documents, show that our aproach is promising.

  8. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  9. Does Correct Answer Distribution Influence Student Choices When Writing Multiple Choice Examinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Carnegie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summative evaluation for large classes of first- and second-year undergraduate courses often involves the use of multiple choice question (MCQ exams in order to provide timely feedback. Several versions of those exams are often prepared via computer-based question scrambling in an effort to deter cheating. An important parameter to consider when preparing multiple exam versions is that they must be equivalent in their assessment of student knowledge. This project investigated a possible influence of correct answer organization on student answer selection when writing multiple versions of MCQ exams. The specific question asked was whether the existence of a series of four to five consecutive MCQs in which the same letter represented the correct answer had a detrimental influence on a student’s ability to continue to select the correct answer as he/she moved through that series. Student outcomes from such exams were compared with results from exams with identical questions but which did not contain such series. These findings were supplemented by student survey data in which students self-assessed the extent to which they paid attention to the distribution of correct answer choices when writing summative exams, both during their initial answer selection and when transferring their answer letters to the Scantron sheet for correction. Despite the fact that more than half of survey respondents indicated that they do make note of answer patterning during exams and that a series of four to five questions with the same letter for the correct answer would encourage many of them to take a second look at their answer choice, the results pertaining to student outcomes suggest that MCQ randomization, even when it does result in short serial arrays of letter-specific correct answers, does not constitute a distraction capable of adversely influencing student performance. Dans les très grandes classes de cours de première et deuxième années, l

  10. Impression formation of tests: retrospective judgments of performance are higher when easier questions come first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Abigail; Greene, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Four experiments are reported on the importance of retrospective judgments of performance (postdictions) on tests. Participants answered general knowledge questions and estimated how many questions they answered correctly. They gave higher postdictions when easy questions preceded difficult questions. This was true when time to answer each question was equalized and constrained, when participants were instructed not to write answers, and when questions were presented in a multiple-choice format. Results are consistent with the notion that first impressions predominate in overall perception of test difficulty.

  11. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  12. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  13. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  14. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  15. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  16. English Learners Perception on Lecturers’ Corrective Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titien Fatmawaty Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of written corrective feedback (CF has been an issue of substantial debate in the literature and this controversial issue has led to a development in latest studies to draw on foreign language acquisition (FLA research as a way to further comprehend the complexities of this issue particularly how students and teachers perceive the effectiveness of written corrective feedback. This research has largely focused on students’ perception on Lecturers’ corrective feedback, perceives the usefulness of different types of corrective feedback and the reasons they have for their preferences. Qualitative data was collected from 40 EFL students in 6th semester, by means of written questionnaires, interview and observation. Four feedback strategies were employed in this research and ranked each statement by using five-point Likert scale. Findings showed that almost all students 81.43 % want correction or feedback from lecturers for the mistakes on their writing. For the type of written corrective feedback, students prefer lecturers mark their mistakes and give comment on their work with the percentage as follows: 93% students found that giving clues or comment about how to fix errors can improve their writing ability, 76.69% of the students found that error identification is the most useful type of feedback, and 57.50% of students have a positive opinion for the provision of correction which is accompanied by comment. Those percentages of students perspective is supported by students’ explanation in an open ended question of questionnaire. Pedagogical implications of the study are also discussed.

  17. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  18. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  19. Outcome of patients treated for myelodysplastic syndromes without deletion 5q after failure of lenalidomide therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Prebet, Thomas; Toma, Andrea; Cluzeau, Thomas; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Vey, Norbert; Park, Sophie; Al Ali, Najla; Sugrue, Marie M.; Komrokji, Rami; Fenaux, Pierre; Gore, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is a key survival prognostic factor in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Lenalidomide (LEN) can correct anemia in 25% of MDS patients without deletion 5q (del5q). As this therapy will inevitably fail, understanding the outcome of these patients will facilitate development of subsequent treatment strategies. To answer this question, an international retrospective study focused on LEN-treated lower-risk, non-del5q, MDS patients was performed. We analyzed the overall survival af...

  20. Augmenting Fellow Education Through Spaced Multiple-Choice Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Yun, Heather C

    2018-01-01

    The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity. Spaced interval education is useful in retention of medical knowledge and skills by medical students and residents. Its use in infectious disease fellow education has not been described. To improve the quiz experience, we assessed the introduction of spaced education curriculum in our program. A pre-intervention survey was distributed to assess the monthly quiz with Likert scale and open-ended questions. A multiple-choice question spaced education curriculum was created using the Qstream(R) platform in 2011. Faculty development on question writing was conducted. Two questions were delivered every 2 d. Incorrectly and correctly answered questions were repeated after 7 and 13 d, respectively. Questions needed to be answered correctly twice to be retired. Fellow satisfaction was assessed at semi-annual fellowship reviews over 5 yr and by a one-time repeat survey. Pre-intervention survey of six fellows indicated dissatisfaction with the time commitment of the monthly quiz (median Likert score of 2, mean 6.5 h to complete), neutral in perceived utility, but satisfaction with knowledge retention (Likert score 4). Eighteen fellows over 5 yr participated in the spaced education curriculum. Three quizzes with 20, 39, and 48 questions were designed. Seventeen percentage of questions addressed operationally relevant topics. Fifty-nine percentage of questions were answered correctly on first attempt, improving to 93% correct answer rate at the end of the analysis. Questions were attempted 2,999 times

  1. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  2. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  3. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  4. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  5. Analyzing the curriculum of the faculty of medicine, University of Gezira using Harden’s 10 questions framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASAR ALBUSHRA AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of curriculum analysis for internal refinement of a programme, the approach for such a step in under-described in the literature. This article describes the analysis of the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira (FMUG. This analysis is crucial in the era of innovative medical education since introducing new curricula and curricular changes has become a common occurrence in medical education worldwide. Methods: The curriculum analysis was qualitatively approached using descriptive analysis and adopting Harden’s 10 Questions of curriculum development framework approach. Answering Harden’s questions reflects the fundamental curricular components and how the different aspects of a curriculum framework fit together. The key features highlighted in the curriculum-related material and literature have been presented. Results: The analysis of the curriculum of FMUG reveals a curriculum with interactive components. Clear structured objectives and goals reflect the faculty’s vision. The approach for needs assessment is based on a scientific ground, and the curriculum integrated contents have been set to meet national and international requirements. Adopting SPICES strategies helps FMUG and students achieve the objectives of the curriculum. Multiple motivated instructional methods are adopted, fostering coping with the programme objectives and outcomes. A wide range of assessment methods has been adopted to assess the learning outcomes of the curriculum correctly, reliably, and in alignment with the intended outcomes. The prevailing conducive educational environment of FMUG is favourable for its operation and profoundly influences the outcome of the programme. And there is a well-defined policy for curriculum management, monitoring and evaluation. Conclusion: Harden’s 10 questions are satisfactorily addressed by the multi-disciplinary and well-developed FMUG curriculum. The current

  6. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after ... to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided ...

  8. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  11. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  12. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  13. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  14. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  15. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  17. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  18. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  19. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  1. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Mass corrections in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Treiman, S.B.; Wilczek, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    The moment sum rules for deep-inelastic lepton scattering are expected for asymptotically free field theories to display a characteristic pattern of logarithmic departures from scaling at large enough Q 2 . In the large-Q 2 limit these patterns do not depend on hadron or quark masses m. For modest values of Q 2 one expects corrections at the level of powers of m 2 /Q 2 . We discuss the question whether these mass effects are accessible in perturbation theory, as applied to the twist-2 Wilson coefficients and more generally. Our conclusion is that some part of the mass effects must arise from a nonperturbative origin. We also discuss the corrections which arise from higher orders in perturbation theory for very large Q 2 , where mass effects can perhaps be ignored. The emphasis here is on a characterization of the Q 2 , x domain where higher-order corrections are likely to be unimportant

  3. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  4. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  5. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  6. Continuous Correctness of Business Processes Against Process Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Nick; Bucur, Doina

    2013-01-01

    In distributed business process support environments, process interference from multiple stakeholders may cause erroneous process outcomes. Existing solutions to detect and correct interference at runtime employ formal verification and the automatic generation of intervention processes at runtime.

  7. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  8. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  9. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  10. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  11. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  12. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  13. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  14. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  15. Depressive cognition: a test of depressive realism versus negativity using general knowledge questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E R; Dodrill, C L; Johnson, N

    2001-11-01

    This research is an examination of whether cognition in depressed individuals incorporates a realistic view of the world or a general tendency toward negativity. Participants provided two types of probability judgments of the likelihood that they correctly answered general knowledge questions: the probability that they correctly answered each of the individual questions and an aggregate judgment, after completing the questionnaire, of the percentage of all the questions they thought they had correctly answered. These tasks generally elicit overconfidence and accuracy in nondepressives. In accord with theories of both depressive realism and general negativity, in their item-by-item assessments of their answers to the individual questions, depressed participants demonstrated less overconfidence than nondepressed participants. In accord with the theory of general negativity but not with the theory of depressive realism, however, depressed participants demonstrated underconfidence in their aggregate judgments. The implications of these findings on theories of depressive cognition are discussed.

  16. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  18. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  19. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  20. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  1. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  3. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    successful consumer products of all time - the Compact Disc. (CD) digital audio .... We can make ... only 2 t additional parity check symbols are required, to be able to correct t .... display information (contah'ling music related data and a table.

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  5. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  6. 10. Correctness of Programs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. Algorithms - Correctness of Programs. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

  7. Topical Questions of Diagnostic and Correction of Lactase Deficiency in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Reshetilov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a clinical manifestation of lactase deficiency in children and adolescents and its treatment. It has been proven a high therapeutic effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy of primary and secondary lactose deficiency in breast-fed and formula-fed infants that allows keep lactose intake and reduce drug therapy volume.

  8. Common questions about Bell palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful.

  9. DEFINITION OF TYPOS IN ANSWER OF STUDENT IN KNOWN CORRECT ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes method of typo detection in the answers for the questions with open answers. In such questions we know one or several correct answers defining relatively small dictionary of correct words contrasting the usual case of looking for typos in arbitrary text. This fact allows using more complex analysis methods and finding more possible typos, such as extra or missing separators. A typo correction module for the Correct Writing question type (for Moodle LMS was developed using proposed methods. 

  10. Questioning the claims from Kaiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot-Smith, Alison; Gnani, Shamini; Pollock, Allyson M; Gray, Denis Pereira

    2004-06-01

    The article by Feachem et al, published in the BMJ in 2002, claimed to show that, compared with the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS), the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system in the United States (US) has similar healthcare costs per capita, and performance that is considerably better in certain respects. To assess the accuracy of Feachem et al's comparison and conclusions. Detailed re-examination of the data and methods used and consideration of the 82 letters responding to the article. Analyses revealed four main areas in which Feachem et al's methodology was flawed. Firstly, the populations of patients served by Kaiser Permanente and by the NHS are fundamentally different. Kaiser's patients are mainly employed, significantly younger, and significantly less socially deprived and so are healthier. Feachem et al fail to adjust adequately for these factors. Secondly, Feachem et al have wrongly inflated NHS costs by omitting substantial user charges payable by Kaiser members for care, excluding the costs of marketing and administration, and deducting the surplus from Kaiser's costs while underestimating the capital charge element of the NHS budget and other costs. They also used two methods of converting currency, the currency rate and a health purchasing power parity conversion. This is double counting. Feachem et al reported that NHS costs were 10% less per head than Kaiser. Correcting for the double currency conversion gives the NHS a 40% cost advantage such that per capita costs are 1161 dollars and 1951 dollars for the NHS and Kaiser, respectively. Thirdly, Feachem et al use non-standardised data for NHS bed days from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, rather than official Department of Health bed availability and activity statistics for England. Leaving aside the non-comparability of the population and lack of standardisation of the data, the result is to inflate NHS acute bed use and underestimate the efficiency of

  11. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Occelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  12. CTE Corrections for WFPC2 and ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The error budget for optical broadband photometry is dominated by three factors: CTE corrections, long-short anomaly corrections, and photometric zero points. Questions about the dependencies of the CTE have largely been resolved, and my CTE corrections have been included in the WFPC2 handbook and tutorial. What remains to be done is the determination of the "final" CTE correction at the end of the WFPC2 mission, which will increase the accuracy of photometry obtained in the final few cycles. The long-short anomaly is still the subject of much debate, as it remains unclear whethere or not this effect is real and, if so, what its size and nature is. Photometric zero points have likewise varied by over 0.05 magnitudes in the literature, and will likely remain unresolved until the long-short anomaly is addressed {given that most calibration exposures are short while most science exposures are long}. It is also becoming apparent that similar issues will affect the accuracy of ACS photometry, and consequently that an ACS CTE study analogous to my WFPC2 work would significantly improve the calibration of ACS. I therefore propose to use archival WFPC2 images of omega Cen and ACS images of 47 Tuc to continue my HST calibration work. I also propose to begin work on "next-generation" CTE corrections, in which corrections are applied to the images based on accurate charge-trapping models rather than to the reduced photometry. This technique will allow for more accurate CTE corrections in certain cases {such as a star above a bright star or on a variable background}, improved PSF-fitting photometry of faint stars, and image restoration for accurate analysis of extended objects.

  13. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  14. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  15. How ordinary judges and juries decide the seemingly complex technological questions of patentability over the prior art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieff, F Scott

    2003-01-01

    Determinations of patentability over the prior art are often thought to raise questions that are so technologically complex that they require special training and judgment to answer, especially in fast-moving fields like modern biotechnology. This essay explores the somewhat counterintuitive argument that under the U.S. system they do not and should not. According to this view, determinations of patentability over the prior art are based entirely on factual inquiries that are best made by lay judges and juries, just like the factual determinations these people regularly make in any ordinary nonpatent trial. This is good because judges and juries are adept at these determinations, and because appellate courts are adept at reviewing them. It leads to a system that is cheaper overall in allowing private litigants to better predict outcomes that also better approximate the correct answer than would be possible under other regimes premised upon the expert technological knowledge and judgment of a decisionmaker.

  16. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  17. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  18. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  20. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  1. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  2. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  3. The Socratic Method and Levels of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karilee

    1980-01-01

    Determines if instruction in the Socratic method would increase higher level questioning during peer teaching experiences in teacher education programs. Raters, using the higher order questioning strategy, evaluated 14 students. A significant increase in higher level questions being asked suggests the Socratic Method may be useful. (Author)

  4. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  5. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  6. Echo questions as a means of building coherence in conversational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelchenko Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the cognitive-communicative characteristics of echo questions in English conversational discourse. Drawing on van Dijk's sociocognitive (mental model theory and cognitive discourse analysis, the paper suggests viewing echo questions as a means of building/updating a mental context model of a communicative situation. As discourse comprehension presupposes building its coherent mental model, echo questions resolving misunderstanding are regarded as an instrument for increasing coherence in conversational discourse. Based on the mental model theory, the study offers a typology of misunderstandings corrected by echo questions.

  7. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  8. A statistical analysis of student questions in a cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L; Polacek, Kelly M; Ingram, Ella L

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types or quality of questions changed over time, and 3) whether the quality of questions or degree of improvement was related to academic performance. We found a majority of questions were about laboratory outcomes or seeking additional descriptive information about organisms or processes to be studied. Few questions earned the highest possible ranking, which required demonstration of extended thought, integration of information, and/or hypotheses and future experiments, although a majority of students asked such a question at least once. We found no correlation between types of student questions or improvement in questions and final grades. Only a small improvement in overall question quality was seen despite considerable practice at writing questions about science. Our results suggest that improving students' ability to generate higher-order questions may require specific pedagogical intervention.

  9. Exploring viewing behavior data from whole slide images to predict correctness of students' answers during practical exams in oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowski, Slawomir; Lundin, Mikael; Szymas, Janusz; Lundin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The way of viewing whole slide images (WSI) can be tracked and analyzed. In particular, it can be useful to learn how medical students view WSIs during exams and how their viewing behavior is correlated with correctness of the answers they give. We used software-based view path tracking method that enabled gathering data about viewing behavior of multiple simultaneous WSI users. This approach was implemented and applied during two practical exams in oral pathology in 2012 (88 students) and 2013 (91 students), which were based on questions with attached WSIs. Gathered data were visualized and analyzed in multiple ways. As a part of extended analysis, we tried to use machine learning approaches to predict correctness of students' answers based on how they viewed WSIs. We compared the results of analyses for years 2012 and 2013 - done for a single question, for student groups, and for a set of questions. The overall patterns were generally consistent across these 3 years. Moreover, viewing behavior data appeared to have certain potential for predicting answers' correctness and some outcomes of machine learning approaches were in the right direction. However, general prediction results were not satisfactory in terms of precision and recall. Our work confirmed that the view path tracking method is useful for discovering viewing behavior of students analyzing WSIs. It provided multiple useful insights in this area, and general results of our analyses were consistent across two exams. On the other hand, predicting answers' correctness appeared to be a difficult task - students' answers seem to be often unpredictable.

  10. Exploring viewing behavior data from whole slide images to predict correctness of students′ answers during practical exams in oral pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Walkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of viewing whole slide images (WSI can be tracked and analyzed. In particular, it can be useful to learn how medical students view WSIs during exams and how their viewing behavior is correlated with correctness of the answers they give. We used software-based view path tracking method that enabled gathering data about viewing behavior of multiple simultaneous WSI users. This approach was implemented and applied during two practical exams in oral pathology in 2012 (88 students and 2013 (91 students, which were based on questions with attached WSIs. Gathered data were visualized and analyzed in multiple ways. As a part of extended analysis, we tried to use machine learning approaches to predict correctness of students′ answers based on how they viewed WSIs. We compared the results of analyses for years 2012 and 2013 - done for a single question, for student groups, and for a set of questions. The overall patterns were generally consistent across these 3 years. Moreover, viewing behavior data appeared to have certain potential for predicting answers′ correctness and some outcomes of machine learning approaches were in the right direction. However, general prediction results were not satisfactory in terms of precision and recall. Our work confirmed that the view path tracking method is useful for discovering viewing behavior of students analyzing WSIs. It provided multiple useful insights in this area, and general results of our analyses were consistent across two exams. On the other hand, predicting answers′ correctness appeared to be a difficult task - students′ answers seem to be often unpredictable.

  11. TOWARDS HEALTHY ORGANISATIONIN CORRECTIONAL SETTING: CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS’WELLNESS, OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ahmad Marzuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Correctional officers always confronted with two interrelated issues: wellness andstress at work. Correctional officers’ wellness wasirrefutable due to intensepressure conditions at the workplace that continuously faltered their wellness.Gradual wellness fluctuation due to excessive stress would severely tarnishperformance of correctional officers and prison department. Nevertheless, theirpersonality played an important role in conservingtheir wellness level despitecontinuous overrun of stress during work. Thereforethis paper elaborated oncorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress in order to maintain theirwellness at work. This research examined the relationship between correctionalofficers’ wellness, their personality and occupational stress in Prison Departmentof Malaysia. Pertinent question of the study was tolook at influence ofcorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress on their wellness degree.These findings were significant since correctionalofficers’ wellness, theirpersonality and occupational stress remained looseissue particularly in Malaysia.Findings revealed that personality and occupationalstress influenced correctionalofficers’ health and wellbeing.

  12. Methods of orbit correction system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiu.

    1997-01-01

    Extracting optimal performance out of an orbit correction system is an important component of accelerator design and evaluation. The question of effectiveness vs. economy, however, is not always easily tractable. This is especially true in cases where betatron function magnitude and phase advance do not have smooth or periodic dependencies on the physical distance. In this report a program is presented using linear algebraic techniques to address this problem. A systematic recipe is given, supported with quantitative criteria, for arriving at an orbit correction system design with the optimal balance between performance and economy. The orbit referred to in this context can be generalized to include angle, path length, orbit effects on the optical transfer matrix, and simultaneous effects on multiple pass orbits

  13. Black Holes, Holography, and Quantum Error Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    How can it be that a local quantum field theory in some number of spacetime dimensions can "fake" a local gravitational theory in a higher number of dimensions?  How can the Ryu-Takayanagi Formula say that an entropy is equal to the expectation value of a local operator?  Why do such things happen only in gravitational theories?  In this talk I will explain how a new interpretation of the AdS/CFT correspondence as a quantum error correcting code provides satisfying answers to these questions, and more generally gives a natural way of generating simple models of the correspondence.  No familiarity with AdS/CFT or quantum error correction is assumed, but the former would still be helpful.  

  14. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  15. Intention-to-treat. What is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has become commonplace for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to be analyzed according to Intention-to-Treat (ITT principles in which data from all subjects are used regardless of the subjects' adherence to protocol. While ITT analyses can provide useful information in some cases, they do not answer the question that motivates many RCTs, namely, whether the treatments differ in efficacy. ITT tends to reduce information by combining two questions, whether the intervention is effective and whether, as implemented, it has good compliance. Because these questions may be separate there is a risk of misuse. Two examples are presented that demonstrate this potential for abuse: a study on the effectiveness of vitamin E in reducing cardiovascular risk and comparisons of low fat and low carbohydrate diets. In the first case, a treatment that is demonstrably effective is described as without merit. In the second, ITT describes as the same, two diets that actually have different outcomes. These misuses of ITT are not atypical and are not technical problems in statistics but have real consequences for scientific principles and health recommendations. ITT analyses may answer the question of what happens when treatments are recommended but are inappropriate where separate information on adherence and performance is available. It is proposed that results of RCTs, or any experimental study, be reported, not in terms of the analyses that were performed, but rather in terms of the questions that the analyses can answer properly.

  16. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  17. 101 questions about energy; 101 questions sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. [Commission Europeenne, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  18. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  19. Signatures of memory: brain coactivations during retrieval distinguish correct from incorrect recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Mendelsohn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Are specific distributed coactivations in the brain during memory retrieval a signature of retrieval outcome? Here we show that this is indeed the case. Widespread brain networks were reported to be involved in the retrieval of long-term episodic memories. Although functional coactivation among particular regions occurs during episodic memory retrieval, it is unknown to what extent it contributes to the accuracy and confidence of recollection. In this study we set out to explore this question. Participants saw a narrative documentary movie. A week later they underwent an fMRI scan during which they either accepted or rejected factual or fictitious verbal statements concerning the movie. Correct vs. incorrect responses to factual statements were more common and were provided with higher confidence than those made to fictitious statements. Whereas activity in the retrieval network correlated mostly with confidence, coactivations primarily correlated with memory accuracy. Specifically, coactivations of left medial temporal lobe regions with temporal and parietal cortices were greater during correct responses to factual statements, but did not differ between responses to fictitious statements. We propose that network coactivations play a role in recovering memory traces that are relevant to online retrieval cues, culminating in distinct retrieval outcomes.

  20. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  1. Measurement and correction of accelerator optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report reviews procedures and techniques for measuring, correcting and controlling various optics parameters of an accelerator, including the betatron tune, beta function, betatron coupling, dispersion, chromaticity, momentum compaction factor, and beam orbit. The techniques described are not only indispensable for the basic set-up of an accelerator, but in addition the same methods can be used to study more esoteric questions as, for instance, dynamic aperture limitations or wakefield effects. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from several accelerators, storage rings, as well as linacs and transport lines

  2. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  3. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  4. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hakan Türkçapar; A. Emre Sargýn

    2012-01-01

    “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during t...

  5. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  6. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  7. Relativisme éthique et universalisme concret. Une question fondamentale. Un enjeu pratique

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Ours is a paradoxical era where the gap between the irony of radical ethical relativism and the arrogance of the ethically correct, saturated with standardivity, seems unfathomable. The apparently purely theoretical question of ethical relativism is, in our opinion, a rather effective test of our will and our capacity to overcome the mortal opposition of moral scepticism and ethical absolutism. This cultural and psychic situation disturbs the way we come to grips with everyday questions raise...

  8. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  9. Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

  10. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  11. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  12. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  13. Question-answer sequences in survey interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, W.; Ongena, Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question-answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of particular interactional problems. Our results showed

  14. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  15. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  16. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  17. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  18. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  19. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of law, referral to the Register of Copyrights by the Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A “novel... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the Copyright... Copyrights in resolving material questions of substantive law is binding upon the Copyright Royalty Judges...

  20. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...

  1. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  2. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  3. On ambiguities in the exponentiation of large QCD perturbative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, Jiri

    1986-01-01

    Ambiguities and some practical questions connected with the exponentiation of higher-order QCD perturbative corrections are discussed for the case of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the non-singlet channel. The importance of still higher-order calculations for resolving these ambiguities is stressed. (author)

  4. It's worth the wait: optimizing questioning methods for effective intraoperative teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Magas, Christopher P; Gruppen, Larry D; Dedhia, Priya H; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2017-07-01

    The use of questioning to engage learners is critical to furthering resident education intraoperatively. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher level questioning and optimal wait times (>3 s) result in learner responses reflective of higher cognition and retention. Given the importance of intraoperative learning, we investigated question delivery in the operating room. A total of 12 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were observed and recorded. All questions were transcribed and classified using Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework associated with hierarchical levels of learning outcomes. Wait time between question end and response was recorded. Six faculty attendings and seven house officers at our institution were observed. A total of 133 questions were recorded with an average number of questions per case of 11.2. The majority of questions 112 out of 133 (84%) were classified as Bloom's levels 1-3, with only 6% of questions of the highest level. The wait time before the resident answered the question averaged 1.75 s, with attendings interceding after 2.50 s. Question complexity and wait time did not vary based on resident postgraduate year level suggesting limited tailoring of question to learner. Intraoperative questioning is not aligned with higher level thinking. The majority of questions were Bloom's level 3 or below, limiting the complexity of answer formulation. Most responses were given within 2 s, hindering opportunity to pursue higher-order thinking. This suggests including higher level questions and tailoring questions to learner level may improve retention and maximize gains. In addition, with attendings answering 20% of their own questions, increasing their wait time offers another area for teaching development. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Correction to toporek (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students' awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  7. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  8. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  9. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  10. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  11. Visual performance in cataract patients with low levels of postoperative astigmatism: full correction versus spherical equivalent correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Lehmann1, Diane M Houtman21Lehmann Eye Center, Nacogdoches, TX, 2Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate whether visual performance could be improved in pseudophakic subjects by correcting low levels of postoperative astigmatism.Methods: An exploratory, noninterventional study was conducted using subjects who had been implanted with an aspheric intraocular lens and had 0.5–0.75 diopter postoperative astigmatism. Monocular visual performance using full correction was compared with visual performance using spherical equivalent correction. Testing consisted of high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading acuity and speed using the Radner Reading Charts.Results: Thirty-eight of 40 subjects completed testing. Visual acuities at three contrast levels (100%, 25%, and 9% were significantly better using full correction than when using spherical equivalent correction (all P < 0.001. For contrast sensitivity testing under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare conditions, only one out of twelve outcomes demonstrated a significant improvement with full correction compared with spherical equivalent correction (at six cycles per degree under mesopic without glare conditions, P = 0.046. Mean reading speed was numerically faster with full correction across all print sizes, reaching statistical significance at logarithm of the reading acuity determination (logRAD 0.2, 0.7, and 1.1 (P , 0.05. Statistically significant differences also favored full correction in logRAD score (P = 0.0376, corrected maximum reading speed (P < 0.001, and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution/logRAD ratio (P < 0.001.Conclusions: In this study of pseudophakic subjects with low levels of postoperative astigmatism, full correction yielded significantly better reading performance and high- and low-contrast visual acuity than spherical equivalent correction, suggesting that cataractous patients may benefit from surgical

  12. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  13. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  14. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  15. Do you remember? How caregivers question their spouses who have Alzheimer's disease and the impact on communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jeff A; Perry, JoAnn

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the types of questions caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended questions and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and their spouses would be more successful when caregivers used yes-no rather than open-ended questions; however, it was also predicted that a more positive communication outcome would occur when caregivers used open-ended questions that requested information from semantic rather than episodic memory. Eighteen caregivers and their spouses diagnosed with AD were audiotaped while they conversed for approximately 10 min on a topic of their choosing. The conversations were transcribed and coded according to the occurrence of questions, the type of question (yes-no, choice, or open-ended), the type of memory required to respond to a question (semantic or episodic), and the outcome of a response to a question (communication breakdown). The results indicated that caregivers used yes-no and open-ended questions to a similar extent, whereas episodic questions were used almost twice as frequently as semantic questions. Communication was more successful when caregivers used yes-no compared with open-ended questions and when questions placed demands on semantic rather than episodic memory. The findings from this study suggest that caregivers can reduce communication problems by avoiding the use of questions that depend on episodic memory. In addition, while yes-no questions were associated with more favorable outcomes than open-ended questions, the latter do not need to be avoided if they refer to information that draws only on semantic memory.

  16. Higher order QCD corrections in small x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachamis, G.

    2006-11-01

    We study higher order QCD corrections in small x Physics. The numerical implementation of the full NLO photon impact factor is the remaining necessary piece for the testing of the NLO BFKL resummation against data from physical processes, such as γ * γ * collisions. We perform the numerical integration over phase space for the virtual corrections to the NLO photon impact factor. This, along with the previously calculated real corrections, makes feasible in the near future first estimates for the γ*γ* total cross section, since the convolution of the full impact factor with the NLO BFKL gluon Green's function is now straightforward. The NLO corrections for the photon impact factor are sizeable and negative. In the second part of this thesis, we estimate higher order correction to the BK equation. We are mainly interested in whether partonic saturation delays or not in rapidity when going beyond the leading order. In our investigation, we use the so called 'rapidity veto' which forbid two emissions to be very close in rapidity, to 'switch on' higher order corrections to the BK equation. From analytic and numerical analysis, we conclude that indeed saturation does delay in rapidity when higher order corrections are taken into account. In the last part, we investigate higher order QCD corrections as additional corrections to the Electroweak (EW) sector. The question of whether BFKL corrections are of any importance in the Regge limit for the EW sector seems natural; although they arise in higher loop level, the accumulation of logarithms in energy s at high energies, cannot be dismissed without an investigation. We focus on the process γγ→ZZ. We calculate the pQCD corrections in the forward region at leading logarithmic (LL) BFKL accuracy, which are of the order of few percent at the TeV energy scale. (orig.)

  17. Higher order QCD corrections in small x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachamis, G.

    2006-11-15

    We study higher order QCD corrections in small x Physics. The numerical implementation of the full NLO photon impact factor is the remaining necessary piece for the testing of the NLO BFKL resummation against data from physical processes, such as {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} collisions. We perform the numerical integration over phase space for the virtual corrections to the NLO photon impact factor. This, along with the previously calculated real corrections, makes feasible in the near future first estimates for the {gamma}*{gamma}* total cross section, since the convolution of the full impact factor with the NLO BFKL gluon Green's function is now straightforward. The NLO corrections for the photon impact factor are sizeable and negative. In the second part of this thesis, we estimate higher order correction to the BK equation. We are mainly interested in whether partonic saturation delays or not in rapidity when going beyond the leading order. In our investigation, we use the so called 'rapidity veto' which forbid two emissions to be very close in rapidity, to 'switch on' higher order corrections to the BK equation. From analytic and numerical analysis, we conclude that indeed saturation does delay in rapidity when higher order corrections are taken into account. In the last part, we investigate higher order QCD corrections as additional corrections to the Electroweak (EW) sector. The question of whether BFKL corrections are of any importance in the Regge limit for the EW sector seems natural; although they arise in higher loop level, the accumulation of logarithms in energy s at high energies, cannot be dismissed without an investigation. We focus on the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}ZZ. We calculate the pQCD corrections in the forward region at leading logarithmic (LL) BFKL accuracy, which are of the order of few percent at the TeV energy scale. (orig.)

  18. Do older adults change their eyewitness reports when re-questioned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how older adults responded to different types of pressure to change their responses when questioned a second time about their memory for a crime. After watching a video of a crime and answering questions about remembered details, younger (18-22 years) and older adults (64-91 years) were either given negative feedback about their memory performance, were told that most people their age did poorly on the memory test (stereotype threat), or were simply asked to answer the questions again. This was done regardless of their actual accuracy, and the questions were then repeated. Results showed that both younger and older adults changed significantly more responses following negative feedback and changed more responses on misleading than on nonleading questions. Among older adults, as age increased, accuracy decreased and rate of response change increased. People were moderately confident overall about both their correct and incorrect responses. These results highlight the dangers of repeatedly questioning older witnesses with misleading questions and suggest that the responses that are changed may come to be remembered confidently-regardless of whether they are correct or incorrect.

  19. Pushing Critical Thinking Skills With Multiple-Choice Questions: Does Bloom's Taxonomy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki L Bibler; Grob, Karri L; Monrad, Seetha M; Kurtz, Joshua B; Tai, Andrew; Ahmed, Asra Z; Gruppen, Larry D; Santen, Sally A

    2018-06-01

    Medical school assessments should foster the development of higher-order thinking skills to support clinical reasoning and a solid foundation of knowledge. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are commonly used to assess student learning, and well-written MCQs can support learner engagement in higher levels of cognitive reasoning such as application or synthesis of knowledge. Bloom's taxonomy has been used to identify MCQs that assess students' critical thinking skills, with evidence suggesting that higher-order MCQs support a deeper conceptual understanding of scientific process skills. Similarly, clinical practice also requires learners to develop higher-order thinking skills that include all of Bloom's levels. Faculty question writers and examinees may approach the same material differently based on varying levels of knowledge and expertise, and these differences can influence the cognitive levels being measured by MCQs. Consequently, faculty question writers may perceive that certain MCQs require higher-order thinking skills to process the question, whereas examinees may only need to employ lower-order thinking skills to render a correct response. Likewise, seemingly lower-order questions may actually require higher-order thinking skills to respond correctly. In this Perspective, the authors describe some of the cognitive processes examinees use to respond to MCQs. The authors propose that various factors affect both the question writer and examinee's interaction with test material and subsequent cognitive processes necessary to answer a question.

  20. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Radiation Emergencies Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more information on radiation, go to the Radiation Dictionary . Get Inside: Why should I get inside during ...

  2. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  3. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  4. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  5. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  6. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  7. Using Socratic Questioning in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori; Rudd, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Socratic questioning method and discusses its use in the agricultural education classroom. Presents a four-step model: origin and source of point of view; support, reasons, evidence, and assumptions; conflicting views; and implications and consequences. (JOW)

  8. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions Download PDF Download ... a week. Text “HOME” to 741741. What Is Suicide? Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves ...

  9. Improving applicant interviewing--using a behavioral-based questioning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Patricia B

    2005-04-01

    Selecting the correct person for the job is crucial for occupational health nurse managers. A successful interview takes time to prepare and implement. A structured, well-planned interview using behavioral-based questioning can significantly increase the amount of information a manager has available to determine how a potential candidate may perform in the intended job.

  10. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  12. Questioning care at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruopp, Patricia; Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio; Lakoma, Matthew; Gadmer, Nina M; Arnold, Robert M; Block, Susan D

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the larger study was to explore physicians' emotional responses to the death of their patients; this study analyzed a subset of physician transcripts to elucidate the construct of questioning care, which emerged from the larger study. To analyzes how physicians question care-expressing concern, unease, or uncertainty about treatment decisions and practices, errors, or adverse events-as they attend dying patients. Retrospective interview study of physicians caring for randomly selected deaths on the medical service of a major academic teaching hospital, using qualitative and quantitative measures. SETTING, SUBJECTS: 188 attendings, residents, and interns on the internal medical services of two academic medical centers were part of the larger study. A subsample of 75 physician narratives was selected for qualitative data analysis for this study. Qualitative measures included open-ended questions eliciting physicians' stories of the most recent and a most emotionally powerful patient death they have experienced. Grounded theory was used to analyze physician narratives. Quantitative instruments measured physician attitudes toward end-of-life care and responses to the most recent and most emotional patient death. Physicians question care more frequently in most emotional deaths (42%) than in most recent deaths (34%). Physicians question communication with patients and families and within medical teams, medical judgment and technique, standards of practice, and high-risk treatments, often assigning responsibility for medical management they perceive as inappropriate, futile, overly aggressive, or mistakes in judgment and technique. Responsibility ranges from the distal (the culture of medicine) to the proximal (personal). Frustration, guilt, and anger are more frequently expressed in these narratives when care is questioned. A typology of questioning care emerged from these physicians' narratives that parallels and reflects recent and classic research on

  13. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  14. Radiation protection in questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Hoppe, G.

    1976-01-01

    An easily surveyable catalogue of questions is presented which is to make it easier for medical personnel to get acquainted with the basic knowledge according to the X-ray Ordinance and to acquire the expert knowledge in radiation protection. The catalogue is arranged according to different subjects. There are several alternative answers to every question. The right answer is given in the solution index (annex). (HP) [de

  15. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  16. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  17. Correction of Cadastral Error: Either the Right or Obligation of the Person Concerned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdenko A. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the institute of cadastral error. Some questions and problems of cadastral error corrections are considered. The material is based on current legislation and judicial practice.

  18. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  19. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  1. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  2. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  3. Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

    1990-04-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas.

  4. Improving surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Walia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of cataract surgery are worse than we would like them to be. Community-based studies show that up to 40% of eyes have a postoperative presenting vision of < 6/60. Eyes with intraocular lenses (IOLs do better; however, it has been shown that even in prosperous middle-income countries, such as Venezuela, in 20% of pseudophakic eyes presenting vision was < 6/60 and in 15% best corrected vision was worse than 6/60.Poor outcomes matter. Patients deserve improved vision whenever possible and poor outcomes deter prospective patients from coming for surgery and probably reduce their willingness to pay for their treatment – particularly if they have to pay in advance!In this article, we offer some suggestions for improving the quality of cataract surgery. We admit that there is little evidence base for most of these suggestions and that some of them are controversial. However, we hope to stimulate debate.

  5. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  7. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  8. Transforming classroom questioning using emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paul; Lyng, Colette; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret

    2018-04-12

    Classroom questioning is a common teaching and learning strategy in postgraduate nurse education. Technologies such as audience response systems (ARS) may offer advantage over traditional approaches to classroom questioning. However, despite being available since the 1960s, ARSs are still considered novel in many postgraduate nurse education classroom settings. This article aims to explicate the attitudes of postgraduate nursing students in an Irish academic teaching hospital towards classroom questioning (CQ) and the use of ARSs as an alternative to traditional CQ techniques. The results of this small-scale study demonstrate that ARSs have a role to play in CQ in the postgraduate setting, being regarded by students as beneficial to learning, psychological safety and classroom interaction.

  9. On safety goals and related questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  10. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  11. Elementary education in the correctional institution in Valjevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milak Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Education of the residents in correctional institutions for juveniles has not a long tradition in our country. That is the reason why many questions linked to the organization and forms of their education, especially elementary education, remain open. The scope of this article is to present the process of acquiring elementary education of the residents in the correctional institution for juveniles. Since the Correctional Institute in Valjevo is the only institution for juveniles in our country at the moment, in which juvenile offenders spend their time penalties, the question of their education in the institution is worth our attention. The paper presents the results of a qualitative research conducted in this institution. The exeminees were the teachers who teach the residents in the school which is within the Correctional Institute in Valjevo. The teachers evaluated the existing organization and education of residents mainly positively, and singled out only some financial, space, and technical problems. The research pointed out the importance and value of this form of education for the residents, especially for their subsequent resocialization and integration in the society after leaving the Institute, as well as the importance of pedagogy for solving the problems of educating residents of correctional instutions for juveniles.

  12. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  13. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  14. Questions for the nuclear installations inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, C.; Flood, M.; MacRory, R.; Patterson, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are considered, and the responsibilities of other bodies for (a) reprocessing and enrichment, and (b) security. Questions for the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are then set out under the following heads: general (on such topics as vandalism, sabotage, threats, security, reactor incidents); magnox reactors; corrosion; advanced gas-cooled reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor; fast breeder reactor; reproces-sing and waste. Most of the questions are concerned with technical problems that have been reported or might possibly arise during construction or operation, affecting the safety of the reactor or process. (U.K.)

  15. Some open questions in 'wave chaos'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonnenmacher, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    The subject area referred to as 'wave chaos', 'quantum chaos' or 'quantum chaology' has been investigated mostly by the theoretical physics community in the last 30 years. The questions it raises have more recently also attracted the attention of mathematicians and mathematical physicists, due to connections with number theory, graph theory, Riemannian, hyperbolic or complex geometry, classical dynamical systems, probability, etc. After giving a rough account on 'what is quantum chaos?', I intend to list some pending questions, some of them having been raised a long time ago, some others more recent. The choice of problems (and of references) is of course partial and personal. (open problem)

  16. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  17. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  18. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  19. [Continuing medical education: how to write multiple choice questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Fernández, R; Méndez Díaz, C; Rodríguez García, E

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating professional competence in medicine is a difficult but indispensable task because it makes it possible to evaluate, at different times and from different perspectives, the extent to which the knowledge, skills, and values required for exercising the profession have been acquired. Tests based on multiple choice questions have been and continue to be among the most useful tools for objectively evaluating learning in medicine. When these tests are well designed and correctly used, they can stimulate learning and even measure higher cognitive skills. Designing a multiple choice test is a difficult task that requires knowledge of the material to be tested and of the methodology of test preparation as well as time to prepare the test. The aim of this article is to review what can be evaluated through multiple choice tests, the rules and guidelines that should be taken into account when writing multiple choice questions, the different formats that can be used, the most common errors in elaborating multiple choice tests, and how to analyze the results of the test to verify its quality. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  1. The Consequences of Emotional Burnout Among Correctional Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Lambert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of past correctional staff burnout studies have focused on the possible antecedents of job burnout. Far fewer studies have been published on the possible outcomes of burnout among correctional staff. This study examined the effects of the emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout on life satisfaction, support for treatment, support for punishment, absenteeism, views on use of sick leave, and turnover intent among 272 staff at a state-run Midwestern maximum security prison. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression analysis of survey data indicated that emotional burnout had significant negative associations with life satisfaction and support for treatment and significant positive relationships with support for punishment, absenteeism, views on use of sick leave (i.e., a right to be used however the employee wishes, and turnover intent. The results indicate that job burnout has negative outcomes for both staff and correctional institutions.

  2. CURBSIDE CONSULTATION OF THE ACL: 49 CLINICAL QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard R. Bach

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION A unique reference that offers opinions, preferences and expert advice associated with management of ACL injuries in the questions and answers format which enhanced by images, diagrams and references. PURPOSE "Curbside Consultation of the ACL" aims to provide some knowledge more than the basic information in the evaluation and the management of ACL injuries. This information is based on the opinion or the advice of an expert. Quick access of audience to these pearl and pit-falls and evidence-based expert advice for complicated cases in ACL reconstruction in the form of brief answers including current concepts is targeted by the authors. FEATURES 49 Clinical questions are outlined in 5 sections. In the first section is about preoperative questions including indications, diagnostic measures, combined ligament injuries, graft choice, preparation before surgery, avulsion of the eminence, examination in posterolateral corner injury. In the second section is preoperative questions are subjected including dropping the graft to the floor, posterior wall blowout, knees without hamstring tendon, graft amputation by interference screw, to avoid vertical tunnel in tibia, fixation methods of graft, femoral and tibial tunnel positioning. Third section is about postoperative questions including postoperative management, differences in postoperative rehabilitation protocols in different type of grafts, postoperative man-agement of meniscal repair, management in difficulties in gaining extension, infection, patellar pain, timing of reop-eration in motion problems, criteria returning to sports, outcome measures, outcome in using different grafts, role of bracing. The fourth section is about failed ACL recon-struction including causes, indications for revision, ex-panded tunnels, graft choice in revision surgery, contro-lateral patellar tendon graft for revision, rehab protocol after revision surgery, hardware removal, early degenera-tive joint disease

  3. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  4. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  5. Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Simplifying a complex question, one may observe that the objectives of all Kurdish political movements of the past century have concerned two central issues, culture and territory. The Kurdish language and the region historically known as Kurdistan are the Kurds’ most important national symbols.

  6. Six questions about translational due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Evan

    2010-04-28

    To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors.

  7. Questions of Intimacy: Rethinking Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers that examine recent changes in the definition, principles, and delivery of population education throughout the world. The paper titles are as follows: "Introduction" (Linda King); "Reaching Men for Health and Development" (Benno de Keijzer); "Boys, Men and Questions of Masculinity in South Africa" (Robert Morrell);…

  8. On Productive Knowledge and Levels of Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Thomas

    A model is proposed for memory that stresses a distinction between episodic memory for encoded personal experience and semantic memory for abstractors and generalizations. Basically, the model holds that questions influence the nature of memory representations formed during instruction, and that memory representation controls the way in which…

  9. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  10. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  11. The "Paranormal": African Philosophy Questions Science Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay will address the question of the reality of 'paranormal' events and defend the thesis ..... philosophy and science, guided exclusively by the canons of the logic of binary opposition ..... independent entity (Davies 1990: 72-90). Ifit does ...

  12. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  13. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  14. Questions of Value to this presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Questions of Value to this presentation. Does a self assembly of collagen act smart? Can man make collagen based smart biomaterials? To what beneficial uses smart collagen based biomaterials can be put to?

  15. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  16. Some Questions for the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Though frequently forecasted and referred to, the so-called information society is likely but not necessarily inevitable. Questions are raised about such a society, including its impact on work, commerce, health, education, entertainment, politics, intergroup relations, families, and the impact of anticipated changes on the quality of life.…

  17. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  18. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  19. Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mario Osbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

  20. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  1. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... implies in my view asking its gates and its walls to be painted with mud; and .... in the failure by some jurists to distinguish between "… questions ... judiciary while retaining power to render final decisions on the meaning of the.

  3. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  4. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  5. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Two questions about surrogacy and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Alan

    1992-01-01

    In this article I will consider two related questions about surrogacy and exploitation: (1) Is surrogacy exploitative? (2) If surrogacy is exploitative, what is the moral force of this exploitation? Briefly stated, I shall argue that whether surrogacy is exploitative depends on whether exploitation must be harmful to the exploited party or whether (as I think) there can be mutually advantageous exploitation. It also depends on some facts about surrogacy about which we have little reliable evidence and on our philosophical view on what counts as a harm to the surrogate. Our answer to the second question will turn in part on the account of exploitation we invoke in answering the first question and in part on the way in which we resolve some other questions about the justification of state interference. I shall suggest, however, that if surrogacy is a form of voluntary and mutually advantageous exploitation, then there is a strong presumption that surrogacy contracts should be permitted and even enforceable, although that presumption may be overridden on other grounds.

  7. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite

  8. Listen and the question of silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    Listen is a film about words, but around words. The words become useless and are surrounded by silence. And the whole film is constructed on this silence, which builds up like an unbreakable wall. The question is thus: what are we listening to? What should we listen to? And maybe, even more crucial...

  9. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  10. Topical questions in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, E.R.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a number of practical questions concerning magnetic resonance imaging. These include the choice of operating magnetic field strength, the problem of siting and screening, a procedure for securing precise slice selection and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents. (author). 5 refs

  11. Managerial Skills Teaching: Ten Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnrue, Mary Pat

    2002-01-01

    Presents considerations for design and delivery of management skills courses as sets of questions in three categories: (1) preteaching (understanding and teaching skills, teacher qualities); (2) class (skills learning, learning barriers, cultural elements, learning assessment); and application/evaluation (lifelong learning, course evaluation,…

  12. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  13. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  14. Thinking through Quality Questioning: Deepening Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jackie Acree; Sattes, Beth Dankert

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking book provides teachers with an accessible, research-based blueprint for developing student metacognitive skills and ensuring that students take responsibility for their own learning. The authors use the findings of cognitive scientists to highlight quality questioning behaviors and explain how to apply them for improved student…

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MEMBUAT COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudiyono Pudiyono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (a the level of the students’ ability in making comprehension questions, (b the students’ map of problems in making comprehension questions. The population of the research was all students joining Reading 4 academic year 2016, totaling to 30 students, while the sample was taken from all students. The result of data analysis showed that the average ability of the students, with score more than 70 reached 66.66%. In details, only 4 of the samples (13.33% got no wrong answers or an A. Those who got good achievement (B, considered as majority, amounted to 16 students (53.33%. The participants achieving enough grades (C reached 7 students or 23.33%. The last level achieved in this research was D with the number reaching 3 (10%. The map of problems laid on their inability in identifying between yes/no and WH questions, inverted sentence, choosing the right auxiliary and verbs and their spelling ability. Keyword: comprehension, questions, inversion, problem map, ability

  18. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  19. The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, David

    2010-08-01

    Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that allow learners to immediately appreciate a question’s relevance. Teacher queries intended to motivate, guide, and foster learning through inquiry are known as focus questions. This theoretical article draws upon science education research to present a typology and conceptual framework intended to support science teacher educators as they identify, develop, and evaluate focus questions with their students.

  20. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  1. Automatic computation of radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    Automated systems are reviewed focusing on their general structure and requirement specific to the calculation of radiative corrections. Detailed description of the system and its performance is presented taking GRACE as a concrete example. (author)

  2. Publisher Correction: On our bookshelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouzos, Marios

    2018-03-01

    In the version of this Books and Arts originally published, the book title Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomy was incorrect; it should have read Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers. This has now been corrected.

  3. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  4. Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct

    OpenAIRE

    Redford, James

    2011-01-01

    James Redford, "Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct", Social Science Research Network (SSRN), Dec. 15, 2011, 9 pp., doi:10.2139/ssrn.1972733. ABSTRACT: It is shown that libertarian anarchism (i.e., consistent liberalism) is unavoidably true.

  5. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  6. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  7. Spelling Correction in User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-20

    conventional typescript -oriented command language, where most com- mands consist of a verb followed by a sequence of arguments. Most user terminals are...and explanations. not part of the typescripts . 2 SPFE.LING CORRLC1iON IN USR IN"RFAC’S 2. Design Issues We were prompted to look for a new correction...remaining 73% led us to wonder what other mechanisms might permit further corrections while retaining the typescript -style interface. Most of the other

  8. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  9. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  10. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  11. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  12. Some important questions in charmonium physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is devoted to three propositions: (1) Some of the most basic questions in heavy-quark physics remain unanswered; (2) Charmonium physics is the best place to address those questions at the required level of precision; (3) A tau-charm factory, with a commensurate state-of-the-art detector, are mandatory for doing the job. While open-charm and tau physics will certainly be done at beauty factories, charmonium physics will not. It must, therefore, form an important part of the physics program at a tau charm factory. With this as an introduction, the author then reviews the status of charmonium studies at this point, and ongoing work, with its projected weaknesses

  13. The ethics of physicists in questions

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Four CERN physicists, Peggie Rimmer, Ugo Amaldi, Alain Blondel, and Jean-Marie Le Goff, answered questions from 150 college students last Monday during a debate on the theme of the ethics of physics. Organized by CERN and the Department of public instruction of the Canton of Geneva, the meeting followed a reading by the students of the play Die Physiker, by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, which raises the problem of political exploitation of discoveries made during the second world war. The Minister of Education of the Canton de Genève, Mrs Martine Brunschwig-Graf, took part in the debate. The questions posed by students were not lacking in pertinence : Should a physicist reveal a discovery that is dangerous in his opinion ? Who are responsible, those who make the discoveries or those who use them ?

  14. Aging and depression: some unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, L F

    1976-05-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions, and the lack of precise and universally accepted definitions (not to mention an inadequate nosology) further complicates the issue. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. Studies are focusing on biochemical and physiological aspects of depression, but at present biochemists suffer from the uncertainties of the clinicians, and the clinicians and geneticists from the limitations of the biochemists. However, despite our uncertainties about the condition, several effective forms of therapy have been developed, ranging from a focus on the therapeutic milieu to the use of pharmacologic antidepressants (particularly lithium). Ultimately, the question remains: Why are not all elderly persons suffering from depression? The answer may lie in the interaction of environment, life stresses, and the internal adaptive capacities of the individual.

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  17. All inequality is not equal: children correct inequalities using resource value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Fairness concerns guide children's judgments about how to share resources with others. However, it is unclear from past research if children take extant inequalities or the value of resources involved in an inequality into account when sharing with others; these questions are the focus of the current studies. In all experiments, children saw an inequality between two recipients—one had two more resources than another. What varied between conditions was the value of the resources that the child could subsequently distribute. When the resources were equal in value to those involved in the original inequality, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two resources to the child with fewer resources (Experiment 1). However, as the value of the resources increased relative to those initially shared by the experimenter, children were more likely to distribute the two high value resources equally between the two recipients, presumably to minimize the overall inequality in value (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that children specifically use value, not just size, when trying to equalize outcomes (Experiment 3) and further found that children focus on the relative rather than absolute value of the resources they share—when the experimenter had unequally distributed the same high value resource that the child would later share, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two high value resources to the person who had received fewer high value resources. These results illustrate that children attempt to correct past inequalities and try to maintain equality not just in the count of resources but also by using the value of resources. PMID:23882227

  18. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  19. Questions that calls for a genius

    CERN Multimedia

    McKie, Robin

    2006-01-01

    "Last week an eccentric Russian was tipped to win a "Maths Nobel" for solving the fiendishly difficult Poincare Conjecture, one of seven major "millennium" mathematical mysteries that have been earmarked for urgent solution. But these problems are just the tip of a scientific iceberg. Other fields are also beset by frustrating theoretical failures. Here Robin McKie highlights the most baffing of those questions and suggests how science will one day provide those elusive answers." (1 page)

  20. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  1. Husserl e la questione uomo/animale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Di Martino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a phenomenological agenda there is no room for the man-animal question. However, in the last period of his researches, Husserl addressed repeatedly the issue, in the context of a transcendental-phenomenological analysis of the constitution of the human world. Husserl’s phenomenology proofs itself to be a non-ideological way to enquire about man and animal, rethinking their differences and their continuity, by moving from the experience of life and world.

  2. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  3. Twenty-five questions for string theorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-09-01

    In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

  4. Interviews concerning topical questions in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatz, U.; Schatz, A.; Stephany, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the Nuclex meeting, October 3-7, 1978, Basle/Switzerland, the editorial department of 'Atom und Strom' questioned some leading scientists in nuclear technology on particularly relevant topics. The following subjects were discussed: - How long can we do without nuclear energy, - Modern technology for nuclear power plants, - Nuclear fuel cycle and environment, - Nuclear energy and European Communities, - Nuclear energy and its risks (reflections on incidents). (orig./UA) [de

  5. The central question for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The principal question for the world's oil industry is how to replace today's and tomorrow's consumption of oil with new reserves. This is very important for the oil companies. Reduced reserves mean reduced values, which immediately has an impact on the balance sheet and the share price. The next ten years the world will consume over 300 billion barrels of oil and it may appear very difficult to replace this with new reserves

  6. Who Knows? Question Format and Political Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political knowledge is one of the most influential variables in political science. However, scholars still grapple with its theoretical meaning and how to measure it best. I address the deeply contested issue of whether knowledge should be measured with either an open-ended or closed-choice measure......, the results reported here raise important questions about the validity of knowledge indices and also have implications for the general study of political attitudes and behavior....

  7. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  8. New Views on the Woman Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Waltner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcia Yonemoto. The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016. 304 pp. $70 (cloth, e-book. Wang Zheng. Finding Women in the State: A Socialist Feminist Revolution in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1964. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017. 400 pp. $85 (cloth; $35 (paper, e-book. "The Problem of Women in Early Modern Japan" and "Finding Women in the State" are in many ways quite different: they cover different geographic areas and different time periods; they use different sources and ask different questions. But it is productive to think about them in tandem, to see what kind of questions they do raise and to think about the ways “the woman question” is posed in these two contexts—early modern Japan and early Maoist China, respectively. Both books are interested in the question of what looking at history through a feminist lens does to our view of that history; both are interested in dismantling a hegemonic narrative that provides a diminished vision of women as historical subjects. And both of them point out ways in which neither the “problem of women” (Yonemoto nor the problem of finding women in the state (Wang has been resolved...

  9. Comments on topical questions of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.; Noll, M.

    1978-05-01

    During the 7th legislative period (1972/76) of the German Bundestag the Federal Government has repeatedly commented on questions concerning nuclear energy. The present documentation comprises a selection of the most important issues. The collection contains in particular: written and oral answers of the Federal Government to written or oral questions of members of parliament; answers of the Federal Government to major and minor interpellations of fractions or factions; statements of the chancellor, the ministers and permanent secretaries; bills of the Federal Government if they were issued as parliamentary documents or as plenary minutes. The main attention when selecting the documents was drawn to giving complete recording of the statements on the safety of nuclear plants and on radiation protection. Furthermore, the comments on questions concerning nuclear energy were considered both in general and in connection with alternative energy sources. Eventually, the general situation concerning energy could be verified. The selection of documents has certainly not thoroughly remained uninfluenced by subjective decisions. The parliamentary documents and plenary minutes given here are recorded by chronological order. An index of subject headings will facilitate access to all documents. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  10. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  11. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED. Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods: Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results: Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion: EM residents’ ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. [West J Emerg Med. 2011

  12. Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstrom Richard

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.

  13. Donor's understanding of the definition of sex as applied to predonation screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2008-05-01

    Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.

  14. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-27

    In "Women in Science: Some Books of the Year" (11 March, p. 1458) the name of the senior editor of second edition of The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology should have been given as Phyllis Holman Weisbard, and the name of the editor of the first edition should have been given as Susan Searing. Also, the statement that the author of A Matter of Choices: Memoirs of a Female Physicist, Fay Ajzenberg-Selove, is now retired was incorrect.

  15. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In the October In Our Unit article by Cooper et al, “Against All Odds: Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients” (Crit Care Nurse. 2015;35[5]:76–82), there was an error in the reference citation on page 82. At the top of that page, reference 18 cited on the second line should be reference 23, which also should be added to the References list: 23. AHRQ website. Prevention and treatment program integrates actionable reports into practice, significantly reducing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents. November 2008. https://innovations.ahrq.gov/profiles/prevention-and-treatment-program-integrates-actionable-reports-practice-significantly. Accessed November 18, 2015

  16. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From left to right: Luis, Carmen, Mario, Christian and José listening to speeches by theorists Alvaro De Rújula and Luis Alvarez-Gaumé (right) at their farewell gathering on 15 May.We unfortunately cut out a part of the "Word of thanks" from the team retiring from Restaurant No. 1. The complete message is published below: Dear friends, You are the true "nucleus" of CERN. Every member of this extraordinary human mosaic will always remain in our affections and in our thoughts. We have all been very touched by your spontaneous generosity. Arrivederci, Mario Au revoir,Christian Hasta Siempre Carmen, José and Luis PS: Lots of love to the theory team and to the hidden organisers. So long!

  17. Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the meeting report "Strategies to observe and understand processes and drivers in the biogeosphere," published in the 14 January 2014 issue of Eos (95(2), 16, doi:10.1002/2014EO020004), an incorrect affiliation was listed for one coauthor. Michael Young is with the University of Texas at Austin.

  18. Five questions to ask about the soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the

  19. Coping with Misinformation: Corrections, Backfire Effects, and Choice Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Cook, J.; Ecker, U. K.

    2012-12-01

    The widespread prevalence and persistence of misinformation about many important scientific issues, from climate change to vaccinations or the link between HIV and AIDS, must give rise to concern. We first review the mechanisms by which such misinformation is disseminated in society, both inadvertently and purposely. We then survey and explain the cognitive factors that often render misinformation resistant to correction. We answer the question why retractions of misinformation can be so ineffective and why they can even backfire and ironically increase misbelief. We discuss the overriding role of ideology and personal worldviews in the resistance of misinformation to correction and show how their role can be attenuated. We discuss the risks associated with repeating misinformation while seeking to correct it and we point to the design of "choice architectures" as an alternative to the attempt to retract misinformation.

  20. Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

    1990-01-01

    A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lowe...

  1. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  2. Syndrome in question: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pauline Lyrio; Souza, João Basílio de; Abreu, Karina Demoner de; Brezinscki, Marisa Simon; Pignaton, Christine Chambo

    2016-01-01

    The Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an uncommon disorder caused by a mutation in Patched, tumor suppressor gene. It is mainly characterized by numerous early onset basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic cysts of jaw and skeletal abnormalities. Due to the wide clinical spectrum, treatment and management of its modalities are not standardized and should be individualized and monitored by a multidisciplinary team. We report a typical case in a 30-year-old man with multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratotic pits of palmar creases and bifid ribs, with a history of several corrective surgeries for keratocystic odontogenic tumors, among other lesions characteristic of the syndrome.

  3. Transition questions in clinical practice - validity and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2008-01-01

    Transition questions in CLINICAL practice - validity and reproducibility Lauridsen HH1, Manniche C3, Grunnet-Nilsson N1, Hartvigsen J1,2 1   Clinical Locomotion Science, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. e-mail: hlauridsen......@health.sdu.dk 2   Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Odense, Denmark 3   Backcenter Funen, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Ringe, Denmark   Abstract  Understanding a change score is indispensable for interpretation of results from clinical studies...... are reproducible in patients with low back pain and/or leg pain. Despite critique of several biases, our results have reinforced the construct validity of TQ’s as an outcome measure since only 1 hypothesis was rejected. On the basis of our findings we have outlined a proposal for a standardised use of transition...

  4. Universality of quantum gravity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C

    2008-11-28

    We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.

  5. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  6. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  7. Let's talk nuclear energy in 30 questions; Parlons nucleaire en 30 questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-11

    The Fukushima catastrophe of March 11, 2011 has called into question the share of nuclear energy in France and in foreign countries. Its replacement by renewable energy sources and the safety of nuclear power plants are in the center of today's debates. But what is the reality behind the mass of contradictory information that exists on this complex topic? This book moves the question out of the media noise and supplies objective and factual information with reliable figures about the nuclear industry by answering 30 key-questions. (J.S.)

  8. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  9. Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. SELF CORRECTION WORKS BETTER THAN TEACHER CORRECTION IN EFL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Dabaghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language takes place step by step, during which mistakes are to be expected in all stages of learning. EFL learners are usually afraid of making mistakes which prevents them from being receptive and responsive. Overcoming fear of mistakes depends on the way mistakes are rectified. It is believed that autonomy and learner-centeredness suggest that in some settings learner's self-correction of mistakes might be more beneficial for language learning than teacher's correction. This assumption has been the subject of debates for some time. Some researchers believe that correction whether that of teacher's or on behalf of learners is effective in showing them how their current interlanguage differs from the target (Long &Robinson, 1998. Others suggest that correcting the students whether directly or through recasts are ambiguous and may be perceived by the learner as confirmation of meaning rather than feedback on form (Lyster, 1998a. This study is intended to investigate the effects of correction on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing composition in Payam Noor University. For this purpose, 90 English majoring students, studying at Isfahan Payam Noor University were invited to participate at the experiment. They all received a sample of TOFEL test and a total number of 60 participants whose scores were within the range of one standard deviation below and above the mean were divided into two equal groups; experimental and control. The experimental group went through some correction during the experiment while the control group remained intact and the ordinary processes of teaching went on. Each group received twelve sessions of two hour classes every week on advanced writing course in which some activities of Modern English (II were selected. Then after the treatment both groups received an immediate test as post-test and the experimental group took the second post-test as the delayed recall test with the same design as the

  11. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  12. Self-correcting Multigrid Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new multigrid algorithm based on the method of self-correction for the solution of elliptic problems is described. The method exploits information contained in the residual to dynamically modify the source term (right-hand side) of the elliptic problem. It is shown that the self-correcting solver is more efficient at damping the short wavelength modes of the algebraic error than its standard equivalent. When used in conjunction with a multigrid method, the resulting solver displays an improved convergence rate with no additional computational work

  13. Brane cosmology with curvature corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2003-01-01

    We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)

  14. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  16. Some questions and answers concerning fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of the lecture is the place of the fast reactor in an evolving nuclear programme. The whole question of plutonium is first considered, ie its method of production and the ways in which it can be used in the fast reactor fuel cycle. Whether fast reactors are necessary is then discussed. Their safety is examined with particular attention to those design features which are most criticised ie high volumetric power density of the core, and the use of liquid sodium as coolant. Attention is then paid to environmental and safeguard aspects. (U.K.)

  17. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.; Koelzer, W.

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear energy by way of 110 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Borotra, F.

    1996-01-01

    The main goal of this updated edition is to provide the general public with information on the civil nuclear policy in France. Twelve chapters deal with following topics: nuclear economy, nuclear industry, nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste, nuclear safety, radioactivity and health, nuclear accidents in the world, nuclear energy and environment, inspection planning, information, nuclear proliferation prevention, nuclear energy in the world and in the future. At the end of each chapter the authors answer a set of questions corresponding to the general pubic queries. (N.T.)

  19. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  20. Guarino Guarini open questions, possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Baroque architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini is the subject of this issue of the Nexus Network Journal. A group of international scholars were invited to contribute papers that shed light on the unanswered questions in several areas: Baroque architecture in general and Guarini’s architecture in particular; philosophy; history of structural mechanics; mathematics and history of mathematics, cosmology. As always, the NNJ takes an interdisciplinary approach to the broad range of subjects that Guarini concerned himself with, thus the final results will add significantly to our understanding of how Guarini’s actual practical and technical processes were informed by knowledge of his multifaceted scientific and philosophical interests.

  1. Questions of economics. [solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, P

    1976-05-01

    The essay deals with questions of profitability in connection with the use of solar energy to heat buildings or to prepare hot water. The total problem is approached from 3 points of view: 1. General national economy point of view: Judgment by politicians determines the possibilities of support by the government. 2. The business economy aspect: Here the most important matter is to construct the plants with dimensions permitting to obtain the highest profits possible. 3. The financing model: possible incentives must be taken into consideration as well as technical aspects, e.g. the service life of the plants.

  2. Prima facie questions in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, C. J.

    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  3. Why worship? Revisiting a fundamental liturgical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental liturgical question as to the motive and intention of worship is addressed within the framework of four related liturgical tensions, namely between being and becoming, between time and space, between awe and expression, and between laughter and lament. In order to do this, some classical voices from the past are listened to, for instance, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Moltmann, Tillich, Otto, Bakhtin and Buber, but more contemporary views are also considered. These four tensions are described in the light of the key terms: ‘already’ and ‘not yet’, and some implications for present-day liturgical practices are drawn.

  4. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  5. Lessons, open questions, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grupe D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarize some of the highlights of this workshop, the first of its kind dedicated to observing and modeling the tidal disruption of stars by black holes in the centers of galaxies (or star clusters. We review the lessons learned from recent observations and from theory and identify outstanding questions and areas where more theoretical and observational work is needed. We also consider upcoming observing facilities that can be used to study tidal disruption events and speculate what these new facilities may contribute to the field.

  6. The democratic question in Florestan Fernandes

    OpenAIRE

    Tótora, Silvana

    1999-01-01

    O papel da questão democrática na análise da revolução burguesa na obra de Florestan Fernandes é reconstruído a partir da ênfase no caráter radical que ela assume numa obra que se recusa a separar o problema substantivo da democracia do problema da revolução social.The role played by the democratic question in the analysis of the bourgeois revolution in Brazil by Florestan Fernandes is reconstructed on the basis of the emphasis on the radical character it takes in a work in which no distincti...

  7. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Searching for answers to clinical questions using google versus evidence-based summary resources: a randomized controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarang; Noveck, Helaine; Galt, James; Hogshire, Lauren; Willett, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerry

    2014-06-01

    To compare the speed and accuracy of answering clinical questions using Google versus summary resources. In 2011 and 2012, 48 internal medicine interns from two classes at Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, who had been trained to use three evidence-based summary resources, performed four-minute computer searches to answer 10 clinical questions. Half were randomized to initiate searches for answers to questions 1 to 5 using Google; the other half initiated searches using a summary resource. They then crossed over and used the other resource for questions 6 to 10. They documented the time spent searching and the resource where the answer was found. Time to correct response and percentage of correct responses were compared between groups using t test and general estimating equations. Of 480 questions administered, interns found answers for 393 (82%). Interns initiating searches in Google used a wider variety of resources than those starting with summary resources. No significant difference was found in mean time to correct response (138.5 seconds for Google versus 136.1 seconds for summary resource; P = .72). Mean correct response rate was 58.4% for Google versus 61.5% for summary resource (mean difference -3.1%; 95% CI -10.3% to 4.2%; P = .40). The authors found no significant differences in speed or accuracy between searches initiated using Google versus summary resources. Although summary resources are considered to provide the highest quality of evidence, improvements to allow for better speed and accuracy are needed.

  9. Toward Question-Asking Machines: The Logic of Questions and the Inquiry Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth,Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    For over a century, the study of logic has focused on the algebra of logical statements. This work, first performed by George Boole, has led to the development of modern computers, and was shown by Richard T. Cox to be the foundation of Bayesian inference. Meanwhile the logic of questions has been much neglected. For our computing machines to be truly intelligent, they need to be able to ask relevant questions. In this paper I will show how the Boolean lattice of logical statements gives rise to the free distributive lattice of questions thus defining their algebra. Furthermore, there exists a quantity analogous to probability, called relevance, which quantifies the degree to which one question answers another. I will show that relevance is not only a natural generalization of information theory, but also forms its foundation.

  10. Professional Development: A Capacity-Building Model for Juvenile Correctional Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2009-01-01

    Youth in correctional facilities experience a broad range of educational, psychological, medical, and social needs. Professional development, a systemic process that improves the likelihood of student success by enhancing educator abilities, is a powerful way to positively affect student outcomes in correctional settings. This article offers a…

  11. Towards natural language question generation for the validation of ontologies and mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Mrabet, Yassine; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos

    2016-08-08

    The increasing number of open-access ontologies and their key role in several applications such as decision-support systems highlight the importance of their validation. Human expertise is crucial for the validation of ontologies from a domain point-of-view. However, the growing number of ontologies and their fast evolution over time make manual validation challenging. We propose a novel semi-automatic approach based on the generation of natural language (NL) questions to support the validation of ontologies and their evolution. The proposed approach includes the automatic generation, factorization and ordering of NL questions from medical ontologies. The final validation and correction is performed by submitting these questions to domain experts and automatically analyzing their feedback. We also propose a second approach for the validation of mappings impacted by ontology changes. The method exploits the context of the changes to propose correction alternatives presented as Multiple Choice Questions. This research provides a question optimization strategy to maximize the validation of ontology entities with a reduced number of questions. We evaluate our approach for the validation of three medical ontologies. We also evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of our mappings validation approach in the context of ontology evolution. These experiments are performed with different versions of SNOMED-CT and ICD9. The obtained experimental results suggest the feasibility and adequacy of our approach to support the validation of interconnected and evolving ontologies. Results also suggest that taking into account RDFS and OWL entailment helps reducing the number of questions and validation time. The application of our approach to validate mapping evolution also shows the difficulty of adapting mapping evolution over time and highlights the importance of semi-automatic validation.

  12. Some questions of using coding theory and analytical calculation methods on computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Main results of investigations devoted to the application of theory and practice of correcting codes are presented. These results are used to create very fast units for the selection of events registered in multichannel detectors of nuclear particles. Using this theory and analytical computing calculations, practically new combination devices, for example, parallel encoders, have been developed. Questions concerning the creation of a new algorithm for the calculation of digital functions by computers and problems of devising universal, dynamically reprogrammable logic modules are discussed

  13. Unfavourable outcomes in orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Anantanarayanan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Unfavourable outcomes are part and parcel of performing surgeries of any kind. Unfavourable outcomes are results of such work, which the patient and or the clinician does not like. This is an attempt to review various causes for unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery and discuss them in detail. All causes for unfavorable outcomes may be classified as belonging to one of the following periods A) Pre- Treatment B) During treatment Pre-Treatment: In orthognathic surgery- as in any other discipline of surgery- which involves changes in both aesthetics and function, the patient motivation for seeking treatment is a very important input which may decide, whether the outcome is going to be favorable or not. Also, inputs in diagnosis and plan for treatment and its sequencing, involving the team of the surgeon and the orthodontist, will play a very important role in determining whether the outcome will be favorable. In other words, an unfavorable outcome may be predetermined even before the actual treatment process starts. During Treatment: Good treatment planning itself does not guarantee favorable results. The execution of the correct plan could go wrong at various stages which include, Pre-Surgical orthodontics, Intra and Post-Operative periods. A large number of these unfavorable outcomes are preventable, if attention is paid to detail while carrying out the treatment plan itself. Unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery may be minimized If pitfalls are avoided both, at the time of treatment planning and execution. PMID:24501454

  14. Unfavourable outcomes in orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable outcomes are part and parcel of performing surgeries of any kind. Unfavourable outcomes are results of such work, which the patient and or the clinician does not like. This is an attempt to review various causes for unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery and discuss them in detail. All causes for unfavorable outcomes may be classified as belonging to one of the following periods A Pre- Treatment B During treatment Pre-Treatment: In orthognathic surgery- as in any other discipline of surgery- which involves changes in both aesthetics and function, the patient motivation for seeking treatment is a very important input which may decide, whether the outcome is going to be favorable or not. Also, inputs in diagnosis and plan for treatment and its sequencing, involving the team of the surgeon and the orthodontist, will play a very important role in determining whether the outcome will be favorable. In other words, an unfavorable outcome may be predetermined even before the actual treatment process starts. During Treatment: Good treatment planning itself does not guarantee favorable results. The execution of the correct plan could go wrong at various stages which include, Pre-Surgical orthodontics, Intra and Post-Operative periods. A large number of these unfavorable outcomes are preventable, if attention is paid to detail while carrying out the treatment plan itself. Unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery may be minimized If pitfalls are avoided both, at the time of treatment planning and execution.

  15. Unfavourable outcomes in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Anantanarayanan, P

    2013-05-01

    Unfavourable outcomes are part and parcel of performing surgeries of any kind. Unfavourable outcomes are results of such work, which the patient and or the clinician does not like. This is an attempt to review various causes for unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery and discuss them in detail. All causes for unfavorable outcomes may be classified as belonging to one of the following periods A) Pre- Treatment B) During treatment Pre-Treatment: In orthognathic surgery- as in any other discipline of surgery- which involves changes in both aesthetics and function, the patient motivation for seeking treatment is a very important input which may decide, whether the outcome is going to be favorable or not. Also, inputs in diagnosis and plan for treatment and its sequencing, involving the team of the surgeon and the orthodontist, will play a very important role in determining whether the outcome will be favorable. In other words, an unfavorable outcome may be predetermined even before the actual treatment process starts. During Treatment: Good treatment planning itself does not guarantee favorable results. The execution of the correct plan could go wrong at various stages which include, Pre-Surgical orthodontics, Intra and Post-Operative periods. A large number of these unfavorable outcomes are preventable, if attention is paid to detail while carrying out the treatment plan itself. Unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery may be minimized If pitfalls are avoided both, at the time of treatment planning and execution.

  16. A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell

    Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…

  17. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2012-01-01

    In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)

  18. 'Correction of unrealizable service choreographies’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancioppi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the detection and correction of design flaws affecting service choreographies. Service choreographies are models that specify how software services are composed in a decentralized, message-driven fashion. In particular, this work focuses on flaws that compromise the

  19. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  20. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.