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Sample records for orion command module

  1. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  2. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  3. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  4. Orion European Service Module (ESM) Development, Integration and Qualification Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Philippe; Over, Ann P.; Picardo, Michelle; Byers, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    ESA and the European Industry are supplying the European Service Module for Orion. An overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the Orion European Service Module (ESM) as designed and built for the EM-1 mission is provided as well as an outline of its development, assembly, integration and verification process performed by ESA and NASA in coordination with their respective Industrial prime contractors, Airbus Defence and Space and Lockheed Martin.

  5. Command and Service Module Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Command and Service Module (CSM) Communications. The communication system's capabilities are defined, including CSM-Earth, CSM-Lunar Module and CSM-Extravehicular crewman communications. An overview is provided for S-band communications, including data transmission and receiving rates, operating frequencies and major system components (pre-modulation processors, unified S-band electronics, S-band power amplifier and S-band antennas). Additionally, data transmission rates, operating frequencies and the capabilities of VHF communications are described. Major VHF components, including transmitters and receivers, and the VHF multiplexer and antennas are also highlighted. Finally, communications during pre-launch, ascent, in-flight and entry are discussed. Overall, the CSM communication system was rated highly by flight controllers and crew. The system was mostly autonomous for both crew and flight controllers and no major issues were encountered during flight.

  6. ORION - Crew Module Side Hatch: Proof Pressure Test Anomaly Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evernden, Brent A.; Guzman, Oscar J.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle program was performing a proof pressure test on an engineering development unit (EDU) of the Orion Crew Module Side Hatch (CMSH) assembly. The purpose of the proof test was to demonstrate structural capability, with margin, at 1.5 times the maximum design pressure, before integrating the CMSH to the Orion Crew Module structural test article for subsequent pressure testing. The pressure test was performed at lower pressures of 3 psig, 10 psig and 15.75 psig with no apparent abnormal behavior or leaking. During pressurization to proof pressure of 23.32 psig, a loud 'pop' was heard at 21.3 psig. Upon review into the test cell, it was noted that the hatch had prematurely separated from the proof test fixture, thus immediately ending the test. The proof pressure test was expected be a simple verification but has since evolved into a significant joint failure investigation from both Lockheed Martin and NASA.

  7. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  8. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  9. Three astronauts inside Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Left to right are Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot.

  10. Orion Crew Module / Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Peter A.; Haddock, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    An Orion Crew Module Service Module Structural Weight and Center of Gravity Simulator and a Vehicle Motion Simulator Hoist Structure for Orion Service Module Umbilical Testing were designed during a summer 2014 internship in Kennedy Space Centers Structures and Mechanisms Design Branch. The simulator is a structure that supports ballast, which will be integrated into an existing Orion mock-up to simulate the mass properties of the Exploration Mission-1 flight vehicle in both fueled and unfueled states. The simulator mimics these configurations through the use of approximately 40,000 lbf of steel and water ballast, and a steel support structure. Draining four water tanks, which house the water ballast, transitions the simulator from the fueled to unfueled mass properties. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the simulator to verify and validate equipment used to maneuver and transport the Orion spacecraft in its fueled and unfueled configurations. The second design comprises a cantilevered tripod hoist structure that provides the capability to position a large Orion Service Module Umbilical in proximity to the Vehicle Motion Simulator. The Ground Systems Development and Operations organization will utilize the Vehicle Motion Simulator, with the hoist structure attached, to test the Orion Service Module Umbilical for proper operation prior to installation on the Mobile Launcher. Overall, these two designs provide NASA engineers viable concepts worthy of fabricating and placing into service to prepare for the launch of Orion in 2017.

  11. Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.

  12. Apollo 16 astronauts in Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In the right background is Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. They are inside the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator (31046); Mattingly (right foreground) and Duke (right backgroung) in the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator for EVA simulation and training. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen in the left background (31047).

  13. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  14. Using Paraffin PCM to Make Optical Communication Type of Payloads Thermally Self-Sufficient for Operation in Orion Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative concept of using paraffin phase change material with a melting point of 28 C to make Optical Communication type of payload thermally self-sufficient for operation in the Orion Crew Module is presented. It stores the waste heat of the payload and permits it to operate for about one hour by maintaining its temperature within the maximum operating limit. It overcomes the problem of relying on the availability of cold plate heat sink in the Orion Crew Module.

  15. Apollo 10 astronauts in space suits in front of Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts named as the prime crew of the Apollo 10 space mission. Left to right, are Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford, commander.

  16. Plume-Free Stream Interaction Heating Effects During Orion Crew Module Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichalar, J.; Lumpkin, F.; Boyles, K.

    2012-01-01

    During reentry of the Orion Crew Module (CM), vehicle attitude control will be performed by firing reaction control system (RCS) thrusters. Simulation of RCS plumes and their interaction with the oncoming flow has been difficult for the analysis community due to the large scarf angles of the RCS thrusters and the unsteady nature of the Orion capsule backshell environments. The model for the aerothermal database has thus relied on wind tunnel test data to capture the heating effects of thruster plume interactions with the freestream. These data are only valid for the continuum flow regime of the reentry trajectory. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) analysis was performed to study the vehicle heating effects that result from the RCS thruster plume interaction with the oncoming freestream flow at high altitudes during Orion CM reentry. The study was performed with the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC). The inflow boundary conditions for the jets were obtained from Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. Simulations were performed for the roll, yaw, pitch-up and pitch-down jets at altitudes of 105 km, 125 km and 160 km as well as vacuum conditions. For comparison purposes (see Figure 1), the freestream conditions were based on previous DAC simulations performed without active RCS to populate the aerodynamic database for the Orion CM. Other inputs to the analysis included a constant Orbital reentry velocity of 7.5 km/s and angle of attack of 160 degrees. The results of the study showed that the interaction effects decrease quickly with increasing altitude. Also, jets with highly scarfed nozzles cause more severe heating compared to the nozzles with lower scarf angles. The difficulty of performing these simulations was based on the maximum number density and the ratio of number densities between the freestream and the plume for each simulation. The lowest altitude solutions required a substantial amount of computational resources

  17. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  18. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  19. Location of Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device in Apollo Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The location of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) installed on the open hatch of the Apollo Command Module is illustrated in this photograph. The MEED, equipment of the Microbial Response in Space Environment experiment, will house a selection of microbial systems. The MEED will be deployed during the extravehicular activity on the transearth coast phase of the Aopllo 16 lunar landing mission. The purpose of the experiment will be to measure the effects of certain space environmental parameters on the microbial test systems.

  20. Orion Pad Abort 1 Crew Module Inertia Test Approach and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia; Harding, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The Flight Loads Laboratory at the Dryden Flight Research Center conducted tests to measure the inertia properties of the Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) Crew Module. These measurements were taken to validate analytical predictions of the inertia properties of the vehicle and assist in reducing uncertainty for derived aero performance results calculated post launch. The first test conducted was to determine the Ixx of the Crew Module. This test approach used a modified torsion pendulum test step up that allowed the suspended Crew Module to rotate about the x axis. The second test used a different approach to measure both the Iyy and Izz properties. This test used a Knife Edge fixture that allowed small rotation of the Crew Module about the y and z axes. Discussions of the techniques and equations used to accomplish each test are presented. Comparisons with the predicted values used for the final flight calculations are made. Problem areas, with explanations and recommendations where available, are addressed. Finally, an evaluation of the value and success of these techniques to measure the moments of inertia of the Crew Module is provided.

  1. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  2. Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module being moved to Operations bldg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Transfer of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module for mating to the Saturn Lunar Module Adapter No. 05 in the Manned Spacecraft Operations bldg. S/C 012 will be flown on the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission.

  3. Spacecraft Charging Considerations and Design Efforts for the Orion Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Bob

    2017-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module (CM) is nearing completion for the next flight, designated as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). For the uncrewed mission, the flight path will take the CM through a Perigee Raise Maneuver (PRM) out to an altitude of approximately 1800 km, followed by a Trans-Lunar Injection burn, a pass through the Van Allen belts then out to the moon for a lunar flyby, a Distant Retrograde Insertion (DRI) burn, a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO), a Distant Retrograde Departure (DRD) burn, a second lunar flyby, an Earth Insertion (EI) burn, and finally entry and landing. All of this, with the exception of the DRO associated maneuvers, is similar to the previous Apollo 8 mission in late 1968. In recent discussions, it is now possible that EM-1 will be a crewed mission, and if this happens, the orbit may be quite different from that just described. In this case, the flight path may take the CM on an out and back pass through the Van Allen belts twice, then out to the moon, again passing through the Van Allen belts twice, then finally back home. Even if the current EM-1 mission doesn't end up as a crewed mission, EM-2 and subsequent missions will undoubtedly follow orbital trajectories that offer comparable exposures to heightened vehicle charging effects. Because of this, and regardless of flight path, the CM vehicle will likely experience a wide range of exposures to energetic ions and electrons, essentially covering the gamut between low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit and beyond. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and Lockheed Martin (LM) engineers and scientists have been working to fully understand and characterize the vehicle's immunity level with regard to surface and deep dielectric charging, and the ramifications of that immunity level pertaining to materials and impacts to operational avionics, communications, and navigational systems. This presentation attempts to chronicle these efforts in a summary fashion, and attempts to capture

  4. S&MA Internship to Support Orion and the European Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Connor

    2016-01-01

    As a University Space Research Association (USRA) intern for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) during the summer 2016 work term, I worked on three main projects for the Space Exploration Division (NC) of the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate. I worked on all three projects concurrently. One of the projects involved facilitating the status and closure of technical actions that were created during European Service Module (ESM) safety reviews by the MPCV Safety & Engineering Review Panel (MSERP). The two main duties included accurately collecting and summarizing qualitative data, and communicating that information to the European Space Agency (ESA) and Airbus (ESA's prime contractor) in a clear, succinct and precise manner. This project also required that I create a report on the challenges and opportunities of international S&MA. With its heavy emphasis on soft skills, this project taught me how to communicate better, by showing me how to present and share information in an easy-to-read and understandable format, and by showing me how to cooperate with and culturally respect international partners on a technical project. The second project involved working with the Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) Working Group to create the first full version of the Orion TPS PFMEA. The Orion TPS PFMEA Working Group met twice a week to analyze the Avcoat block installation process for failure modes, the failure modes effects, and how such failure modes could be controlled. I was in charge of implementing changes that were discussed in meeting, but were not implemented real time. Another major task included creating a significant portion of the content alongside another team member outside the two weekly meetings. This project caused me to become knowledgeable about TPS, heatshields, space-rated manufacturing, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). The project also helped me to become better at working with a small

  5. Assessment of Ocean Wave Model used to Analyze the Constellation Program (CxP) Orion Project Crew Module Water Landing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Bouchard, Richard; Teng, Chung-Chu; Dyson, Rodger; Jenson, Robert; OReilly, William; Rogers, Erick; Wang, David; Volovoi, Vitali

    2009-01-01

    Mr. Christopher Johnson, NASA's Systems Manager for the Orion Project Crew Module (CM) Landing and Recovery at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), and Mr. James Corliss, Project Engineer for the Orion CM Landing System Advanced Development Project at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) requested an independent assessment of the wave model that was developed to analyze the CM water landing conditions. A NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initial evaluation was approved November 20, 2008. Mr. Bryan Smith, NESC Chief Engineer at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The Assessment Plan was presented and approved by the NESC Review Board (NRB) on December 18, 2008. The Assessment Report was presented to the NRB on March 12, 2009. This document is the final Assessment Report.

  6. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  7. Neonatal/infant validation study of the CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sean M; Giuliano, John S; Carroll, Christopher L; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential vital sign when caring for critically ill children. Invasive monitoring is considered the gold standard, but is not always feasible. The following study compared the CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module with the reference (invasive arterial measurement). We evaluated the validity of the system using the criteria provided by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. We performed paired measurements of 29 critically ill neonates and children. For individual paired comparisons, the mean difference in the systolic blood pressure was 2.42 mmHg (SD ± 6.3). The mean difference in the diastolic blood pressure was -1.29 mmHg (SD ± 5.45). The percentage of readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure was 65.6, 86.0, and 96.8%, respectively. The percentage of readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure was 77.7, 93, and 95.5%, respectively. The CAS model 740 noninvasive blood pressure monitor with the Orion/MaxIQ NIBP module fulfills the accuracy performance criteria of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. This model may allow for rapid and accurate noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in neonates and children.

  8. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  9. Archives: ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... Archives: ORiON. Journal Home > Archives: ORiON. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 27 of 27 Items. 2017. Vol 33, No 2 (2017) · Vol 33, No 1 ...

  10. Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

  11. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  12. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  13. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudis, C.

    1982-01-01

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  14. A Comparison Between Orion Automated and Space Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jose O,; Hart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the space shuttle and will be the first human spacecraft since the Apollo program to leave low earth orbit. This vehicle will serve as the cornerstone of a complete space transportation system with a myriad of mission requirements necessitating rendezvous to multiple vehicles in earth orbit, around the moon and eventually beyond . These goals will require a complex and robust vehicle that is, significantly different from both the space shuttle and the command module of the Apollo program. Historically, orbit operations have been accomplished with heavy reliance on ground support and manual crew reconfiguration and monitoring. One major difference with Orion is that automation will be incorporated as a key element of the man-vehicle system. The automated system will consist of software devoted to transitioning between events based on a master timeline. This effectively adds a layer of high level sequencing that moves control of the vehicle from one phase to the next. This type of automated control is not entirely new to spacecraft since the shuttle uses a version of this during ascent and entry operations. During shuttle orbit operations however many of the software modes and hardware switches must be manually configured through the use of printed procedures and instructions voiced from the ground. The goal of the automation scheme on Orion is to extend high level automation to all flight phases. The move towards automation represents a large shift from current space shuttle operations, and so these new systems will be adopted gradually via various safeguards. These include features such as authority-to-proceed, manual down modes, and functional inhibits. This paper describes the contrast between the manual and ground approach of the space shuttle and the proposed automation of the Orion vehicle. I will introduce typical orbit operations that are common to all rendezvous missions and go on to describe the current Orion automation

  15. Orion A helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilev, A.P.; Ershov, A.A.; Smirnov, G.T.; Sorochenko, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references

  16. Overview of the Orion Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Orion star formation complex is the nearest region of on-going star formation that continues to produce both low and high mass stars. Orion is discussed in the larger context of star formation in the Solar vicinity over the last 100 Myr. The Orion complex is located on the far side of the Gould's Belt system of clouds and young stars through which our Solar system is drifting. A review is given of the overall structure and properties of the Orion star forming complex, the best studied OB association. Over the last 12 Myr, Orion has given birth to at least ten thousand stars contained in a half dozen sub-groups and short-lived clusters. The Orion OB association has been the source of several massive, high-velocity run-away stars, including μ Columbae and AE Aurigae. Some of Orion's most massive members died in supernova explosions that created the 300 pc diameter Orion / Eridanus super-bubble whose near wall may be as close as 180 pc. The combined effects of UV radiation, stellar winds, and supernovae have impacted surviving molecular clouds in Orion. The large Orion A, IC 2118 molecular clouds and dozens of smaller clouds strewn throughout the interior of the superbubble have cometary shapes pointing back towards the center of the Orion OB association. Most are forming stars in the compressed layers facing the bubble interior.

  17. ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORSSA) and is published biannually. Papers in the following categories are typically published in ORiON: • Development of New Theory, which may be useful to Operations Research practitioners, or which may lead to the introduction of new ...

  18. The ORION Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Robert

    2003-01-01

    ORION will be a user-oriented research facility for understanding the physics and developing the technology for future high-energy particle accelerators, as well as for research in related fields. The facility has as its centerpiece the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The NLCTA will be modified with the addition of a new, high-brightness photoinjector, its drive laser, an S-band rf power system, a user laser room, a low-energy experimental hall supplied with electron beams up to 60 MeV in energy, and a high-energy hall supplied with beams up to 350 MeV. The facility design and parameters are described here along with highlights from the 2nd ORION Workshop held in February 2003

  19. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  20. ORiON: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORiON: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > ORiON: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Publisher. ORSSA. Sponsors.

  1. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  2. The Sword of Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] AnimationFigure 1 This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Orion nebula, our closest massive star-making factory, 1,450 light-years from Earth. The nebula is close enough to appear to the naked eye as a fuzzy star in the sword of the popular hunter constellation. The nebula itself is located on the lower half of the image, surrounded by a ring of dust. It formed in a cold cloud of gas and dust and contains about 1,000 young stars. These stars illuminate the cloud, creating the beautiful nebulosity, or swirls of material, seen here in infrared. In the center of the nebula (bottom inset of figure 1) are four monstrously massive stars, up to 100,000 times as luminous as our sun, called the Trapezium (tiny yellow smudge to the lower left of green splotches. Radiation and winds from these stars are blasting gas and dust away, excavating a cavity walled in by the large ring of dust. Behind the Trapezium, still buried deeply in the cloud, a second generation of massive stars is forming (in the area with green splotches). The speckled green fuzz in this bright region is created when bullets of gas shoot out from the juvenile stars and ram into the surrounding cloud. Above this region of intense activity are networks of cold material that appear as dark veins against the pinkish nebulosity (upper inset pf figure 1). These dark veins contain embryonic stars. Some of the natal stars illuminate the cloud, creating small, aqua-colored wisps. In addition, jets of gas from the stars ram into the cloud, resulting in the green horseshoe-shaped globs. Spitzer surveyed a significant swath of the Orion constellation, beyond what is highlighted in this image. Within that region, called the Orion cloud complex, the telescope found 2,300 stars circled by disks of planet-forming dust and 200 stellar embryos too young to have developed disks. This image shows infrared

  3. VISION - Vienna survey in Orion. I. VISTA Orion A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingast, Stefan; Alves, João; Mardones, Diego; Teixeira, Paula Stella; Lombardi, Marco; Großschedl, Josefa; Ascenso, Joana; Bouy, Herve; Forbrich, Jan; Goodman, Alyssa; Hacar, Alvaro; Hasenberger, Birgit; Kainulainen, Jouni; Kubiak, Karolina; Lada, Charles; Lada, Elizabeth; Moitinho, André; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rodrigues, Lara; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. Aims: With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. In this first paper we present the observations, data reduction, and source catalog generation. To demonstrate the data quality, we present a first application of our catalog to estimate the number of stars currently forming inside Orion A and to verify the existence of a more evolved young foreground population. Methods: We used the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to survey the entire Orion A molecular cloud in the NIR J,H, and KS bands, covering a total of ~18.3 deg2. We implemented all data reduction recipes independently of the ESO pipeline. Estimates of the young populations toward Orion A are derived via the KS-band luminosity function. Results: Our catalog (799 995 sources) increases the source counts compared to the Two Micron All Sky Survey by about an order of magnitude. The 90% completeness limits are 20.4, 19.9, and 19.0 mag in J,H, and KS, respectively. The reduced images have 20% better resolution on average compared to pipeline products. We find between 2300 and 3000 embedded objects in Orion A and confirm that there is an extended foreground population above the Galactic field, in agreement with previous work. Conclusions: The Orion A VISTA catalog represents the most detailed NIR view of the nearest massive star-forming region and provides a fundamental basis for future studies of star formation processes toward Orion. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla

  4. Methande detected in orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.; Jennings, D.E.; and Infrared and Radio Astronomy Branch, Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1978-01-01

    Six distinct pure-rotational ΔJ=0 transitions in 1 2CH 4 have been detected in microwave emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud. The spectral frequencies range from 4.6004 to 82.874 GHz, corresponding to J values from 11 to 20, respectively. These spectral lines include all possible tetrahedral symmetry types A, E, and F. The methane transitions observed in Orion A show definite maser characteristics. This is the first observational evidence for methane outside the solar system

  5. Automation Interfaces of the Orion GNC Executive Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes Orion mission's automation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) architecture and interfaces. The contents include: 1) Orion Background; 2) Shuttle/Orion Automation Comparison; 3) Orion Mission Sequencing; 4) Orion Mission Sequencing Display Concept; and 5) Status and Forward Plans.

  6. A Novel wave-form command shaper for overhead cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALED ALHAZZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel command shaping control strategy for oscillation reduction of simple harmonic oscillators is proposed, and validated experimentally. A wave-form acceleration command shaper is derived analytically. The performance of the proposed shaper is simulated numerically, and validated experimentally on a scaled model of an overhead crane. Amplitude modulation is used to enhance the shaper performance, which results in a modulated wave-form command shaper. It is determined that the proposed wave-form and modulated wave-form command shaper profiles are capable of eliminating travel and residual oscillations. Furthermore, unlike traditional impulse and step command shapers, the proposed command shaper has piecewise smoother acceleration, velocity, and displacement profiles. Experimental results using continuous and discrete commands are presented. Experiments with discrete commands involved embedding a saturation model-based feedback in the algorithm of the command shaper.

  7. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  8. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Meriel

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  9. DolphinAtack: Inaudible Voice Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...

  10. 'Orion-2': first scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The first results of proceeding some data collected by the 'Orion-2' observatory set up in the 'Soyuz-13' are presented. The goal of the experiment is to get the photographs of ultraviolet (UV) spectra of weak stars in the range of 2000-5000 A. Spectrograms are obtained for stars with brightness of 9-9.5 stellar magnitude at 1.5 min exposure. It has been possible to take spectrograms of many stars weaker than the 12-th magnitude at the 18 min exposure and at the short-wave boundary of a spectrum of 2500 A. A group of stars of an unknown type has been observed not far from Capella. The group contains approximately twenty stars weaker than the 10-th photographic magnitude. The average position of the group is α=0.5sup(m)10sup(m), delta=+44deg30'. Spectrograms of more than twenty hot stars in the Sails constellation in the South Sky are obtained. According to the 'Orion-2' data the light absorption in the interstellar space in the range of 2000-3000 A is caused by graphite particles of an almost spheric shape, that is in accordance with present assumptions. In spectra of over 100 stars the doublet of ionized magnesium, 2800 Mg 2, has been distinguished and measured. Spectral photographs made by the 'Orion-2' allow one to reveal chromosphere of cool stars. A strange star is discovered (12sup(m),6 brigthness in photographic rays) not far from Capella, its spectrum displaying many emission lines. A unique spectrogram of the NGC 2 2149 planetary nebula and its nucleus has been obtained. The question is whether it is possible to classify stars not only by their lines but also by the continuous UV spectrum up to 2000 A. This method may turn out to be very effective for weak stars. The 'Orion-2' has demonstrated ample possibilities of carrying out astrophysical researches outside the atmosphere

  11. ORiON: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · ORiON · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 0529-191-X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  12. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is being designed as NASA's next-generation exploration vehicle for crewed missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit. The navigation system for the Orion spacecraft is being designed in a Multi-Organizational Design Environment (MODE) team including contractor and NASA personnel. The system uses an Extended Kalman Filter to process measurements and determine the state. The design of the navigation system has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudorange and deltarange, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, pad alignment, cold start are discussed as are

  13. Commanders' Survey: School for Command Preparation Feedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frame, Adela

    1997-01-01

    .... All command designees attend the PreCommand Course (PCC). PCC provides common understanding of current doctrine, and up-to-date information on Army-wide policy, programs and special items of interest...

  14. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  15. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  16. Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunter; abbrev. Ori, gen. Orionis; area 594 sq. deg.) An equatorial constellation which lies between Taurus and Monoceros, and culminates at midnight in mid-December. Its origin dates back to Sumerian times, when it was identified with the hero Gilgamesh and his fight against the Bull of Heaven (represented by Taurus), but today it is associated with the son of Poseidon, in Greek mythology, ...

  17. Search for HOOH in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseau, R.; Larsson, B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The abundance of key molecules determines the level of cooling that is necessary for the formation of stars and planetary systems. In this context, one needs to understand the details of the time dependent oxygen chemistry, leading to the formation of O2 and H2O. Aims: We aim to determine the degree of correlation between the occurrence of O2 and HOOH (hydrogen peroxide) in star-forming molecular clouds. We first detected O2 and HOOH in ρ Oph A, we now search for HOOH in Orion OMC A, where O2 has also been detected. Methods: We mapped a 3'×3' region around Orion H2-Peak 1 with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). In addition to several maps in two transitions of HOOH, viz. 219.17 GHz and 251.91 GHz, we obtained single-point spectra for another three transitions towards the position of maximum emission. Results: Line emission at the appropriate LSR-velocity (Local Standard of Rest) and at the level of ≥4σ was found for two transitions, with lower signal-to-noise ratio (2.8-3.5σ) for another two transitions, whereas for the remaining transition, only an upper limit was obtained. The emitting region, offset 18'' south of H2-Peak 1, appeared point-like in our observations with APEX. Conclusions: The extremely high spectral line density in Orion makes the identification of HOOH much more difficult than in ρ Oph A. As a result of having to consider the possible contamination by other molecules, we left the current detection status undecided. Based on observations with APEX, which is a 12 m diameter submillimetre telescope at 5100 m altitude on Llano Chajnantor in Chile. The telescope is operated by Onsala Space Observatory, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), and European Southern Observatory (ESO).The final reduced data cube (FITS files) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A53

  18. Space astrophysical observatory 'Orion-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.; Jarakyan, A.L.; Krmoyan, M.N.; Kashin, A.L.; Loretsyan, G.M.; Ohanesyan, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13sup(m) were obtained in the wavelengths 2000-5000 A by means of the space observatory 'Orion-2' installed in the spaceship 'Soyuz-13' with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself. It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of 'Orion-2' observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight. A detailed description is given of the optical, electrical and mechanical schemes of the devices - meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it. Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material. (Auth.)

  19. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  20. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  1. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  2. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  3. US command improvements and command vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    In essence, the United States still relies on the strategic command system erected during the 1960s and 1970s, but as we have seen, this system suffers from a number of serious weaknesses. Among these the authors emphasized the vulnerability of vital communications even before any warheads impact directly on U.S. targets, as well as the systems; heavy reliance on a relatively small number of limited-endurance aircraft as command posts and radio relays. This paper focuses on the committed improvement program, assess its impact on command vulnerability, and offer suggestions for further command improvements designed to enhance crisis stability and to facilitate ware termination should deterrence fail. The reader should note that this chapter is rather more technical than the remainder of this book

  4. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  5. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W J; Horsfield, C J; Gales, S G; Leatherland, A E; Rubery, M S; Coltman, J E; Meadowcroft, A E; Rice, S J; Simons, A J; Woolhead, V E

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 10 9 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling. (paper)

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  7. Biodiversity Loss in the Orion Radio Zoo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, W. J.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Kurtz, S. E.

    2001-03-01

    We re-examine radio observations of compact sources in the core of the Orion nebula and find that 70% of the sources correspond to known proplyds. For all of these sources, including many that have been previously classified as variable and non-thermal, the radio flux between 1.5 and 86 Ghz is fully accounted for by thermal free-free emission from the photoevaporation flow. We therefore suggest that many of the proposed Orion FOXES are in fact EIDERS, and that their apparent variability reflects observational difficulties in detecting the lower surface-brightness portions of the proplyds. The PIGs turn out to be extinct in Orion, and the hybrid creatures that we dub PANTHERS (Proplyds Associated with Non-THErmal Radio Sources) remain elusive.

  8. Orion Optical Navigation Progress Toward Exploration: Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher N.; Saley, David

    2018-01-01

    Optical navigation of human spacecraft was proposed on Gemini and implemented successfully on Apollo as a means of autonomously operating the vehicle in the event of lost communication with controllers on Earth. It shares a history with the "method of lunar distances" that was used in the 18th century and gained some notoriety after its use by Captain James Cook during his 1768 Pacific voyage of the HMS Endeavor. The Orion emergency return system utilizing optical navigation has matured in design over the last several years, and is currently undergoing the final implementation and test phase in preparation for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. The software development is being worked as a Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project delivered as an application within the Core Flight Software of the Orion camera controller module. The mathematical formulation behind the initial ellipse fit in the image processing is detailed in Christian. The non-linear least squares refinement then follows the technique of Mortari as an estimation process of the planetary limb using the sigmoid function. The Orion optical navigation system uses a body fixed camera, a decision that was driven by mass and mechanism constraints. The general concept of operations involves a 2-hour pass once every 24 hours, with passes specifically placed before all maneuvers to supply accurate navigation information to guidance and targeting. The pass lengths are limited by thermal constraints on the vehicle since the OpNav attitude generally deviates from the thermally stable tail-to-sun attitude maintained during the rest of the orbit coast phase. Calibration is scheduled prior to every pass due to the unknown nature of thermal effects on the lens distortion and the mounting platform deformations between the camera and star trackers. The calibration technique is described in detail by Christian, et al. and simultaneously estimates the Brown-Conrady coefficients and the Star Tracker

  9. On-Board Rendezvous Targeting for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Michael W.; DSouza, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion On-board GNC system is among the most complex ever developed for a space mission. It is designed to operate autonomously (independent of the ground). The rendezvous system in particular was designed to operate on the far side of the moon, and in the case of loss-of-communications with the ground. The vehicle GNC system is designed to retarget the rendezvous maneuvers, given a mission plan. As such, all the maneuvers which will be performed by Orion, have been designed and are being incorporated into the flight code.

  10. Millimeter emission lines in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, F.J.; Johnson, D.R.; Buhl, D.; Snyder, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of a search of Orion A for signals from three large, organic molecules, several millimeter wave lines from known interstellar molecules were observed. Results of observations on methanol (CH 3 OH), methyl cyanide (CH 3 CN), methyl acetylene (CH 3 CCH), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO) and 29 SiO are reported here. Emission signals from two hydrogen recombination lines (H41α and H42α) detected from the H II region of Orion A are also reported. Negative results were obtained for several millimeter wave transitions of ethylene oxide (CH 2 OCH 2 ), acetone [(CH 3 ) 2 CO], and cyclopropenone (HCCOCH)

  11. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  12. Large proper motions in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudworth, K.M.; Stone, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several nebular features, as well as one faint star, with large proper motions were identified within the Orion nebula. The measured proper motions correspond to tangential velocities of up to approximately 70 km sec -1 . One new probable variable star was also found

  13. Molecular clouds in Orion and Monoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    About one-eighth of a well-sampled 850 deg 2 region of Orion and Monoceros, extending from the Taurus dark cloud complex to the CMa OB 1 association, shows emission at the frequency of the J = 1 → 0 transition of CO coming from either local clouds (d 8 from the galactic plane or from more distant objects located within a few degrees of the plane and well outside the solar circle. Local giant molecular clouds associated with Orion A and B have enhanced temperatures and densities near their western edges possibly due to compression of molecular gas by a high pressure region created by the cumulative effects of ∼10 supernovae that occurred in the Orion OB association. Another giant molecular cloud found to be associated with Mon R2 may be related to the Orion clouds. Two filamentary clouds (one possible 200 pc long but only 3-10 pc wide) were found that may represent a new class of object; magnetic fields probably play a role in confining these filaments. An expanding ring of clouds concentric with the H II region S 264 and its ionizing 08 star λ Ori was also investigated, and a possible evolutionary sequence for the ring is given in detail: the clouds probably constitute fragments of the original cloud from which λ Ori formed, the gas pressure of the H II region and the rocket effect having disrupted the cloud and accelerated the fragments to their present velocities

  14. The CARMA-NRO Orion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shuo; Arce, Héctor G.; Feddersen, Jesse R.; Carpenter, John M.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Isella, Andrea; Ossenkopf-Okada, Volker; Sargent, Anneila I.; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Suri, Sümeyye T.; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Pineda, Jaime E.; Koda, Jin; Bally, John; Lis, Dariusz C.; Padoan, Paolo; Klessen, Ralf; Mairs, Steve; Goodman, Alyssa; Goldsmith, Paul; McGehee, Peregrine; Schilke, Peter; Teuben, Peter J.; José Maureira, María; Hara, Chihomi; Ginsburg, Adam; Burkhart, Blakesley; Smith, Rowan J.; Schmiedeke, Anika; Pineda, Jorge L.; Ishii, Shun; Sasaki, Kazushige; Kawabe, Ryohei; Urasawa, Yumiko; Oyamada, Shuri; Tanabe, Yoshihiro

    2018-06-01

    We present the first results from a new, high-resolution 12CO(1–0), 13CO(1–0), and C18O(1–0) molecular-line survey of the Orion A cloud, hereafter referred to as the CARMA-NRO Orion Survey. CARMA observations have been combined with single-dish data from the Nobeyama 45 m telescope to provide extended images at about 0.01 pc resolution, with a dynamic range of approximately 1200 in spatial scale. Here we describe the practical details of the data combination in uv space, including flux scale matching, the conversion of single-dish data to visibilities, and joint deconvolution of single-dish and interferometric data. A Δ-variance analysis indicates that no artifacts are caused by combining data from the two instruments. Initial analysis of the data cubes, including moment maps, average spectra, channel maps, position–velocity diagrams, excitation temperature, column density, and line ratio maps, provides evidence of complex and interesting structures such as filaments, bipolar outflows, shells, bubbles, and photo-eroded pillars. The implications for star formation processes are profound, and follow-up scientific studies by the CARMA-NRO Orion team are now underway. We plan to make all the data products described here generally accessible; some are already available at https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/CARMA-NRO-Orion.

  15. Chaos at the Heart of Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes have teamed up to expose the chaos that baby stars are creating 1,500 light-years away in a cosmic cloud called the Orion nebula. This striking infrared and visible-light composite indicates that four monstrously massive stars at the center of the cloud may be the main culprits in the familiar Orion constellation. The stars are collectively called the 'Trapezium.' Their community can be identified as the yellow smudge near the center of the image. Swirls of green in Hubble's ultraviolet and visible-light view reveal hydrogen and sulfur gas that have been heated and ionized by intense ultraviolet radiation from the Trapezium's stars. Meanwhile, Spitzer's infrared view exposes carbon-rich molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the cloud. These organic molecules have been illuminated by the Trapezium's stars, and are shown in the composite as wisps of red and orange. On Earth, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are found on burnt toast and in automobile exhaust. Together, the telescopes expose the stars in Orion as a rainbow of dots sprinkled throughout the image. Orange-yellow dots revealed by Spitzer are actually infant stars deeply embedded in a cocoon of dust and gas. Hubble showed less embedded stars as specks of green, and foreground stars as blue spots. Stellar winds from clusters of newborn stars scattered throughout the cloud etched all of the well-defined ridges and cavities in Orion. The large cavity near the right of the image was most likely carved by winds from the Trapezium's stars. Located 1,500 light-years away from Earth, the Orion nebula is the brightest spot in the sword of the Orion, or the 'Hunter' constellation. The cosmic cloud is also our closest massive star-formation factory, and astronomers believe it contains more than 1,000 young stars. The Orion constellation is a familiar sight in the fall and winter night sky in the northern hemisphere. The nebula is invisible to the unaided eye

  16. Layers in the Central Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of multiple layers in the inner Orion Nebula has been revealed using data from an Atlas of spectra at 2″ and 12 km s-1 resolution. These data were sometimes grouped over Samples of 10″×10″ to produce high Signal to Noise spectra and sometimes grouped into sequences of pseudo-slit Spectra of 12{^''.}8 - 39″width for high spatial resolution studies. Multiple velocity systems were found: V_{MIF} traces the Main Ionization Front (MIF), V_{scat} arises from back-scattering of V_{MIF} emission by particles in the background Photon Dissociation Region (PDR), V_{low} is an ionized layer in front of the MIF and if it is the source of the stellar absorption lines seen in the Trapezium stars, it must lie between the foreground Veil and those stars, V_{new,[O III]} may represent ionized gas evaporating from the Veil away from the observer. There are features such as the Bright Bar where variations of velocities are due to changing tilts of the MIF, but velocity changes above about 25″ arise from variations in velocity of the background PDR. In a region 25″ ENE of the Orion-S Cloud one finds dramatic changes in the [O III] components, including the signals from the V_{low,[O III]} and V_{MIF,[O III]} becoming equal, indicating shadowing of gas from stellar photons of >24.6 eV. This feature is also seen in areas to the west and south of the Orion-S Cloud.

  17. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  18. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  19. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Orion Crew Module Reference Design was produced to address large scale thermal runaway (TR) hazard with specific safety controls for the Orion Spacecraft. The design presented provides the description of a full scale battery design reference for implementation as a drop in replacement to meet all spacecraft energy requirements with compatible 120 Vdc electrical and mechanical interface using small cell technology (18650) packaging. The 32V SuperBrick incorporates unique support features and an electrical bus bar arrangement that allows cells negative can insertion into heat sink that is compressively coupled to the battery enclosure to promote good thermal management. The housing design also provides an internal flame suppression "filter tray" and positive venting path internal to the enclosure to allow hot effluent ejecta to escape in the event of single cell TR. Virtual cells (14P Banks) that are supported to provide cell spacing with interstitial materials to prevent side can failures that can produce cell to cell TR propagation. These features were successfully test in four separate TR run with the full scale DTA1 test article in February 2016. Successfully Completed Test Objectives - Four separate TR test runs with Full-Scale DTA1 housing with Two SuperBricks, Two SuperBrick Emulators All Tests resulted in "clean" gas with less than 6 C rise at Battery vent All Tests resulted in less than 2 C temperature rise on cold-plate outlet All Tests resulted in less than 6 psi pressure rise in the battery housing Test Run 1 -One neighbor cell TR, highest remaining neighbor 139 C. Ejecta shorted to bus caused prolonged additional heating, One shorted cell did experience TR after 12 minutes, remaining cells had adequate thermal margin Test Run 2 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 112 C; Test Run 3 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 96 C; Test Run 4 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 101 C; Primary TR testing

  20. Polarimetry of the Orion population stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopatskaya, E N; Shulov, O S

    1978-01-01

    The results of polarization observations are given for 44 stars of the Orion population selected from the list of Herbig and Rao (Astrophys. J., v. 174, pt. 1, pp 401-423(1972)). Photometric observations are also reported for a number of the stars. The distribution of the degrees of polarization is found to be approximated by the logarithmic-normal probability law. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Molecular hydrogen jets from the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.N.R.; Storey, J.W.V.; Zealey, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the relationship of the recently discovered complex of Herbig Haro objects in Orion to the IR sources in this region, the authors have carried out a survey of the molecular hydrogen S(1) line distribution. The observations have led to the discovery of a previously unsuspected structure of finger-like filaments of H 2 emission extending radially outwards from a common centre at IRC9. (author)

  2. ORION - A Global Approach to Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    In the ORION project supported by the European Commission, 20 partners work together to manage organic waste from agro-food industries. The goal is to develop a small, automatic and user-friendly digestion machine to facilitate the domestic on-site treatment of a wide range of organic waste from around 100 and up to 5000 tonnes per year at low cost and with limited maintenance. Simon Crelier at the HES-SO Valais/Wallis is part of the network.

  3. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  4. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Clayton, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  5. AFRICOM: Combatant Command for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juergens, Jr., Richard A

    2008-01-01

    ...: European Command, Southern Command, Northern Command, Central Command, and Pacific Command, as the Department of Defense's unified command structure responsible for specific geographical regions of the world...

  6. Orion Ground Test Article Water Impact Tests: Photogrammetric Evaluation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    The Ground Test Article (GTA) is an early production version of the Orion Crew Module (CM). The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. As part of the process of confirming the accuracy of LS-DYNA water landing simulations, the GTA water impact test series was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to gather data for comparison with simulations. The simulation of the GTA water impact tests requires the accurate determination of the impact conditions. To accomplish this, the GTA was outfitted with an array of photogrammetry targets. The photogrammetry system utilizes images from two cameras with a specialized tracking software to determine time histories for the 3-D coordinates of each target. The impact conditions can then be determined from the target location data.

  7. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  8. Command History for 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Marine Corps Tiaining Systems (CBESS) memorization training Inteligence Center, Dam Neck Threat memorization training Commander Tactical Wings, Atlantic...News Shipbuilding Technical training AEGIS Training Center, Dare Artificial Intelligence (Al) Tools Computerized firm-end analysis tools NETSCPAC...Technology Department and provides computational and electronic mail support for research in areas of artificial intelligence, computer-assisted instruction

  9. Command Home Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System (NSIPS) My Navy Portal Board of One Source USA.gov U.S. Office of Special Counsel Social Media Directory and Policy US Navy App Locker Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Navy SAPR Navy EEO Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated

  10. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    From an idealized model of the Orion Nebula and from an analysis of line ratios it is shown that direct starlight excitation of the permitted O I line dominates over recombination and Lyman line fluorescence. The line strengths predicted by this mechanism agree reasonably well with those observed in the Orion Nebula. The application of direct starlight excitation to other ions is also discussed

  11. In the Shadow of Pennhurst: The Orion Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfiyya, Zana Marie

    This case study is based on a 1988 site visit to the Orion Community, in which a group of nondisabled and disabled people have chosen to live and work with each other in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Orion's founding is described, beginning with an informal support group of professionals, parents, advocates, and members of Camphill (agricultural…

  12. Design and Implementation of the Automatic Assessment System for the Command and Control Specialty in Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing the actual demand of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships, the thought of the overall design of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships is given, and the concrete realization methods of the user login module, test paper operation module and system maintenance module are studied and demonstrated. The proposed design idea and implementation method of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships is scientific, efficient and practical, and provides reference for the exploitation of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships.

  13. Assessment of Fencing on the Orion Heatshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, Antonella I.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents recession measurements of arc-jet test articles that simulate an ablator with gap filler and were exposed to various heating profiles. Results were used to derive empirically-based differential recession models used for the baseline sizing of the Orion block heatshield architecture. The profile test conditions represent different local flight environments associated with different regions of the heatshield. Recession measurements were collected during and after arc-jet tests, and the results were used to observe the heating profiles’ effect on differential recession. Arc-jet tests were conducted at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. The dynamical evolution of the Orion Trapezium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Costero, R.; Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; Sánchez, L.

    2018-01-01

    Using recent observational data on transverse and radial velocities of the bright Orion Trapezium stars we study the dynamical evolution of ensembles of systems mimicking the Trapezium. To this end we perform numerical N-body integrations using the observed planar positions and velocities, the radial velocities, and random z-positions for all components. We include perturbations in these quantities compatible with the observational errors. We discuss the dynamical outcome of the evolution of such systems and the properties of the resulting binaries.

  15. Orion infrared nebula/molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Palmer, P.

    1975-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the Orion Nebula and the associated molecular clouds have greatly increased our understanding of this and other regions in which star formation is taking place. Fundamental questions remain unanswered; and in this Letter we address three of them: (1) the chemical composition of the molecular cloud, (2) its internal motions, and (3) the role of magnetic fields in its evolution. We show that the gas phase chemistry and internal motions in one part of the cloud are distinctly different from those in the rest of the cloud, and two recent estimates of the magnetic field strengths are very uncertain. (auth)

  16. Orion FSW V and V and Kedalion Engineering Lab Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA, along with its prime Orion contractor and its subcontractor s are adapting an avionics system paradigm borrowed from the manned commercial aircraft industry for use in manned space flight systems. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) techniques have been proven as a robust avionics solution for manned commercial aircraft (B737/777/787, MD 10/90). This presentation will outline current approaches to adapt IMA, along with its heritage FSW V&V paradigms, into NASA's manned space flight program for Orion. NASA's Kedalion engineering analysis lab is on the forefront of validating many of these contemporary IMA based techniques. Kedalion has already validated many of the proposed Orion FSW V&V paradigms using Orion's precursory Flight Test Article (FTA) Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) program. The Kedalion lab will evolve its architectures, tools, and techniques in parallel with the evolving Orion program.

  17. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.406 Commander...

  18. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Solving and Mitigating the Two Main Cluster Pendulum Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin; Sommer, Bruce; Troung, Tuan; Anderson, Brian; Madsen, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Orion spacecraft will return humans from beyond earth's orbit, including Mars and will be required to land 20,000 pounds of mass safely in the ocean. The parachute system nominally lands under 3 main parachutes, but the system is designed to be fault tolerant and land under 2 main parachutes. During several of the parachute development tests, it was observed that a pendulum, or swinging, motion could develop while the Crew Module (CM) was descending under two parachutes. This pendulum effect had not been previously predicted by modeling. Landing impact analysis showed that the landing loads would double in some places across the spacecraft. The CM structural design limits would be exceeded upon landing if this pendulum motion were to occur. The Orion descent and landing team was faced with potentially millions of dollars in structural modifications and a severe mass increase. A multidisciplinary team was formed to determine root cause, model the pendulum motion, study alternate canopy planforms and assess alternate operational vehicle controls & operations providing mitigation options resulting in a reliability level deemed safe for human spaceflight. The problem and solution is a balance of risk to a known solution versus a chance to improve the landing performance for the next human-rated spacecraft.

  19. APOLLO 16 COMMANDER JOHN YOUNG ENTERS ALTITUDE CHAMBER FOR TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 16 commander John W. Young prepares to enter the lunar module in an altitude chamber in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building at the spaceport prior to an altitude run. During the altitude run, in which Apollo 16 lunar module pilot Charles M. Duke also participated, the chamber was pumped down to simulate pressure at an altitude in excess of 200,000 feet. Young, Duke and command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II, are training at the Kennedy Space Center for the Apollo 16 mission. Launch is scheduled from Pad 39A, March 17, 1972.

  20. Combatant Commanders Informational Series, USEUCOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Steven

    1996-01-01

    ...) and the diverse challenges it faces require it to maintain one of the highest operational and personnel tempos of the combatant command, are limited in the opportunity of personnel new to the command...

  1. Fossil DCN in Orion-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangum, J.G.; Plambeck, R.L.; Wootten, A.

    1991-01-01

    The J = 1 - 0 transition of DCN was mapped toward Orion-KL with the BIMA array. With a synthesized beam width of 7.6 arcsec, emission from the hot core, compact ridge, and northern cloud regions was identified. Over half of the integrated DCN emission detected originates from the hot core component, with progressively smaller contributions from the compact ridge and northern cloud. The DCN fractional abundance is 10 to the -9th in the hot core, 4 x 10 to the -10th in the compact ridge, and 2 x 10 to the -10th in the northern cloud; it is estimated that the corresponding DCN/HCN ratios are about 0.005, 0.02, and 0.02. Chemical models suggest that such high DCN/HCN abundance ratios are produced only in clouds colder than about 20 K. Since the present temperatures near Orion-KL are 50-275 K, it is evident that most of the DCN formed before this region was heated by massive star formation. Much of the fossil DCN which is now observed may have sublimated from icy grain mantles. 32 refs

  2. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion GNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch.We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool (Critical Factors Tool or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  3. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  4. Joint Mission Command Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    choose. The paper finds that trust is strongly influenced by the subconscious brain and treating it like a tool ignores biology and results in... bias for action and empowerment.14 Since then, the services have evaluated their own concepts of command assessing them against Dempsey’s vision. Lt...understanding, intent, and trust, only trust is strongly influenced by the subconscious brain. Treating trust like it can be taught, or a behavior that

  5. 75 FR 54388 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Automotive Lake Orion, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Lake Orion, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal...

  6. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...

  7. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  8. Force Protection and Command Relationships: Who's Responsible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moller, James

    1998-01-01

    .... This monograph analyzes the joint force protection program by investigating the terms: command, chain of command, command relationship, and how these terms authorize and empower a commander to implement this program across the joint force...

  9. Orion: Design of a system for assured low-cost human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvander, Josh; Heifetz, Andy; Hunt, Teresa; Zhu, Martin

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, Congress and the American people have begun to seriously question the role and importance of future manned spaceflight. This is mainly due to two factors: a decline in technical competition caused by the collapse of communism, and the high costs associated with the Space Shuttle transportation system. With these factors in mind, the ORION system was designed to enable manned spaceflight at a low cost, while maintaining the ability to carry out diverse missions, each with a high degree of flexibility. It is capable of performing satellite servicing missions, supporting a space station via crew rotation and resupply, and delivering satellites into geosynchronous orbit. The components of the system are a primary launch module, an upper stage, and a manned spacecraft capable of dynamic reentry. For satellite servicing and space station resupply missions, the ORION system utilizes three primary modules, an upper stage, and the spacecraft, which is delivered to low earth orbit and used to rendezvous, transfer materials, and make repairs. For launching a geosynchronous satellite, one primary module and an upper stage are used to deliver the satellite, along with an apogee kick motor, into orbit. The system is designed with reusability and modularity in mind in an attempt to lower cost.

  10. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Berné, O.; Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Keller, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s −1 and an age of ≃10 5 years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ 1 Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  11. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Berné, O. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s{sup −1} and an age of ≃10{sup 5} years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ {sup 1} Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  12. Atomic hydrogen in the Orion star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromey, F.R.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale survey of atomic hydrogen in Orion reveals low-density material with a total mass comparable to that in dense molecular clouds. The atomic gas is sufficiently dense that it can shield the molecular material from photodissociative radiation and provide a pressure link to the low-density intercloud medium. An excess of H I emission comes from photodissociation fronts near the bright stars and from a giant shell in the Orion Belt region. This shell may have caused the apparent bifurcation between the Orion A and B clouds, and the associated pressures may have induced peculiar motions and star formation in NGC 2023 and 2024. 49 refs

  13. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu; Texas Univ., Austin)

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08. 27 references

  14. Command History, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    his space capsule. The ()CUILAR COtJNTI:,RROI,.L I)FVICI" was built by the Naval Air Rework Facility, NAS Pensacola. tfor NAMRI, in the early 1960s...Dunwoody, GA Kevin G. Singleton, ENS USNR Naval Aviation Schools Command Kyle W M. Taylor, ENS USNR U.S. Naval Academy Jason A. Temple, ENS USNR Auburn...Pensacola, 13-15 Oct 93. Pokorski, T.L., LICDR MSC USN, attended Aircrew Modified IEquipment for Ladies in Aviation (AMELIA) Fri -service Long-range Planning

  15. On the Nature of Orion Source I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Rubio, A.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Zhang, Q.; Curiel, S.

    2018-01-01

    The Kleinmann–Low nebula in Orion, the closest region of massive star formation, harbors Source I, whose nature is under debate. Knowledge of this source may have profound implications for our understanding of the energetics of the hot core in Orion KL since it might be the main heating source in the region. The spectral energy distribution of this source in the radio is characterized by a positive spectral index close to 2, which is consistent with (i) thermal bremsstrahlung emission of ionized hydrogen gas produced by a central massive protostar, or (ii) photospheric bremsstrahlung emission produced by electrons when deflected by the interaction with neutral and molecular hydrogen like Mira-like variable stars. If ionized hydrogen gas were responsible for the observed continuum emission, its modeling would predict detectable emission from hydrogen radio recombination lines (RRLs). However, our SMA observations were obtained with a high enough sensitivity to rule out that the radio continuum emission arises from a dense hypercompact H II region because the H26α line would have been detected, in contrast with our observations. To explain the observational constraints, we investigate further the nature of the radio continuum emission from source I. We have compared available radio continuum data with the predictions from our upgraded non-LTE 3D radiative transfer model, MOdel for REcombination LInes, to show that radio continuum fluxes and sizes can only be reproduced by assuming both dust and bremsstrahlung emission from neutral gas. The dust emission contribution is significant at ν ≥ 43 GHz. In addition, our RRL peak intensity predictions for the ionized metals case are consistent with the nondetection of Na and K RRLs at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  16. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  17. Orion Active Thermal Control System Dynamic Modeling Using Simulink/MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents dynamic modeling of the crew exploration vehicle (Orion) active thermal control system (ATCS) using Simulink (Simulink, developed by The MathWorks). The model includes major components in ATCS, such as heat exchangers and radiator panels. The mathematical models of the heat exchanger and radiator are described first. Four different orbits were used to validate the radiator model. The current model results were compared with an independent Thermal Desktop (TD) (Thermal Desktop, PC/CAD-based thermal model builder, developed in Cullimore & Ring (C&R) Technologies) model results and showed good agreement for all orbits. In addition, the Orion ATCS performance was presented for three orbits and the current model results were compared with three sets of solutions- FloCAD (FloCAD, PC/CAD-based thermal/fluid model builder, developed in C&R Technologies) model results, SINDA/FLUINT (SINDA/FLUINT, a generalized thermal/fluid network-style solver ) model results, and independent Simulink model results. For each case, the fluid temperatures at every component on both the crew module and service module sides were plotted and compared. The overall agreement is reasonable for all orbits, with similar behavior and trends for the system. Some discrepancies exist because the control algorithm might vary from model to model. Finally, the ATCS performance for a 45-hr nominal mission timeline was simulated to demonstrate the capability of the model. The results show that the ATCS performs as expected and approximately 2.3 lb water was consumed in the sublimator within the 45 hr timeline before Orion docked at the International Space Station.

  18. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Stephens, J. P.; Spehar, P.; Bilimoria, K.; Foster, C.; Gonzalex, R.; Sullivan, K.; Jackson, B.; Brazzel, J.; Hart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft was designed to rendezvous with multiple vehicles in low earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. To perform the required rendezvous and docking task, Orion must provide enough control authority to perform coarse translational maneuvers while maintaining precision to perform the delicate docking corrections. While Orion has autonomous docking capabilities, it is expected that final approach and docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS) will initially be performed in a manual mode. A series of evaluations was conducted by NASA and Lockheed Martin at the Johnson Space Center to determine the handling qualities (HQ) of the Orion spacecraft during different docking and rendezvous conditions using the Cooper-Harper scale. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities methodology, vehicle configuration, scenarios flown, data collection tools, and subject ratings and comments. The initial Orion HQ assessment examined Orion docking to the ISS. This scenario demonstrates the Translational Hand Controller (THC) handling qualities of Orion. During this initial assessment, two different scenarios were evaluated. The first was a nominal docking approach to a stable ISS, with Orion initializing with relative position dispersions and a closing rate of approximately 0.1 ft/sec. The second docking scenario was identical to the first, except the attitude motion of the ISS was modeled to simulate a stress case ( 1 degree deadband per axis and 0.01 deg/sec rate deadband per axis). For both scenarios, subjects started each run on final approach at a docking port-to-port range of 20 ft. Subjects used the THC in pulse mode with cues from the docking camera image, window views, and range and range rate data displayed on the Orion display units. As in the actual design, the attitude of the Orion vehicle was held by the automated flight control system at 0.5 degree deadband per axis. Several error sources were modeled including Reaction

  19. On fuorlike variations of brightness of the Orion association stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesamyan, Eh.S.; Gasparyan, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    The results of observations of fourlike Sugano and Chanal objects in Orion association are given. The light curve, amplitude to flare and colour index are determined. It has been shown that the Sugano object is both Orion variable and a flare star. An assumption about the intensification of outflow of matter with same velocities in those objects as made. The luminosity of P Cyg before the flare is determined

  20. Dynamical explanation for the high water abundance detected in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1979-01-01

    Shock wave chemistry is suggested as the likely explanation for the high water abundance which has been recently detected in Orion by Phyllips et al. The existence of such a shock and its inferred properties are in agreement with other observations of Orion such as the broad velocity feature and H 2 vibration emission. Shock waves are proposed as the likely explanation for high water abundances observed in other sources such as the strong H 2 O masers

  1. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  2. Star Formation in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Francesco; Stahler, Steven W.

    1999-11-01

    We study the record of star formation activity within the dense cluster associated with the Orion Nebula. The bolometric luminosity function of 900 visible members is well matched by a simplified theoretical model for cluster formation. This model assumes that stars are produced at a constant rate and distributed according to the field-star initial mass function. Our best-fit age for the system, within this framework, is 2×106 yr. To undertake a more detailed analysis, we present a new set of theoretical pre-main-sequence tracks. These cover all masses from 0.1 to 6.0 Msolar, and start from a realistic stellar birthline. The tracks end along a zero-age main-sequence that is in excellent agreement with the empirical one. As a further aid to cluster studies, we offer an heuristic procedure for the correction of pre-main-sequence luminosities and ages to account for the effects of unresolved binary companions. The Orion Nebula stars fall neatly between our birthline and zero-age main-sequence in the H-R diagram. All those more massive than about 8 Msolar lie close to the main sequence, as also predicted by theory. After accounting for the finite sensitivity of the underlying observations, we confirm that the population between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar roughly follows a standard initial mass function. We see no evidence for a turnover at lower masses. We next use our tracks to compile stellar ages, also between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar. Our age histogram reveals that star formation began at a low level some 107 yr ago and has gradually accelerated to the present epoch. The period of most active formation is indeed confined to a few×106 yr, and has recently ended with gas dispersal from the Trapezium. We argue that the acceleration in stellar births, which extends over a wide range in mass, reflects the gravitational contraction of the parent cloud spawning this cluster.

  3. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  4. Ultraviolet and Infrared Correlation Studies in Orion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Lakshmi S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the variation of diffuse ultraviolet (UV radiation in the northern part of the Orion constellation using a set of eight areas of the GALEX All-Sky Imaging Survey in the far and near UV. Different components of diffuse UV radiation, like dust scattered emission and H2 fluorescence, were quantified and separated after removing the point sources and the foreground emission in each of the fields. Then the dependence of the individual UV components on the infrared 100 μm dust emission was studied. We did not find any positive correlation between the diffuse-UV and IR-100 micron intensities, probably due to the high optical depth of the region or the entire dust column not contributing to the diffuse UV radiation. However, in the far UV we noticed the presence of an excess emission in addition to the dust scattered radiation, which is clearly absent in the near UV. This excess emission, identified as the H2 fluorescence, is produced by the Trapezium stars in the surrounding molecular clouds. We also compare our results with those of previous studies in the region, based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE observations.

  5. Modular code supervisor. Automatic generation of command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, M.; Thomas, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how, starting from a problem formulated by the user, to generate the adequate calculation procedure in the command code, and acquire the data necessary for the calculation while verifying their validity. Modular codes are used, because of their flexibility and wide utilisation. Modules are written in Fortran, and calculations are done in batches according to an algorithm written in the GIBIANE command language. The action plans are based on the STRIPS and WARPLAN families. Elementary representation of a module and special instructions are illustrated. Dynamic construction macro-actions, and acquisition of the specification (which allows users to express the goal of a program without indicating which algorithm is used to reach the goal) are illustrated. The final phase consists in translating the algorithm into the command language [fr

  6. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  7. Distances, Kinematics, And Structure Of The Orion Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee

    2018-01-01

    I present an analysis of the structure and kinematics of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex in an effort to better characterize the dynamical state of the closest region of ongoing massive star formation. I measured stellar parallax and proper motions with Orion Complex. This includes the first direct distance measurements for sources that are located outside of the Orion Nebula. I identified a number of binary systems in the VLBI dataset and fitted their orbital motion, which allows for the direct measurement of the masses of the individual components. Additionally, I have identified several stars that have been ejected from the Orion Nebula due to strong gravitational interactions with the most massive members. I complemented the parallax and proper motion measurements with the observations of optical radial velocities of the stars toward the Orion Complex, probing the histories of both dynamic evolution and star formation in the region, providing a 6-dimensional model of the Complex. These observations can serve as a baseline for comparison of the upcoming results from the Gaia space telescope

  8. Mapping young stellar populations towards Orion with Gaia DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zari, Eleonora; Brown, Anthony G. A.

    2018-04-01

    OB associations are prime sites for the study of star formation processes and of the interaction between young massive stars with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the kinematics and structure of the nearest OB associations provide detailed insight into the properties and origin of the Gould Belt. In this context, the Orion complex has been extensively studied. However, the spatial distribution of the stellar population is still uncertain: in particular, the distances and ages of the various sub-groups composing the Orion OB association, and their connection to the surrounding interstellar medium, are not well determined. We used the first Gaia data release to characterize the stellar population in Orion, with the goal to obtain new distance and age estimates of the numerous stellar groups composing the Orion OB association. We found evidence of the existence of a young and rich population spread over the entire region, loosely clustered around some known groups. This newly discovered population of young stars provides a fresh view of the star formation history of the Orion region.

  9. SULFUR ABUNDANCES IN THE ORION ASSOCIATION B STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daflon, Simone; Cunha, Katia; De la Reza, Ramiro; Holtzman, Jon; Chiappini, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur abundances are derived for a sample of 10 B main-sequence star members of the Orion association. The analysis is based on LTE plane-parallel model atmospheres and non-LTE line formation theory by means of a self-consistent spectrum synthesis analysis of lines from two ionization states of sulfur, S II and S III. The observations are high-resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory. The abundance distribution obtained for the Orion targets is homogeneous within the expected errors in the analysis: A(S) = 7.15 ± 0.05. This average abundance result is in agreement with the recommended solar value (both from modeling of the photospheres in one-dimensional and three-dimensional, and meteorites) and indicates that little, if any, chemical evolution of sulfur has taken place in the last ∼4.5 billion years. The sulfur abundances of the young stars in Orion are found to agree well with results for the Orion Nebulae, and place strong constraints on the amount of sulfur depletion onto grains as being very modest or nonexistent. The sulfur abundances for Orion are consistent with other measurements at a similar galactocentric radius: combined with previous results for other OB-type stars produce a relatively shallow sulfur abundance gradient with a slope of -0.037 ± 0.012 dex kpc -1 .

  10. A spacecraft computer repairable via command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, R. O.; Baker, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The MULTIPAC is a central data system developed for deep-space probes with the distinctive feature that it may be repaired during flight via command and telemetry links by reprogramming around the failed unit. The computer organization uses pools of identical modules which the program organizes into one or more computers called processors. The interaction of these modules is dynamically controlled by the program rather than hardware. In the event of a failure, new programs are entered which reorganize the central data system with a somewhat reduced total processing capability aboard the spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the system architecture and the final overall system design rather than the specific logic design.

  11. Paramount Interest: Command Relationships in Amphibious Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peabody, Hitch

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, U.S. amphibious forces abandoned sixty years of established command and control doctrine, replacing the traditional senior-subordinate relationship between Navy and Marine commanders with coequal command. Why did it change...

  12. Command in a field hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, M C M

    2003-03-01

    This paper examines the challenges involved in commanding a field hospital. There are frequent, dynamic tensions between the military culture that is based on a task-focussed, hierarchical structure and the clinical culture that is based on flat, process-focussed, multidisciplinary teams. The paper outlines the cultural environment of the field hospital and then examines the deployment sequence whereby a functioning clinical facility may be created from a group of disparate individuals. There are a number of tools that may assist with this including the personality of the Commanding Officer, individual skills, the creation of an organizational identity and the choice of command structure.

  13. Command and Control of Joint Air Operations through Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and outlines the C2 architecture systems, processes, and philosophy of com- mand required to enable mission command effectively. Mission Command...General Dempsey highlights the fact that “trust is the moral sinew that binds the distributed Joint Force 2020 together” and observes that “unless...con- fident about how their subordinates will make decisions and adapt to the dynamic battlespace environment. Processes, Systems, and Philosophy of

  14. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) in emission from the H 2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s -1 to 12 km s -1 and widths of 3 km s -1 . The beam-averaged column density is N(O 2 ) = 6.5 x 10 16 cm -2 , and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O 2 relative to H 2 is (0.3-7.3) x 10 -6 . The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ∼5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ∼10 M sun and the dust temperature is ≥150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O 2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T ≥ 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O 2 . For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature ≥180 K. The inferred O 2 column density ≅5 x 10 18 cm -2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H 2 ) ≅ 4 x 10 24 cm -2 . An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s -1 ) C-shock, which can produce N(O 2 ) up to 10 17 cm -2 .

  15. Global Command and Control Management Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This instruction establishes: responsibilities for the Joint Staff, Services, Defense agencies, combatant and functional unified commands, and other activities regarding management of Global Command and Control (GCC...

  16. Orion Powered Flight Guidance Burn Options for Near Term Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Tom; Goodman, John; Robinson, Shane

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Orion exploration spacecraft will fly more demanding mission profiles than previous NASA human flight spacecraft. Missions currently under development are destined for cislunar space. The EM-1 mission will fly unmanned to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around the Moon. EM-2 will fly astronauts on a mission to the lunar vicinity. To fly these missions, Orion requires powered flight guidance that is more sophisticated than the orbital guidance flown on Apollo and the Space Shuttle. Orion's powered flight guidance software contains five burn guidance options. These five options are integrated into an architecture based on a proven shuttle heritage design, with a simple closed-loop guidance strategy. The architecture provides modularity, simplicity, versatility, and adaptability to future, yet-to-be-defined, exploration mission profiles. This paper provides a summary of the executive guidance architecture and details the five burn options to support both the nominal and abort profiles for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions.

  17. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH 3 CH 2 SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH 3 CH 2 SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH 3 SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL

  19. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of some stars in the Orion OBI association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, R.Kh.; Gasparyan, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of measurements of 56 short wavelength spectra of 22 stars in the Orion OBI association obtained by means of the space observatory Orion-2 are presented. The absolute energy distribution in their continuum is obtained. The measured energy distributions in the spectra of B-type stars in the region 2150-3700 A are in good agreement with the theoretical blocking model developed by Van Citters and Morton, and those of two A-type stars with Kurucz model. It has been found that for several B-type Orion stars there exists some discrepancy between the spectral type and their effective temperature, the last one being higher than for MK spectral types. The depression in the continuous spectra of A-type stars can be explained by the blocking effect

  20. Orion: a glimpse of hope in life span extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, K; Bondar, V; Bezrukov, V; Zhukovsky, O; Polyakov, V; Utko, N

    2010-01-01

    Orion is a multicomponent drug based on derivatives of taurocholic acid and several other compounds. Application of Orion into the feeding medium of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in increased life span and survival at stressful conditions. Two paradoxical features of the drug should be stressed: The "age-threshold" (life span extension was observed only when the drug was applied starting from the second half of life) and induction of "centenarian" flies (older 100 days). Orion enhanced survival at heat shock (38 degrees C) and acidic (pH = 1.6) or alkaline (pH = 11.8) feeding mediums, but not at oxidative stresses modeled by 100% oxygen or application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)).

  1. Detection of the OH Zeeman effect toward Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troland, T.H.; Crutcher, R.M.; Kazes, I.; Paris Observatoire, Meudon, France; Kentucky Univ., Lexington)

    1986-01-01

    The Zeeman effect in the 18 cm OH absorption spectrum of Orion A is detected. From this effect, a line-of-sight magnetic field strength of - 125 + or - 20 is derived. At the same position, an H I Zeeman effect equivalent to a magnetic field of - 49 + or - 4 micro-G is found. Thus, the magnetic field in the molecular gas toward Orion A is significantly stronger than that in the atomic gas, contrary to the recent determination for the Cas A line of sight. Densities in the atomic and molecular regions toward Orion A are estimated and it is found that for this region the data are consistent with B proportional to n exp kappa, kappa = 0.3. 23 references

  2. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T., E-mail: lucie.kolesnikova@uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu, E-mail: shipman@ncf.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  3. 75 FR 67770 - General Motors Company, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Automotive, Ryder and Premier Manufacturing Support Services, Lake Orion, MI; Amended... of General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Lake...

  4. A non-equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio of water in the Orion PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Y.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Plume, R.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2O is thought to be sensitive to the temperature of water formation. The OPR of H2O is thus useful for studying the formation mechanism of water. Aims: We investigate the OPR of water in the Orion PDR (photon-dominated region), at the Orion Bar and Orion S

  5. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  6. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  7. Combatant Commanders Informational Series: USPACOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comnick, Michael

    1996-01-01

    ...) introducing potential joint staff officers to their specific command. Inbound staff officers, prepared by reviewing this product, arrive on station ready to receive specialized training without needing background indoctrination...

  8. On the spatial distributions of dense cores in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We quantify the spatial distributions of dense cores in three spatially distinct areas of the Orion B star-forming region. For L1622, NGC 2068/NGC 2071, and NGC 2023/NGC 2024, we measure the amount of spatial substructure using the Q-parameter and find all three regions to be spatially substructured (Q Orion B, the mass segregation cannot be dynamical. Our results are also inconsistent with simulations in which the most massive stars form via competitive accretion, and instead hint that magnetic fields may be important in influencing the primordial spatial distributions of gas and stars in star-forming regions.

  9. Flare stars of the Orion Nebula - spectra of an outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.D.; O'Mara, B.J.; Ross, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, detailed, time-resolved spectra of a flare event of an Orion cluster flare star are presented. These spectra, covering ∼ λλ3600-4600, were obtained by using the Anglo-Australian Telescope with a fibre coupler to simultaneously monitor 23 flare stars in the region of the Orion Nebula. The flare spectra reveal continuous emission which filled in the photospheric Ca I 4226 A absorption, and hydrogen Balmer, Ca II H and K, He I 4026 A and He I 4471 A line emission. Overall, the spectral behaviour indicates similarities to strong outbursts of the classical dMe flare stars. (author)

  10. Strategic Global Climate Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  11. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  12. ORION-the Omega Remote Interactive On-line System

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D; Levratt, B; Lipps, H; Sparrman, P

    1974-01-01

    ORION is a system which permits the manipulation of files, records and characters, remote job submittal and retrieval of output files including the direct loading of remote on-line computers. The system uses the computer hardware of the OMEGA project at CERN and is designed to assist researchers in development and debugging of their programs. (10 refs).

  13. Protostar Evolution in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Michael Allan

    2018-01-01

    We present our preliminary analysis of the protostars within the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We developed a pipeline to identify protostars in the ONC using the IRAC instrument aboard Spitzer. We verified our photometric measurements with the catalog provided by Megeath et al. (2012). We then classified the protostar evolution stages (0/I, Flatt, II, and III) based on their spectral slope.

  14. ORION - the OMEGA Remote Interactive On-line System

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D; Krieger, M

    1973-01-01

    ORION is a system which permits the manipulation of files, records and characters, remote job submittal and retrieval of output files including the direct loading of remote on-line computers. The system uses the computer hardware of the OMEGA project at CERN, and is designed to assist researchers in development and debugging of their programs.

  15. C2H observations toward the Orion Bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Z.; Ossenkopf, V.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Faure, A.; Makai, Z.; Bergin, E. A.

    Context. The ethynyl radical (C2H) is one of the first radicals to be detected in the interstellar medium. Its higher rotational transitions have recently become available with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical parameters of the C2H emitting gas toward the Orion

  16. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...

  17. Orion, a high efficiency 4π neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, E.; Piasecki, E.; Wang, X.M.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collisions the multiplicity of emitted neutrons is strongly connected to energy dissipation and to impact parameter. We present the 4π detector ORION, a high efficiency liquid scintillator detector which permits to get information on the multiplicity of neutrons measured event-wise and on the spatial distribution of these neutrons [fr

  18. A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0° impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0° impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30° indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  19. The ergonomics of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...

  20. Laboratory characterization and astrophysical detection of vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide in Orion-KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Tercero, B.; Kisiel, Z.; Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Calcutt, H.; Marcelino, N.; Viti, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Context. We perform a laboratory characterization in the 18-1893 GHz range and astronomical detection between 80-280 GHz in Orion-KL with IRAM-30 m of CH2CHCN (vinyl cyanide) in its ground and vibrationally excited states. Aims: Our aim is to improve the understanding of rotational spectra of vibrationally excited vinyl cyanide with new laboratory data and analysis. The laboratory results allow searching for these excited state transitions in the Orion-KL line survey. Furthermore, rotational lines of CH2CHCN contribute to the understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the cloud. Methods: Laboratory measurements of CH2CHCN made on several different frequency-modulated spectrometers were combined into a single broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum and its assignment was confirmed by Stark modulation spectra recorded in the 18-40 GHz region and by ab-initio anharmonic force field calculations. For analyzing the emission lines of vinyl cyanide detected in Orion-KL we used the excitation and radiative transfer code (MADEX) at LTE conditions. Results: Detailed characterization of laboratory spectra of CH2CHCN in nine different excited vibrational states: ν11 = 1, ν15 = 1, ν11 = 2, ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1), ν11 = 3/ν15 = 2/ν14 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν10 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 2,ν15 = 1), ν9 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 2) ⇔ (ν10 = 1,ν15 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν14 = 1), and ν11 = 4 are determined, as well as the detection of transitions in the ν11 = 2 and ν11 = 3 states for the first time in Orion-KL and of those in the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad of states for the first time in space. The rotational transitions of the ground state of this molecule emerge from four cloud components of hot core nature, which trace the physical and chemical conditions of high mass star forming regions in the Orion-KL Nebula. The lowest energy vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide, such as ν11 = 1 (at 328.5 K), ν15 = 1 (at 478.6 K), ν11 = 2 (at 657.8 K), the ν10

  1. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  2. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John

    2004-01-01

    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  3. Avionics System Architecture for the NASA Orion Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerman, Clint; McCabe, Mary; Verma, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) last developed a crewed spacecraft capable of launch, on-orbit operations, and landing. During that time, aerospace avionics technologies have greatly advanced in capability, and these technologies have enabled integrated avionics architectures for aerospace applications. The inception of NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) spacecraft offers the opportunity to leverage the latest integrated avionics technologies into crewed space vehicle architecture. The outstanding question is to what extent to implement these advances in avionics while still meeting the unique crewed spaceflight requirements for safety, reliability and maintainability. Historically, aircraft and spacecraft have very similar avionics requirements. Both aircraft and spacecraft must have high reliability. They also must have as much computing power as possible and provide low latency between user control and effecter response while minimizing weight, volume, and power. However, there are several key differences between aircraft and spacecraft avionics. Typically, the overall spacecraft operational time is much shorter than aircraft operation time, but the typical mission time (and hence, the time between preventive maintenance) is longer for a spacecraft than an aircraft. Also, the radiation environment is typically more severe for spacecraft than aircraft. A "loss of mission" scenario (i.e. - the mission is not a success, but there are no casualties) arguably has a greater impact on a multi-million dollar spaceflight mission than a typical commercial flight. Such differences need to be weighted when determining if an aircraft-like integrated modular avionics (IMA) system is suitable for a crewed spacecraft. This paper will explore the preliminary design process of the Orion vehicle avionics system by first identifying the Orion driving requirements and the difference between Orion requirements and those of

  4. 10 commandments of smile esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Andre Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics. PMID:25279532

  5. United States Southern Command * Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    or concerns please email or call us at 305-437-2287. Testing The USAG- Miami Joint Education Testing the Air Force | The Air University | US Air Force Academy Army: Army Continued Education System | Army Marine Corps Institute | US Marine Corps Training and Education Command | US Marine Corps University Navy

  6. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  7. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any eligible...

  8. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R; Montmerle, Thierry; Audard, Marc; Rebull, Luisa; Skinner, Stephen L

    2008-01-18

    Most stars form as members of large associations within dense, very cold (10 to 100 kelvin) molecular clouds. The nearby giant molecular cloud in Orion hosts several thousand stars of ages less than a few million years, many of which are located in or around the famous Orion Nebula, a prominent gas structure illuminated and ionized by a small group of massive stars (the Trapezium). We present x-ray observations obtained with the X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite XMM-Newton, revealing that a hot plasma with a temperature of 1.7 to 2.1 million kelvin pervades the southwest extension of the nebula. The plasma flows into the adjacent interstellar medium. This x-ray outflow phenomenon must be widespread throughout our Galaxy.

  9. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  10. Dust clouds in Orion and the interstellar neutral hydrogen distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrova, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    According to published examples of the far IR observations in the Orion and its surroundings, several well defined dust clouds of different sizes and structure are present. For comparison of these clouds with the neutral hydrogen distribution on the area of approx. 1000 sq degs, the data from Pulkovo Sky Survey in the interstellar neutral Hydrogen Radio Line as well as special observations with the RATAN-600 telescope in 21 cm line were used. From the materials of Pulkovo HI Survey, the data were taken near the line emission at ten velocities between -21.8 and +25.6 km/s LSR for the structural component of the interstellar hydrogen emission. The results given concern mainly the Orion's Great Dust Cloud and the Lambda Orionis region where the information about the situation with the dust and interstellar hydrogen is very essential for interpretation

  11. EXPLOSIVE DISINTEGRATION OF A MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR SYSTEM IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    Young massive stars in the center of crowded star clusters are expected to undergo close dynamical encounters that could lead to energetic, explosive events. However, there has so far never been clear observational evidence of such a remarkable phenomenon. We here report new interferometric observations that indicate the well-known enigmatic wide-angle outflow located in the Orion BN/KL star-forming region to have been produced by such a violent explosion during the disruption of a massive young stellar system, and that this was caused by a close dynamical interaction about 500 years ago. This outflow thus belongs to a totally different family of molecular flows that is not related to the classical bipolar flows that are generated by stars during their formation process. Our molecular data allow us to create a three-dimensional view of the debris flow and to link this directly to the well-known Orion H 2 'fingers' farther out.

  12. Explosive Disintegration of a Massive Young Stellar System in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Menten, Karl M.

    2009-10-01

    Young massive stars in the center of crowded star clusters are expected to undergo close dynamical encounters that could lead to energetic, explosive events. However, there has so far never been clear observational evidence of such a remarkable phenomenon. We here report new interferometric observations that indicate the well-known enigmatic wide-angle outflow located in the Orion BN/KL star-forming region to have been produced by such a violent explosion during the disruption of a massive young stellar system, and that this was caused by a close dynamical interaction about 500 years ago. This outflow thus belongs to a totally different family of molecular flows that is not related to the classical bipolar flows that are generated by stars during their formation process. Our molecular data allow us to create a three-dimensional view of the debris flow and to link this directly to the well-known Orion H2 "fingers" farther out.

  13. Abundance of carbon and magnesium in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.

    1980-01-01

    The Orion nebula has been observed in two positions with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) in the low-resolution mode (approx.7 A) and in the spectral range 1150--3200 A. Emission lines of C II], C III], [O II], and He I have been measured and used to determine what is probably the first reliable abundance of carbon in H II regions. The logarithmic total abundance of carbon is found to be 8.4 close to the solar value. In contrast with the situation in the planetary nebula of similar excitation, IC 418, where the resonance Mg II lambda2800 line is observed to be relatively strong, in the Orion nebula the lambda2800 line is not detectable. an upper limit for the magnesium abundance of the order of 10 times smaller than in the Sun is suggested

  14. Frequency distribution function of stellar flares in the Orion association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamian, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The temporal distributions of flare stars in the Orion association and the numbers of stars with different flare frequencies are determined by means of Ambartsumian's (1978) method, which uses the chronology of discovery of 'first' flares and the chronology of confirmations, i.e., the temporal distributions of 'repeated' flares. It is shown that flare stars with high flare frequency (not greater than 1000 hours) in the Pleiades are basically stars of low luminosity with M(U) not less than 13m. Two independent methods of determining the number of flare stars in the aggregates confirm that there are about 1.5 times more flare stars in the Orion association than in the Pleiades

  15. Ready...Set... Command! Rethinking Training for Squadron Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    commander faces many difficult challenges. When discussing the Air Force’s troubling trend in suicide rates, Airmen “blame being overworked ...Air Forces total suicides despite making up only 16 percent of the service.3 Three years later the Air Force Times reveals continued challenges in...23 challenges. They must address complex issues facing the Air Force, such as troubling suicide rates, manning shortfalls, decreasing resources

  16. Complex molecules in the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despois D.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the delivery to the early Earth of extraterrestrial molecules, we have studied complex molecular species toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. This nebula is rich in molecules as well as in nascent stars and planetary systems. We focus here on HCOOCH3, CH3OCH3 and deuterated methanol. Upper limits on species of prebiotic interest like glycine were also obtained.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF BURSTING WATER MASER FEATURES IN ORION KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tsuboi, Masato; Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Imai, Hiroshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Yonekura, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    In 2011 February, a burst event of the H 2 O maser in Orion KL (Kleinmann-Low object) has started after a 13 year silence. This is the third time such phenomena has been detected in Orion KL, followed by the events in 1979-1985 and 1998. We have carried out astrometric observations of the bursting H 2 O maser features in Orion KL with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), a Japanese very long baseline interferometry network dedicated for astrometry. The total flux of the bursting feature at the local standard of rest (LSR) velocity of 7.58 km s -1 reaches 4.4 x 10 4 Jy in 2011 March. The intensity of the bursting feature is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the same velocity feature in the quiescent phase in 2006. Two months later, another new feature appears at the LSR velocity of 6.95 km s -1 in 2011 May, separated by 12 mas north of the 7.58 km s -1 feature. Thus, the current burst occurs at two spatially different features. The bursting masers are elongated along the northwest-southeast direction as reported in the previous burst in 1998. We determine the absolute positions of the bursting features for the first time ever with a submilliarcsecond (mas) accuracy. Their positions are coincident with the shocked molecular gas called the Orion Compact Ridge. We tentatively detect the absolute proper motions of the bursting features toward the southwest direction. It is most likely that the outflow from the radio source I or another young stellar object interacting with the Compact Ridge is a possible origin of the H 2 O maser burst.

  18. ORION, a multipurpose detector for neutrons. Some new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perier, Y.; Lienard, E.; Lott, B.; Galin, J.; Morjean, M.; Peghaire, A.; Quednau, B.; El Masri, Y.; Keutgen, Th.; Tilquin, I.

    1996-01-01

    Different properties of the four-pi neutron detector ORION have been tested: its efficiency in both modes, fast and delayed, its time resolution and position sensitivity. For the later test, the impact of the neutron beam onto the detector was varied by sliding it, perpendicular to the beam direction. All the presented data are tentative with the analysis still in progress. (K.A.)

  19. Orion - Super Koropon(Registered Trademark) Torque/Tension Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, Edgar G.; McLeod, Christopher; Peil, John

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this testing was to obtain torque tension data for the use of Super Koropon Primer Base which was proposed for use on the Orion project. This compound is a corrosion inhibitor/sealer used on threaded fasteners and inserts as specified per NASA/JSC PRC-4004, Sealing of Joints and Faying Surfaces. Some secondary objectives of this testing, were to identify the effect on torque coefficient of several variables. This document contains the outcome of the testing.

  20. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby approve and direct the implementation of the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title...

  1. Issues and Solutions for Command Post Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stytz, Martin R; Banks, Sheila B

    2006-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, the modeling of joint command post teams is still very much in its infancy and this lack of foundational research hinders our ability to assess the performance of command post teams...

  2. Command Decision-Making: Experience Counts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolgast, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making is the mainstay of military leadership and command. Due to the changed nature of the current military environment, military commanders can no longer rely solely on the traditional Military Decision-making Process (MDMP...

  3. MASSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION BEYOND THE TRAPEZIUM CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Rita K.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array 1 The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Submillimeter Astrophysical Observatory and the Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academica Sinica. observations of the 880 μm continuum emission from three circumstellar disks around young stars in Orion that lie several arcminutes (∼> 1 pc) north of the Trapezium cluster. Two of the three disks are in the binary system 253-1536. Silhouette disks 216-0939 and 253-1536a are found to be more massive than any previously observed Orion disks, with dust masses derived from their submillimeter emission of 0.045 M sun and 0.066 M sun , respectively. The existence of these massive disks reveals that the disk mass distribution in Orion does extend to high masses, and that the truncation observed in the central Trapezium cluster is a result of photoevaporation due to the proximity of O-stars. 253-1536b has a disk mass of 0.018 M sun , making the 253-1536 system the first optical binary in which each protoplanetary disk is massive enough to potentially form solar systems.

  4. The Integral Field View of the Orion Nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adal Mesa-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major advances achieved in the Orion Nebula through the use of integral field spectroscopy (IFS. Since the early work of Vasconcelos and collaborators in 2005, this technique has facilitated the investigation of global properties of the nebula and its morphology, providing new clues to better constrain its 3D structure. IFS has led to the discovery of shock-heated zones at the leading working surfaces of prominent Herbig-Haro objects as well as the first attempt to determine the chemical composition of Orion protoplanetary disks, also known as proplyds. The analysis of these morphologies using IFS has given us new insights into the abundance discrepancy problem, a long-standing and unresolved issue that casts doubt on the reliability of current methods used for the determination of metallicities in the universe from the analysis of H II regions. Results imply that high-density clumps and high-velocity flows may play an active role in the production of such discrepancies. Future investigations based on the large-scale IFS mosaic of Orion will be very valuable for exploring how the integrated effect of small-scale structures may have impact at larger scales in the framework of star-forming regions.

  5. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, M/S 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Boden, Andrew F. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoard, D. W., E-mail: vaneyken@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, M/S 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-08-10

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 {+-} 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by Almost-Equal-To - 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s{sup -1} and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M{sub p}sin i{sub orb} {approx}< 4.8 {+-} 1.2 M{sub Jup}; when combined with the orbital inclination, i{sub orb}, of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M{sub p} {approx}< 5.5 {+-} 1.4 M{sub Jup}. This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  6. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Boden, Andrew F.; Hoard, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 ± 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by ≈ – 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s –1 and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M p sin i orb ∼ Jup ; when combined with the orbital inclination, i orb , of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M p ∼ Jup . This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  7. On Preparing for Squadron Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Gortler, Majur Gordon D. "Management Development---Could the Air Force Be Doing More?" Resear,;h Study, Air Command and Staff College. 1 07:3. 20...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse If necessary and identify by block number) -This study addresses the broad issue of preparing Air Force officers for...are obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED - - PREFACE This study addresses the broad Issue of preparing Air Force officers to

  8. Command and Control : faster decisions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions 4th Biennial Conference Presented by Cobus Venter 10 October 2012 ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Command and Control Planning TaskingControl Assessment Si tu at io n DPSS Objective Ends Increase the Defence Capability of South Africa Ways... Supported by SAAB THALES Global CommsDPSS DDSI ERGOTECH Cooperation to make it work Example 1: Future SA Army Strategy and Joint Operations Support Campus Experiment Example 1: Future SA Army Strategy and Joint Operations Support Campus Experiment...

  9. NGC 1980 Is Not a Foreground Population of Orion: Spectroscopic Survey of Young Stars with Low Extinction in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Zhang, Lan; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Eiroa, Carlos; Wang, Hongchi

    2017-01-01

    We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of less than 0.018–0.030 M ⊙ , which harbors a flaring disk. Using the H α emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% ± 7% versus 73% ± 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of around 1–2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion A.

  10. NGC 1980 Is Not a Foreground Population of Orion: Spectroscopic Survey of Young Stars with Low Extinction in Orion A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhang, Lan [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100012 Beijing (China); Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Eiroa, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Wang, Hongchi [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, 210008 Nanjing (China)

    2017-04-01

    We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of less than 0.018–0.030 M {sub ⊙}, which harbors a flaring disk. Using the H α emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% ± 7% versus 73% ± 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of around 1–2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion A.

  11. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  12. The Large-Scale Distribution and Motions of Older Stars in Orion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Walter, F. M.; Blaauw, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: We review the current knowledge of the population of `older' stars in the Orion OB1 association, specifically those in subgroups 1a and 1b. We briefly outline the history of the subject and then continue with a summary of the present state of knowledge of the early-type stars in Orion OB1.

  13. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  14. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John; Youngblood, Allison [Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department University of Colorado, UCB 389 Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2 D-85748, Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Arce, Hector [Department of Astronomy Steinbach Hall, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Eisner, Josh [Steward Observatory University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zapata, Luis [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísíca, UNAM Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Zinnecker, Hans, E-mail: john.bally@colorado.edu [Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 29, D-70569 (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s{sup −1} about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred {sup 12}CO J = 2−1 streamers with velocities extending from V {sub LSR} = −150 to +145 km s{sup −1}. The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H{sub 2} wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H{sub 2} “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N -body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼10{sup 48} erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  15. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  16. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, John; Youngblood, Allison; Ginsburg, Adam; Arce, Hector; Eisner, Josh; Zapata, Luis; Zinnecker, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s −1 about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred 12 CO J = 2−1 streamers with velocities extending from V LSR = −150 to +145 km s −1 . The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H 2 and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H 2 wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H 2 “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N -body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼10 48 erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  17. Orion Optical Navigation Progress Toward Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher N.; Saley, David

    2018-01-01

    Optical navigation of human spacecraft was proposed on Gemini and implemented successfully on Apollo as a means of autonomously operating the vehicle in the event of lost communication with controllers on Earth. The Orion emergency return system utilizing optical navigation has matured in design over the last several years, and is currently undergoing the final implementation and test phase in preparation for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. The software development is past its Critical Design Review, and is progressing through test and certification for human rating. The filter architecture uses a square-root-free UDU covariance factorization. Linear Covariance Analysis (LinCov) was used to analyze the measurement models and the measurement error models on a representative EM-1 trajectory. The Orion EM-1 flight camera was calibrated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) electro-optics lab. To permanently stake the focal length of the camera a 500 mm focal length refractive collimator was used. Two Engineering Design Unit (EDU) cameras and an EDU star tracker were used for a live-sky test in Denver. In-space imagery with high-fidelity truth metadata is rare so these live-sky tests provide one of the closest real-world analogs to operational use. A hardware-in-the-loop test rig was developed in the Johnson Space Center Electro-Optics Lab to exercise the OpNav system prior to integrated testing on the Orion vehicle. The software is verified with synthetic images. Several hundred off-nominal images are also used to analyze robustness and fault detection in the software. These include effects such as stray light, excess radiation damage, and specular reflections, and are used to help verify the tuning parameters chosen for the algorithms such as earth atmosphere bias, minimum pixel intensity, and star detection thresholds.

  18. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  19. H2O maser flare in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Moran, J.M.; Genzel, R.

    1982-01-01

    The flare of H 2 O maser emission in Orion A was observed with the Crimea--Effelsberg and Haystack--Green Bank interferometers in November 1979. Its position is α = 5/sup h/32/sup m/46/sup s/.6 +- 0/sup s/.06, delta = -5 0 24'.28''.7 +- 1'' (1950.0); its radial velocity, 8 km/sec. The asymmetric line profile has a 28-kHz halfwidth. The flare source comprises a 0''.0005 core (T/sub b/ = 5 x 10 16 0 K) embedded in a 0''.005 halo (T/sub b/ = 3 x 10 14 0 K)

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation

  1. The Orion Nebula: The Jewel in the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Orion the Hunter is perhaps the best known constellation in the sky, well placed in the evening at this time of the year for observers in both the northern and southern hemispheres, and instantly recognisable. And for astronomers, Orion is surely one of the most important constellations, as it contains one of the nearest and most active stellar nurseries in the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. Here tens of thousands of new stars have formed within the past ten million years or so - a very short span of time in astronomical terms. For comparison: our own Sun is now 4,600 million years old and has not yet reached half-age. Reduced to a human time-scale, star formation in Orion would have been going on for just one month as compared to the Sun's 40 years. Just below Orion's belt, the hilt of his sword holds a great jewel in the sky, the beautiful Orion Nebula . Bright enough to be seen with the naked eye, a small telescope or even binoculars show the nebula to be a few tens of light-years' wide complex of gas and dust, illuminated by several massive and hot stars at its core, the famous Trapezium stars . However, the heart of this nebula also conceals a secret from the casual observer. There are in fact about one thousand very young stars about one million years old within the so-called Trapezium Cluster , crowded into a space less than the distance between the Sun and its nearest neighbour stars. The cluster is very hard to observe in visible light, but is clearly seen in the above spectacular image of this area ( ESO PR 03a/01 ), obtained in December 1999 by Mark McCaughrean (Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, Germany) and his collaborators [1] with the infrared multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile). Many details are seen in the new ISAAC image ESO PR Photo 03b/01 ESO PR Photo 03b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 589 pix - 62k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1178 pix - 648k] [Hires - JPEG: 1957 x 2881 pix - 2.7M] ESO PR Photo 03c

  2. Scale-free Enterprise Command & Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayne, Jay; Paul, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    ...) services that provide allied teams of commanders, planners and operations personnel with collaborative, grid-based and realtime situation assessment, plan generation, and plan execution services...

  3. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  4. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  5. Command and Control for Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    ... Analysis of the Toronto SARS Outbreak, Vertical Integration, Vertical Integration in a Military Command Hierarchy, Information flows for a domestic incident, C2 for Homeland Security will benefit...

  6. Mission Command: Elasticity, Equilibrium, Culture, and Intent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Keith G

    2006-01-01

    .... It is enabled by decentralization of authority and responsibility that allows subordinate commanders the latitude to plan and conduct operations based upon their understanding of the local situation...

  7. Multiwavelength interferometry system for the Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S; Gumbrell, E T; Robinson, T S; Lowe, H F; Giltrap, S; Price, C J; Stuart, N H; Kemshall, P; Fyrth, J; Luis, J; Skidmore, J W; Smith, R A

    2015-12-20

    We report on the design and testing of a multiwavelength interferometry system for the Orion laser facility based upon the use of self-path matching Wollaston prisms. The use of UV corrected achromatic optics allows for both easy alignment with an eye-safe light source and small (∼ millimeter) offsets to the focal lengths between different operational wavelengths. Interferograms are demonstrated at wavelengths corresponding to first, second, and fourth harmonics of a 1054 nm Nd:glass probe beam. Example data confirms the broadband achromatic capability of the imaging system with operation from the UV (263 nm) to visible (527 nm) and demonstrates that features as small as 5 μm can be resolved for object sizes of 15 by 10 mm. Results are also shown for an off-harmonic wavelength that will underpin a future capability. The primary optics package is accommodated inside the footprint of a ten-inch manipulator to allow the system to be deployed from a multitude of viewing angles inside the 4 m diameter Orion target chamber.

  8. Compact continuum radio sources in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, G.; Moran, J.M.; Reid, M.J.; European Southern Observatory, Garching, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    The Orion Nebula was observed with the VLA in order to search for radio emission from compact H II regions indicative of embedded OB stars or from winds associated with pre-main sequence, low-mass stars. Fourteen of the 21 detected radio sources are within 30 arcsec of Omega 1 Orionis C; 13 of these objects are probably neutral condensations surrounded by ionized envelopes that are excited by the star. If the temperature of the ionized envelopes is 10,000 K and their electron densities decrease as the square of the distance from the core center, then a typical neutral condensation has a radius of 10 to the 15th cm and a peak electron density of 400,000/cu cm. Seven sources are in or near the Orion molecular cloud. Four of the sources have optical counterparts. Two are highly variable radio sources associated with X-ray sources, and two have radio spectra indicative of thermal emission. Two of the three optically invisible sources have radio emission likely to arise in a dense ionized envelope surrounding and excited by an early B-type star. 46 references

  9. ALMA BAND 8 CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM ORION SOURCE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoko [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Motogi, Kazuhito; Honma, Mareki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hoshigaoka2-12, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu-shi, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Burns, Ross A., E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest–southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700–800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton–electron or H{sup −} free–free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck and Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  10. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  11. Characterizing Protoplanetary Disks in a Young Binary in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonas; Hughes, A. Meredith; Mann, Rita; Flaherty, Kevin; Di Francesco, James; Williams, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Planetary systems form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust surrounding young stars. One open question in the study of planet formation involves understanding how different environments affect the properties of the disks and planets they generate. Understanding the properties of disks in high-mass star forming regions (SFRs) is critical since most stars - probably including our Sun - form in those regions. By comparing the disks in high-mass SFRs to those in better-studied low-mass SFRs we can learn about the role environment plays in planet formation. Here we present 0.5" resolution observations of the young two-disk binary system V2434 Ori in the Orion Nebula from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in molecular line tracers of CO(3-2), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6). We model each disk’s mass, radius, temperature structure, and molecular abundances, by creating synthetic images using an LTE ray-tracing code and comparing simulated observations with the ALMA data in the visibility domain. We then compare our results to a previous study of molecular line emission from a single Orion proplyd, modeled using similar methods, and to previously characterized disks in low-mass SFRs to investigate the role of environment in disk chemistry and planetary system formation.

  12. ALMA Images of the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. C. H.; Plambeck, R. L., E-mail: wright@astro.berkeley.edu [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present ALMA images of the dust and molecular line emission in the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz. At 0.″2 angular resolution the images reveal multiple clumps in an arc ∼1″ east of Orion Source I, the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann–Low Nebula, and another chain of peaks from IRc7 toward the southwest. The molecular line images show narrow filamentary structures at velocities >10 km s{sup −1} away from the heavily resolved ambient cloud velocity ∼5 km s{sup −1}. Many of these filaments trace the SiO outflow from Source I, and lie along the edges of the dust emission. Molecular line emission at excitation temperatures 300–2000 K, and velocities >10 km s{sup −1} from the ambient cloud, suggest that the Hot Core may be heated in shocks by the outflow from Source I or from the Becklin–Neugebauer (BN)/SrcI explosion. The spectral line observations also reveal a remarkable molecular ring, ∼2″ south of SrcI, with a diameter ∼600 au. The ring is seen in high-excitation transitions of HC{sub 3}N, HCN v 2 = 1, and SO{sub 2}. An impact of ejecta from the BN/SrcI explosion with a dense dust clump could result in the observed ring of shocked material.

  13. The structure of the Orion A molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerola, H.; Sofia, S.

    1975-01-01

    A consistent model of the Orion A molecular cloud is obtained by making use of the observed brightness temperature distributions of the J=2→1 and the J=1→0 transitions of the CO molecule, and the central component (F=2→1) of the J=1→0 transition of HCN, as well as the observed line profiles of the J=2→1 transition of CO, and the J=1→0 transition of HCN. The modeling is accomplished by fitting simultaneously all of these observations through solutions of the coupled equations of statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer for a spherical cloud having a kinetic temperature gradient, and different density and velocity distributions. We find that Orion A is strongly gravitationally bound and contracting, and that it can maintain the observed temperature distribution only by virtue of internal energy sources other than the contraction. This last conclusion is reached by computing the radiative losses due to the CO and HD cooling, as well as the losses due to the CO and HD cooling, as well as the losses due to inelastic collisions between the gas and the dust. Our results show that while the contraction rate is just about sufficient to balance the rate of radiation by CO, it is less than one-tenth of the rate at which energy is radiated by HD, and less than 0.001 of that at which energy could be lost to cool grains through totally inelastic collisions

  14. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  15. HOPS 383: AN OUTBURSTING CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safron, Emily J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Booker, Joseph [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Fischer, William J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Furlan, Elise; Rebull, Luisa M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München (Germany); Billot, Nicolas [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, Granada (Spain); Tobin, John J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden (Netherlands); Ali, Babar [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Wilson, T. L., E-mail: wjfischer@gmail.com [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 μm with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 μm. The outburst is also detected in the submillimeter by comparing APEX/SABOCA to SCUBA data, and a scattered-light nebula appeared in NEWFIRM K{sub s} imaging. The post-outburst spectral energy distribution indicates a Class 0 source with a dense envelope and a luminosity between 6 and 14 L{sub ⊙}. Post-outburst time-series mid- and far-infrared photometry show no long-term fading and variability at the 18% level between 2009 and 2012. HOPS 383 is the first outbursting Class 0 object discovered, pointing to the importance of episodic accretion at early stages in the star formation process. Its dramatic rise and lack of fading over a 6 year period hint that it may be similar to FU Ori outbursts, although the luminosity appears to be significantly smaller than the canonical luminosities of such objects.

  16. Environment Modules on the Peregrine System | High-Performance Computing |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Environment Modules on the Peregrine System Environment Modules on the Peregrine System Peregrine uses environment modules to easily manage software environments. Environment modules facilitate modules commands set up a basic environment for the default compilers, tools and libraries, such as the

  17. Command and Control Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The future of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) depends on its innovation and efficiency in the coming years. With ambitious goals to reach Mars and explore the vast universe, correct steps must be taken to ensure our space program reaches its destination safely. The interns in the Exploration Systems and Operations Division at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been tasked with building command line tools to ease the process of managing and testing the data being produced by the ground control systems while its recording system is not in use. While working alongside full-time engineers, we were able to create multiple programs that reduce the cost and time it takes to test the subsystems that launch rockets to outer space.

  18. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  19. 32 CFR 215.7 - Command relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command relationships. 215.7 Section 215.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.7 Command relationships...

  20. The Marihuana Dilemma: Challenge to Commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marihuana dilemma poses a major challenge to commanders in the US Army today. The problem was analyzed as to the characteristics of the drug...available to commanders to meet the challenge. The essay concludes that marihuana should not be legalized; drug users or former drug users should not be

  1. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  2. Capturing a Commander's decision making style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer

    2017-05-01

    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  3. 32 CFR 552.65 - Command supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Command supervision. 552.65 Section 552.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Solicitation on Military Reservations § 552.65 Command supervision. (a) All insurance...

  4. Base flow investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the overall vehicle mass of re-entry vehicles is the afterbody thermal protection system. This is due to the large acreage (equal or bigger than that of the forebody) to be protected. The present predictive capabilities for base flows are comparatively lower than those for windward flowfields and offer therefore a substantial potential for improving the design of future re-entry vehicles. To that end, it is essential to address the accuracy of high fidelity CFD tools exercised in the US and EU, which motivates a thorough investigation of the present status of hypersonic flight afterbody heating. This paper addresses the predictive capabilities of afterbody flow fields of re-entry vehicles investigated in the frame of the NATO/RTO-RTG-043 task group. First, the verification of base flow topologies on the basis of available wind-tunnel results performed under controlled supersonic conditions (i.e. cold flows devoid of reactive effects) is performed. Such tests address the detailed characterization of the base flow with particular emphasis on separation/reattachment and their relation to Mach number effects. The tests have been performed on an Apollo-like re-entry capsule configuration. Second, the tools validated in the frame of the previous effort are exercised and appraised against flight-test data collected during the Apollo AS-202 re-entry.

  5. Carma 1 CM Line Survey of Orion-Kl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted the first 1 cm (27-35 GHz) line survey of the Orion-KL region by an array. With a primary beam of ˜4.5 arcminutes, the survey looks at a region ˜166,000 AU (0.56 pc) across. The data have a resolution of ˜6 arcseconds on the sky and 97.6 kHz(1.07-0.84 km/s) in frequency. This region of frequency space is much less crowded than at 3mm or 1mm frequencies and contains the fundamental transitions of several complex molecular species, allowing us to probe the largest extent of the molecular emission. We present the initial results, and comparison to 3mm results, from several species including, dimethyl ether [(CH_3)_2O], ethyl cyanide [C_2H_5CN], acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], SO, and SO_2.

  6. Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Burn Targeting and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.

  7. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José

    2010-08-19

    Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.

  8. Counterpropagating Radiative Shock Experiments on the Orion Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F; Clayson, T; Stehlé, C; Swadling, G F; Foster, J M; Skidmore, J; Graham, P; Burdiak, G C; Lebedev, S V; Chaulagain, U; Singh, R L; Gumbrell, E T; Patankar, S; Spindloe, C; Larour, J; Kozlova, M; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Espinosa, G; Velarde, P; Danson, C

    2017-08-04

    We present new experiments to study the formation of radiative shocks and the interaction between two counterpropagating radiative shocks. The experiments are performed at the Orion laser facility, which is used to drive shocks in xenon inside large aspect ratio gas cells. The collision between the two shocks and their respective radiative precursors, combined with the formation of inherently three-dimensional shocks, provides a novel platform particularly suited for the benchmarking of numerical codes. The dynamics of the shocks before and after the collision are investigated using point-projection x-ray backlighting while, simultaneously, the electron density in the radiative precursor was measured via optical laser interferometry. Modeling of the experiments using the 2D radiation hydrodynamic codes nym and petra shows very good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. The gas-to-dust ratio in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.

    1974-01-01

    About sixty spectra have been obtained using an image tube with the nebular spectrograph of the Asiago 122cm reflector, in a position W-E from north of the Trapezium across the star P 1925 into the bay area of the Orion Nebula. Twenty-five spectra have been selected for accurate measurements of the Hβ intensity and of the electron density by the [S II] 6730/6716 intensity line ratio. The results are interpreted in terms of well-mixed gas and dust, not only in the central bright regions, but even in the bay area, where the coefficient of dust extinction counted per electron is found to be larger than in the bright centre of the nebula

  10. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  11. Absolute Navigation Performance of the Orion Exploration Fight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Holt, Greg; Gay, Robert; D'Souza, Christopher; Sud, Jastesh

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to stress the system by placing the un-crewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs UDU factorization. The performance of the navigation system during flight is presented to substantiate the design.

  12. ASC Addresses Unit Commanders' Concerns through LBE and Reset Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Sustainment Command (ASC), part of the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) team, is available to assist, identify, and resolve equipment and maintenance problems as well as materiel readiness issues for combatant commanders...

  13. Unity of Command in Afghanistan: A Forsaken Principle of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hope, Ian

    2008-01-01

    ... in the evolution of military command for Afghanistan. It examines how there was an unprecedented departure from the principle of unity of command in Afghanistan in 2006, when Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan (CFC...

  14. Unity of Command in Afghanistan: A Forsaken Principle of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hope, Ian

    2008-01-01

    ... of military command for Afghanistan. It examines the unprecedented departure from the principle of unity of command in Afghanistan in 2006, when Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan passed control of the ground fight to the International...

  15. Simulating an Isochronal Scheduled Inspection System for the P-3 Orion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    ...) for the United States Navy's P-3 Orion. Implementation of ISIS, which is based solely upon calendar time, has been proposed to replace the present system of scheduled inspections that are based upon both calendar time and flight hours...

  16. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning

  17. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  18. Literature review on medical incident command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Rune; Braut, Geir Sverre

    2015-04-01

    It is not known what constitutes the optimal emergency management system, nor is there a consensus on how effectiveness and efficiency in emergency response should be measured or evaluated. Literature on the role and tasks of commanders in the prehospital emergency services in the setting of mass-casualty incidents has not been summarized and published. This comprehensive literature review addresses some of the needs for future research in emergency management through three research questions: (1) What are the basic assumptions underlying incident command systems (ICSs)? (2) What are the tasks of ambulance and medical commanders in the field? And (3) How can field commanders' performances be measured and assessed? A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center, Current Controlled Trials, and PROSPERO covering January 1, 1990 through March 1, 2014 was conducted. Reference lists of included literature were hand searched. Included papers were analyzed using Framework synthesis. The literature search identified 6,049 unique records, of which, 76 articles and books where included in qualitative synthesis. Most ICSs are described commonly as hierarchical, bureaucratic, and based on military principles. These assumptions are contested strongly, as is the applicability of such systems. Linking of the chains of command in cooperating agencies is a basic difficulty. Incident command systems are flexible in the sense that the organization may be expanded as needed. Commanders may command by direction, by planning, or by influence. Commanders' tasks may be summarized as: conducting scene assessment, developing an action plan, distributing resources, monitoring operations, and making decisions. There is considerable variation between authors in nomenclature and what tasks are included or highlighted

  19. Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to Linux command line and shell scripting?completely updated and revised [it's not a guide to Linux as a whole ? just to scripting] The Linux command line allows you to type specific Linux commands directly to the system so that you can easily manipulate files and query system resources, thereby permitting you to automate commonly used functions and even schedule those programs to run automatically. This new edition is packed with new and revised content, reflecting the many changes to new Linux versions, including coverage of alternative shells to the default bash shel

  20. The Linux command line a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, William E

    2012-01-01

    You've experienced the shiny, point-and-click surface of your Linux computer—now dive below and explore its depths with the power of the command line. The Linux Command Line takes you from your very first terminal keystrokes to writing full programs in Bash, the most popular Linux shell. Along the way you'll learn the timeless skills handed down by generations of gray-bearded, mouse-shunning gurus: file navigation, environment configuration, command chaining, pattern matching with regular expressions, and more.

  1. Photographic colorimetry of stellar flares in the Pleiades and Orion. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoian, L.V.; Chavushian, O.S.; Melikian, N.D.; Natsvlishvili, R.Sh.; Ambarian, V.V.; Brutian, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Synchronous three-telescope UBV photographic colorimetry of Pleiades and Orion stellar flares obtained at Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory during 86 observing hours in 1980 and 1981 is presented. The data are compiled in tables and discussed in terms of color differences appearing at different stages of a flare. A total of 32 flares are observed (25 in the Pleiades and 7 in Orion), and four new flare stars are identified in each region. 12 references

  2. Study on the Orion spiral arm structure by the statistical modelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of investigation of the spiral structure based on the statistical modelling methods is suggested. This method is used for the study of the Orion spiral arm. The maxima of density and the widths of the Orion arm in the direction of the areas considered for the longitude interval 55 deg - 187 deg are defined under the assumption of normal distribution of stars across the arm. The Sun is shown to be at the inner edge of the arm [ru

  3. Command and Control of Private Security Contractors: Are They a Viable Force Option for the Combatant Commander?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherard, Scott H

    2008-01-01

    If a Combatant Commander (CCDR) or Joint Force Commander (JFC) were to take command of the approximately 25,000 security contractors in Iraq, a force of such size and capability would prove to be a valuable operational asset...

  4. Toward Unity of Command for Multinational Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asjes, David

    1998-01-01

    To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...

  5. Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) Best Estimated Trajectory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; Brown, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission successfully flew on Dec 5, 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle. The goal of Orions maiden flight was to stress the system by placing an uncrewed vehicle on a high-energy trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. The Orion navigation team combined all trajectory data from the mission into a Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) product. There were significant challenges in data reconstruction and many lessons were learned for future missions. The team used an estimation filter incorporating radar tracking, onboard sensors (Global Positioning System and Inertial Measurement Unit), and day-of-flight weather balloons to evaluate the true trajectory flown by Orion. Data was published for the entire Orion EFT-1 flight, plus objects jettisoned during entry such as the Forward Bay Cover. The BET customers include approximately 20 disciplines within Orion who will use the information for evaluating vehicle performance and influencing future design decisions.

  6. New Global Missions for Strategic Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The focus of this White Paper is on the external decisions that will be needed to provide the Command with a clear mission, and the authority, resources and organizational support necessary to perform the mission...

  7. U.S. Pacific Command > Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command Search USPACOM: Search Search Search USPACOM: Search Home Leadership Directory Media Inquiries Home : Leadership Admiral Harry B. Harris, Jr., U.S. Navy Read the full biography

  8. The Road to a New Unified Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Directorate of Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) Systems is chartered with information architecture (including in Africa...Friday afternoon cinema presentations where a documentary or feature film covering an African historic event was played, followed by dialogue

  9. Unit Testing for Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Unit tests were created to evaluate the functionality of a Data Generation and Publication tool for a command and control system. These unit tests are developed to constantly evaluate the tool and ensure it functions properly as the command and control system grows in size and scope. Unit tests are a crucial part of testing any software project and are especially instrumental in the development of a command and control system. They save resources, time and costs associated with testing, and catch issues before they become increasingly difficult and costly. The unit tests produced for the Data Generation and Publication tool to be used in a command and control system assure the users and stakeholders of its functionality and offer assurances which are vital in the launching of spacecraft safely.

  10. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  11. An Operational Commander's Guide to the Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCartney, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... of the embedded reporter . The Operational Commander is wise to review media relations and the successes and pitfalls of past conflicts, and to examine closely the results of Operation Iraqi Freedom so as to...

  12. Focused Logistics: Time for Functional Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mintzlaff, Jeffrey G

    2005-01-01

    .... Military's distribution system -- the parts of the Department of Defense (DoD) that manage and execute the storage and movement of supplies to military customers -- consists of multiple entities and agencies made up of separate Services and commands...

  13. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  14. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  15. Control of automated system with voice commands

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In smart houses contemporary achievements in the fields of automation, communications, security and artificial intelligence, increase comfort and improve the quality of user's lifes. For the purpose of this thesis we developed a system for managing a smart house with voice commands via smart phone. We focused at voice commands most. We want move from communication with fingers - touches, to a more natural, human relationship - speech. We developed the entire chain of communication, by which t...

  16. Defense or Diplomacy Geographic Combatant Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    originally ruled by 1 Priest, Dana , The Mission: Waging War and Keeping Peace with America’s Military...events. US Central Command. Dana Priest describes General Zinni‟s experience as a GCC commander, wherein General Zinni found that in many ways...ignored altogether. Dr. James Forsyth and Lt Col Chance Saltzman make this argument in their Air and Space Power Journal article “Stay Out —Why

  17. An Advanced Commanding and Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell G. G.

    The Loral Instrumentation System 500 configured as an Advanced Commanding and Telemetry System (ACTS) supports the acquisition of multiple telemetry downlink streams, and simultaneously supports multiple uplink command streams for today's satellite vehicles. By using industry and federal standards, the system is able to support, without relying on a host computer, a true distributed dataflow architecture that is complemented by state-of-the-art RISC-based workstations and file servers.

  18. Test Telemetry And Command System (TTACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alvin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a multimission Test Telemetry and Command System (TTACS) which provides a multimission telemetry and command data system in a spacecraft test environment. TTACS reuses, in the spacecraft test environment, components of the same data system used for flight operations; no new software is developed for the spacecraft test environment. Additionally, the TTACS is transportable to any spacecraft test site, including the launch site. The TTACS is currently operational in the Galileo spacecraft testbed; it is also being provided to support the Cassini and Mars Surveyor Program projects. Minimal personnel data system training is required in the transition from pre-launch spacecraft test to post-launch flight operations since test personnel are already familiar with the data system's operation. Additionally, data system components, e.g. data display, can be reused to support spacecraft software development; and the same data system components will again be reused during the spacecraft integration and system test phases. TTACS usage also results in early availability of spacecraft data to data system development and, as a result, early data system development feedback to spacecraft system developers. The TTACS consists of a multimission spacecraft support equipment interface and components of the multimission telemetry and command software adapted for a specific project. The TTACS interfaces to the spacecraft, e.g., Command Data System (CDS), support equipment. The TTACS telemetry interface to the CDS support equipment performs serial (RS-422)-to-ethernet conversion at rates between 1 bps and 1 mbps, telemetry data blocking and header generation, guaranteed data transmission to the telemetry data system, and graphical downlink routing summary and control. The TTACS command interface to the CDS support equipment is nominally a command file transferred in non-real-time via ethernet. The CDS support equipment is responsible for

  19. Radio Videos of Orion Protostars (with X-ray Colors!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Jan; Wolk, Scott; Menten, Karl; Reid, Mark; Osten, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    High-energy processes in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) can be observed both in X-rays and in the centimetric radio wavelength range. While the past decade has brought a lot of progress in the field of X-ray observations of YSOs, (proto)stellar centimetric radio astronomy has only recently begun to catch up with the advent of the newly expanded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA). The enhanced sensitivity is fundamentally improving our understanding of YSO radio properties by providing unprecedented sensitivity and thus spectral as well as temporal resolution. As a result, it is becoming easier to disentangle coronal-type nonthermal radio emission emanating from the immediate vicinity of YSOs from thermal emission on larger spatial scales, for example ionized material at the base of outflows. Of particular interest is the correlation of the by now relatively well-characterized X-ray flaring variability with the nonthermal radio variability. We present first results of multi-epoch simultaneous observations using Chandra and the JVLA, targeting the Orion Nebula Cluster and highlighting the capabilities of the JVLA for radio continuum observations of YSOs.

  20. 2009 Continued Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy B.; Swerterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment, with simulated and real human metabolic loads, in both open and closed-loop configurations. The test article design was iterated a third time before the latest series of such tests, which was performed in the first half of 2009. The new design incorporates a canister configuration modification for overall unit compactness and reduced pressure drop, as well as a new process flow control valve that incorporates both compressed gas purge and dual-end vacuum desorption capabilities. This newest test article is very similar to the flight article designs. Baseline tests of the new unit were performed to compare its performance to that of the previous test articles. Testing of compressed gas purge operations helped refine launchpad operating condition recommendations developed in earlier testing. Operating conditions used in flight program computer models were tested to validate the model projections. Specific operating conditions that were recommended by the JSC test team based on past test results were also tested for validation. The effects of vacuum regeneration line pressure on resulting cabin conditions was studied for high metabolic load periods, and a maximum pressure is recommended

  1. Orion EFT-1 Cavity Heating Tile Experiments and Environment Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Oliver, Brandon; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Developing aerothermodynamic environments for deep cavities, such as those produced by micrometeoroids and orbital debris impacts, poses a great challenge for engineers. In order to assess existing cavity heating models, two one-inch diameter cavities were flown on the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). These cavities were manufactured with depths of 1.0 in and 1.4 in, and they were both instrumented. Instrumentation included surface thermocouples upstream, downstream and within the cavities, and additional thermocouples at the TPS-structure interface. This paper will present the data obtained, and comparisons with computational predictions will be shown. Additionally, the development of a 3D material thermal model will be described, which will be used to account for the three-dimensionality of the problem when interpreting the data. Furthermore, using a multi-dimensional inverse heat conduction approach, a reconstruction of a time- and space-dependent flight heating distribution during EFT1 will be presented. Additional discussions will focus on instrumentation challenges and calibration techniques specific to these experiments. The analysis shown will highlight the accuracies and/or deficiencies of current computational techniques to model cavity flows during hypersonic re-entry.

  2. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  3. Interpretation of the H2O maser outbursts in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nitskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown, that the H 2 O maser that flared up in Orion (+8 km/s) was partly unsaturated. The anti-correlation between the line width and intensity, the asymmetry of the profile and the changes of the visibility function within it are explained by blending of two componenets, one of which has experienced a flare. From the observed polarization properties the upper limit to the electron density (nsub(e) 5 cm -3 ), the strength of the magnetic field (B approximately 10 -2 G) and its direction (position angle phi approximately -15 deg) within the source are deduced. According to the proposed physical model the source is a gas condensation, pressed, heated and accelerated by the strong stellar wind from a young star (possibly IRc4). The maser is pumped by the CCr-process at sup(n)H approximately 10 11 -10 12 cm -3 . If the condensation is a remnant of a circumstellar gas-dust disk, the magnetic field within the disk must be essentially azimuthal [ru

  4. Multi-scale modelling for HEDP experiments on Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircombe, N. J.; Ramsay, M. G.; Hughes, S. J.; Hoarty, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Orion laser at AWE couples high energy long-pulse lasers with high intensity short-pulses, allowing material to be compressed beyond solid density and heated isochorically. This experimental capability has been demonstrated as a platform for conducting High Energy Density Physics material properties experiments. A clear understanding of the physics in experiments at this scale, combined with a robust, flexible and predictive modelling capability, is an important step towards more complex experimental platforms and ICF schemes which rely on high power lasers to achieve ignition. These experiments present a significant modelling challenge, the system is characterised by hydrodynamic effects over nanoseconds, driven by long-pulse lasers or the pre-pulse of the petawatt beams, and fast electron generation, transport, and heating effects over picoseconds, driven by short-pulse high intensity lasers. We describe the approach taken at AWE; to integrate a number of codes which capture the detailed physics for each spatial and temporal scale. Simulations of the heating of buried aluminium microdot targets are discussed and we consider the role such tools can play in understanding the impact of changes to the laser parameters, such as frequency and pre-pulse, as well as understanding effects which are difficult to observe experimentally.

  5. 32 CFR 700.1054 - Command of a naval base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a naval base. 700.1054 Section 700.1054 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1054 Command of a naval base. The officer detailed to command a naval base...

  6. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    products including jet fuels, distillate fuels, residual fuels, automotive gasoline , specified bulk lubricating oils, aircraft engine oils, fuel...contained within this report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mission command Software Tactical applications (TacApps) Command post ...computing environment (CPCE) Command post client Battle command sustainment support System (BCS3) Logistics

  7. STS-37 Commander Nagel in commanders seat on OV-104's flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), sits at commanders station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Surrounding Nagel are the seat headrest, control panels, checklists, forward flight deck windows, and three drinking water containers with straws attached to forward panel F2.

  8. SOA approach to battle command: simulation interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.

    2010-04-01

    NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.

  9. ORION: a web server for protein fold recognition and structure prediction using evolutionary hybrid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouzam, Yassine; Postic, Guillaume; Guerin, Pierre-Edouard; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-20

    Protein structure prediction based on comparative modeling is the most efficient way to produce structural models when it can be performed. ORION is a dedicated webserver based on a new strategy that performs this task. The identification by ORION of suitable templates is performed using an original profile-profile approach that combines sequence and structure evolution information. Structure evolution information is encoded into profiles using structural features, such as solvent accessibility and local conformation -with Protein Blocks-, which give an accurate description of the local protein structure. ORION has recently been improved, increasing by 5% the quality of its results. The ORION web server accepts a single protein sequence as input and searches homologous protein structures within minutes. Various databases such as PDB, SCOP and HOMSTRAD can be mined to find an appropriate structural template. For the modeling step, a protein 3D structure can be directly obtained from the selected template by MODELLER and displayed with global and local quality model estimation measures. The sequence and the predicted structure of 4 examples from the CAMEO server and a recent CASP11 target from the 'Hard' category (T0818-D1) are shown as pertinent examples. Our web server is accessible at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/ORION/.

  10. KINETIC TEMPERATURES OF THE DENSE GAS CLUMPS IN THE ORION KL MOLECULAR CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Liu, S.-Y.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18 K -17 K emission of CH 3 CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH 3 CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within ∼15'' of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the 'population diagram' method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH 3 CN fractional abundances of 10 -8 to 10 -7 are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH 3 CN molecules.

  11. Aperture synthesis observations of NH3 in OMC-1 - Filamentary structures around Orion-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ishiguro, Masato; Morita, Kohichiro; Kasuga, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC-1) have been made in NH 3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) emission at 23.7 GHz, using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA), and obtained 16 arcsec resolution maps for OMC-1 and 8 arcsec resolution maps for the Orion-KL region. Filamentary structures extending over 0.5 pc from the Orion-KL region to the north and northwest directions were found. These structures are associated with the H2 finger structures and Herbig-Haro objects which are located at the blue-shifted side of the bipolar molecular outflow. The results suggest that these filaments are ambient molecular cloudlets with shocked surfaces caused by the strong stellar wind from the Orion-KL region. The 8 arcsec resolution NH 3 (2, 2) maps show the extended features around the hot core of Orion-KL. These extended features correspond to the rotating disk and shocked shell associated with the bipolar molecular outflow. 37 refs

  12. The MagOrion - A propulsion system for human exploration of the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Jason; Andrews, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Manned exploration beyond Mars requires very high specific energy. The only potential solution under discussion is fusion propulsion. However, fusion has been ten years away for forty years. We have an available solution that combines new technology with an old concept-'Project Orion'. The proposed 'MagOrion' Propulsion System combines a magnetic sail (MagSail) with conventional small yield (0.5 to 1.0 kiloton) shaped nuclear fission devices. At denonation, roughly eighty percent of the yield appears as a highly-ionized plasma, and when detonated two kilometers behind a robust MagSail, approximately half of this plasma can be stopped and turned into thrust. A MagOrion can provide a system acceleration of one or more gravities with effective specific impulses ranging from 15,000 to 45,000 seconds. Dana Andrews and Robert Zubrin published a paper in 1997 that described the operating principles of the MagOrion. We have taken that concept through conceptual design to identify the major operational features and risks. The risks are considerable, but the potential payoff is staggering. Our proposed MagOrion will enable affordable exploration of the solar system

  13. A Pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, Ahmad; Gunawan, Usep Setia

    2003-01-01

    A pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC with I/O devices. This MSC51 micro controller based module accepts series of commands from a personal computer through a serial port. The commands are defined to easily control 24 I/O lines available on the module. These lines can be individually used as either input or output that make the module very verstile. A command is received by the module on ASCII string basis. Each character sent to the module will give an interrupt. The firmware's interrupt handler will store the character in a buffer until end of command character arrives. The firmware then parses and interpreters the command and responses accordingly

  14. Reticulospinal Systems for Tuning Motor Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Brownstone

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons. We next review their roles in postural adjustments, walking and sleep atonia, discussing their roles in movement activation or inhibition. We propose that knowledge of the internal organization of the RF is necessary to understand how the nervous system tunes motor commands, and that this knowledge will underlie strategies for motor functional recovery following neurological injuries or diseases.

  15. Marketingová strategie miničokolád značky Orion na českém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate Orion product portfolio and recent launch of a new product, Orion minichocolates, after that to propose customized adaptation of product marketing strategy. The thesis consists of three parts, where the first part is mainly theoretical and describes the basic terminology of marketing strategy. The second part is dedicated to Nestlé and its product portfolio, Orion chocolate tablets included. The last part describes launch development of Orion minic...

  16. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  17. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J

    1983-01-01

    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  18. Molecular outflows in the L1641 region of Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction between molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects and the parent molecular cloud that produced them. This is because molecular outflows are a recently discovered phenomenon and, so, have not had their global properties studied in great detail and molecular clouds were not mapped to sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the interaction. The interaction between molecular outflows and the L1641 molecular cloud is addressed by both identifying and mapping all the molecular outflows as well as the detailed structure of the cloud. Candidate molecular outflows were found from single point 12-CO observations of young stellar objects identified from the IRAS survey data. The candidate sources were then mapped to confirm their molecular outflow nature. From these maps, molecular outflow characteristics such as their morphology, orientation, and energetics were determined. In addition, the Orion molecular cloud was mapped to compare directly with the molecular outflows. The molecular outflows identified were found to have rising infrared spectra, radio continuum emission that suggests a stellar wind or optically thick H II region, and molecular line strengths that indicate that they are embedded within a very dense environment. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggests that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggest that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The orientations of the molecular outflows appear to lie in no preferred direction and they have shapes that indicate that the molecular cloud is responsible for determining their direction and collimation

  19. GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

  20. Orion's Powered Flight Guidance Burn Options for Near Term Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Thomas; Goodman, John; Robinson, Shane

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Orion exploration spacecraft will fly more demanding mission profiles than previous NASA human flight spacecraft. Missions currently under development are destined for cislunar space. The EM-1 mission will fly unmanned to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around the Moon. EM-2 will fly astronauts on a mission to the lunar vicinity. To fly these missions, Orion requires powered flight guidance that is more sophisticated than the orbital guidance flown on Apollo and the Space Shuttle. Orion's powered flight guidance software contains five burn guidance options. These five options are integrated into an architecture based on a proven shuttle heritage design, with a simple closed-loop guidance strategy. The architecture provides modularity, simplicity, versatility, and adaptability to future, yet-to-be-defined, exploration mission profiles. This paper provides a summary of the executive guidance architecture and details the five burn options to support both the nominal and abort profiles for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions.

  1. Estimating Orion Heat Shield Failure Due To Ablator Cracking During The EFT-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kam, Jeremy C.; Gage, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Orion EFT-1 heatshield suffered from two major certification challenges: First, the mechanical properties used in design were not evident in the flight hardware and second, the flight article itself cracked during fabrication. The combination of these events motivated the Orion Program to pursue an engineering-level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as part of heatshield certification rationale. The PRA provided loss of Mission (LOM) likelihoods considering the probability of a crack occurring during the mission and the likelihood of subsequent structure over-temperature. The methods and input data for the PRA are presented along with a discussion of the test data used to anchor the results. The Orion program accepted an EFT-1 Loss of Vehicle (LOV) risk of 1-in-160,000 due to in-mission Avcoat cracking based on the results of this analysis. Conservatisms in the result, along with future considerations for Exploration Missions (EM) are also addressed.

  2. Polarimetry at 1.3 mm using MILLIPOL - methods and preliminary results for Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvainis, R.; Clemens, D.P.; Leach, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a polarimeter for use at wavelengths near 1 mm, designed to be self-contained and portable. Only minor modifications should be required to adapt this instrument for use on any of several millimeter and submillimeter telescopes. The polarimeter system and data-taking techniques are described, and a preliminary measurement is reported of the polarized dust emission from the Orion KL region at 1.3 mm using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The results are similar to previous polarization measurements of Orion at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The magnetic field direction implied by the polarization position angle is parallel to that found in the surrounding Orion region using optical and near- to midinfrared polarimetric techniques. 17 references

  3. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  4. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: quarkosmos@kasi.re.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  5. Low-Frequency Carbon Recombination Lines in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Chenoa D.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Cunningham, Maria; Jones, Paul A.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha

    2018-05-01

    We detail tentative detections of low-frequency carbon radio recombination lines from within the Orion molecular cloud complex observed at 99-129 MHz. These tentative detections include one alpha transition and one beta transition over three locations and are located within the diffuse regions of dust observed in the infrared at 100 μm, the Hα emission detected in the optical, and the synchrotron radiation observed in the radio. With these observations, we are able to study the radiation mechanism transition from collisionally pumped to radiatively pumped within the H ii regions within the Orion molecular cloud complex.

  6. Periodic light variations of young stars U X Orion and S U Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minikulov, N.Kh.; Abdulloev, S.Kh.

    2007-01-01

    The light curves of young variable stars U X Orion and S U Auriga are created from archive data of Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan and other sources. It is established that periodic light variations of young stars U X Orion and S U Auriga occurs to duration of 36.4 and 29.8 years, accordingly. It is supposed that such periodic light variations are connected with existence a planetary system around these stars

  7. SOFIA/EXES High Spectral Resolution Observations of the Orion Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Colgan, Sean; Le Gal, Romane; Acharya, Kinsuk; Huang, Xinchuan; Herbst, Eric; Lee, Timothy J.; Richter, Matthew J.; Boogert, Adwin

    2018-01-01

    The Orion hot core has one of the richest molecular chemistries observed in the ISM. In the MIR, the Orion hot core composition is best probed by the closest, compact, bright background continuum source in this region, IRc2. We present high-spectral resolution observations from 12.96 - 13.33 μm towards Orion IRc2 using the mid-infrared spectrograph, EXES, on SOFIA, to probe the physical and chemical conditions of the Orion hot core. All ten of the rovibrational C2H2 transitions expected in our spectral coverage, are detected with high S/N, yielding continuous coverage of the R-branch lines from J=9-8 to J=18-17, including both ortho and para species. Eight of these rovibrational transitions are newly reported detections. These data show distinct ortho and para ladders towards the Orion hot core for the first time, with an ortho to para ratio (OPR) of only 0.6 - much lower than the high temperature equilibrium value of 3. A non-equilibrium OPR is a further indication of the Orion hot core being heated externally by shocks likely resulting from a well-known explosive event which occurred 500 yrs ago. The OPR conversion timescales are much longer than the 500 yr shock timescale and thus a low OPR might be a remnant from an earlier colder pre-stellar phase before the density enhancement (now the hot core) was impacted by shocks.We will also present preliminary results from an on-going SOFIA Cycle-5 impact program to use EXES to conduct an unbiased, high-S/N, continuous, molecular line survey of the Orion hot core from 12.5 - 28.3 microns. This survey is expected to be 50 times better than ISO in detecting isolated, narrow lines to (a) resolve the ro-vibrational structure of the gas phase molecules and their kinematics, (b) detect new gas phase molecules missed by ISO, and (c) provide useful constraints on the hot core chemistry and the source of Orion hot core excitation. This survey will greatly enhance the inventory of resolved line features in the MIR for hot cores

  8. Rotational emission-line spectrum of Orion A between 247 and 263 GHZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, G.A.; Sutton, E.C.; Masson, C.R.; Phillips, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented from a molecular line survey of the core of the Orion molecular cloud between 247 and 263 GHz. The spectrum contains a total of 243 resolvable lines from 23 different chemical species. When combined with the earlier survey of Orion from 215 to 247 GHz by Sutton et al (1985), the complete data set includes over 780 emission features from 29 distinct molecules. Of the 23 molecules detected in this survey, only NO, CCH, and HCO + were identified not in the lower frequency data

  9. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  10. Distribution function of frequency of stellar flares in the Orion association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamyan, Eh.S.

    1980-01-01

    Using the chronology of discoveries of new flares and the chronology of confirmation i.e. the time distribution of second flares (Ambartsumian's method), the distribution function of frequency of flares on stars in the Orion association is obtained. A number of stars having different frequencies is also found. It is shown that flare stars with high flare frequency (ν -1 13sup(m). The quantities of flare stars in aggregates determined by two independent methods show that the number of flare stars in Orion association is about 1.5 times greater than in the Pleiades cluster [ru

  11. Command History. 1968. Volume 1. Sanitized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    battalions. Additionally, a diary captured on 19 December, Z1 kilometers southwest of Song Cau, revealed that on 19 November the author. a cadre member...the 306th and 312th ( AYA 308th) Bns. This reorga- nization was an apparent attempt by the headquarters of MR 3 to tighten its command and con- trol. (C

  12. Commandants' Managerial Capacity and Workers Productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the commandant's managerial capacity as if relates to workers productivity with a view to determining whether their calling to the education terrain has been justified and to correct certain areas in need of improvement in the Nigeria Police Education set up. In doing this, the study took ...

  13. Command and Control in Littoral Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    at the graphics on the wall displaying the position of the various forces under his command. Only a few of his 14 ships were in formation with him...Mainz, 2d MEB Lead Planner (November 11, 2014). Moskowitz, Michael, and Nolan Noble. Dawn Blitz 2015- Observations and Analysis. Exercise

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINGUISTIC UNITS AND MOTOR COMMANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROMKIN, VICTORIA A.

    ASSUMING THAT SPEECH IS THE RESULT OF A NUMBER OF DISCRETE NEUROMUSCULAR EVENTS AND THAT THE BRAIN CAN STORE ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER OF MOTOR COMMANDS WITH WHICH TO CONTROL THESE EVENTS, THE RESEARCH REPORTED IN THIS PAPER WAS DIRECTED TO A DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE STORED ITEMS AND AN EXPLANATION OF HOW SPEAKERS ENCODE A SEQUENCE…

  15. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....

  16. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James

    2013-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

  17. Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domeshek, Eric

    2002-01-01

    .... Achieving expert levels of proficiency in high-level command reasoning skills-whether for battlefield commanders or for executives in industry-requires extensive practice, coaching, and feedback...

  18. 'The Danger of Divided Command': British civil and military disputes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, Lord Kitchener, which culminated in Curzon's ... and the officers commanding forces would have no doubt as to their .... but assuming financial responsibility for its own defence would have been ...

  19. Maritime Coalitions: When is Unity of Command Required

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gahlinger, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    .... The concepts of Unity of Command, Unity of Effort and Parallel, Lead Nation, or Integrated coalition command structures are viable across a broad spectrum of maritime coalition operations but do have...

  20. GPS and the Joint Force Commander: Critical Asset, Critical Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McPherson, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Joint Force Commanders (JFCs) have become over reliant on military and commercial satellite systems for intelligence gathering and dissemination, weather, command, control, communications, and navigation/guidance functions, to name a few...

  1. U.S. Africa Command: Shaping Africa for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sholley, Hans

    2006-01-01

    .... It is argued the current Unified Command Plan is ill designed to address the complexities of the continent of Africa and that a proposed United States Africa Command would be better positioned...

  2. The Warfighting Capacity of Air Combat Command's Numbered Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanser, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ...) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), General Richard E. Hawley, the ACC Commander, asked if RAND could offer an analysis of the number of NAFs that were needed by ACC to meet warfighting requirements...

  3. Design of a hybrid command and control mobile botnet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available and control mobile botnet. The hybrid design explores the efficiency of multiple command and control channels against the following objectives: no single point of failure within the topology, low cost for command dissemination, limited network activities...

  4. Incorrect Responses to Locative Commands: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchan, Judith; Siegel, Leo

    1979-01-01

    A six-year-old with a language problem responded consistently to 100 locative commands by putting objects in containers and on flat surfaces regardless of the preposition or order of the nouns in the commands. (Author/CL)

  5. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  6. ALMA Observations of the Archetypal “Hot Core” That Is Not: Orion-KL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, México (Mexico); Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Hirota, Tomoya [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650091 (China); Masqué, Josep M, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    We present sensitive high angular resolution (∼0.″1–0.″3) continuum Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the archetypal hot core located in the Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) region. The observations were made in five different spectral bands (bands 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9) covering a very broad range of frequencies (149–658 GHz). Apart from the well-known millimeter emitting objects located in this region (Orion Source I and BN), we report the first submillimeter detection of three compact continuum sources (ALMA1–3) in the vicinities of the Orion-KL hot molecular core. These three continuum objects have spectral indices between 1.47 and 1.56, and brightness temperatures between 100 and 200 K at 658 GHz, suggesting that we are seeing moderate, optically thick dust emission with possible grain growth. However, as these objects are not associated with warm molecular gas, and some of them are farther out from the molecular core, we thus conclude that they cannot heat the molecular core. This result favors the hypothesis that the hot molecular core in Orion-KL core is heated externally.

  7. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  8. ALMA Observations of the Archetypal “Hot Core” That Is Not: Orion-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Zapata, Luis A.; Hirota, Tomoya; Qin, Sheng-Li; Masqué, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    We present sensitive high angular resolution (∼0.″1–0.″3) continuum Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the archetypal hot core located in the Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) region. The observations were made in five different spectral bands (bands 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9) covering a very broad range of frequencies (149–658 GHz). Apart from the well-known millimeter emitting objects located in this region (Orion Source I and BN), we report the first submillimeter detection of three compact continuum sources (ALMA1–3) in the vicinities of the Orion-KL hot molecular core. These three continuum objects have spectral indices between 1.47 and 1.56, and brightness temperatures between 100 and 200 K at 658 GHz, suggesting that we are seeing moderate, optically thick dust emission with possible grain growth. However, as these objects are not associated with warm molecular gas, and some of them are farther out from the molecular core, we thus conclude that they cannot heat the molecular core. This result favors the hypothesis that the hot molecular core in Orion-KL core is heated externally.

  9. Observations of far-infrared line profiles in the Orion-KL region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.K.; Lugten, J.B.; Fitelson, W.; Genzel, R.; Melnick, G.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA)

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of several far-infrared emission line profiles in the Orion-KL region are reported. The emission from the CO, OH, and forbidden O I emission lines toward the BN-KL and H2 peak 1 positions probably comes from dense, hot molecular gas in the Orion-KL shock. The CO and forbidden O I lines have similar profiles, suggesting that the high-velocity forbidden O I emission also arises in magnetohydrodynamic cloud shocks. The velocity centroids of the lines are somewhat blueshifted. The far-infrared data thus support the interpretation that the blue asymmetry of the H2 2 micron lines is not mainly due to differential dust extinction, but rather to the kinematics and geometry of the shocked gas in the Orion-KL outflow. The forbidden O I and CO lines, however, have significantly less extreme blueshifted emission than the H2 lines. Both the forbidden O I 63 micron and forbidden C II 158 micron lines have features strongly supporting a common origin near the surface of the Orion molecular cloud. 28 references

  10. The Eighty Six Hα Spectra from the Orion Nebula (M42, Sh2-281)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∼40′×40′) of the Orion Nebula (NGC1976, M42, Sh2-281) have been obtained using DEFPOS spectrometer with a circular field of view of 4′ at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya, Turkey). Measurements provide information ...

  11. Family Support Makes a Difference with a Deafblind Child: Orion's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Heather

    2016-01-01

    While some people feel that an infant who will never see or hear can bring only heartache, Orion's family knew differently. Deafblindness is not just about the absence of sight and sound. It is so much more than the sum of these two parts. What one learns from experiencing the collaboration between a teacher of the deaf and a teacher of the…

  12. Herschel CHESS discovery of the fossil cloud that gave birth to the Trapezium and Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Kama, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Caux, E.; Fuente, A.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Orion A molecular complex is a nearby (420 pc), very well studied stellar nursery that is believed to contain examples of triggered star formation. Aims. As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme CHESS, we present the discovery of a diffuse gas component in the foreground of

  13. Tupikteid ei ole / Aimi Püüa, Kristina Orion, Helen Põllo, Kaie Piiskop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Innove õppekava ja metoodika keskuse juhataja Kaie Piiskop, testide ja uuringute keskuse juht Aimi Püüa, karjääriteenuste üksuse juht Kristina Orion, haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi kutsehariduse osakonna juhataja Helen Põllo arutlesid teemal kuidas jätkata haridusteed

  14. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  15. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of the SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate follow a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Paper describes this process and gives an example of where the process has been applied.

  16. Feasibility Study of an Airbag-Based Crew Impact Attenuation System for the Orion MPCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Sydney; deWeck, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the performance feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85m/s, 0 deg. impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the airbag-based crew impact attenuation concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 deg impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 deg indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  17. PPAK integral field spectroscopy survey of the Orion nebula. Data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Cardiel, N.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Martín-Gordón, D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Alves, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We present a low-resolution spectroscopic survey of the Orion nebula. The data are released for public use. We show the possible applications of this dataset analyzing some of the main properties of the nebula. Methods: We perform an integral field spectroscopy mosaic of an area of ~5 arcmin× 6

  18. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  19. A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of

  20. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS Precedence, Authority and Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a...

  1. U.S. Pacific Command > About USPACOM > History

    Science.gov (United States)

    USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command Search USPACOM: Search Search Search USPACOM: Search Home Leadership People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and the Republic of its surrounding waters under the leadership of one commander, providing a unity of command absent from

  2. Design of a hybrid command and control mobile botnet: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available smartphones controlled by a botmaster through a command and control network to serve a malicious purpose. This study presents the design of a hybrid command and control mobile botnet. It describes the propagation vectors, command and control channels...

  3. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  4. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  5. Automated constraint checking of spacecraft command sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Joan C.; Alkalaj, Leon J.; Schneider, Karl M.; Spitale, Joseph M.; Le, Dang

    1995-01-01

    Robotic spacecraft are controlled by onboard sets of commands called "sequences." Determining that sequences will have the desired effect on the spacecraft can be expensive in terms of both labor and computer coding time, with different particular costs for different types of spacecraft. Specification languages and appropriate user interface to the languages can be used to make the most effective use of engineering validation time. This paper describes one specification and verification environment ("SAVE") designed for validating that command sequences have not violated any flight rules. This SAVE system was subsequently adapted for flight use on the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. The relationship of this work to rule-based artificial intelligence and to other specification techniques is discussed, as well as the issues that arise in the transfer of technology from a research prototype to a full flight system.

  6. Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Amphibious Command Relationships: Is It time for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... In a joint community that is becoming increasingly dependant on the use of functional component commanders in the execution of major operations, the need for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander (JFAMCC...

  7. Commanders’ Perception of Risk: Enabling Boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    individual. Soldiers are trained over time to employ their weapon systems tinder a variety of conditions in, realistic simulations and scenarios, thus...from ground combat the specialty is, where th~ leader provides the same support in combat that he would in garrison with no direct relationship to an...34 safety paperwork and activities. 73 Senior commanders must aggressively search for means to communicate their intent and the relationship between

  8. Command and Control for Distributed Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    extended communications between the AFP CDR and the CCDR are required. As shown in Figure 20, the principle command relationships are between...frequency (RF) communications are limited by maximum antenna height of each surface platform without an airborne relay. LOS is estimated with an online ...documents the interconnections and relationship of information flow and the system requirements for maintaining the interconnection links during a

  9. Jimmy Doolittle: The Commander behind the Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    was 35 percent and that, although luxury items were cheap, food and other necessities were expensive. He speculated that everyone in Germany...British Spitfire groups, one troop-carrier group, one light-bombardment group, and three medium-bombardment groups.123 He later observed, “I was a brand ...a very popular commander, Ira Eaker, was perhaps the first. Eaker had served in the Eighth since its incep- tion and led its first independent attack

  10. Tools virtualization for command and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2017-10-01

    Information management is an inseparable part of the command process. The result is that the person making decisions at the command post interacts with data providing devices in various ways. Tools virtualization process can introduce a number of significant modifications in the design of solutions for management and command. The general idea involves replacing physical devices user interface with their digital representation (so-called Virtual instruments). A more advanced level of the systems "digitalization" is to use the mixed reality environments. In solutions using Augmented reality (AR) customized HMI is displayed to the operator when he approaches to each device. Identification of device is done by image recognition of photo codes. Visualization is achieved by (optical) see-through head mounted display (HMD). Control can be done for example by means of a handheld touch panel. Using the immersive virtual environment, the command center can be digitally reconstructed. Workstation requires only VR system (HMD) and access to information network. Operator can interact with devices in such a way as it would perform in real world (for example with the virtual hands). Because of their procedures (an analysis of central vision, eye tracking) MR systems offers another useful feature of reducing requirements for system data throughput. Due to the fact that at the moment we focus on the single device. Experiments carried out using Moverio BT-200 and SteamVR systems and the results of experimental application testing clearly indicate the ability to create a fully functional information system with the use of mixed reality technology.

  11. Auftragstaktik: The Basis for Modern Military Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    Pauli’s Nachf, 1892. Showalter, Dennis. The Wars of German Unification. London: Hodder Education , 2004. Simpkin, Richard. Race to the Swift. London...to the bourgeois class again, making education , not social position, the deciding factor for obtaining a commission.15 The army created a system of...only reflected the increased education and capability of the new officer corps, but also the reality of commanding an army in the Napoleonic era

  12. Mission Command In A Communications Denied Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    the mutual trust between the echelons.8 In the United States armed forces, the Joint Chiefs have understood the value of...without being over controlling or micromanaging.12 During the execution phase the commander is the free to choose his position on the battlefield to... the Air Force Association Convention, National Harbor, MD, September 16, 2009, accessed at http://www.defenselink.mil/ speeches

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  14. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  15. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-08-08

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1° pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s–1)–1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212°), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 × 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  16. TEARING THE VEIL: INTERACTION OF THE ORION NEBULA WITH ITS NEUTRAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, Paul P.; Goss, W. M.; O'Dell, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present H I 21 cm observations of the Orion Nebula, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, at an angular resolution of 7.''2 × 5.''7 and a velocity resolution of 0.77 km s –1 . Our data reveal H I absorption in the Veil toward the radio continuum of the H II region, and H I emission arising from the Orion Bar photon-dominated region (PDR) and from the Orion-KL outflow. In the Orion Bar PDR, the H I signal peaks in the same layer as the H 2 near-infrared vibrational line emission, in agreement with models of the photodissociation of H 2 . The gas temperature in this region is approximately 540 K, and the H I abundance in the interclump gas in the PDR is 5%-10% of the available hydrogen nuclei. Most of the gas in this region therefore remains molecular. Mechanical feedback on the Veil manifests itself through the interaction of ionized flow systems in the Orion Nebula, in particular the Herbig-Haro object HH 202, with the Veil. These interactions give rise to prominent blueward velocity shifts of the gas in the Veil. The unambiguous evidence for interaction of this flow system with the Veil shows that the distance between the Veil and the Trapezium stars needs to be revised downward to about 0.4 pc. The depth of the ionized cavity is about 0.7 pc, which is much smaller than the depth and the lateral extent of the Veil. Our results reaffirm the blister model for the M42 H II region, while also revealing its relation to the neutral environment on a larger scale.

  17. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  18. H2 spectroscopy as an agent for extinction determinations The near-infrared curve for the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.S.; Larson, H.P.; Hofmann, R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    A near-infrared (1.8 to 3.5) microns extinction curve for the Orion molecular cloud is presented. The curve is derived from high-resolution spectra of the Orion H2 source recorded from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The data reveal that the Orion extinction law is indistinguishable from a 1/lambda form in the near-infrared, except for strongly enhanced extinction near a wavelength of about 3 microns. The implications of these results, in the context of current interstellar grain models, are discussed. 53 references

  19. A design proposal of a certain missile tactical command system based on Beidou satellite communication and GPS positioning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Hao, Yongsheng; Miao, Jian; Zhang, Jianmao

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduced a design proposal of tactical command system that applied to a kind of anti-tank missile carriers. The tactical command system was made up of embedded computer system based on PC104 bus, Linux operating system, digital military map, Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments. The geographic coordinates was measured by the GPS receiver, the positioning data, commands and information were transmitted real-time between tactical command systems, tactical command systems and command center, by the Beidou satellite communication systems. The Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments were integrated to an independent module, exchanging data with embedded computer through RS232 serial ports and USB ports. The decision support system software based on information fusion, calculates positioning data, geography information and battle field information synthetically, shows the position of allies and the position of enemy on the military map, and assesses the various threats of different enemy objects, educes a situation assessment and threat assessment.

  20. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  1. Command and Control System Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has been the heart of human space flight for decades. From the Apollo Program to the Space Shuttle Program, and now to the coming Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion, NASA will be a leader in deep space exploration for mankind. Before any rockets blast off, there is significant work to be done in preparation for launch. People working on all aspects of spaceflight must contribute by developing new technology that has yet to participate in a successful launch, and which can work with technology already proven in flight. These innovations, whether hardware or software, must be tried and true, and includes the projects to which interns contribute to. For this internship, the objective was to create a data recording system for the developers of a LCS section that records certain messages in the traffic of the system. Developers would then be able to use these recordings for analysis later on, either manually or by an automated test. The tool would be of convenience to a developer as it would be used if the system's main data recorder was not available for tests.

  2. [Orion (Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection) used for evaluating interventions and investigations of nosocomial infection outbreaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Cronenberger, S; Nicolle, M-C; Voirin, N; Giard, M; Luxemburger, C; Vanhems, P

    2009-04-01

    British colleagues have developed the Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection (Orion) guidelines with the aim to promote transparency of publications in the field of health-care associated infections and particularly for reports of outbreak investigation or intervention studies. The aim of this study was to translate the Orion criteria and to promote their use in France. The Orion guidelines include a checklist of 22 commented items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of a scientific article. Specific points for each item are developed to enhance its relevance. The use of Orion guidelines by authors and editors should be encouraged and should improve the quality of standards in research, intervention studies, and publications on nosocomial infections and health-care associated infections.

  3. Study on control method of the actuators accepting commands from different classifications in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lixue; Zhang Nan; Fan Jin; Li Liang

    2015-01-01

    The distributed control system has become the main control system for the nuclear power plant, consisting of 1E and non-1E parts. Because the safety actuators accept commands from different safety classifications, this is a difficulty of controlling those actuators in nuclear power plant. This article discusses about the control method for safety actuators accepting commands from different classifications. Firstly, one control method adopted in new nuclear power projects is introduced. Then based on this, an optimized method is raised. The new method mainly concludes two points than the adopted method: 1. The concept 'local control mode' is introduced into the signal priority logic modules, and the priority logic module turns into local mode for the non-1E control system once it accepts safety signal; 2. The 'remote control mode' is added into the module of the safety actuator in the non-1E control system, and this can make the non-1E control system abandon controlling the safety actuator when the relevant priority logic module accept the safety signal. Based on verifying the correctness of modified scheme, comparisons between the fore-and-aft schemes are provided to summary the merits of the optimized method. It is concluded that optimized scheme is better in the aspects of reliability, safety and economy. (authors)

  4. Market Potential Analysis of Finland and the UK; Business case – “Sidebar business proposition”, Case Company: Orion Automotive

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore a new market area for the case company Orion Automotive, which is primarily operating in the Netherlands, and to find out suitable ways of reaching more potential customers there. Both, theoretical and empirical parts were included in this thesis. First includes analysis of macro-environmental factors – PEST and SWOT and also vital concepts related to the study. For the empirical part, desk research and previous research for Orion Company were used for ...

  5. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  6. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  7. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFIN, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements

  8. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The goal of automated testing is to create and maintain a cohesive infrastructure of robust tests that could be run independently on a software package in its entirety. To that end, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has brought in a large group of interns to work side-by-side with full time employees to do just this work. Thus, our job is to implement the tests that will put SCCS through its paces.

  9. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1 the command sequence is disordered and (2 disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  10. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-21

    A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  11. The Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC) and Closed-Loop Hardware Testing for Orion Rendezvous System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Zoran; DSouza, Christopher; Huish, David; Bendle, John; Kibler, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The exploration goals of Orion / MPCV Project will require a mature Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (RPOD) capability. Ground testing autonomous docking with a next-generation sensor such as the Vision Navigation Sensor (VNS) is a critical step along the path of ensuring successful execution of autonomous RPOD for Orion. This paper will discuss the testing rationale, the test configuration, the test limitations and the results obtained from tests that have been performed at the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC) to evaluate and mature the Orion RPOD system. We will show that these tests have greatly increased the confidence in the maturity of the Orion RPOD design, reduced some of the latent risks and in doing so validated the design philosophy of the Orion RPOD system. This paper is organized as follows: first, the objectives of the test are given. Descriptions of the SOSC facility, and the Orion RPOD system and associated components follow. The details of the test configuration of the components in question are presented prior to discussing preliminary results of the tests. The paper concludes with closing comments.

  12. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  13. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  14. Rotational explanation of the high-velocity meolecular emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.O.; Biretta, J.A.; Martin, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    The high-velocity molecular emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud has been sampled using the J/sub N/=2 2 --1 1 rotational spectral line of the SO molecule. The resulting profile, including the high-velocity wings, has been reproduced using only known large-scale properties of the gas and applications of the results of published theoretical calculations. No new physical mechanism is required; observed rotation and conservation of angular momentum are sufficient to reproduce the line profile. The resulting physical state appears to be consistent with all known physical properties. This solution is not unique, but indicates the strengths and weaknesses of such a model for interpretation of Orion as well as the similarities of alternative explanations

  15. A study of dissipative phenomena using Orion, a 4 π sectorized neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sokolov, A.; Wang, X.M.; Piasecki, E.; Charvet, J.L.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1990-01-01

    When studying the behavior of hot nuclei, the challenge is twofold: how are they formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions and how do they decay. For heavy and, thus neutron rich systems a large fraction of the thermalized energy is evacuated by neutron evaporation. Therefore the numbering, event-wise, of neutrons, over 4 π, gives a strong handle on energy dissipation for the different reaction channels. The first neutron measurements of this kind were performed using spherical detectors made of two hemispheres. Since then, a new and larger 4 π detector, ORION, has been designed in order to get information on the spatial distribution of the neutrons. The main characteristics of ORION are described and a few examples are given in order to illustrate the capabilities of such a detector in the study of dissipative collisions

  16. Orion star-forming region - far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Bally, J.; Dragovan, M.; Mozurkewich, D.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; ATandT Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ; Chicago Uni., IL; E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC)

    1986-01-01

    New J = 1-0 CO and far-infrared maps of the Orion star-forming region are presented and discussed. The total infrared luminosity of the Orion star-forming ridge is 250,000 solar luminosities. The material that is emitting strongly at 60 microns is traced and found to be highly centrally concentrated. However, the majority of the extended emission from this region comes from dust that is ultimately heated by the visible Trapezium cluster stars. The luminosity of IRc 2, the most luminous member of the infrared cluster, is estimated to be 40,000-50,000 solar luminosities. A schematic drawing of the Ori MC 1 region is presented. 30 references

  17. Interpretation of rotationally excited far-infrared OH emission in Orion-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, G.J.; Genzel, R.; Lugten, J.B.; California Univ., Berkeley; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching, Germany, F.R.)

    1987-01-01

    The 2Pi(1/2) OH 163-micron J = 3/2-1/2 rotational transitions in Orion-KL were observed and an upper limit was set to the line strength of the 2II(1/2) OH 56-micron J = 9/2-7/2 doublet in this source. The 163-micron line intensities were modeled, along with the previously measured 2II(3/2) 119 and 84-micron rotational line emission and it is found that the gas in the Orion-KL postshocked region can produce OH 119-micron line emission of the same strength as measured; however, the resultant 84 and 163-micron line intensities would be weaker than observed. Shocked gas plus a second component which experiences strong radiative excitation can reproduce the observations. 35 references

  18. Flares of Orion population variables in the association Taurus T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.; AN Armyanskoj SSR, Byurakan. Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen new flare stars, proved to be irregular variables of Orion Population, were discovered from a study of the Taurus Dark Cloud region by the homogeneous photographic multipose method on the wide angle Schmidt telescopes of the Byurakan Astorphysical Observatory. Seventeen flares on these stars were detected for about 750 hours of the effective observing time. The analysis of the complicated light curves of these flares shows a great variety and multiplicity of this phenomenon and various dynamics of flare energy release processes. The existence of flare stars with some properties typical for both of the T Tauri and UV Ceti stars simulteneously indicates nonstable stars. The population of flare stars in the Taurus Dark Cloud region is apparently as young as in Orion and Monoceros

  19. Orion Versus Poseidon: Understanding How Nasa's Crewed Capsule Survives Nature's Fury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Flight Test (EFT)-1. This design must address the natural environment to which the capsule and launch vehicle are exposed during all mission phases. In addition, the design must, to the best extent possible, implement the same process and data to be utilized on launch day. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  20. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, H.D.; Cunningham, N.J.; Sherson, Maiken Gustafsson

    2012-01-01

    and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro...... Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory and the Subaru Telescope. These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates......The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Here we study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity...

  1. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  2. Command Structure for Theater Warfare: The Quest for Unity of Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    that trryfari tail forth thr htst from iti—Btturki Major General« Pern M Smith. USAF. and Hark) A Hughe«. USAF. contributed more to the rndertaking...an air. ground, and sea component. These arc generic commands which control all combat operations in the media of the air. ground, and sea. There

  3. Configuring the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software for Automated Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan G.; Siliwinski, Tomasz K.; King, Ellis T.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is being designed with greater automation capabilities than any other crewed spacecraft in NASA s history. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) flight software architecture is designed to provide a flexible and evolvable framework that accommodates increasing levels of automation over time. Within the GN&C flight software, a data-driven approach is used to configure software. This approach allows data reconfiguration and updates to automated sequences without requiring recompilation of the software. Because of the great dependency of the automation and the flight software on the configuration data, the data management is a vital component of the processes for software certification, mission design, and flight operations. To enable the automated sequencing and data configuration of the GN&C subsystem on Orion, a desktop database configuration tool has been developed. The database tool allows the specification of the GN&C activity sequences, the automated transitions in the software, and the corresponding parameter reconfigurations. These aspects of the GN&C automation on Orion are all coordinated via data management, and the database tool provides the ability to test the automation capabilities during the development of the GN&C software. In addition to providing the infrastructure to manage the GN&C automation, the database tool has been designed with capabilities to import and export artifacts for simulation analysis and documentation purposes. Furthermore, the database configuration tool, currently used to manage simulation data, is envisioned to evolve into a mission planning tool for generating and testing GN&C software sequences and configurations. A key enabler of the GN&C automation design, the database tool allows both the creation and maintenance of the data artifacts, as well as serving the critical role of helping to manage, visualize, and understand the data-driven parameters both during software development

  4. Evidence for methane in orion KL: A search for the 4.6 Gigahertz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Snyder, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive search for the J = 11 E(2)-E(1) transition of interstellar methane (CH 4 ) has resulted in a peak upper limit which is much less than the value reported by Fox and Jennings in 1978. When combined with the negative results reported by Ellder et al. in 1980, these data rule out the detection of CH 4 in Orion KL previously claimed by Fox and Jennings

  5. THE GBT 67–93.6 GHz SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY OF ORION-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Meijer, M.; Hough, L.; White, S.; Norrod, R.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Simon, R.; Woody, D.; Whitehead, M.; Ford, P.; Mello, M.; Bloss, M.; Srikanth, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 67–93.6 GHz spectral line survey of Orion-KL with the new 4 mm Receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The survey reaches unprecedented depths and covers the low-frequency end of the 3 mm atmospheric window which has been relatively unexplored previously. The entire spectral-line survey is published electronically for general use by the astronomical community. The calibration and performance of the 4 mm Receiver on the GBT is also summarized

  6. Insights into the properties of the Orion spiral arm. NGC 2302: first result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E.; Carraro, G.; Moitinho, A.; Radiszc, M.; Méndez, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    We summarize the first results from a program aimed at determining the properties of the Local (Orion) arm - LOA, based on a large and homogeneous set of kinematic and photometric data. We have made a comprehensive study of the young LOA cluster NGC 2302, which includes a UBVRI photometric analysis and determination of its kinematic properties -proper motion (PM) and radial velocity (RV) - and of its orbital parameters.

  7. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  8. Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated molecular cloud the Orion Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Cernicharo, José; Chapillon, Edwige; Fuente, Asunción; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Marcelino, Nuria; Pilleri, Paolo

    2016-09-08

    The Orion Bar is the archetypal edge-on molecular cloud surface illuminated by strong ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars. Our relative closeness to the Orion nebula (about 1,350 light years away from Earth) means that we can study the effects of stellar feedback on the parental cloud in detail. Visible-light observations of the Orion Bar show that the transition between the hot ionized gas and the warm neutral atomic gas (the ionization front) is spatially well separated from the transition between atomic and molecular gas (the dissociation front), by about 15 arcseconds or 6,200 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Static equilibrium models used to interpret previous far-infrared and radio observations of the neutral gas in the Orion Bar (typically at 10-20 arcsecond resolution) predict an inhomogeneous cloud structure comprised of dense clumps embedded in a lower-density extended gas component. Here we report one-arcsecond-resolution millimetre-wave images that allow us to resolve the molecular cloud surface. In contrast to stationary model predictions, there is no appreciable offset between the peak of the H 2 vibrational emission (delineating the H/H 2 transition) and the edge of the observed CO and HCO + emission. This implies that the H/H 2 and C + /C/CO transition zones are very close. We find a fragmented ridge of high-density substructures, photoablative gas flows and instabilities at the molecular cloud surface. The results suggest that the cloud edge has been compressed by a high-pressure wave that is moving into the molecular cloud, demonstrating that dynamical and non-equilibrium effects are important for the cloud evolution.

  9. ORION-VIRCAT: a tool for mapping ICTV and NCBI taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Granda, Willy; Larson, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Viruses, viroids and prions are the smallest infectious biological entities that depend on their host for replication. The number of pathogenic viruses is considerably large and their impact in human global health is well documented. Currently, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has classified approximately 4379 virus species while the National Center for Biotechnology Information Viral Genomes Resource (NCBI-VGR) database has mapped 617 705 proteins to eight large taxonomic groups. Despite these efforts, an automated approach for mapping the ICTV master list and its officially accepted virus naming to the NCBI-VGR's taxonomical classification is not available. Due to metagenomic sequencing, it is likely that the discovery and naming of new viral species will increase by at least ten fold. Unfortunately, existing viral databases are not adequately prepared to scale, maintain and annotate automatically ultra-high throughput sequences and place this information into specific taxonomic categories. ORION-VIRCAT is a scalable and interoperable object-relational database designed to serve as a resource for the integration and verification of taxonomical classifications generated by the ICTV and NCBI-VGR. The current release (v1.0) of ORION-VIRCAT is implemented in PostgreSQL and it has been extended to ORACLE, MySQL and SyBase. ORION-VIRCAT automatically mapped and joined 617 705 entries from the NCBI-VGR to the viral naming of the ICTV. This detailed analysis revealed that 399 095 entries from the NCBI-VGR can be mapped to the ICTV classification and that one Order, 10 families, 35 genera and 503 species listed in the ICTV disagree with the the NCBI-VGR classification schema. Nevertheless, we were eable to correct several discrepancies mapping 234 000 additional entries.Database URL:http://www.orionbiosciences.com/research/orion-vircat.html.

  10. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Eric; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems are developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate. The Engineering Directorate at Kennedy Space Center follows a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Presentation describes this process with examples of where the process has been applied.

  11. Installation of a four movements goniometer in the ORION detector at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.

    1997-01-01

    This technical report describes a goniometer with four degrees of freedom and its driving and remote control system (movements, motors and electronic power systems, driving of step motors). This goniometer holds a monocrystal target which is used in the ORION detector at Ganil (Caen, France) for the E257 blocking lifetime experiment. Details about the technical specifications (functioning parameters, mechanical preciseness, angular resolution, reliability, etc..) and the instructions for use (PC for motors and PC for remote control) are given. (J.S.)

  12. Evidence for methane in Orion KL - a search for the 4.6 gigahertz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Snyder, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive search for J = 11 E(2)-E(1) transition of interstellar methane (CH4) has resulted in a peak upper limit which is much less than the value reported by Fox and Jennings (1978). When combined with the negative results reported by Ellder et al. (1980), these data rule out the detection of CH4 in Orion KL previously claimed by Fox and Jennings. 7 references

  13. Tracing the Origins of Nitrogen Bearing Organics Toward Orion KL with Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brandon; Crockett, Nathan; Wilkins, Olivia H.; Bergin, Edwin; Blake, Geoffrey

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis of a broadband 1.2 THz wide spectral survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) has shown that nitrogen bearing complex organics trace systematically hotter gas than O-bearing organics toward this source. The origin of this O/N dichotomy remains a mystery. If complex molecules originate from grain surfaces, N-bearing species may be more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing organics. Theoretical studies, however, have shown that hot (T=300 K) gas phase chemistry can produce high abundances of N-bearing organics while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex molecules. In order to distinguish these distinct formation pathways we have obtained extremely high angular resolution observations of methyl cyanide (CH_3CN) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward Orion KL. By simultaneously imaging ^{13}CH_3CN and CH_2DCN we map the temperature structure and D/H ratio of CH_3CN. We will present updated results of these observations and discuss their implications for the formation of N-bearing organics in the interstellar medium.

  14. Chandra Finds X-ray Star Bonanza in the Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has resolved nearly a thousand faint X-ray-emitting stars in a single observation of young stars in the Orion Nebula. The discovery--the richest field of X-ray sources ever obtained in the history of X-ray astronomy--will be presented on Friday, January 14, at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. The Orion region is a dense congregation of about 2,000 very young stars formed during the past few million years. The discovery of such a wealth of X-ray stars in the closest massive star-forming region to Earth (only 1,500 light years away) is expected to have a profound impact on our understanding of star formation and evolution. "We've detected X-rays from so many fantastic objects, such as very young massive stars and stars so small that they may evolve into brown dwarfs," said Gordon Garmire, Evan Pugh Professor at Penn State University, University Park. "Chandra's superb angular resolution has resolved this dense cluster of stars with arcsecond accuracy and unsurpassed sensitivity." Garmire leads the team using Chandra's ACIS detector, the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The brilliant Orion region has awed humankind for millennia. The most massive and brightest of these nascent stars are in the Orion Trapezium, which illuminates the Orion Nebula, also known as Messier 42. The Trapezium and its luminous gas can be seen with the unaided eye in the winter sky in the "sword" of the Orion constellation. Young stars, such as those found in Orion, are known to be much brighter in X-rays than middle-aged stars such as the Sun. The elevated X-ray emission is thought to arise from violent flares in strong magnetic fields near the surfaces of young stars. The Sun itself was probably thousands of times brighter in X-rays during its first few million years. Although the enhanced magnetic

  15. Intracluster dust, circumstellar shells, and the wavelength dependence of polarization in orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.

    1977-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of polarization of 21 polarized stars near the Orion Nebula has been measured. Most stars fit the standard interstellar law. The wavelength of maximum linear polarization, lambda/sub max/, ranges from normal values to 0.71μm. The polarimetric, spectroscopic, and photometric data support a normal reddening law (Rapprox. =3) for most Orion stars, and present evidence for unusually large grain sizes in front of some Orion stars. For the stars BR 545 and BR 885 large values of lambda/sub max/ are associated with unusually large values of total to selective extinction.A division of the observed polarization into intracluster dust and circumstellar shell components shows that the presence of shells does not usually lead to linear polarization in the optical wavelength region. Also, no association of polarization with known light variability could be found. The nature of the intracluster dust clouds is discussed briefly.The results of searches for circular polarization as well as short-period variability are presented in two appendices

  16. Orion GN&C Fault Management System Verification: Scope And Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denise; Weiler, David; Flanary, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term ability to meet mission goals and to provide for the safety of the public, ground personnel, and any crew members, nearly all spacecraft include a fault management (FM) system. For a manned vehicle such as Orion, the safety of the crew is of paramount importance. The goal of the Orion Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) fault management system is to detect, isolate, and respond to faults before they can result in harm to the human crew or loss of the spacecraft. Verification of fault management/fault protection capability is challenging due to the large number of possible faults in a complex spacecraft, the inherent unpredictability of faults, the complexity of interactions among the various spacecraft components, and the inability to easily quantify human reactions to failure scenarios. The Orion GN&C Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) team has developed a methodology for bounding the scope of FM system verification while ensuring sufficient coverage of the failure space and providing high confidence that the fault management system meets all safety requirements. The methodology utilizes a swarm search algorithm to identify failure cases that can result in catastrophic loss of the crew or the vehicle and rare event sequential Monte Carlo to verify safety and FDIR performance requirements.

  17. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated into Orion's Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rubik; Ungar, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study verified of the thermal model by using a wax PCM and analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option for any case. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased by at least 40% in order to support a viable water-based PCM HX.

  18. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated Into Orion's Thermal Control System Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system and in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased over 20% in order to have a viable water-based PCM HX.

  19. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  20. Evidence for a rotating helical filament in L1641, part of the Orion cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar cloud structures, typically 10-30 pc long and 3-5 pc wide, are often seen extending outwards from dense clouds that show marked enhancement of star formation within them. We have used the Nagoya 4-m radiotelescope to study one such 'streamer', L1641, a part of the giant molecular-cloud complex in Orion, lying south of the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula. Using the 110-GHz line of 13 Co (J=1-0), we have obtained intensity and velocity data, and find within the streamer a dense filament with a helical structure, spinning in the same sense as the gas in the Orion KL region. We propose a model for this structure in which the streamer, through the action of the interstellar magnetic field, acts as an angular-momentum drain on the Orion KL region, allowing it to collapse. In this model, the ∼30-pc-long streamer is essential to the formation of the cloud, as well as the formation of stars within the dense cloud. (author)

  1. Aperture synthesis observations of the 21 centimeter Zeeman effect toward Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troland, T.H.; Heiles, C.; Goss, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The VLA has been used to map the 21 cm Zeeman effect at 40 arcsec resolution in the absorbing H I gas in front of Orion A. Two such regions exist having typical velocities of 1 and 5 km/s; both almost certainly lie close to the H II region. Field strengths exceed 100 micro G in this H I gas. The field in the higher velocity component has been reliably detected across most of the continuum source. No field reversals exist. The distribution of line-of-sight field strengths derived for this component mimics that of tau(H I) for positions where the lines are not saturated, suggesting that the mass-to-flux ratio in this gas is approximately constant. The distribution of visual extinction across Orion A using existing radio and optical data is rederived. Maxima and minima of extinction are generally coincident with maxima and minima of magnetic field. This correspondence suggests that the observed association between field strength and tau(H I) is a real column density effect, that the effect encompasses all neutral gas in front of the source, and that the mass-to-flux ratio for this neutral gas is approximately constant. Results for Orion A lend weight to the conclusion that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the dynamics of interstellar material. 48 references

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Southern Orion A (Mairs+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observations presented throughout this paper were performed using the SCUBA-2 instrument (Holland et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2513H) as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al., 2007PASP..119..855W). This instrument has provided continuum coverage at both 850um and 450um simultaneously at effective beam sizes of 14.1-arcsec and 9.6-arcsec, respectively (Dempsey et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2534D). In this work, we present Southern Orion A in both wavelengths, but focus mainly on the 850um data for analysis. All of the observations were taken in the PONG1800 mapping mode, yielding circular maps ('PONGs') of 0.5° in diameter. There are 17 0.5° subregions across the Orion A Molecular Cloud, 13 of which cover Southern Orion A. These locations were individually observed four to six times throughout 2012 February to 2015 January, and were then co-added (once co-added, these structures are referred to as 'tiles') and mosaicked to form the final map. (3 data files).

  3. Model-Based GN and C Simulation and Flight Software Development for Orion Missions beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Milenkovic, Zoran; Henry, Joel; Buttacoli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For Orion missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system is being developed using a model-based approach for simulation and flight software. Lessons learned from the development of GN&C algorithms and flight software for the Orion Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) vehicle have been applied to the development of further capabilities for Orion GN&C beyond EFT-1. Continuing the use of a Model-Based Development (MBD) approach with the Matlab®/Simulink® tool suite, the process for GN&C development and analysis has been largely improved. Furthermore, a model-based simulation environment in Simulink, rather than an external C-based simulation, greatly eases the process for development of flight algorithms. The benefits seen by employing lessons learned from EFT-1 are described, as well as the approach for implementing additional MBD techniques. Also detailed are the key enablers for improvements to the MBD process, including enhanced configuration management techniques for model-based software systems, automated code and artifact generation, and automated testing and integration.

  4. Presentations from the Second ORION Workshop, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, February 18-20, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Robert

    2003-01-01

    ORION will be a dedicated user facility available for experimental research in plasma and laser acceleration of particles, beam-plasma physics, ultra-short pulse electron and radiation sources, and potentially laboratory astrophysics. It will bring together a diverse collection of researchers motivated to solve some of the most complex and fascinating problems in these fields. The ORION Facility will be based on the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), an existing accelerator at SLAC capable of producing 60 to 350 MeV electron beams. The NLCTA will be augmented with a new photo-injector source, two experimental halls, extraction beamlines, a user laser room, and a data acquisition area. Facility construction is anticipated to start in October 2003, and first beam for experiments is planned for 2005. A central goal of ORION is to provide a facility responsive to the research needs of its users. The workshop's purpose is to explore the range of experiments envisioned by potential users and review the types of beams available and the desired beam parameters. This workshop is an opportunity for the research community to provide input on the facility's test beams, layout, shared diagnostic equipment, simulation and computing capabilities, and user support infrastructure. Results from the workshop will go into determining the facility's design as well as help the SLAC management plan for future user needs on the site once operations begin

  5. Engagement Skills Trainer: The Commander’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    CBRN Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear CGSOC Command and General Staff Officers Course DMG Digital Master Gunner EST Engagement Skills...commanders always emphasized SHARP ( Sexual Harassment and Response Program) training, the battery commander may vividly recall those events but not the range...soldiers in the EST generally do worse at weapons safety and orientation .26 Indicators from research show that EST results predict live fire results. The

  6. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    OpenAIRE

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  7. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  8. Five Apollo astronauts with Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts observe a Lunar Module and Moon mockup during a tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Some of the visiting astonauts were (from left): Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart; Apollo 10 Command Module Pilot and Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young; Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford; and Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  9. Terrain Commander: Unattended Ground-Based Surveillance System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steadman, Bob

    2000-01-01

    .... Terrain Commander OASIS provides next generation target detection, classification, and tracking through smart sensor fusion of beamforming acoustic, seismic, passive infrared, and magnetic sensors...

  10. Deductive Sensemaking Principles Using Personal Constructs of the Field Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A; Leedom, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... It is assumed that the expert commander constructs diverse and asynchronous sensemaking models when confronted with asymmetric situations-evolving and changing dynamics of the battlefield information...

  11. Contractor Support on the Battlefield -- Increased Reliance Requires Commander's Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Kathy J

    2006-01-01

    .... Department of Defense initiatives to adopt a leaner business strategy, increase efficiency, and reduce expenditures have exposed the battlefield commander to additional operational risk centered...

  12. U.S. Special Operations Command Training and Education Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    .... Special Operations Command (USCINCSOC), to train assigned forces to meet special operations mission taskings and to ensure interoperability with conventional forces and other special operations forces (SOF...

  13. Human Systems Integration Assessment of Network Centric Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quashnock, Dee; Kelly, Richard T; Dunaway, John; Smillie, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    .... FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for Naval Network Centric Warfare in the information age that integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms...

  14. When Contractors Deploy: A Guide for the Operational Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl

    2000-01-01

    .... Furthermore, this paper also lists four recommendations for operational commanders and the military on how to better integrate contractors into the military effort, especially during hostile combat situations...

  15. Bunch identification module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; de Fornel, B.

    1996-06-01

    The paper deals with an indirect self-tuning speed control for an induction motor supplied by a chopper-filter-inverter system. Input/Output models are identified with the recursive least squares algorithm and the controller adaptation is based on a pole assignement strategy. Emphasis is put on the evaluation of the parameter identification in order to avoid instabilities because of disturbances or insufficient excitations. This is especially of importance when the adaptive control is carried out in closed loop systems and without additional test signals. Simulation results show the improvement of the dynamic responses and the robustness against load variations or parameters variations (rotor resistance, inertia). Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation et de la nature peu riche en excitations des entrées du processus. Différents régimes transitoires ont été simulés pour apprécier l'apport de cette association (MCR-PP) : démarrages et inversion des sens de rotation, à vide et en charges, applications d'échelons de couple résistant, variations paramétriques. Les résultats permettent d'illustrer, tant au niveau des performances que de la robustesse, l'apport d'une telle commande adaptive pour des entraînements électriques avec une machine asynchrone.

  17. Herschel CHESS discovery of the fossil cloud that gave birth to the Trapezium and Orion KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Kama, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Caux, E.; Fuente, A.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Orion A molecular complex is a nearby (420 pc), very well studied stellar nursery that is believed to contain examples of triggered star formation. Aims: As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme CHESS, we present the discovery of a diffuse gas component in the foreground of the intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4, located in the Orion A region. Methods: Making use of the full HIFI spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 obtained in CHESS, we detected several ground-state lines from OH+, H2O+, HF, and CH+, all of them seen in absorption against the dust continuum emission of the protostar's envelope. We derived column densities for each species, as well as an upper limit to the column density of the undetected H3O+. In order to model and characterise the foreground cloud, we used the Meudon PDR code to run a homogeneous grid of models that spans a reasonable range of densities, visual extinctions, cosmic ray ionisation rates and far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields, and studied the implications of adopting the Orion Nebula extinction properties instead of the standard interstellar medium ones. Results: The detected absorption lines peak at a velocity of 9 km s-1, which is blue-shifted by 2 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity of OMC-2 FIR 4 (VLSR = 11.4 km s-1). The results of our modelling indicate that the foreground cloud is composed of predominantly neutral diffuse gas (nH = 100 cm-3) and is heavily irradiated by an external source of FUV that most likely arises from the nearby Trapezium OB association. The cloud is 6 pc thick and bears many similarities with the so-called C+ interface between Orion-KL and the Trapezium cluster, 2 pc south of OMC-2 FIR 4. Conclusions: We conclude that the foreground cloud we detected is an extension of the C+ interface seen in the direction of Orion KL, and interpret it to be the remains of the parental cloud of OMC-1, which extends from OMC-1 up to OMC-2.

  18. Post-Soviet nuclear command and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, any nuclear command system must reckon with conflicting requirements. The system must ensure that weapons will be launched reliably when ordered, a goal known as positive control. But negative control, ensuring that the weapons will not be used without an authentic order, is also essential. These goals are often in tension; steps to make it more difficult to launch without authorization can make it less certain that weapons will be launched when desired, and vice versa. The balance struck between the two naturally shifts, with increased emphasis on negative control in peacetime, and on positive control in a major crisis. Under present circumstances, with virtually no threat of deliberate nuclear attack, both the US and Russia should be putting their emphasis overwhelmingly on ensuring negative control

  19. Is There a Need For a Joint Reserve Components Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Bravo Zulu ”. If these words were heard by a Soldier, it might be interpreted as poor performance. By having one organization as a single source for...Commander, Joint Reserve Components Command. Creation of the JRCC would, in time, strengthen partnerships between the reserve components of each

  20. COMMAND-AND-CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports that the development of command-and-con trol systems in support of decision making and action taking has been accomplished by military...methods applicable to management systems. Concludes that the command-and-control type system for top management decision making is a man-machine system having as its core an on going, dynamic operation. (Author)

  1. The use of augmented reality in command and control situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identifies possible uses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specific attention to situation awareness in the South African context. Applications across the different command and control functions, as well as at the different levels of military operations are considered. The article concludes ...

  2. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorities as soon as possible. (c) Military forces will ordinarily exercise police powers previously... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  3. Army Aviation and the Mission Command Warfighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    information systems , processes and procedures, optimize facilities and equipment, and build understanding of the networks that link the headquarters...however further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...Command System , Mission Command Information Systems , Training, Mission Training Complex 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Fit for Command: Military Leadership Attributes for Small Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Corps Command and StaffCollege Marine Corps University 2076 outh Street Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico, Virgin ia?? 134-5068...by the local imam to join him in the celebration of a religious Shi’a holiday .79 Just before departure to the mosque his translator informed him

  5. Development and Validation of Nigerian Army Commanding Officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research adopted an ex-post-facto design based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of data. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) were conducted with commanding officers. The FGDs were conducted with officers purposively drawn from incumbent commanding officers in the Nigerian ...

  6. Doublet III neutral beam multi-stream command language system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Garcia, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A multi-stream command language system was developed to provide control of the dual source neutral beam injectors on the Doublet III experiment at GA Technologies Inc. The Neutral Beam command language system consists of three parts: compiler, sequencer, and interactive task. The command language, which was derived from the Doublet III tokamak command language, POPS, is compiled, using a recursive descent compiler, into reverse polish notation instructions which then can be executed by the sequencer task. The interactive task accepts operator commands via a keyboard. The interactive task directs the operation of three input streams, creating commands which are then executed by the sequencer. The streams correspond to the two sources within a Doublet III neutral beam, plus an interactive stream. The sequencer multiplexes the execution of instructions from these three streams. The instructions include reads and writes to an operator terminal, arithmetic computations, intrinsic functions such as CAMAC input and output, and logical instructions. The neutral beam command language system was implemented using Modular Computer Systems (ModComp) Pascal and consists of two tasks running on a ModComp Classic IV computer. The two tasks, the interactive and the sequencer, run independently and communicate using shared memory regions. The compiler runs as an overlay to the interactive task when so directed by operator commands. The system is succesfully being used to operate the three neutral beams on Doublet III

  7. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system must transmit a command signal that has the radio frequency characteristics and power needed for.... (c) Reliability prediction. A command control system must have a predicted reliability of 0.999 at... for each launch. Any demonstration of the system's predicted reliability must satisfy § 417.309(b). (d...

  8. Warfighter Associate: Decision Aiding and Metrics for Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    Distributions: highlights the Pareto Principle -- the top 20% of the mission-command staff is heavily involved in collaborations. • Our...developing “Command Web”, a web service to support thin- client functionality (Intelligent Presentation Services enables this) Thank you

  9. Turn-based gaming for convoy commander training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, R.C.; Muller, T.J.; Vrijer, J.C. de

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of current-day military operations, effective education and training of military commanders is of vital importance. Commanders need to perform within a broader range of conflicts; unpredictable threats and civil-military interaction place a great demand on their

  10. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  11. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  12. Herschel Observations of Extraordinary Sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey toward Orion KL. I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Cécile; Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C.; Bell, Tom A.; Blake, Geoffrey; Cernicharo, José; Emprechtinger, Martin; Esplugues, Gisela B.; Gupta, Harshal; Kleshcheva, Maria; Lord, Steven; Marcelino, Nuria; McGuire, Brett A.; Pearson, John; Phillips, Thomas G.; Plume, Rene; van der Tak, Floris; Tercero, Belén; Yu, Shanshan

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at

  13. EXTENSIVE [C I] MAPPING TOWARD THE ORION-A GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki, Minamisaku District, Nagano Prefecture 384-1305 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture 310-8512 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Saito, Masao, E-mail: Yoshito.Shimajiri@cea.fr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    We have carried out wide-field (0.17 deg{sup 2}) and high-angular resolution (21.''3 {approx} 0.04 pc) observations in the [C I] line toward the Orion-A giant molecular cloud with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope in the On-The-Fly mode. The overall features of the [C I] emission are similar to those of the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission by Shimajiri et al. in 2011; the total intensity ratio of the [C I] to CO emission ranges from 0.05 to 0.2. The optical depth of the [C I] emission is found to be 0.1-0.75, suggesting optically thin emission. The column density of the [C I] emission is estimated to be (1.0-19) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. These results are consistent with the results of the previous [C I] observations with a low-angular resolution of 2.'2. In the nearly edge-on photon-dominated regions (PDRs) and their candidates of the Orion Bar, DLSF, M 43 Shell, and Region D, the distributions of the [C I] emission coincide with those of the {sup 12}CO emission, inconsistent with the prediction by the plane-parallel PDR model. In addition, the [C I] distribution in the Orion A cloud is found to be more similar to those of the {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0), C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0), and H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (J = 1-0) lines than that of the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) line, suggesting that the [C I] emission is not limited to the cloud surface, but is tracing the dense, inner parts of the cloud.

  14. Three-dimensional Shock Structure of the Orion KL Outflow with IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kaplan, Kyle; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Mace, Gregory; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of the three-dimensional (3D) outflow structure of a 15″ × 13″ area around the H2 peak 1 in Orion KL with slit-scan observations (13 slits) using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. The datacubes have a high-velocity resolution (˜7.5 km s-1), provide high-contrast imaging within ultra-narrow bands, and enable the detection of the main stream of the previously reported H2 outflow fingers. We identified 31 distinct fingers in the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm emission. The line profile at each finger shows multiple-velocity peaks with a strong low-velocity component around the systemic velocity at {V}{LSR} = +8 km s-1 and high-velocity emission (| {V}{LSR}| = 45-135 km s-1), indicating a typical bow-shock. The observed radial velocity gradients of ˜4 km s-1 arcsec-1 agree well with the velocities inferred from large-scale proper motions, where the projected motion is proportional to the distance from a common origin. We construct a conceptual 3D map of the fingers with estimated inclination angles of 57°-74°. The extinction difference (ΔA v > 10 mag) between blueshifted and redshifted fingers indicates high internal extinction. The extinction, the overall angular spread, and the scale of the flow argue for an ambient medium with a very high density (105-106 cm-3), consistent with molecular line observations of the Orion Molecular Cloud core. The radial velocity gradients and the 3D distributions of the fingers together support the hypothesis of a simultaneous radial explosion of the Orion KL outflow. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  15. Radio brightness distribution of M 17 and Orion A at 3.5-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Iguchi, Tetsuo.

    1977-01-01

    Two bright galactic H-2 regions, M 17 and Ori A, have been mapped at 3.5 mm wave length (87 GHz) with resolution of 2 min. The features were found, which are not seen in centimeter- and longer millimeter-wave maps. It is possible that these components are very compact H-2 regions with the emission measure of about 10 11 pc cm -6 . Observations were made from December 1974 to March 1975 with the 6-m millimeter-wave telescope at Tokyo Astronomic Observatory. The data were taken in beam switching mode. Strip maps were made from a set of right ascension scans at 1 min-intervals in declination, and 50 to 150 scans were made at each declination. The scanned area was from -16 deg. 5 min. to -16 deg. 19 min. in the declination for M 17 and from -5 deg. 21 min. to -5 deg. 30 min. for Orion A. The central right ascension was 18 h 17 m 30 s for M 17 and 5 h 32 m 50 s for Orion A, the distance scanned was 100 s in right ascension. In discussion, the dust hypothesis was abandoned, but the thermal bremsstrahlung was adopted as the most probable explanation. In this case, it is possible that M 17 E is a high density ''cocoon star'' though this explanation is not free from difficulty. At the position of M 17 E, no H 2 O or OH maser emission has been detected. The exciting star must be very massive and young according to the theoretical consideration. As for the elongation N in Orion A, similar consideration can be applied. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. The radio recombination line spectrum of Orion A: Observations and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockman, F.J.; Brown, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    The entire body of radio observations of Orion A has been considered, and the means by which the temperature and density can be derived from the ratio T/subL//T/subC/ and the line width Δv of the hydrogen radio recombination lines is examined. Since it is critical to determine the extent to which low-frequency line measurements are contaminated by ''baseline-subtraction'' problems, new observations are presented which, together with general considerations of the line shape and data reduction processes, support the following conclusions: T/subL//T/subC/ and Δv can be accurately determined in the low-frequency observations even when erroneous baselines are removed; in accord with other studies, a density gradient must exist in the nebula; isothermal models cannot reproduce the observed line strenghts; the most dense parts of the nebula must be somewhat cooler than the surrounding gas. A model of Orion A has been constructed that is derived directly from the radio continuum observations. These observations demand that the simplest possible model of the nebula be comprised of three regions whose gross properties: the electrons density and the size: are defined by the continuum measurements. This model has been used for an analysis of the radio recombination line data, and virtually all known radio data on the Orion Nebula including Δv and T/subL//T/subC/ of the H nα lines from 610 MHz to 85 GHz Δv and T/subL//T/subC/ of all the observed H nβ lines; the shape and magnitude of the radio continuum spectrum can be reproduced. The application of this model to the problem of the abundance and distribution of ionized helium with the nebula is also considered

  17. A spectroscopic survey of Orion KL between 41.5 and 50 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, J R; Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J

    2017-09-01

    The nearby massive star-forming region Orion KL is one of the richest molecular reservoirs known in our Galaxy. The region hosts newly formed protostars, and the strong interaction between their radiation and their outflows with the environment results in a series of complex chemical processes leading to a high diversity of interstellar tracers. The region is therefore one of the most frequently observed sources, and the site where many molecular species have been discovered for the first time. With the availability of powerful wideband backends, it is nowadays possible to complete spectral surveys in the entire mm-range to obtain a spectroscopically unbiased chemical picture of the region. In this paper we present a sensitive spectral survey of Orion KL, made with one of the 34 m antennas of the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex in Robledo de Chavela, Spain. The spectral range surveyed is from 41.5 to 50 GHz, with a frequency spacing of 180 kHz (equivalent to ≈ 1.2 km s -1 , depending on the exact frequency). The rms achieved ranges from 8 to 12 mK. The spectrum is dominated by the J = 1 → 0 SiO maser lines and by radio recombination lines (RRLs), which were detected up to Δ n = 11. Above a 3 σ level, we identified 66 RRLs and 161 molecular lines corresponding to 39 isotopologues from 20 molecules; a total of 18 lines remain unidentified, two of them above a 5 σ level. Results of radiative modelling of the detected molecular lines (excluding masers) are presented. At this frequency range, this is the most sensitive survey and also the one with the widest band. Although some complex molecules like CH 3 CH 2 CN and CH 2 CHCN arise from the hot core, most of the detected molecules originate from the low temperature components in Orion KL.

  18. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL★,★★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm−2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 1015 cm−2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. PMID:26869726

  19. A Self-consistent Model of a Ray Through the Orion Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Orion Complex is the best studied region of active star formation, with observational data available over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. These extensive observations give us a good idea of the physical structure of Orion, that being a thin ( ˜ 0.1 parsec) blister H II region on the face of the molecular cloud OMC-1. A PDR, where the transition from atoms & ions to molecules occurs, forms an interface between the two. Most of the physical processes are driven by starlight from the Trapezium cluster, with the star Ori C being the strongest source of radiation. Observations made towards lines of sight near Ori C reveal numerous H II and molecular line intensities. Photoionization calculations have played an important role in determining the physical properties of the regions where these lines originate, but thus far have treated the H II region and PDR as separate problems. Actually these regions are energized by the same source of radiation, with the gas hydrodynamics providing the physical link between them. Here were present a unified physical model of a single ray through the Orion Complex. We choose a region 60'' west of Ori C, where extensive observations exist. These include lines that originate within the H II region, background PDR, and from regions deep inside OMC-1 itself. An improved treatment of the grain, molecular hydrogen, and CO physics have all been developed as part of the continuing evolution of the plasma code Cloudy, so that we can now simultaneously predict the full spectrum with few free parameters. This provides a holistic approach that will be validated in this well-studied environment then extended to the distant starburst galaxies. Acknowledgements: We thank the NSF and NASA for support.

  20. ORION'S BAR: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ACROSS THE DEFINITIVE H+/H0/H2 INTERFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Heathcote, S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has shown the Orion Bar to be an interface between ionized and molecular gas, viewed roughly edge-on, which is excited by the light from the Trapezium cluster. Much of the emission from any star-forming region will originate from such interfaces, so the Bar serves as a foundation test of any emission model. Here we combine X-ray, optical, infrared (IR), and radio data sets to derive emission spectra along the transition from H + to H 0 to H 2 regions. We then reproduce the spectra of these layers with a simulation that simultaneously accounts for the detailed microphysics of the gas, the grains, and molecules, especially H 2 and CO. The magnetic field, observed to be the dominant pressure in another region of the Orion Nebula, is treated as a free parameter, along with the density of cosmic rays. Our model successfully accounts for the optical, IR, and radio observations across the Bar by including a significant magnetic pressure and also heating by an excess density of cosmic rays, which we suggest is due to cosmic rays being trapped in the compressed magnetic field. In the Orion Bar, as we had previously found in M17, momentum carried by radiation and winds from the newly formed stars pushes back and compresses the surrounding gas. There is a rough balance between outward momentum in starlight and the total pressure in atomic and molecular gas surrounding the H + region. If the gas starts out with a weak magnetic field, the starlight from a newly formed cluster will push back the gas and compress the gas, magnetic field, and cosmic rays until magnetic pressure becomes an important factor.

  1. Psychophysiological assessment and correction of spatial disorientation during simulated Orion spacecraft re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S; Toscano, William B; Reschke, Millard F; Tsehay, Addis

    2018-03-02

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures in the rotating chair (Orion tests) simulating angular accelerations of the crew vehicle during re-entry. AFTE subjects received 2 h of training before Orion tests 2, 3, and 4. Motion sickness symptoms, task performance, and physiological measures were recorded on all subjects. Results showed that the AFTE group had significantly lower symptom scores when compared to Controls on test 2 (p = .05), test 3 (p = .03), and test 4 (p = .02). Although there were no significant group differences on task performance, trends showed that AFTE subjects were less impaired than Controls. Heart rate change scores (20 rpm minus baseline) of AFTE subjects indicated significantly less reactivity on Test 4 compared to Test 1 (10.09 versus 16.59, p = .02), while Controls did not change significantly across tests. Results of this study indicate that AFTE may be an effective countermeasure for mitigating spatial disorientation and motion sickness in astronauts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY ORION PROJECT: ECLIPSING BINARIES AND YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; RamIrez, Solange V.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; Hoard, D. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Howell, Steve B.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project is one of the experiments within the broader PTF survey, a systematic automated exploration of the sky for optical transients. Taking advantage of the wide (3. 0 5 x 2. 0 3) field of view available using the PTF camera installed at the Palomar 48 inch telescope, 40 nights were dedicated in 2009 December to 2010 January to perform continuous high-cadence differential photometry on a single field containing the young (7-10 Myr) 25 Ori association. Little is known empirically about the formation of planets at these young ages, and the primary motivation for the project is to search for planets around young stars in this region. The unique data set also provides for much ancillary science. In this first paper, we describe the survey and the data reduction pipeline, and present some initial results from an inspection of the most clearly varying stars relating to two of the ancillary science objectives: detection of eclipsing binaries and young stellar objects. We find 82 new eclipsing binary systems, 9 of which are good candidate 25 Ori or Orion OB1a association members. Of these, two are potential young W UMa type systems. We report on the possible low-mass (M-dwarf primary) eclipsing systems in the sample, which include six of the candidate young systems. Forty-five of the binary systems are close (mainly contact) systems, and one of these shows an orbital period among the shortest known for W UMa binaries, at 0.2156509 ± 0.0000071 days, with flat-bottomed primary eclipses, and a derived distance that appears consistent with membership in the general Orion association. One of the candidate young systems presents an unusual light curve, perhaps representing a semi-detached binary system with an inflated low-mass primary or a star with a warped disk, and may represent an additional young Orion member. Finally, we identify 14 probable new classical T-Tauri stars in our data, along with one previously known (CVSO 35) and

  3. [Crex and Orion analysis in radiation oncology: towards a mutualisation of corrective actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigau, E; Vitoux, A; Debouck, F

    2009-10-01

    After working on treatment organization in radiotherapy (bonnes pratiques organisationnelles en radiothérapie--action pilote MeaH 2003), the development of a security policy has become crucial. With the help of Air France consulting and the MeaH, three cancer centers in Angers, Lille et Villejuif worked together on the implantation of experience feed back committees (Crex) dedicated to the registration, analysis and correction of precursor events. This action has now been implemented in all the FNCLCC centers. It seems now important to have a program of mutualisation of corrective actions for all participants. This will allow to review the Orion method of events analysis.

  4. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Friesen, Rachel K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Seo, Young Min [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shirley, Yancy [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hall, Christine [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2017-09-10

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Deep NIR spectrum of the Orion Bar PDR (Kaplan+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, K. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Oh, H.; Mace, G. N.; Kim, H.; Sokal, K. R.; Pavel, M. D.; Lee, S.; Pak, S.; Park, C.; Oh, J. S.; Jaffe, D. T.

    2017-11-01

    The data were taken with the IGRINS on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory on the night of 2014 October 24 UT; R~45000 or 7.5km/s in two separate H- and K-band channels (1.45-2.45μm). Figure 1 shows the finder chart and the IGRINS slit position and angle superposed on the Orion Bar. The center of the slit was positioned at 05:35:19.73,-05:25:26.7 (J2000). (1 data file).

  6. Processing Near-Infrared Imagery of the Orion Heatshield During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Gibson, David M.; Kennerly, Steve; Osei-Wusu, Kwame; Horvath, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Tack, Steven; Bush, Brett C.; Oliver, A. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The Scientifically Calibrated In-Flight Imagery (SCIFLI) team captured high-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared imagery of the Orion capsule during atmospheric reentry of the EFT-1 mission. A US Navy NP-3D aircraft equipped with a multi-band optical sensor package, referred to as Cast Glance, acquired imagery of the Orion capsule's heatshield during a period when Orion was slowing from approximately Mach 10 to Mach 7. The line-of-sight distance ranged from approximately 65 to 40 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield derived from the near-infrared intensity measurements complemented the in-depth (embedded) thermocouple measurements. Moreover, these derived surface temperatures are essential to the assessment of the thermocouples' reliance on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the surface temperature from the in-depth measurements. The paper describes the image processing challenges associated with a manually-tracked, high-angular rate air-to-air observation. Issues included management of significant frame-to-frame motions due to both tracking jerk and jitter as well as distortions due to atmospheric effects. Corrections for changing sky backgrounds (including some cirrus clouds), atmospheric attenuation, and target orientations and ranges also had to be made. The image processing goal is to reduce the detrimental effects due to motion (both sensor and capsule), vibration (jitter), and atmospherics for image quality improvement, without compromising the quantitative integrity of the data, especially local intensity (temperature) variations. The paper will detail the approach of selecting and utilizing only the highest quality images, registering several co-temporal image frames to a single image frame to the extent frame-to-frame distortions would allow, and then co-adding the registered frames to improve image quality and reduce noise. Using preflight calibration data, the registered and averaged

  7. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating in AEDC Tunnel 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berger, Karen T.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Coblish, Joseph J.; Norris, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. The goals of this test were to measure turbulent heating augmentation levels on the heat shield and to obtain high-fidelity heating data for assessment of computational fluid dynamics methods. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins for the computational method. Data from both the wind tunnel test and the computational study are presented herein.

  8. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna; Rosolowsky, Erik; Offner, Stella S. R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi; Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared; Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine

    2017-01-01

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  9. Orion in Homer: is it a Terrestrial, an Astral or an Astronomical Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    In Greek literature the subjects that relate to stars and constellations are very complex. Various studies are involved in this field of investigation, such as those of astronomy, astrology, mythology, astral-metereology and philology; the situation becomes even more complicated when we attempt to reconstruct a picture of the knowledge of the stars and the relative degree of consciousness of this matter existent during the Homeric age. In this brief report we shall look at the constellation of Orion. The discussed arguments will point out the sharp differences that exist between terrestrial, astronomical and astral myths.

  10. Heating Augmentation Due to Compression Pad Cavities on the Project Orion CEV Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion CEV heat-shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and Mach 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  11. Operational radio interferometry observation network (ORION) mobile VLBI station. [for NASA Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Vegos, C. J.; Parks, G. S.; Sniffin, R. W.; Gannon, D. L.; Nishimura, H. G.; Clements, P. A.; Mckinney, R. P.; Menninger, F. J.; Vandenberg, N. R.

    1983-01-01

    The design and current status of the ORION mobile VLBI station is described. The station consists of a five-meter antenna, a receiving and recording system installed in a mobile antenna transporter, and an electronics transporter. The station is designed for field operation by a two-person crew at the rate of two sites per week. The various subsystems are described in detail, including the antenna, housing facilities for electronics and crew, microwave equipment, receiver, data acquisition subsystem, frequency and timing subsystem, phase calibration, monitoring and control, water vapor radiometer, and communications.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE HERSCHEL /HEXOS SPECTRAL SURVEY TOWARD ORION SOUTH: A MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE WITH STRONG EXTERNAL IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tolls, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Cabrit, S.; Pagani, L. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC). Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Goldsmith, P. F.; Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnstone, D. [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Tak, F. F. S. van der, E-mail: ktahani@ucalgary.ca [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-20

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory , covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral lines with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3 σ , originating from 52 different molecular and atomic species. We model each of the detected species assuming conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. This analysis provides an estimate of the physical conditions of Orion South (column density, temperature, source size, and V {sub LSR}). We find evidence for three different cloud components: a cool ( T {sub ex} ∼ 20–40 K), spatially extended (>60″), and quiescent (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 4 km s{sup -1}) component; a warmer ( T {sub ex} ∼ 80–100 K), less spatially extended (∼30″), and dynamic (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}) component, which is likely affected by embedded outflows; and a kinematically distinct region ( T {sub ex} > 100 K; V {sub LSR} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}), dominated by emission from species that trace ultraviolet irradiation, likely at the surface of the cloud. We find little evidence for the existence of a chemically distinct “hot-core” component, likely due to the small filling factor of the hot core or hot cores within the Herschel beam. We find that the chemical composition of the gas in the cooler, quiescent component of Orion South more closely resembles that of the quiescent ridge in Orion-KL. The gas in the warmer, dynamic component, however, more closely resembles that of the Compact Ridge and Plateau regions of Orion-KL, suggesting that higher temperatures and shocks also have an influence on the overall chemistry of Orion South.

  13. [The detector, the command neuron and plastic convergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, E N

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the structure of detectors, the function of commanding neurones and the problem of relationship between detectors and commanding neurons. An example of hierarchial organization of detectors is provided by the colour analyser in which a layer of receptors, a layer of opponent neurones and a layer of colour-selective detectors are singled out. The colour detector is selectively sensitive to a certain combination of excitations at the input. If the detector is selectively activated by a certain combination of excitations at the input, the selective activation of the commanding neurone through a pool of motoneurones brings about a reaction at the output, specific in its organization. The reflexogenic zone of the reaction is determined by the detectors which converge on the commanding neurone controlling the given reaction. The plasticity of the reaction results from a plastic convergence of the detectors on the commanding neurone which controls the reaction. This comprises selective switching off the detectors from the commanding neurone (habituation) and connecting the detectors to the commanding neurone (facilitation).

  14. Doublet III neutral beam multi-stream command language system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Garcia, J.R.

    1983-12-01

    A multi-stream command language system was developed to provide control of the dual source neutral beam injectors on the Doublet III experiment at GA Technologies Inc. The Neutral Beam command language system consists of three parts: compiler, sequencer, and interactive task. The command language, which was derived from the Doublet III tokamak command language, POPS, is compiled, using a recursive descent compiler, into reverse polish notation instructions which then can be executed by the sequencer task. The interactive task accepts operator commands via a keyboard. The interactive task directs the operation of three input streams, creating commands which are then executed by the sequencer. The streams correspond to the two sources within a Doublet III neutral beam, plus an interactive stream. The sequencer multiplexes the execution of instructions from these three streams. The instructions include reads and writes to an operator terminal, arithmetic computations, intrinsic functions such as CAMAC input and output, and logical instructions. The neutral beam command language system was implemented using Modular Computer Systems (ModComp) Pascal and consists of two tasks running on a ModComp Classic IV computer

  15. Centralized Command and Control of Theater Missile Defense: The Joint Force Missile Defense Component Coordinator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucey, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The numerous commands, decentralized command and control, and limited and expensive resources involved in TMD require changes to the joint doctrine in order to provide unity of command and economy of force...

  16. ASTP crewmen in Docking Module trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew, is on the right. The other crewman is Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP prime crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

  17. ORION: a computer code for evaluating environmental concentrations and dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Nomura, T.; Iwai, M.

    1983-05-01

    The computer code ORION has been developed to evaluate the environmental concentrations and the dose equivalent to human organs or tissue from air-borne radionuclides released from multiple nuclear installations. The modified Gaussian plume model is applied to calculate the dispersion of the radionuclide. Gravitational settling, dry deposition, precipitation scavenging and radioactive decay are considered to be the causes of depletion and deposition on the ground or on vegetation. ORION is written in the FORTRAN IV language and can be run on IBM 360, 370, 303X, 43XX and FACOM M-series computers. 8 references, 6 tables

  18. The constancy of the ratio of the molecular hydrogen lines at 3.8 μm in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.W.J.L.; Toner, M.P.; Williams, P.M.; Burton, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-0 O(7) and O-O S(13) lines of H 2 , at 3.807 and 3.846 μm, have been mapped over the region of the Orion molecular outflow. The intensity ratio of these lines is found to be independent of position in the outflow. From this it is inferred that the structure of the shocks and their cooling flows in Orion may be more akin to hydrodynamic shocks than the low-temperature C-shocks that are currently favoured. (author)

  19. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  20. Commander manipulator scoops prestigious mulit-million pound BNFL contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Andrew.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-one Commander robotic arms are on order from INBIS (formerly Ricardo Hitec) and BNFL Engineering Limited (''BEL'', the engineering arm of parent company BNFL). The multi-million pound contract was won amid fierce competition from other well-known names in robotic engineering. The specially designed Commander manipulators will be engaged in remotely handling Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) in a suite of four BNFL ILW plants, which are currently either under construction or planned at Sellafield. The first Commander will delivered to BNFL's Sellafield Silo Emptying Project in January 1998. (Author)

  1. Full Spectrum Operations: An Analysis of Course Content at the Command and General Staff College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, II, Frank L

    2008-01-01

    .... This monograph examined the Intermediate Level Education, the Advanced Military Studies Program, and the Tactical Commanders Development Program curricula at the Command and General Staff College...

  2. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  3. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of ethyl isocyanide and its searches in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Guillemin, J. C.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Cernicharo, J.

    2018-02-01

    Context. About 40 cyanide compounds have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only 3 examples of organic isocyanide compounds were observed in this medium. Ethyl isocyanide is one of the best candidates for possible detection. Aim. To date, measurements of rotational spectra are limited to 40 GHz. The extrapolation of the prediction in the millimeter wave domain is inaccurate and does not permit an unambiguous detection. Methods: The rotational spectra were reinvestigated from 0.15 to 1 THz. Using the new prediction, we searched for the compound ethyl isocyanide in Orion KL and Sgr B2. Results: We newly assigned 2906 transitions and fitted these new data with those from previous studies, reaching quantum numbers up to J = 103 and Ka = 30. The asymmetric top Hamiltonian proposed by Watson in the Ir representation was used for the analysis, and both reductions A and S were tested. The search for CH3CH2NC in Sgr B2 (IRAM 30m) and Orion KL (IRAM 30m, ALMA Science Verification) result in a non-detection; upper limits to the column density were derived. Tables S1-S4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A44

  4. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Peimbert, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo, Postal 70-264, 04510 México D. F., México (Mexico); García-Díaz, Ma. T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Rubin, Robert H., E-mail: cr.odell@vanderbilt.edu [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database.

  5. PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN THE ORION OMC1 REGION IMAGED WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, J. A.; Sheehan, P. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bally, J. M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, A., E-mail: jeisner@email.arizona.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    We present ALMA observations of the Orion Nebula that cover the OMC1 outflow region. Our focus in this paper is on compact emission from protoplanetary disks. We mosaicked a field containing ∼600 near-IR-identified young stars, around which we can search for sub-millimeter emission tracing dusty disks. Approximately 100 sources are known proplyds identified with the Hubble Space Telescope . We detect continuum emission at 1 mm wavelengths toward ∼20% of the proplyd sample, and ∼8% of the larger sample of near-IR objects. The noise in our maps allows 4 σ detection of objects brighter than ∼1.5 mJy, corresponding to protoplanetary disk masses larger than 1.5 M {sub J} (using standard assumptions about dust opacities and gas-to-dust ratios). None of these disks are detected in contemporaneous CO(2-1) or C{sup 18}O(2-1) observations, suggesting that the gas-to-dust ratios may be substantially smaller than the canonical value of 100. Furthermore, since dust grains may already be sequestered in large bodies in Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) disks, the inferred masses of disk solids may be underestimated. Our results suggest that the distribution of disk masses in this region is compatible with the detection rate of massive planets around M dwarfs, which are the dominant stellar constituent in the ONC.

  6. Pre-main sequence masses and the age spread in the Orion cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    The spread in formation times for stars earlier than GO in the Orion cluster is investigated. The range of stellar ages in this cluster is found to extend from at least 10 6 years to about 10 7 years. On the basis of this evidence and the similarity of the color--magnitude diagrams of other young clusters to the Orion cluster, it is suggested that the current method of dating these clusters (from the point at which the most massive stars just reach the zero-age main sequence) might not be valid. The masses of forty-one pre-main sequence stars within the ranges 4.05 less than or equal to log(Te) less than or equal to 3.77 and 0.6 less than or equal to log (L/L/sub sun/) less than or equal to 2.1 are determined from observed effective temperatures, luminosities, and gravities. These masses were then compared with those expected from Iben's (1965) pre-main sequence evolutionary calculations. In most cases, the agreement between these values was found to be within the observational errors. Finally, the pre-main sequence stars possessing infrared excesses are found to be apparently among the most massive and youngest stars still contracting toward the zero-age main sequence

  7. ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM AND TENTATIVE DETECTION OF DCOOCH3-METHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margules, L.; Huet, T. R.; Demaison, J.; Carvajal, M.; Kleiner, I.; Moellendal, H.; Tercero, B.; Marcelino, N.; Cernicharo, J.

    2010-01-01

    New centimeter-wave (7-80 GHz) and submillimeter-wave (580-661 GHz) spectra of a deuterated species of methyl formate (DCOOCH 3 ) have been measured. Transitions with a maximum value of J = 64 and K = 36 have been assigned and fitted together with previous measurements. The internal rotation of this compound was treated using the so-called rho axis method. A total of 1703 transitions were fitted using this method. Only 24 parameters were employed in the final fit, which has an rms deviation of 94.2 kHz. The dipole moment and the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the deuterated specie have also been obtained. This new study has permitted a tentative detection of DCOOCH 3 in Orion with the IRAM 30 m telescope based on the observation of more than 100 spectral features with low blending effects among the 400 lines expected in the observed frequency domain (for which over 300 are heavily blended with other species). These 100 transitions are above noise and confusion limited without heavy blending and cannot be assigned to any other species. Moreover, none of the strongest unblended transitions is missing. The derived source-averaged total column density for DCOOCH 3 is 7.8 x 10 14 cm -2 and the DCOOCH 3 /HCOOCH 3 column density ratio varies between 0.02 and 0.06 in the different cloud components of Orion. This value is consistent with the deuteration enhancement found for other species in this cloud.

  8. DISCOVERY OF AN EXPANDING MOLECULAR BUBBLE IN ORION BN/KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Patel, Nimesh A.

    2011-01-01

    During their infancy, stars are well known to expel matter violently in the form of well-defined, collimated outflows. A fairly unique exception is found in the Orion Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinmann-Low star-forming region where a poorly collimated and somewhat disordered outflow composed of numerous elongated 'finger-like' structures was discovered more than 30 years ago. In this Letter, we report the discovery in the same region of an even more atypical outflow phenomenon. Using 13 CO(2-1) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array, we have identified there a 500-1000 year old, expanding, roughly spherically symmetric bubble whose characteristics are entirely different from those of known outflows associated with young stellar objects. The center of the bubble coincides with the initial position of a now defunct massive multiple stellar system suspected to have disintegrated 500 years ago and with the center of symmetry of the system of molecular fingers surrounding the Kleinmann-Low nebula. We hypothesize that the bubble is made up of gas and dust that used to be part of the circumstellar material associated with the decayed multiple system. The Orion hot core, recently proposed to be the result of the impact of a shock wave onto a massive dense core, is located toward the southeast quadrant of the bubble. The supersonic expansion of the bubble and/or the impact of some low-velocity filaments provide a natural explanation for its origin.

  9. The ORION statement: guidelines for transparent reporting of outbreak reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sheldon P; Cooper, Ben S; Kibbler, Chris C; Cookson, Barry D; Roberts, Jenny A; Medley, Graham F; Duckworth, Georgia; Lai, Rosalind; Ebrahim, Shah; Brown, Erwin M; Wiffen, Phil J; Davey, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The quality of research in hospital epidemiology (infection control) must be improved to be robust enough to influence policy and practice. In order to raise the standards of research and publication, a CONSORT equivalent for these largely quasi-experimental studies has been prepared by the authors of two relevant systematic reviews, following consultation with learned societies, editors of journals, and researchers. The ORION (Outbreak Reports and Intervention Studies Of Nosocomial infection) statement consists of a 22 item checklist, and a summary table. The emphasis is on transparency to improve the quality of reporting and on the use of appropriate statistical techniques. The statement has been endorsed by a number of professional special interest groups and societies. Like CONSORT, ORION should be considered a "work in progress", which requires ongoing dialogue for successful promotion and dissemination. The statement is therefore offered for further public discussion. Journals and research councils are strongly recommended to incorporate it into their submission and reviewing processes. Feedback to the authors is encouraged and the statement will be revised in 2 years.

  10. Orion: a web-based application designed to monitor resident and fellow performance on-call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Kim, Woojin; Scanlon, Mary H

    2011-10-01

    Radiology residency and fellowship training provides a unique opportunity to evaluate trainee performance and determine the impact of various educational interventions. We have developed a simple software application (Orion) using open-source tools to facilitate the identification and monitoring of resident and fellow discrepancies in on-call preliminary reports. Over a 6-month period, 19,200 on-call studies were interpreted by 20 radiology residents, and 13,953 on-call studies were interpreted by 25 board-certified radiology fellows representing eight subspecialties. Using standard review macros during faculty interpretation, each of these reports was classified as "agreement", "minor discrepancy", and "major discrepancy" based on the potential to impact patient management or outcome. Major discrepancy rates were used to establish benchmarks for resident and fellow performance by year of training, modality, and subspecialty, and to identify residents and fellows demonstrating a significantly higher major discrepancy rate compared with their classmates. Trends in discrepancies were used to identify subspecialty-specific areas of increased major discrepancy rates in an effort to tailor the didactic and case-based curriculum. A series of missed-case conferences were developed based on trends in discrepancies, and the impact of these conferences is currently being evaluated. Orion is a powerful information technology tool that can be used by residency program directors, fellowship programs directors, residents, and fellows to improve radiology education and training.

  11. MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FILAMENTARY MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poidevin, Frédérick; Bastien, P.; Jones, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    New visible and K-band polarization measurements of stars surrounding molecular clouds in Orion A and stars in the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) vicinity are presented. Our results confirm that magnetic fields located inside the Orion A molecular clouds and in their close neighborhood are spatially connected. On and around the BN object, we measured the angular offsets between the K-band polarization data and available submillimeter (submm) data. We find high values of the polarization degree, P K , and of the optical depth, τ K , close to an angular offset position of 90° whereas lower values of P K and τ K are observed for smaller angular offsets. We interpret these results as evidence for the presence of various magnetic field components toward lines of sight in the vicinity of BN. On a larger scale, we measured the distribution of angular offsets between available H-band polarization data and the same submm data set. Here we find an increase of (P H ) with angular offset, which we interpret as a rotation of the magnetic field by ∼< 60°. This trend generalizes previous results on small scales toward and around lines of sight to BN and is consistent with a twist of the magnetic field on a larger scale toward OMC-1. A comparison of our results with several other studies suggests that a two-component magnetic field, perhaps helical, could be wrapping the OMC-1 filament.

  12. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database

  13. A Commander in Chief's Network-Centric Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copley, E

    2002-01-01

    .... Each Armed Service has begun training and equipping its force using the tenets of Network-Centric Operations, but those forces come together for the first time under the combatant Commander-in-Chief...

  14. Architecting Joint Command and Control System of System Capability Certifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acosta, Jacob; Hoesly, Scot; Huseth, Scott; Krider, Steven; Lamb, Jeremy; Martin, Calvin; Medina, Vince; Medina, Jorge; Nguyen, Michael; Patel, Jaykant

    2007-01-01

    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems, each originally designed to address a single warfighting function, have been assembled into an interdependent C4I System of Systems (SoS...

  15. Acquisition and Development of System Command (SYSCOM) Technical Manuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (NAVSEA) and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). TMs are the primary information source for technical training, installation, operation, testing, maintenance, and repair associated with NAVSEA/SPAWAR systems or equipment...

  16. The Big Issue: Command and Combat in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, David

    2003-01-01

    This Occasional Paper considers command and combat in the information age. A small team in the British Army's conceptual "think tank," the Directorate General Development and Doctrine, worked together on this issue for 18 months...

  17. Implementing UPDM to develop command and control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems engineering is an established approach to develop systems, including complex sociotechnical systems such as Command and Control (C2) Systems. These systems often occur through introduction of a new technology into an existing system...

  18. U.S. Pacific Command > Organization > Organization Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Responsibility USPACOM Previous Commanders Organization Organization Chart Media News Flickr Photos Video Directory Media Inquiries Home : Organization : Organization Chart About DoD DoD Careers Join the Military

  19. Contract Claims Experience at the Naval Air Systems Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carty, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) experienced at the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) between January 1997 and December 1998 as a means to identify areas of potential improvement in management practices which could result in reduced numbers of claims being submitted...

  20. Measuring, Monitoring, and Managing Knowledge in Command and Control Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jared; Weil, Shawn A; Hess, Kathleen P

    2006-01-01

    .... Iconography and interaction standards for such displays are well defined. Less attention has been paid to representing non-geographical information, such as information about the state of knowledge and decision making in a command staff...

  1. Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domeshek, Eric

    2002-01-01

    ... (ITS) for high-level battlefield command reasoning skills. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop new ITS techniques and technology for teaching skills that cannot he taught as simple methods and procedures to he followed...

  2. From Sensory Space to Motor Commands: Lessons from Saccades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Optican, L

    2001-01-01

    .... We conclude that intrinsic brain signals might represent non-physical signals, such as desired sensory states, approximate motor drives, and distributed motor commands, rather than physical signals (e.g...

  3. Command and Control Planning and Teamwork: Exploring the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Bruce S; Lickteig, Carl W

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper examines how participant ratings of command and control planning and observer assessments of teamwork were related in a series of futuristic missions conducted by the Mounted Maneuver...

  4. Opening the Aperture... Ending Service "Branding" of US Unified Commands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handy, Russell

    2003-01-01

    .... It asserts that over tine, the defense establishment runs the risk of establishing a cultural identity in the command that limits perspectives to aground-, sea-, or air and space-centric viewpoint...

  5. The International Criminal Court: Considerations for the Joint Force Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the issues and remedies a Joint Force Commander should be concerned about because of the relationship between the United States and the newly-created International Criminal Court (ICC...

  6. Gesture Commanding of a Robot with EVA Gloves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gestures commands allow a human operator to directly interact with a robot without the use of intermediary hand controllers. There are two main types of hand gesture...

  7. Should the Department of Defense Establish a Joint Corrections Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    ... and control element at the combatant command level. The military and the Coalition Provisional Authority's ability to establish a national penal system, conduct standardized training and effective prison operations to rebuild the Iraqi penal system...

  8. Joint Forward Operating Base Elements of Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, William

    2002-01-01

    ... and its associated leadership, command of air assets at a joint forward operating base lacks guidance. Today, the United States prosecutes an air war over Afghanistan from bases in Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan...

  9. Software and commands on VAX CERN. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, V.K.; Trofimov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    This guide describes a structure of applications software, which is available at VAX-type computers in JINR. The software includes program libraries, scientific programs and commands developed at CERN. 20 refs

  10. Systems Engineering Management Training at Naval Air Systems Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebel, James

    2000-01-01

    Within the past few years, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) has undergone several major changes including an engineering reorganization from a matrix organization to an Integrated Program Team/Competency Aligned Organization (IPT/CAO...

  11. Public Affairs Capacity Building: A Soft Tool for Combatant Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salata, Jason P

    2008-01-01

    Public affairs capacity building is a valuable soft component of the Combatant Commander's Theater Campaign Plan that builds habitual relationships, fosters transparency, and enhances the ability to shape the AOR...

  12. Recommendations on Future Operational Environments Command Control and Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that today a nation's telecommunication networks, critical infrastructure, and information systems are vulnerable to growing number of attacks in cyberspace. Cyber space contains very different problems involving various sets of threats, targets and costs. Cyber security is not only problem of banking, communication or transportation. It also threatens core systems of army as command control. Some significant recommendations on command control (C2) and cyber security h...

  13. Comparative Research of Navy Voluntary Education at Operational Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    into a national and international market. This is especially effects land-grant institutions who can educate the citizens within their state by...RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS by Christopher B. Veenhuis March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: William Hatch Chad...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. The Role of the NCO Inside the BCT Command Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    formation. Doctrine 2015 introduced the importance of mission command doctrine into operations at all levels of leadership, and in the last five...utilizing tents is crucial to support the combined arms maneuver of the brigade. Physical layout of the command post can promote or hinder the ability to...equipment when a printer starting printing or a coffee maker was turned on? Understanding how PDISE configurations distribute loads in order to maintain

  15. Command Leadership DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Command Leadership DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE...Report #15-18 1 Command Leadership DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary Background In 2014, DEOMI released DEOCS 4.0 for Department of Defense...individual items on the DEOCS. The following paper details the work conducted to modify the factor of Leadership Cohesion so that it focuses more

  16. Environmental Licensing: an Instrument of Command and Control by Exception?

    OpenAIRE

    Sleman Chams, Juliette; Gestión Ambiental de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico-CRA, autoridad ambiental del Departamento del Atlántico,; Velásquez Muñoz, Carlos Javier; Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla)

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the situation of the most important instrument of command and control existing in the Colombian environmental legislation: the environmental license. Since its first formal regulation, on behalf of Decree 1753 of August 3, 1994, has received several modifications which, apparently, have made, in spite of its importance, in an instrument of command and control by exception. The article revises on the scope of each of the modifications and the justifications put forward by...

  17. Scenario design : adaptive architecture for command and control experiment eight

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Frankie J.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control (A2C2) project is an ongoing research effort sponsored by the Office of Naval Research to explore adaptation in joint command and control. The objective of the project's eighth experiment is to study the adjustments that organizations make when they are confronted with a scenario for which their organizational is ill-suited. To accomplish this, teams will each be in one of two fundame...

  18. An analysis of Navy Recruiting Command's officer goaling models

    OpenAIRE

    Senter, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This study examines the goaling models used by the Navy Recruiting Command for the Nurse Corps and Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NUPOC) programs. These two programs serve as representative samples for the numerous officer recruitment programs administered by the Navy Recruiting Command. The intent of the study is to analyze and validate the accuracy of the current goaling models, to ascertain factors which could improve the accur...

  19. Commands for financial data management and portfolio optimization

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alberto Dorantes

    2013-01-01

    Several econometric software offer portfolio management tools for practitioners and researchers. For example, MatLab and R offer a great variety of tools for the simulation, optimization, and analysis of financial time series. Stata, together with Mata, offers powerful programming tools for the simulation, optimization, and analysis of financial data. However, related user commands are scarce. In this presentation, commands for online market data collection, data manipulation, and financial a...

  20. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 3: Commands specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (3 of 4) contains the specification for the command language for the AMPS system. The volume contains a requirements specification for the operating system and commands and a design specification for the operating system and command. The operating system and commands sits on top of the protocol. The commands are an extension of the present set of AMPS commands in that the commands are more compact, allow multiple sub-commands to be bundled into one command, and have provisions for identifying the sender and the intended receiver. The commands make no change to the actual software that implement the commands.

  1. Search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a loosely coherent algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelecsenyi, N.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vansuch, G.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One

  2. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral

  3. 77 FR 29747 - Orbit E-Commerce, Inc., Orion Ethanol, Inc., Pacificnet, Inc., PainCare Holdings, Inc., Pay88...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Orbit E-Commerce, Inc., Orion Ethanol, Inc., Pacificnet, Inc., PainCare Holdings, Inc., Pay88, Inc., Rahaxi, Inc., and Raven Biofuels International Corp... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Orbit E-Commerce, Inc...

  4. Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2): a systems engineering analysis of scaleable communications for Regional Combatant Commanders

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Lisa; Cannon, Lennard; Reyes, Ronel; Bae, Kitan; Colgary, James; Minerowicz, Nick; Leong, Chris; Lim, Harry; Lim, Hang Sheng; Ng, Chin Chin; Neo, Tiong Tien; Tan, Guan Chye; Ng, Yu Loon; Wong, Eric; Wong, Heng Yue

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Disaster relief operations, such as the 2005 Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina, and wartime operations, such as Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, have identified the need for a standardized command and control system interoperable among Joint, Coalition, and Interagency entities. The Systems Engineering Analysis Cohort 9 (SEA-9) Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2) integrated project team completed a systems engineering (SE) ...

  5. Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition For Command Speech Controller Multimedia Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Arief Wardhany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of multimedia devices development is controlling through voice. Nowdays voice that can be recognized only in English. To overcome the issue, then recognition using Indonesian language model and accousticc model and dictionary. Automatic Speech Recognizier is build using engine CMU Sphinx with modified english language to Indonesian Language database and XBMC used as the multimedia player. The experiment is using 10 volunteers testing items based on 7 commands. The volunteers is classifiedd by the genders, 5 Male & 5 female. 10 samples is taken in each command, continue with each volunteer perform 10 testing command. Each volunteer also have to try all 7 command that already provided. Based on percentage clarification table, the word “Kanan” had the most recognize with percentage 83% while “pilih” is the lowest one. The word which had the most wrong clarification is “kembali” with percentagee 67%, while the word “kanan” is the lowest one. From the result of Recognition Rate by male there are several command such as “Kembali”, “Utama”, “Atas “ and “Bawah” has the low Recognition Rate. Especially for “kembali” cannot be recognized as the command in the female voices but in male voice that command has 4% of RR this is because the command doesn’t have similar word in english near to “kembali” so the system unrecognize the command. Also for the command “Pilih” using the female voice has 80% of RR but for the male voice has only 4% of RR. This problem is mostly because of the different voice characteristic between adult male and female which male has lower voice frequencies (from 85 to 180 Hz than woman (165 to 255 Hz.The result of the experiment showed that each man had different number of recognition rate caused by the difference tone, pronunciation, and speed of speech. For further work needs to be done in order to improving the accouracy of the Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition system

  6. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500–1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 105 cm−3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+ J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH+ J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. Results The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd

  7. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A; Habart, E; Bernard-Salas, J; Goicoechea, J R; Abergel, A; Pilleri, P; Dartois, E; Joblin, C; Gerin, M; Godard, B

    2017-03-01

    The methylidyne cation (CH + ) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H 2 or hot gas (~500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 10 5 cm -3 ) followed by nonreactive collisions with H 2 , H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH + and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH + excitation. Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH + and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. We present spatially sampled maps of the CH + J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C + , O and H 2 , and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH + J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. The OH and especially CH + lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH + and OH morphologies indicate that CH + formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H 2 . This, together with the observed broad CH + line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd 244

  8. The complete Einstein Observatory X-ray survey of the Orion Nebula region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed archival Einstein Observatory images of a roughly 4.5 square degree region centered on the Orion Nebula. In all, 245 distinct X-ray sources have been detected in six High Resolution Imager (HRI) and 17 Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations. An optical database of over 2700 stars has been assembled to search for candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources. Roughly half the X-ray sources are identified with a single Orion Nebula cluster member. The 10 main-sequence O6-B5 cluster stars detected in Orion have X-ray activity levels comparable to field O and B stars. X-ray emission has also been detected in the direction of four main-sequence late-B and early-A type stars. Since the mechanisms producing X-rays in late-type coronae and early-type winds cannot operate in the late-B and early-A type atmospheres, we argue that the observed X-rays, with L(sub X) approximately = 3 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s, are probably produced in the coronae of unseen late-type binary companions. Over 100 X-ray sources have been associated with late-type pre-main sequence stars. The upper envelope of X-ray activity rises sharply from mid-F to late-G, with L(sub x)/L(sub bol) in the range 10(exp -4) to 2 x 10(exp -3) for stars later than approximately G7. We have looked for variability of the late-type cluster members on timescales of a day to a year and find that 1/4 of the stars show significantly variable X-ray emission. A handful of the late-type stars have published rotational periods and spectroscopic rotational velocities; however, we see no correlation between X-ray activity and rotation. Thus, for this sample of pre-main-sequence stars, the large dispersion in X-ray activity does not appear to be caused by the dispersion in rotation, in contrast with results obtained for low-mass main-sequence stars in the Pleiades and pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga.

  9. Polarimetry of the H/sub 2/ emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, R R [Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA)

    1982-08-01

    We have measured the linear polarization of the upsilon = 1 ..-->.. 0 S(1) emission of molecular hydrogen at three positions in the Orion Molecular Cloud. To the north-west of BNKL, at H/sub 2/ Peak 1 and Peak 5, we find p approximately = 10 per cent in position angle 110/sup 0/, in good agreement with previous continuum polarization measurements for the nearby source IRS 2. At H/sub 2/ Peak 2 to the south-east, we find p approximately = 0 per cent. The absence of H/sub 2/ emission-line polarization at Peak 2 is inconsistent with the scattering mechanism proposed by Elsasser and Staude and also with the shock-induced grain alignment mechanism discussed by Johnson et al. The observed spatial variations in polarization may be due to small-scale structure in the magnetic field of the cloud, or to local differences in the relative temperatures of the gas and dust.

  10. The complexity of Orion: an ALMA view. I. Data and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, L.; Favre, C.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Snell, R.; Melnick, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. We wish to improve our understanding of the Orion central star formation region (Orion-KL) and disentangle its complexity. Aims: We collected data with ALMA during cycle 2 in 16 GHz of total bandwidth spread between 215.1 and 252.0 GHz with a typical sensitivity of 5 mJy/beam (2.3 mJy/beam from 233.4 to 234.4 GHz) and a typical beam size of 1.̋7 × 1.̋0 (average position angle of 89°). We produced a continuum map and studied the emission lines in nine remarkable infrared spots in the region including the hot core and the compact ridge, plus the recently discovered ethylene glycol peak. Methods: We present the data, and report the detection of several species not previously seen in Orion, including n- and I-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN), and the tentative detection of a number of other species including glycolaldehyde (CH2(OH)CHO). The first detections of gGg' ethylene glycol (gGg' (CH2OH)2) and of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in Orion are presented in a companion paper. We also report the possible detection of several vibrationally excited states of cyanoacetylene (HC3N), and of its 13C isotopologues. We were not able to detect the 16O18O line predicted by our detection of O2 with Herschel, due to blending with a nearby line of vibrationally excited ethyl cyanide. We do not confirm the tentative detection of hexatriynyl (C6H) and cyanohexatriyne (HC7N) reported previously, or of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission. Results: We report a complex velocity structure only partially revealed before. Components as extreme as -7 and +19 km s-1 are detected inside the hot region. Thanks to different opacities of various velocity components, in some cases we can position these components along the line of sight. We propose that the systematically redshifted and blueshifted wings of several species observed in the northern part of the region are linked to the explosion that occurred 500 yr ago. The compact ridge, noticeably farther south displays extremely narrow lines ( 1 km s

  11. Kinematics of the Optically Visible YSOs toward the Orion B Molecular Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Mateo, Mario [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bailey, John I. III, E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    We present results from high-resolution optical spectra toward 66 young stars in the Orion B molecular cloud to study their kinematics and other properties. Observations of the H α and Li i 6707 Å lines are used to check membership and accretion properties. While the stellar radial velocities of NGC 2068 and L1622 are in good agreement with that of the molecular gas, many of the stars in NGC 2024 show a considerable offset. This could be a signature of either the expansion of the cluster, the high degree of the ejection of the stars from the cluster through dynamical interaction, or the acceleration of the gas due to stellar feedback.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical spectroscopy toward Orion B fields (Kounkel+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, M.; Hartmann, L.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I., III

    2018-03-01

    We observed a total of four fields toward the Orion B with Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS), a multi-object spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. These fields included regions toward NGC2023, 2024, 2068, and L1622 (Table 1). Due to their spatial proximity, we consider NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 together in the analysis presented in this paper. All regions were observed with the Hα and LiI filters, simultaneously spanning two orders, covering the spectral range of 6525-6750Å with a spectral resolution R~20000 between 2014 Dec and 2017 Mar. A maximum of 128 sources can be observed in this configuration, with the field of view of 29' in diameter. NGC 2068 has also been re-observed a second time with the Hα and the LiI filters, as well as the MgI filter, which spans the spectral range of 5100-5210Å. (2 data files).

  13. On dynamical evolution of the bright star subsystem in the Orion Sword cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, V.P.; Kalinina, E.P.; Kholopov, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    With the help of numerical integration of the system of ordinary differential equations of the 102nd order, a possible dynamical evolution of the subsystem of 17 brightest stars in the Orion Sword open cluster has been examined in the interval of 20,1x10 6 years. In the process of transition through the region occupied by the cluster core taking place with a ''cycle'' of about 7 million years, the brightest stars of the cluster begin to concentrate mostly in the core region. Some of them acquire motions along elongated orbits, remaining during a long time in the limits of the cluster's corona, while one of stars is thrown away from the cluster with the hyperbolic velocity. Moreover, two wide pairs of stars are originating, which are analogous to those observed in the galactic field

  14. The magnetic environment of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble as revealed by Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J. D.; Bracco, A.; Pon, A.

    2018-02-01

    Using the 353-GHz polarization observations by the Planck satellite we characterize the magnetic field in the Orion-Eridanus superbubble, a nearby expanding structure that spans more than 1600 square degrees in the sky. We identify a region of both low dispersion of polarization orientations and high polarization fraction associated with the outer wall of the superbubble identified in the most recent models of the large-scale shape of the region. We use the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method to derive plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strengths of tens of μG toward the southern edge of the bubble. The comparison of these values with existing Zeeman splitting observations of HI in emission suggests that the large-scale magnetic field in the region was primarily shaped by the expanding superbubble.

  15. Overview of laser systems for the Orion facility at the AWE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Nicholas; Danson, Colin; Duffield, Stuart; Egan, David; Elsmere, Stephen; Girling, Mark; Harvey, Ewan; Hillier, David; Norman, Michael; Parker, Stefan; Treadwell, Paul; Winter, David; Bett, Thomas

    2013-05-20

    The commissioning of the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the UK has recently been completed. The facility is a twelve beam Nd:glass-based system for studying high energy density physics. It consists of ten frequency-tripled beam-lines operating with nanosecond pulses, synchronized with two beam-lines with subpicosecond pulses, each capable of delivering 500 J to target. One of the short pulse beams has the option of frequency doubling, at reduced aperture, to yield up to 100 J at 527 nm in a subpicosecond pulse with high temporal contrast. An extensive array of target diagnostics is provided. This article describes the laser design and commissioning and presents key performance data of the facility's laser systems.

  16. On the formation of runaway stars BN and x in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, J. P.; Tan, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    We explore scenarios for the dynamical ejection of stars BN and x from source I in the Kleinmann-Low nebula of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), which is important because it is the closest region of massive star formation. This ejection would cause source I to become a close binary or a merger product of two stars. We thus consider binary-binary encounters as the mechanism to produce this event. By running a large suite of N-body simulations, we find that it is nearly impossible to match the observations when using the commonly adopted masses for the participants, especially a source I mass of 7 M⊙. The only way to recreate the event is if source I is more massive, that is, 20 M⊙. However, even in this case, the likelihood of reproducing the observed system is low. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding this important star-forming region.

  17. Orion Heat Shield Manufacturing Producibility Improvements for the EM-1 Flight Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, William J.; Stewart, Michael; Harris, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes how the ORION program is incorporating improvements in the heat shield design and manufacturing processes reducing programmatic risk and ensuring crew safety in support of NASA's Exploration missions. The approach for the EFT-1 heat shield utilized a low risk Apollo heritage design and manufacturing process using an Avcoat TPS ablator with a honeycomb substrate to provide a one piece heat shield to meet the mission re-entry heating environments. The EM-1 mission will have additional flight systems installed to fly to the moon and return to Earth. Heat shield design and producibility improvements have been incorporated in the EM-1 vehicle to meet deep space mission requirements. The design continues to use the Avcoat material, but in a block configuration to enable improvements in consistant and repeatable application processes using tile bonding experience developed on the Space Shuttle Transportation System Program.

  18. VLBA Observations of Strong Anisotripic Radio Scattering Toward the Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Torres, Rosa M.; Briceño, Cesar

    2018-05-01

    We present observations of VLBA 20, a radio source found toward the edge of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Nonthermal emission dominates the spectral energy distribution of this object from the radio to mid-infrared regime, suggesting that VLBA 20 is extragalactic. This source is heavily scattered in the radio regime. Very Long Baseline Array observations resolve it to ∼34 × 19 mas at 5 GHz, and the wavelength dependence of the scattering disk is consistent with ν ‑2 at other frequencies. The origin of the scattering is most likely the ionized X-ray emitting gas from the winds of the most massive stars of the ONC. The scattering is highly anisotropic, with the axis ratio of 2:1, higher than what is typically observed toward other sources.

  19. The OB run-away stars from Sco-Cen and Orion reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author studies the past paths of the run-away star Zeta Oph from the OB association Sco-Cen, and of the run-away stars AE Aur, Mu Col and 53 Ari from the OB association Ori OB1, in connection with the question of the origin of these high velocities. Should the binary-hypothesis be adhered to (supernova explosion of one of the components) or, perhaps, dynamical evolution in young, dense clusters offer a clue to this phenomenon? It is shown that the latter hypothesis is very unlikely to apply to Zeta Oph. For the run-away stars from Orion conclusive evidence may well be obtained in the course of the next decade, from improved accuracy of the proper motions

  20. Orion Exploration Flight Test-l (EFT -1) Absolute Navigation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Jastesh; Gay, Robert; Holt, Greg; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in September 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion Multi-Purpose-Crew-Vehicle (MPCV's) maiden flight dubbed "Exploration Flight Test -1" (EFT-1) intends to stress the system by placing the uncrewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented in the narrative with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs the UDUT decomposition approach. The design is substantiated by simulation results to show the expected performance.