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Sample records for oriented organic sulfur

  1. Organic sulfur metabolisms in hydrothermal environments.

    Rogers, Karyn L; Schulte, Mitchell D

    2012-07-01

    Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. While biotic and abiotic cycling of organic sulfur compounds has been well documented in low-temperature anaerobic environments, cycling of organic sulfur in hydrothermal environments has received less attention. Recently published thermodynamic data have been used to estimate aqueous alkyl thiol and sulfide activities in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Here we use geochemical mixing models to predict fluid compositions that result from mixing end-member hydrothermal fluid from the East Pacific Rise with bottom seawater. These fluid compositions are combined with estimates of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide activities to evaluate energy yields for potential organic sulfur-based metabolisms under hydrothermal conditions. Aerobic respiration has the highest energy yields (over -240 kJ/mol e⁻) at lower temperature; however, oxygen is unlikely to persist at high temperatures, restricting aerobic respiration to mesophilic communities. Nitrite reduction to N₂ has the highest energy yields at higher temperatures (greater than ∼40 °C). Nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium also yield significant energy (up to -70 kJ/mol e⁻). Much lower, but still feasible energy yields are calculated for sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and reduction with H₂. Organic compound family and the activity of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide were less important than metabolic strategy in determining overall energy yields. All metabolic strategies considered were exergonic within some portion of the mixing regime suggesting that organic sulfur-based metabolisms may be prevalent within deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial communities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Improved method for minimizing sulfur loss in analysis of particulate organic sulfur.

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2014-02-04

    The global sulfur cycle depends primarily on the metabolism of marine microorganisms, which release sulfur gas into the atmosphere and thus affect the redistribution of sulfur globally as well as the earth's climate system. To better quantify sulfur release from the ocean, analysis of the production and distribution of organic sulfur in the ocean is necessary. This report describes a wet-based method for accurate analysis of particulate organic sulfur (POS) in the marine environment. The proposed method overcomes the considerable loss of sulfur (up to 80%) that occurs during analysis using conventional methods involving drying. Use of the wet-based POS extraction procedure in conjunction with a sensitive sulfur analyzer enabled accurate measurements of cellular POS. Data obtained using this method will enable accurate assessment of how rapidly sulfur can transfer among pools. Such information will improve understanding of the role of POS in the oceanic sulfur cycle.

  3. Behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in HPLC

    Freyholdt, T.

    1982-01-01

    The retention behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in the reverse-bonded-phase chromatography is characterized by determining the retention indices according to Kovats. The results of these studies show that the solubility of organic compounds in the eluting agent and the molar sorption surfaces of the solutes are the main factors determining the retention behaviour. Knowledge of the retention indices of above-mentioned compounds allows a quick interpretation of chromatograms obtained through a product analysis of γ-irradiated aqueous solutions of organic sulfur compounds. Dithia compounds of the type CH 3 -S-(CH 2 )sub(n)-S-Ch 3 (1 1. 2,4-Dithiapentane (n = 1) however will yield primarily monothio-S-methyl formate as a stable end product. The formation of oxygenic reaction products proceeds via sulfur-centred radical kations. Spin trapping experiments with nitroxyl radicals show that it is possible to trap radiation-chemically produced radicals of sulfurous substrates, but the thus obtained adducts with half-life periods of 4-5 min. cannot be identified by means of NMR, IR or mass spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  4. Sulfur removal from low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Hagen, G.; Haemmerle, M.; Moos, R. [Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Malkowsky, I.M.; Kiener, C. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Achmann, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several materials in the class of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) were investigated to determine their sorption characteristics for sulfur compounds from fuels. The materials were tested using different model oils and common fuels such as low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuel at room temperature and ambient pressure. Thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) were chosen as model substances. Total-sulfur concentrations in the model oils ranged from 30 mg/kg (S from thiophene) to 9 mg/kg (S from tetrahydrothiophene) as determined by elementary analysis. Initial sulfur contents of 8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were identified for low-sulfur gasoline and for diesel fuel, respectively, by analysis of the common liquid fuels. Most of the MOF materials examined were not suitable for use as sulfur adsorbers. However, a high efficiency for sulfur removal from fuels and model oils was noticed for a special copper-containing MOF (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, Cu-BTC-MOF). By use of this material, 78 wt % of the sulfur content was removed from thiophene containing model oils and an even higher decrease of up to 86 wt % was obtained for THT-based model oils. Moreover, the sulfur content of low-sulfur gasoline was reduced to 6.5 mg/kg, which represented a decrease of more than 22 %. The sulfur level in diesel fuel was reduced by an extent of 13 wt %. Time-resolved measurements demonstrated that the sulfur-sorption mainly occurs in the first 60 min after contact with the adsorbent, so that the total time span of the desulfurization process can be limited to 1 h. Therefore, this material seems to be highly suitable for sulfur reduction in commercial fuels in order to meet regulatory requirements and demands for automotive exhaust catalysis-systems or exhaust gas sensors. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Confine sulfur in mesoporous metal–organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide for lithium sulfur battery

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Zhou, Chengkun; Wang, Xiwen; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide was applied for sulfur cathode. • MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composites are synthesized by a facile two-step liquid method. • Cycling stability of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S sulfur cathode was improved. -- Abstract: Mesoporous metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@rGO) materials have been used as a host material to prepare the multi-composite sulfur cathode through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase method successfully, which is different from the simple MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed preparation method. The successful reduced graphene oxide coating in the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO improve the electronic conductivity of meso-MOFs effectively. The discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composite sulfur cathode are as high as 650 mAh g −1 and 66.6% at the 50th cycle at the current density of 335 mA g −1 . While the discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed sulfur cathode is 458 mAh g −1 and 37.3%. Test results indicate that the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium–sulfur battery applications

  6. Biodesulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

    Soleimani, Mehran; Bassi, Amarjeet; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2007-01-01

    The stringent new regulations to lower sulfur content in fossil fuels require new economic and efficient methods for desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization of such compounds is very costly and requires high operating temperature and pressure. Biodesulfurization is a non-invasive approach that can specifically remove sulfur from refractory hydrocarbons under mild conditions and it can be potentially used in industrial desulfurization. Intensive research has been conducted in microbiology and molecular biology of the competent strains to increase their desulfurization activity; however, even the highest activity obtained is still insufficient to fulfill the industrial requirements. To improve the biodesulfurization efficiency, more work is needed in areas such as increasing specific desulfurization activity, hydrocarbon phase tolerance, sulfur removal at higher temperature, and isolating new strains for desulfurizing a broader range of sulfur compounds. This article comprehensively reviews and discusses key issues, advances and challenges for a competitive biodesulfurization process.

  7. Experimental Evidence for Abiotic Sulfurization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    Anika M. Pohlabeln

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS is the largest pool of organic sulfur in the oceans, and as such it is an important component of the global sulfur cycle. DOS in the ocean is resistant against microbial degradation and turns over on a millennium time scale. However, sources and mechanisms behind its stability are largely unknown. Here, we hypothesize that in sulfate-reducing sediments sulfur is abiotically incorporated into dissolved organic matter (DOM and released to the ocean. We exposed natural seawater and the filtrate of a plankton culture to sulfidic conditions. Already after 1-h at 20°C, DOS concentrations had increased 4-fold in these experiments, and 14-fold after 4 weeks at 50°C, indicating that organic matter does not need long residence times in natural sulfidic environments to be affected by sulfurization. Molecular analysis via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry showed that sulfur was covalently and unselectively bound to DOM. Experimentally produced and natural DOS from sediments were highly similar on a molecular and structural level. By combining our data with published benthic DOC fluxes we estimate that 30–200 Tg DOS are annually transported from anaerobic and sulfate reducing sediments to the oceans. Uncertainties in this first speculative assessment are large. However, this first attempt illustrates that benthic DOS flux is potentially one order of magnitude larger than that via rivers indicating that this could balance the estimated global net removal of refractory DOS.

  8. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  9. Building people-oriented organizations

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWithin organizations, work and the way work is organized is rapidly changing. Driven by increasing globalization, the virtualization brought on by the internet and the need for constant innovation is increasing the pace of work and our interconnectedness. Within organizations, work and

  10. Quadruple sulfur isotope constraints on the origin and cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in a stratified sulfidic lake

    Oduro, Harry; Kamyshny, Alexey; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Li, Yue; Farquhar, James

    2013-11-01

    We have quantified the major forms of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) distributed in the water column of stratified freshwater Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL), to evaluate the biogeochemical pathways involved in their production. The lake's anoxic deep waters contain high concentrations of sulfate (12-16 mmol L-1) and sulfide (0.12 μmol L-1 to 1.5 mmol L-1) with relatively low VOSC concentrations, ranging from 0.1 nmol L-1 to 2.8 μmol L-1. Sulfur isotope measurements of combined volatile organic sulfur compounds demonstrate that VOSC species are formed primarily from reduced sulfur (H2S/HS-) and zero-valent sulfur (ZVS), with little input from sulfate. Thedata support a role of a combination of biological and abiotic processes in formation of carbon-sulfur bonds between reactive sulfur species and methyl groups of lignin components. These processes are responsible for very fast turnover of VOSC species, maintaining their low levels in FGL. No dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was detected by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the lake water column or in planktonic extracts. These observations indicate a pathway distinct from oceanic and coastal marine environments, where dimethylsulfide (DMS) and other VOSC species are principally produced via the breakdown of DMSP by plankton species.

  11. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  12. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  13. Research on the Composition and Distribution of Organic Sulfur in Coal.

    Zhang, Lanjun; Li, Zenghua; Yang, Yongliang; Zhou, Yinbo; Li, Jinhu; Si, Leilei; Kong, Biao

    2016-05-13

    The structure and distribution of organic sulfur in coals of different rank and different sulfur content were studied by combining mild organic solvent extraction with XPS technology. The XPS results have shown that the distribution of organic sulfur in coal is related to the degree of metamorphism of coal. Namely, thiophenic sulfur content is reduced with decreasing metamorphic degree; sulfonic acid content rises with decreasing metamorphic degree; the contents of sulfate sulfur, sulfoxide and sulfone are rarely related with metamorphic degree. The solvent extraction and GC/MS test results have also shown that the composition and structure of free and soluble organic sulfur small molecules in coal is closely related to the metamorphic degree of coal. The free organic sulfur small molecules in coal of low metamorphic degree are mainly composed of aliphatic sulfides, while those in coal of medium and high metamorphic degree are mainly composed of thiophenes. Besides, the degree of aromatization of organic sulfur small molecules rises with increasing degree of coalification.

  14. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    M. R. Beaver

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10 and ketones (C3 and C9 on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  15. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Chen, Renjie, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Zhao, Teng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Cao, Shuai; Coxon, Paul R.; Xi, Kai, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Vasant Kumar, R.; Cheetham, Anthony K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8), a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF), which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/C{sub ZIF8-D} sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D} composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  16. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Renjie Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/CZIF8-D composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8, a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF, which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/CZIF8-D composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/CZIF8-D sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/CZIF8-D composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  17. Process and device for liquid organic waste processing by sulfuric mineralization

    Aspart, A.; Gillet, B.; Lours, S.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    In a chemical reactor containing sulfuric acid are introduced the liquid waste and nitric acid at a controlled flow rate for carbonization of the waste and oxidation of carbon on sulfur dioxide, formed during carbonization, regenerating simultaneously sulfuric acid. Optical density of the liquid is monitored to stop liquid waste feeding above a set-point. The liquid waste can be an organic solvent such as TBP [fr

  18. The Service Orientation and Employee’s Customer Orientation in Public Services Organizations

    Andrada Iacob

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between service orientation and employees’ customer orientation in public services organizations. First, we will review the relevant literature on service orientation and employee’s customer orientation. Based on this theory, the research hypothesis is formulated. The research results will be followed by conclusions, limitations and future directions. At the construct level, we found positive direct relationships between service orientation and employees’...

  19. Organizing for Customer and Competitor Orientation

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of structural liaison devices, specialization, the presence of a marketing function, and competitive intensity as antecedents to firms' customer and competitor orientation. Results based on a sample of 99 medium-sized (50-250 employees......) manufacturing firms indicate, that while specialization and liaison devices facilitate customer orientation only liaison devices facilitate competitor orientation. Competitive intensity has no effects on customer orientation but influence competitor orientation. The results also indicate that the presence...... of a marketing function has no influence on the level of firms' customer and competitor orientation....

  20. Sulfurization of Dissolved Organic Matter Increases Hg-Sulfide-Dissolved Organic Matter Bioavailability to a Hg-Methylating Bacterium.

    Graham, Andrew M; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Hajic, Hayley A; Lee, Connie; Msekela, Deborah; Gilmour, Cynthia C

    2017-08-15

    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with aqueous sulfide (termed sulfurization) in anoxic environments can substantially increase DOM's reduced sulfur functional group content. Sulfurization may affect DOM-trace metal interactions, including complexation and metal-containing particle precipitation, aggregation, and dissolution. Using a diverse suite of DOM samples, we found that susceptibility to additional sulfur incorporation via reaction with aqueous sulfide increased with increasing DOM aromatic-, carbonyl-, and carboxyl-C content. The role of DOM sulfurization in enhancing Hg bioavailability for microbial methylation was evaluated under conditions typical of Hg methylation environments (μM sulfide concentrations and low Hg-to-DOM molar ratios). Under the conditions of predicted metacinnabar supersaturation, microbial Hg methylation increased with increasing DOM sulfurization, likely reflecting either effective inhibition of metacinnabar growth and aggregation or the formation of Hg(II)-DOM thiol complexes with high bioavailability. Remarkably, Hg methylation efficiencies with the most sulfurized DOM samples were similar (>85% of total Hg methylated) to that observed in the presence of l-cysteine, a ligand facilitating rapid Hg(II) biouptake and methylation. This suggests that complexes of Hg(II) with DOM thiols have similar bioavailability to Hg(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight thiols. Overall, our results are a demonstration of the importance of DOM sulfurization to trace metal and metalloid (especially mercury) fate in the environment. DOM sulfurization likely represents another link between anthropogenic sulfate enrichment and MeHg production in the environment.

  1. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  2. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  3. Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues

    Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels

  4. Orientation and Integration of New Employees in an Organization Hotel

    Daniel Dăneci-Pătrău

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the role and importance of the integration process,orientation and training of new employees within an organization hotel. To achieve was analyzedprofessional orientation program for new employees in the department reception at Hotel DaliConstanta, offering a guide to best practices be reflected in the behavior of employees to hotelguests in the future.

  5. Molecular orientation and electronic structure at organic heterojunction interfaces

    Zhong, Shu [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Zhong, Jian Qiang; Wee, Andrew T.S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Wei, E-mail: phycw@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Molecular orientation at the organic heterojunction interfaces. • Energy level alignments at the organic heterojunction interfaces. • Gap-states mediated interfacial energy level alignment. - Abstract: Due to the highly anisotropic nature of π-conjugated molecules, the molecular orientation in organic thin films can significantly affect light absorption, charge transport, energy level alignment (ELA) and hence device performance. Synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for probing molecular orientation. The aim of this review paper is to provide a balanced assessment on the investigation of molecular orientation at the organic–organic heterojunction (OOH) interface by NEXAFS, as well as the gap-states mediated orientation dependent energy level alignment at OOH interfaces. We highlight recent progress in elucidating molecular orientation at OOH interfaces dominated by various interfacial interactions, gap-states controlled orientation dependent energy level alignments at OOH interfaces, and the manipulations of molecular orientation and ELA in OOH.

  6. Role of sulfate reduction in long term accumulation of organic and inorganic sulfur in lake sediments

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A.; Furutani, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfate reduction and the accumulation of reduced sulfur in epilimnetic sediments were studied in lakes in southern Norway, the Adirondack Mountains, and at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) of northwestern Ontario. In all of the lakes, sulfate reduction produced substantial quantities of pyrite and organic sulfur compounds. In 9-month in situ experiments at ELA using 35 S, there was a large loss (55%) with time of the S initially reduced and deposited in the sediments and a preferential loss of inorganic S compounds which led to a predominance of organic 35 S accumulation in the sediments. An intensive study of long term accumulation of sulfur in the epilimnetic sediments of four Adirondack lakes also showed that the most important long term end product of sulfate reduction was organic S and that sulfate reduction was the major source of S to the sediments. Because of high concentrations of iron in all of the sediments samples and because of the long term storage of sulfur in sediments, mostly as organic S, iron did not limit iron sulfide accumulation in these sediments. Iron limitation is unlikely to occur except in unusual circumstances. This study indicates that formation of organic S in epilimnetic sediments is primarily responsible for H + consumption via sulfate reduction in acidified lakes

  7. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  8. Removal of H2S and volatile organic sulfur compounds by silicone membrane extraction

    Manconi, I.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores an alternative process for the abatement and/or desulfurization of H2S and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) containing waste streams, which employs a silicone-based membrane to simultaneously remove H2S and VOSC. An extractive membrane reactor allows the

  9. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  10. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  11. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  12. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  13. Organic Photovoltaic Devices Based on Oriented n-Type Molecular Films Deposited on Oriented Polythiophene Films.

    Mizokuro, Toshiko; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Shibata, Yousei; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    The molecular orientation of π-conjugated molecules has been reported to significantly affect the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on molecular films. Hence, the control of molecular orientation is a key issue toward the improvement of OPV performance. In this research, oriented thin films of an n-type molecule, 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Bisbenzimida-zole (PTCBI), were formed by deposition on in-plane oriented polythiophene (PT) films. Orientation of the PTCBI films was evaluated by polarized UV-vis spectroscopy and 2D-Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Results indicated that PTCBI molecules on PT film exhibit nearly edge-on and in-plane orientation (with molecular long axis along the substrate), whereas PTCBI molecules without PT film exhibit neither. OPVs composed of PTCBI molecular film with and without PT were fabricated and evaluated for correlation of orientation with performance. The OPVs composed of PTCBI film with PT showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of film without PT. The experiment indicated that in-plane orientation of PTCBI molecules absorbs incident light more efficiently, leading to increase in PCE.

  14. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  15. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Lee, Seung Woo, E-mail: jacklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  16. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  17. Toward Vision Oriented Organization through Foresight Capability Development

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with complexity is becoming increasingly difficult for organizations, due to limited replicable abilities, once management performance was remunerated by successful decisions on the marketplace. The competitive advantage, based upon current documented organizational management expertise, deployed into patterns of competitive behavior, prove to be unsustainable. Therefore, we assist to a relative emergency of strategic intelligence adjustment framework, to channel the managerial capability mechanisms, from current detective orientation capabilities toward anticipatory ones. Based upon exploitation of an organizational profiling database, we try our contribution to this challenging debate, by formulating recommendations for strategic adjustment and prototype testing of the potential solutions, through a designed transition matrix from market oriented to vision oriented organizations.

  18. Management of Multi-projects In a Process oriented Organization

    Macheridis, Nikos; Nilsson, Carl-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    When projects are used as an organisational platform to conduct business, a project can be the only project in the organisation or one amongst several others. The latter case is called multi-project organisation. Usually an organization with a multi-project environment has a base organisation, which can be functional, matrix structure or another. The purpose of this article is to develop a model based on a process oriented organization as a complement to functional or matrix organizational st...

  19. Depositional environments inferred from variations of calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and sulfide sulfur: a core from southeastern Arabian Sea

    Paropkari, A.L.; Iyer, S.D.; Chauhan, O.S.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Pleistocene has been inferred. The higher contents of organic carbon and sulfide sulfur and their negative relationship clearly establish the existence of a reducing environment below 65 cm subbottom depth. The occurrence of pyrite framboids and crystals...

  20. Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Animal- and Plant-Based Organic Fertilizers Used in South Korea.

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Insu

    2017-05-01

    Organic fertilizers are increasingly used in agriculture in Asia and elsewhere. Tracer techniques are desirable to distinguish the fate of nutrients added to agroecosystems with organic fertilizers from those contained in synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, we determined the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds in animal- and plant-based organic fertilizers (ABOF and PBOF, respectively) used in South Korea to evaluate whether they are isotopically distinct. The δN values of total and organic nitrogen for ABOF ranged from +7 to +19‰ and were higher than those of PBOF (generally fertilizer compounds in the plant-soil-water system, whereas PBOFs have similar δN values to synthetic fertilizers. However, δO values for nitrate (δO) from organic fertilizer samples (fertilizers. The δS values of total sulfur, organic sulfur compounds (e.g., carbon-bonded sulfur and hydriodic acid-reducible sulfur), and sulfate for ABOFs yielded wide and overlapping ranges of +0.3 to +6.3, +0.9 to +7.2, and -2.6 to +14.2‰, whereas those for PBOFs varied from -3.4 to +7.7, +1.4 to +9.4, and -4.1 to +12.5‰, respectively, making it challenging to distinguish the fate of sulfur compounds from ABOF and PBOF in the environment using sulfur isotopes. We conclude that the δN values of ABOFs and the O values of organic fertilizers are distinct from those of synthetic fertilizers and are a promising tool for tracing the fate of nutrients added by organic fertilizers to agroecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  2. Sulfurized limonite as material for fast decomposition of organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction

    Toda, Kei; Tanaka, Toshinori; Tsuda, Yutaka; Ban, Masahiro; Koveke, Edwin P.; Koinuma, Michio; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Used limonite degrades organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction. • Sulfurized limonite removes methylene blue color in seconds. • Recycled limonite can be used for biogas purification and wastewater treatment. - Abstract: Rapid decomposition of wastewater contaminants using sulfurized limonite (S-limonite) was investigated. Limonite is used for desulfurization of biogases, and S-limonite is obtained from desulfurization plants as solid waste. In this work, the profitable use of S-limonite in water treatment was examined. The divalent Fe in S-limonite was expected to produce OH radicals, as Fe 2+ ions and limonite thermally treated with H 2 do. Methylene blue was used for batch-wise monitoring of the decomposition performance. The decomposition rate was fast and the methylene blue solution color disappeared in only 10 s when a small amount of H 2 O 2 was added (1 mM in the sample solution) in the presence of S-limonite. The OH radicals were formed by a heterogeneous reaction on the S-limonite surface and Fenton reaction with dissolved Fe 2+ . The decomposition of pentachlorophenol was also examined; it was successfully decomposed in batch-wise tests. The surfaces of limonite before sulfurization, S-limonite, and S-limonite after use for water treatment were performed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that S-limonite reverted to limonite after being used for water treatment

  3. Sulfurized limonite as material for fast decomposition of organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction

    Toda, Kei, E-mail: todakei@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshinori; Tsuda, Yutaka; Ban, Masahiro; Koveke, Edwin P. [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koinuma, Michio [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Ohira, Shin-Ichi [Department of Chemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Used limonite degrades organic compounds by heterogeneous Fenton reaction. • Sulfurized limonite removes methylene blue color in seconds. • Recycled limonite can be used for biogas purification and wastewater treatment. - Abstract: Rapid decomposition of wastewater contaminants using sulfurized limonite (S-limonite) was investigated. Limonite is used for desulfurization of biogases, and S-limonite is obtained from desulfurization plants as solid waste. In this work, the profitable use of S-limonite in water treatment was examined. The divalent Fe in S-limonite was expected to produce OH radicals, as Fe{sup 2+} ions and limonite thermally treated with H{sub 2} do. Methylene blue was used for batch-wise monitoring of the decomposition performance. The decomposition rate was fast and the methylene blue solution color disappeared in only 10 s when a small amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added (1 mM in the sample solution) in the presence of S-limonite. The OH radicals were formed by a heterogeneous reaction on the S-limonite surface and Fenton reaction with dissolved Fe{sup 2+}. The decomposition of pentachlorophenol was also examined; it was successfully decomposed in batch-wise tests. The surfaces of limonite before sulfurization, S-limonite, and S-limonite after use for water treatment were performed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that S-limonite reverted to limonite after being used for water treatment.

  4. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  5. INNOVATION ORIENTED BEHAVIOUR OF MANAGERS IN MACEDONIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Angelina TANEVA-VESHOSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore innovation oriented behavior of managers in Macedonian organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Research instrument in a form of a questionnaire was used to obtain data about innovation oriented behavior of managers. Findings: The results from the study will help managers to pursuit innovation within the organizations borders and enhance corporate entrepreneurship in order to gain competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications: There is a literature gap in the area of studies exploring innovativeness and behavior of managers in Macedonia. More studies like this are needed to propose strong recommendation about managerial behavior. We recommend replicating the research to a bigger number of managers and comparing the analysis. Practical implications: This study will increase the understanding of how managers can enhance innovations and better performance, as well as increase the motivation of organizations to invest in R&D activities and be more innovative. Originality/value: This research contributes to the field by offering support and new findings. This study adds to the body of literature in what is considered relatively new and unexplored area of study. The survey conducted among Macedonian managers contributes a lot for the knowledge about innovation oriented behavior and corporate entrepreneurship. Key words: Business Investment in R&D, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Macedonia, Management

  6. Relationship between corrosion and the biological sulfur cycle: A review

    Little, B.J.; Ray, R.I.; Pope, R.K.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds can produce pitting, crevice corrosion, dealloying, stress corrosion cracking, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking of susceptible metals and alloys. Even though the metabolic by-products of the biological sulfur cycle are extremely corrosive, there are no correlations between numbers and types of sulfur-related organisms and the probability or rate of corrosion, Determination of specific mechanisms for corrosion caused by microbiologically mediated oxidation and reduction of sulfur and sulfur compounds is complicated by the variety of potential metabolic-energy sources and by-products; the coexistence of reduced and oxidized sulfur species; competing reactions with inorganic and organic compounds; and the versatility and adaptability of microorganisms in biofilms. The microbial ecology of sulfur-rich environments is poorly understood because of the association of aerobes and anaerobes and the mutualism or succession of heterotrophs to autotrophs. The physical scale over which the sulfur cycle influences corrosion varies with the environment. The complete sulfur cycle of oxidation and reduction reactions can take place in macroenvironments, including sewers and polluted harbors, or within the microenvironment of biofilms. In this review, reactions of sulfur and sulfur compounds resulting in corrosion were discussed in the context of environmental processes important to corrosion.

  7. The transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds and the assimilation of organic and inorganic carbon by the sulfur disproportionating bacterium Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens.

    Frederiksen, Trine-Maria; Finster, Kai

    2004-02-01

    The physiology of the sulfur disproportionator Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens was investigated in batch cultures and in a pH-regulated continuously flushed fermentor system. It was shown that a sulphide scavanger in the form of ferric iron was not obligatory and that the control of pH allowed production of more biomass than was possible in carbonate buffered but unregulated batch cultures. Small amounts of sulphite were produced during disproportionation of elemental sulfur and thiosulphate. In addition, it was shown that in the presence of hydrogen, a respiratory type of process is favored before the disproportionation of sulphite, thiosulphate and elemental sulfur. Sulphate reduction was not observed. D. sulfoexigens assimilated inorganic carbon even in the presence of organic carbon sources. Inorganic carbon assimilation was probably catalyzed by the reverse CO-dehydrogenase pathway, which was supported by the constitutive expression of the gene encoding CO-dehydrogenase in cultures grown in the presence of acetate and by the high carbon fractionation values that are indicative of this pathway.

  8. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Mohammad Taqi Amini; Roozbeh Habibi

    2013-01-01

    Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy p...

  9. Sulfur MIF, Organic Haze, and the Gaia Hypothesis in the Archean

    Domagal-Goldman, S.; James, K. F.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur isotopes in Archean sedimentary rocks provides evidence for a low-O2 atmosphere prior to 2.4 Ga. Recent data suggest that S-MIF vanished transiently between ~3.2 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The absence of S-MIF after 2.4 Ga is commonly attributed to the rise of O2 in the atmosphere, as the presence of free O2 would have oxidized all sulfur species, thereby erasing any MIF created by atmospheric photochemistry. However, if free O2 did not appear in the atmosphere until 2.4 Ga, then why did S-MIF disappear transiently much earlier? Could S-MIF have been eliminated from the rock record without the presence of free atmospheric O2? We used a 1-dimensional photochemical model to demonstrate how this might have happened. Increasing the CH4/CO2 ratio in the model atmosphere results in the formation of organic haze. If the haze was sufficiently thick, it would have blocked out much of the solar UV radiation shortward of 220 nm that dissociates SO2 and SO, and thereby causes MIF. The haze should also have caused anti-greenhouse cooling and may have triggered the (putative) 2.8-Ga glaciations. Speculatively, an increase in CH4 at 3.0 Ga could have been caused by the evolution of methanogens, while a CH4 decrease at 2.7 Ga could correspond to the evolution of cyanobacteria. The presence of an optically thin organic haze between 2.4 and 2.7 Ga may explain the larger S-MIF values seen at this time, as compared to the early Archean. If such an organic haze existed, it could have resulted in a biologically-mediated negative feedback loop that stabilized the Archean climate. This feedback loop would have operated as follows: an increase in the biological CH4 flux would have led to an increase in haze thickness and a stronger anti-greenhouse effect, cooling the surface. The surface cooling would have caused a reduction of methanogen productivity, thus offsetting the original increase in the CH4 flux. Such stabilizing feedbacks

  10. An Experimental Study of Low-Temperature Sulfurization of Carbohydrates Using Various Sulfides Reveals Insights into Structural Characteristics and Sulfur Isotope Compositions of Macromolecular Organic Matter in the Environment

    OBeirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Van Dongen, B.; Gilhooly, W., III

    2017-12-01

    Sulfurization of carbohydrates has been suggested as an important mechanism for the preservation of organic matter in anoxic/euxinic depositional environments. In this study, glucose was sulfurized under laboratory conditions at room temperature (24°C) using three commercially available sulfides - ammonium sulfide ([NH4]2S), sodium sulfide (Na2S), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), each mixed with elemental sulfur to produce polysulfide solutions. The reaction products were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed structural differences among the products formed via the three sulfide reactants. Additionally, analysis of the bulk sulfur isotope compositions of reactants and products was used to determine the fractionation(s) associated with abiotic sulfur incorporation into organic matter. Samples from both modern (Mahoney Lake, British Colombia, Canada) and ancient (Jurassic aged Blackstone Band from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Dorset, United Kingdom) euxinic systems were also analyzed for comparison to laboratory samples. Results from this study provide experimental evidence for the structural and sulfur isotopic relationships of sulfurized organic matter in the geosphere.

  11. Wafer-scale self-organized InP nanopillars with controlled orientation for photovoltaic devices.

    Sanatinia, Reza; Berrier, Audrey; Dhaka, Veer; Perros, Alexander P; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Anand, Srinivasan

    2015-10-16

    A unique wafer-scale self-organization process for generation of InP nanopillars is demonstrated, which is based on maskless ion-beam etching (IBE) of InP developed to obtain the nanopillars, where the height, shape, and orientation of the nanopillars can be varied by controlling the processing parameters. The fabricated InP nanopillars exhibit broadband suppression of the reflectance, 'black InP,' a property useful for solar cells. The realization of a conformal p-n junction for carrier collection, in the fabricated solar cells, is achieved by a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) overgrowth step on the fabricated pillars. The conformal overgrowth retains the broadband anti-reflection property of the InP nanopillars, indicating the feasibility of this technology for solar cells. Surface passivation of the formed InP nanopillars using sulfur-oleylamine solution resulted in improved solar-cell characteristics. An open-circuit voltage of 0.71 V and an increase of 0.13 V compared to the unpassivated device were achieved.

  12. Wafer-scale self-organized InP nanopillars with controlled orientation for photovoltaic devices

    Sanatinia, Reza; Berrier, Audrey; Anand, Srinivasan; Dhaka, Veer; Perros, Alexander P; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    A unique wafer-scale self-organization process for generation of InP nanopillars is demonstrated, which is based on maskless ion-beam etching (IBE) of InP developed to obtain the nanopillars, where the height, shape, and orientation of the nanopillars can be varied by controlling the processing parameters. The fabricated InP nanopillars exhibit broadband suppression of the reflectance, ‘black InP,’ a property useful for solar cells. The realization of a conformal p–n junction for carrier collection, in the fabricated solar cells, is achieved by a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) overgrowth step on the fabricated pillars. The conformal overgrowth retains the broadband anti-reflection property of the InP nanopillars, indicating the feasibility of this technology for solar cells. Surface passivation of the formed InP nanopillars using sulfur-oleylamine solution resulted in improved solar-cell characteristics. An open-circuit voltage of 0.71 V and an increase of 0.13 V compared to the unpassivated device were achieved. (paper)

  13. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  14. Strategies for Establishing Service Oriented Design in Organizations

    Aier, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is a broadly discussed design paradigm for information systems engineering. Only recently there have been several contributions to individual dimensions of service orientation like service definition, service modeling, service management or service governance. However, a combination of useful solutions for partial problems might not constitute an effective overall approach to service orientation. We argue that the establishment of service orientation is a wicked [design] p...

  15. 13C-NMR Study on Structure Evolution Characteristics of High-Organic-Sulfur Coals from Typical Chinese Areas

    Qiang Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution characteristics of high-organic-sulfur (HOS coals with a wide range of ranks from typical Chinese areas were investigated using 13C-CP/MAS NMR. The results indicate that the structure parameters that are relevant to coal rank include CH3 carbon (fal*, quaternary carbon, CH/CH2 carbon + quaternary carbon (falH, aliphatic carbon (falC, protonated aromatic carbon (faH, protonated aromatic carbon + aromatic bridgehead carbon (faH+B, aromaticity (faCP, and aromatic carbon (farC. The coal structure changed dramatically in the first two coalification jumps, especially the first one. A large number of aromatic structures condensed, and aliphatic structures rapidly developed at the initial stage of bituminous coal accompanied by remarkable decarboxylation. Compared to ordinary coals, the structure evolution characteristics of HOS coals manifest in three ways: First, the aromatic CH3 carbon, alkylated aromatic carbon (faS, aromatic bridgehead carbon (faB, and phenolic ether (faP are barely relevant to rank, and abundant organic sulfur has an impact on the normal evolution process of coal. Second, the average aromatic cluster sizes of some super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS coals are not large, and the extensive development of cross bonds and/or bridged bonds form closer connections among the aromatic fringes. Moreover, sulfur-containing functional groups are probably significant components in these linkages. Third, a considerable portion of “oxygen-containing functional groups” in SHOS coals determined by 13C-NMR are actually sulfur-containing groups, which results in the anomaly that the oxygen-containing structures increase with coal rank.

  16. Complexation of cadmium to sulfur and oxygen functional groups in an organic soil

    Karlsson, Torbjörn; Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2007-02-01

    Cd and well-defined carboxylates. Given a concentration of reduced sulfur groups of 0.2% or higher in NOM, we conclude that the complexation to organic RSH groups may control the speciation of Cd in soils, and most likely also in surface waters, with a total concentration less than 5 mg Cd g -1 organic C.

  17. Comparative analysis of the effect of pretreating aspen wood with aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid on its reactivity during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Osipov, D. O.; Zorov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aspen wood pretreatment methods with the use of both aqueous solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and aqueous-organic solutions (ethanol, butanol) of sulfuric acid (organosolv) on the limiting degree of conversion of this type of raw material into simple sugars during enzymatic...

  18. The Evil of Team Work or Negative Effects of Collective Orientation in Organizations

    Łukasz Sułkowski

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to analyze the effects of the presence of collective orientation in the organizations. Collectivism means the conviction that the social group welfare is more important than the individual welfare. Collectivism in an organization manifests itself in the orientation towards group targets, even in conflict with the interests of individuals. So, the problem of the efficiency of two orientations, collectivism and individualism, deserves discussion. The social psychol...

  19. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work

  20. Mechanistic investigation of Fe(III) oxide reduction by low molecular weight organic sulfur species

    Eitel, Eryn M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight organic sulfur species, often referred to as thiols, are known to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments and represent important chemical reductants of Fe(III) oxides. Thiols are excellent electron shuttles used during dissimilatory iron reduction, and in this capacity could indirectly affect the redox state of sediments, release adsorbed contaminants via reductive dissolution, and influence the carbon cycle through alteration of bacterial respiration processes. Interestingly, the reduction of Fe(III) oxides by thiols has not been previously investigated in environmentally relevant conditions, likely due to analytical limitations associated with the detection of thiols and their oxidized products. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was developed to simultaneously determine thiol/disulfide pair concentrations in situ during the reduction of ferrihydrite in batch reactors. First order rate laws with respect to initial thiol concentration were confirmed for Fe(III) oxyhydroxide reduction by four common thiols: cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, and glutathione. Zero order was determined for both Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and proton concentration at circumneutral pH. A kinetic model detailing the molecular mechanism of the reaction was optimized with proposed intermediate surface structures. Although metal oxide overall reduction rate constants were inversely proportional to the complexity of the thiol structure, the extent of metal reduction increased with structure complexity, indicating that surface complexes play a significant role in the ability of these thiols to reduce iron. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of considering the molecular reaction mechanism at the iron oxide surface when investigating the potential for thiols to act as electron shuttles during dissimilatory iron reduction in natural environments.

  1. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL SLACK IN ORGANIZATIONS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION

    Nurdan Gürkan; Ahmet Ferda Çakmak

    2016-01-01

    The concept of entrepreneurial orientation, which emerges with the development of strategic management, refers to entrepreneurship orientations of businesses. The businesses need resources in other words organizational slack in order to develop their entrepreneurial trends. The organizational slack consists of three slack type. These slack types are available slack, recoverable slack and potential slack. The purpose of this study is to examine whether organizational slack in the businesses ha...

  2. Orientations of Iron-Sulfur Clusters FA and FB in the Homodimeric Type-I Photosynthetic Reaction Center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    Kondo, Toru; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Azai, Chihiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2016-05-12

    Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center (hRC) were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I (PS I). The Rieske-type FeS center in the cytochrome b/c complex showed a well-oriented EPR signal. Illumination at 14 K induced an FB(-) signal with g-axes of gz = 2.066, gy = 1.937, and gx = 1.890, tilted at angles of 60°, 60°, and 45°, respectively, with respect to the membrane normal. Chemical reduction with dithionite produced an additional signal of FA(-), which magnetically interacted with FB(-), with gz = 2.046, gy = 1.942, and gx = 1.911 at 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The angles and redox properties of FA(-) and FB(-) in hRC resemble those of FB(-) and FA(-), respectively, in PS I. Therefore, FA and FB in hRC, named after their g-value similarities, seem to be located like FB and FA, not like FA and FB, respectively, in PS I. The reducing side of hRC could resemble those in PS I, if the names of FA and FB are interchanged with each other.

  3. Analysis of Volatile Organic and Sulfur Compounds in Air Near a Pulp Paper Mill in North-Central Idaho

    Johnston, N. A. C.; Bundy, B. A.; Andrew, J. P.; Grimm, B. K.; Ketcherside, D.; Rivero-Zevallos, J. A.; Uhlorn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lewiston, Idaho is a small city in the Snake River Valley bordering North-Central Idaho and Southeastern Washington, with a population of over 40,000 including the surrounding areas. One of the main industries and employers in the region is a kraft paper mill in North Lewiston, which results in odorous levels of sulfur air pollutants there. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has an air monitoring station in Lewiston but measures only air particulate matter (PM). Surprisingly, not much long-term data exists on this area for specific air constituents such as volatile organics, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfur compounds. One year-long study conducted in 2006-2007 by the Nez Perce Tribe found high formaldehyde levels in the area, and warranted further study in July of 2016-2017. Our ongoing study began in the fall of 2016 and investigates the seasonal air composition in the Lewiston area. Specifically, active air sampling via sorbent tubes and analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). was utilized to measure over 50 volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfurous compounds in ambient air (adapted from EPA Method TO-17). Seasonal, diurnal, and spatial variations in air composition were explored with weekly to monthly grab sampling. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were the primary sulfur compounds detected, and these varied considerably depending on time of day, season, location and meteorology. DMS was more prevalent in the summer months, while DMDS was more prevalent in the spring. Elevated concentrations of benzene and chloroform were found in the region during 2017, with average values of short term grab samples over three times the acceptable ambient concentrations in Idaho. These levels did not persist during longer term sampling of 12-hours, however further monitoring is needed to assess a potential health concern.

  4. Kinetics of degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants on HKUST-1 metal organic framework.

    Roy, Anuradha; Srivastava, Avanish K; Singh, Beer; Shah, Dilip; Mahato, Timir Haran; Srivastava, Anchal

    2012-10-28

    The applicability of HKUST-1 for the degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants was studied with and without coadsorbed water. Degradation was found to be via hydrolysis and dependent on the nucleophilic substitution reaction, vapour pressure and molecular diameter of the toxicants.

  5. Realizing high-rate sulfur reduction under sulfate-rich conditions in a biological sulfide production system to treat metal-laden wastewater deficient in organic matter.

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng

    2017-12-22

    Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ± 9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ± 10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic analysis of organic sulfur compound utilisation in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T

    Meinert, Christina; Brandt, Ulrike; Heine, Viktoria; Beyert, Jessica; Schmidl, Sina; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Voigt, Birgit; Riedel, Katharina; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    2-Mercaptosuccinate (MS) and 3,3´-ditiodipropionate (DTDP) were discussed as precursor substance for production of polythioesters (PTE). Therefore, degradation of MS and DTDP was investigated in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T, applying differential proteomic analysis, gene deletion and enzyme assays. Protein extracts of cells cultivated with MS, DTDP or 3-sulfinopropionic acid (SP) were compared with those cultivated with propionate (P) and/or succinate (S). The chaperone DnaK (ratio DTDP/P 9.2, 3SP/P 4.0, MS/S 6.1, DTDP/S 6.2) and a Do-like serine protease (DegP) were increased during utilization of all organic sulfur compounds. Furthermore, a putative bacterioferritin (locus tag MIM_c12960) showed high abundance (ratio DTDP/P 5.3, 3SP/P 3.2, MS/S 4.8, DTDP/S 3.9) and is probably involved in a thiol-specific stress response. The deletion of two genes encoding transcriptional regulators (LysR (MIM_c31370) and Xre (MIM_c31360)) in the close proximity of the relevant genes of DTDP catabolism (acdA, mdo and the genes encoding the enzymes of the methylcitric acid cycle; prpC,acnD, prpF and prpB) showed that these two regulators are essential for growth of A. mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T with DTDP and that they most probably regulate transcription of genes mandatory for this catabolic pathway. Furthermore, proteome analysis revealed a high abundance (ratio MS/S 10.9) of a hypothetical cupin-2-domain containing protein (MIM_c37420). This protein shows an amino acid sequence similarity of 60% to a newly identified MS dioxygenase from Variovorax paradoxus strain B4. Deletion of the gene and the adjacently located transcriptional regulator LysR, as well as heterologous expression of MIM_c37420, the putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase (Msdo) from A. mimigardefordensis, showed that this protein is the key enzyme of MS degradation in A. mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T (KM 0.2 mM, specific activity 17.1 μmol mg-1 min-1) and is controlled by LysR (MIM_c37410

  7. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Mohammad Taqi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  8. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  9. Molecular characterization of phytoplankton dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfur components using high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Mangal, Vaughn; Stock, Naomi L; Guéguen, Celine

    2016-03-01

    Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with electrospray ionization in both positive and negative polarity was conducted on Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) standards, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by freshwater phytoplankton (Scenedesmus obliquus, Euglena mutabilis, and Euglena gracilis). Three-dimensional van Krevelen diagrams expressing various oxygenation states of sulfur molecules and abundance plots of sulfur-containing species were constructed. Orbitrap HRMS analysis of SRFA found a high density of peaks in the lignin region (77 %) and low density of protein material (6.53 %), whereas for PLFA, 25 % of the total peaks were lignin related compared to 56 % of peaks in protein regions, comparable with other HRMS studies. Phytoplankton-derived DOM of S. obliquus, E. mutabilis, and E. gracilis was dominated by protein molecules at respective percentages of 36, 46, and 49 %, and is consistent with previous experiments examining phytoplankton-derived DOM composition. The normalized percentage of SO-containing compounds was determined among the three phytoplankton to be 56 % for Scenedesmus, 54 % for E. mutabilis, and 47 % for E. gracilis, suggesting variation between sulfur content in phytoplankton-derived DOM and differences in metal binding capacities. These results suggest the level of resolution by Orbitrap mass spectrometry is sufficient for preliminary characterization of phytoplankton DOM at an affordable cost relative to other HRMS techniques.

  10. Extracting the emitter orientation in organic light-emitting diodes from external quantum efficiency measurements

    Schmidt, Tobias D., E-mail: Tobias.Schmidt@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Bruetting@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G. [OSRAM OLED GmbH, Wernerwerkstrasse 2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.

  11. Knowledge management in a project-oriented organization

    Christensen, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management is seen as a metaphorical perspective on management where the managerial focus depends on the epistemological standpoint taken. An identification of three epistemological perspectives accommodates the main body of literature on knowledge management: an artifact oriented...... epistemology that focuses on explicit knowledge, a process oriented epistemology focusing on both tacit and explicit knowledge and the interaction of these types of knowledge and an autopoietic epistemology where knowledge basically always has a tacit dimension. Based on a study of knowledge management...... in the Danish company Crisplant, the paper shos how the three epistemologies bring different aspects of managerial practice forward. By comparing the characteristics of knowledge, the nature of knowledge management activities, how konwledge is created and share it is concluded that awareness of the implications...

  12. Projected oriented organizations as development of enterprise management methods

    S.I. Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic external environment, significant shortage of product life cycle, increase of product technological difficulty, extension of innovative knowledge motivates managers to look for and use in their activities keys that will provide constant, stable development of organizational structures. The methodology of project enterprise management meets the requirements of «preservation through development». The articles researches the integration of methods and procedures of project management into the enterprise management system. Project management philosophy is the efficient way of existence in the competitive environment and the means for internal development of a company. The author conducts an analysis, determines the essence and peculiarities of a project-oriented enterprise, performs comparing characteristics of functional and project management, describes the stages of gradual transformation of an enterprise organizational structure into a project-oriented one. It is defined that a project-oriented enterprise is that one which functions on the base of innovative development and are scientific, creative and widely use the project activity as the means of a steady development. The article describes internal and external instruments of project management, base knowledge systems on project management and possibilities of enterprises on audit of state of system project management in an enterprise according to the IPMA certification program on the territory of Ukraine.

  13. Using Gordon's functional health patterns to organize a critical care orientation program.

    Recker, D; O'Brien, C

    1992-02-01

    We have described how we revised our critical care orientation according to Gordon's FHPs. The process will require continuous review and revision. Research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of an orientation organized by a nursing framework in facilitating holistic nursing practice.

  14. Organization of Individual Work of Students under Competence-Oriented Approach to Education in Higher School

    Ualiyeva, Nazym T.; Murzalinova, Alma Z.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify the essence, content and specifics of organization of individual work of higher school students under competence-oriented approach. The research methodology is related to the choice of competence-oriented approach to ensure transformation of individual work into individual activity in…

  15. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment

  16. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  17. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environment, where additional pressures can be imposed on the employee from fluctuating work-loads, uncertain requirements, and multiple role demands. These pressures can create issues for employee well-be...

  18. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of iron-sulfides on cycling of organic carbon in the St Lawrence River system: Evidence of sulfur-promoted carbon sequestration?

    Balind, K.; Barber, A.; Gélinas, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of sulfur is intimately linked with that of carbon, as well as with that of iron through the formation of iron-sulfur complexes. Iron-sulfide minerals such as mackinawite (FeS) and greigite (Fe3S4) form below the oxic/anoxic redox boundary in marine and lacustrine sediments and soils. Reactive iron species, abundant in surface sediments, can undergo reductive dissolution leading to the formation of soluble Fe(II) which can then precipitate in the form of iron sulfur species. While sedimentary iron-oxides have been thoroughly explored in terms of their ability to sorb and sequester organic carbon (OC) (Lalonde et al.; 2012), the role of FeS in the long-term preservation of OC remains undefined. In this study, we present depth profiles for carbon, iron, and sulfur in the aqueous-phase, along with data from sequential extractions of sulfur speciation in the solid-phase collected from sediment cores from the St Lawrence River and estuarine system, demonstrating the transition from fresh to saltwater sediments. Additionally, we present synthetic iron sulfur sorption experiments using both model and natural organic molecules in order to assess the importance of FeS in sedimentary carbon storage.

  20. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  1. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar

  2. Orientation and Integration of New Employees in an Organization Hotel

    Daniel Dăneci-Pătrău

    2016-01-01

    The tourism industry is an industry of "labor" because the employees who work in direct contactwith customers depends on the success of the organization. Hotel staff is the image of anorganization, thus requiring a certain prestige from its standard defining the policy andorganizational culture of the company. Hence the role of integration employees in the hotel as afactor determining the quality work of the new employee, its performance and hence organizationalperformance. The aim of this...

  3. Do the organic sulfur compounds DMSP and DMS drive coral microbial associations?

    Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2010-03-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) are key compounds in the global sulfur cycle. Moreover, DMS is particularly important in climate regulation owing to its role in cloud formation. Reef building corals are major contributors to the production of these two compounds and also form diverse and complex associations with bacteria, which are known to play a crucial role in the degradation of DMSP and DMS. Here, we highlight an extensive overlap between bacterial species implicated in DMSP/DMS degradation and those associated with corals, leading to the hypothesis that these two compounds play a major role in structuring coral-associated bacterial communities, with important consequences for coral health and the resilience of coral reefs. We also explore the publically available metagenome databases and show that genes implicated in DMSP metabolism are abundant in the viral component of coral-reef-derived metagenomes, indicating that viruses can act as a reservoir for such genes.

  4. Employee customer orientation in manufacturing organizations: joint influences of customer proximity and the senior leadership team.

    Liao, Hui; Subramony, Mahesh

    2008-03-01

    Pursuing a customer-focused strategy in manufacturing organizations requires employees across functions to embrace the importance of understanding customer needs and to align their everyday efforts with the goal of satisfying and retaining customers. Little prior research has examined what factors influence employee customer orientation in manufacturing settings. Drawing on the attraction-selection-attrition model, upper-echelons theory, and contingency theories of leadership, this study investigated the joint influences of functional roles' proximity to external customers and the senior leadership team's customer orientation on employee customer orientation. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on data obtained from 4,299 employees and 403 senior leaders from 42 facilities of a global manufacturer operating in 16 countries revealed that employees occupying customer-contact roles had the highest level of customer orientation, followed by employees occupying production roles, and then by those in support roles. In addition, there was a positive relationship between the senior leadership team's customer orientation and employee customer orientation for all 3 functional roles. The positive relationship between the senior leadership team and employee customer orientation was the strongest for employees in support roles, suggesting that lower levels of proximity to external customers may create a greater need for leadership in developing employees' customer-oriented attitudes. Copyright 2008 APA

  5. Organization of accounting for factoring companies: risk-oriented approach

    Vygivska I.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.

  6. ORGANIC PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN CONTEXT OF SOCIAL ORIENTED ENTEPRENEURSHIP

    G. Chornous

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical realization of sustainable development general conception is passing to the organic production, that allows to satisfy society problems, not putting health and future generations' existence under a threat. At this entrepreneurs, which work in the consumer products' field, must displace accents from economic oriented to social oriented entrepreneurship. The article is dedicated to research negative and positive factors that influence on social oriented Ukrainian enterprises in the sphere of organic goods production. The special attention is attended to the analysis of foodstuffs producers' activity, the results of which have considerable direct influence on consumers' health. The value of informative influences on consumers and producers is analyzed. State support directions of organic goods production, creation of internal market ecologically safe products infrastructure are defined. Recommendations are given according to research results in relation to stimulation social responsibility of businessmen and model forming, which combines interests of consumers and producers, environmental preservation, population health refinement and ecological situation improvement.

  7. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    Dipu Borah [Pragjyotika J College, Titabar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Cu-based metal–organic framework/activated carbon composites for sulfur compounds removal

    Shi, Rui-Hua [State Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Co-founded by Shanxi Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Institute for Chemical Engineering of Coal, Taiyuan University of Technology, West Yingze Street Number 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Zhen-Rong [Institute of Applied Chemical, Shanxi (China); Fan, Hui-Ling, E-mail: fanhuiling@tyut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Co-founded by Shanxi Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Institute for Chemical Engineering of Coal, Taiyuan University of Technology, West Yingze Street Number 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhen, Tian [Deparment of Analysis and Service Center Micromertics instrumental Ltd, Shanghai (China); Shangguan, Ju; Mi, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Co-founded by Shanxi Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Institute for Chemical Engineering of Coal, Taiyuan University of Technology, West Yingze Street Number 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Incorporation of AC less than 2% in MOF-199 can increase micropores and BET surface area, as evidenced by N{sub 2} adsorption. • Lewis acid (unsaturated copper) sites could also be increased in the modified MOF-199, as revealed by Py-IR characterization. • Composite with 2% AC showed highest sulfur capacity with 8.46 and 8.53% for H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}, respectively. • The adsorption of CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3} on composite is reversible, physic-adsorption and weak chemisorption were involved. - Abstract: MOF-199 was modified by incorporating activated carbon (AC) during its synthesis under hydrothermal conditions to improve its performance in the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}). A variety of different characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pyridine adsorption infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR), thermogravimetric- mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the fresh and exhausted composites. It was found that the composites, which have an amount of AC of less than 2%, had the same morphology as those of pristine MOF-199, but exhibited a more ordered crystallinity structure as well as higher surface area. The composite with 2% AC incorporation showed highest sulfur capacity of 8.46 and 8.53% for H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}, respectively, which increased by 51 and 41% compared to that of MOF-199. This improvement was attributed to the formation of more micropores and especially the increased number of unsaturated copper metal sites, as revealed by Py-IR. It is suggested the chemical reaction was apparent during adsorption of H{sub 2}S, which resulted in the formation of CuS and the collapse of the MOF structure. Whereas reversible chemisorption was found for CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3} adsorption, as

  9. Centimetre-scale micropore alignment in oriented polycrystalline metal-organic framework films via heteroepitaxial growth.

    Falcaro, Paolo; Okada, Kenji; Hara, Takaaki; Ikigaki, Ken; Tokudome, Yasuaki; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Williams, Timothy; Doonan, Christian; Takahashi, Masahide

    2017-03-01

    The fabrication of oriented, crystalline films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a critical step toward their application to advanced technologies such as optics, microelectronics, microfluidics and sensing. However, the direct synthesis of MOF films with controlled crystalline orientation remains a significant challenge. Here we report a one-step approach, carried out under mild conditions, that exploits heteroepitaxial growth for the rapid fabrication of oriented polycrystalline MOF films on the centimetre scale. Our methodology employs crystalline copper hydroxide as a substrate and yields MOF films with oriented pore channels on scales that primarily depend on the dimensions of the substrate. To demonstrate that an anisotropic crystalline morphology can translate to a functional property, we assembled a centimetre-scale MOF film in the presence of a dye and showed that the optical response could be switched 'ON' or 'OFF' by simply rotating the film.

  10. Effect of substrate temperature on orientation of subphthalocyanine molecule in organic photovoltaic cells

    Chou, Chi-Ta; Tang, Wei-Li; Tai, Yian; Lin, Chien-Hung; Liu, Chin-Hsin J.; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of substrate temperature (T s ) on the boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) thin film and its power conversion efficiency in SubPc/C 60 heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The orientations of SubPc molecules in thin films determined by X-ray diffraction is strongly correlated with the electronic properties of the organic thin films, and can be controlled by the substrate temperature during the vapor deposition. An optimal substrate temperature of 120 °C has been concluded to induced (221) molecular orientation over the (122) orientation and significantly improve the carrier transport of the SubPc thin film. A SubPc/C 60 heterojunction photovoltaic cells thus fabricated shows higher open-circuit voltage and up to 1.55% conversion efficiency has been achieved, which is attributed to preferential (221) orientation of the SubPc deposited at the elevated temperature.

  11. Ultrafast Electron Transfer at Organic Semiconductor Interfaces: Importance of Molecular Orientation

    Ayzner, Alexander L.

    2015-01-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Much is known about the rate of photoexcited charge generation in at organic donor/acceptor (D/A) heterojunctions overaged over all relative arrangements. However, there has been very little experimental work investigating how the photoexcited electron transfer (ET) rate depends on the precise relative molecular orientation between D and A in thin solid films. This is the question that we address in this work. We find that the ET rate depends strongly on the relative molecular arrangement: The interface where the model donor compound copper phthalocyanine is oriented face-on with respect to the fullerene C60 acceptor yields a rate that is approximately 4 times faster than that of the edge-on oriented interface. Our results suggest that the D/A electronic coupling is significantly enhanced in the face-on case, which agrees well with theoretical predictions, underscoring the importance of controlling the relative interfacial molecular orientation.

  12. Ultrafast Electron Transfer at Organic Semiconductor Interfaces: Importance of Molecular Orientation

    Ayzner, Alexander L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Kim, Do-Hwan; Bao, Zhenan; Toney, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Much is known about the rate of photoexcited charge generation in at organic donor/acceptor (D/A) heterojunctions overaged over all relative arrangements. However, there has been very little experimental work investigating how the photoexcited electron transfer (ET) rate depends on the precise relative molecular orientation between D and A in thin solid films. This is the question that we address in this work. We find that the ET rate depends strongly on the relative molecular arrangement: The interface where the model donor compound copper phthalocyanine is oriented face-on with respect to the fullerene C60 acceptor yields a rate that is approximately 4 times faster than that of the edge-on oriented interface. Our results suggest that the D/A electronic coupling is significantly enhanced in the face-on case, which agrees well with theoretical predictions, underscoring the importance of controlling the relative interfacial molecular orientation.

  13. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  14. Characterisation of an extremely organic sulfur-rich, 150 Ma old carbonaceous rock: Palaeoenvironmental implications

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van

    1997-01-01

    An extremely organic sulphur-rich coccolithic limestone of the Upper Jurassic Calcaires en plaquettes Formation (southern Jura, France) was analysed for its molecular composition using chemical and instrumental methods. The bitumen accounts for 19% of the total organic carbon, and consists

  15. Governance of Service-Oriented Architecture in a Healthcare Organization: A Case Study

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces a service-oriented architecture (SOA) governance framework for successful implementation in a healthcare organization. The proposed framework, based on a rigorous literature review, proposes nine governance elements that should be considered during the SOA implementation...... process. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for each element required to successfully govern SOA and tackle longstanding healthcare information systems (HIS) implementation challenges. The framework was tested in a healthcare organization and valuable insights are presented herein...

  16. Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap

    Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

    1982-08-01

    Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

  17. Tuning polymorphism and orientation in organic semiconductor thin films via post-deposition processing.

    Hiszpanski, Anna M; Baur, Robin M; Kim, Bumjung; Tremblay, Noah J; Nuckolls, Colin; Woll, Arthur R; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2014-11-05

    Though both the crystal structure and molecular orientation of organic semiconductors are known to impact charge transport in thin-film devices, separately accessing different polymorphs and varying the out-of-plane molecular orientation is challenging, typically requiring stringent control over film deposition conditions, film thickness, and substrate chemistry. Here we demonstrate independent tuning of the crystalline polymorph and molecular orientation in thin films of contorted hexabenzocoronene, c-HBC, during post-deposition processing without the need to adjust deposition conditions. Three polymorphs are observed, two of which have not been previously reported. Using our ability to independently tune the crystal structure and out-of-plane molecular orientation in thin films of c-HBC, we have decoupled and evaluated the effects that molecular packing and orientation have on device performance in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In the case of TFTs comprising c-HBC, polymorphism and molecular orientation are equally important; independently changing either one affects the field-effect mobility by an order of magnitude.

  18. Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in atmospheric aerosols at the HKUST supersite in Hong Kong using HR-ToF-AMS.

    Huang, Dan Dan; Li, Yong Jie; Lee, Berto P; Chan, Chak K

    2015-03-17

    Organic sulfur compounds have been identified in ambient secondary organic aerosols, but their contribution to organic mass is not well quantified. In this study, using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), concentrations of organic sulfur compounds were estimated based on the high-resolution fragmentation patterns of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and organosulfates (OS), including alkyl, phenyl, and cycloalkyl sulfates, obtained in laboratory experiments. Mass concentrations of MSA and minimum mass concentrations of OS were determined in a field campaign conducted at a coastal site of Hong Kong in September 2011. MSA and OS together accounted for at least 5% of AMS detected organics. MSA is of marine origin with its formation dominated by local photochemical activities and enhanced by aqueous phase processing. OS concentrations are better correlated with particle liquid water content (LWC) than with particle acidity. High-molecular-weight OS were detected in the continental influenced period probably because they had grown into larger molecules during long-range transport or they were formed from large anthropogenic precursors. This study highlights the importance of both aqueous-phase processing and regional influence, i.e., different air mass origins, on organic sulfur compound formation in coastal cities like Hong Kong.

  19. A study on the effect of knowledge management on customer orientation in governmental organization

    Alireza Bakhshizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM plays an important role on increasing organizational performance especially governmental agencies where there are different skills and knowledge within the organization. In this study, we present a study to investigate the effect of KM on having more customer oriented organizations. We use a standard questionnaire among 146 randomly selected employees out of 170 people who work for four governmental organizations in city of Chahbahar, Iran. The collected information is analyzed using structural equation modeling and by validating the results using Cronbach alphas of more than the minimum desired level of 0.70, we determine the positive relationships between KM and three other variables including customer absorption, customer retention and customer relationship management. The results of this survey reveal that an increase of one unit in KM yields almost the same increase in three mentioned variables accordingly. In addition, an increase of one percent in KM will increase customer orientation by almost one percent.

  20. Stacking Orientation Mediation of Pentacene and Derivatives for High Open-Circuit Voltage Organic Solar Cells.

    Chou, Chi-Ta; Lin, Chien-Hung; Tai, Yian; Liu, Chin-Hsin J; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2012-05-03

    In this Letter, we investigated the effect of the molecular stacking orientation on the open circuit voltage (VOC) of pentacene-based organic solar cells. Two functionalized pentacenes, namely, 6,13-diphenyl-pentacene (DP-penta) and 6,13-dibiphenyl-4-yl-pentacene (DB-penta), were utilized. Different molecular stacking orientations of the pentacene derivatives from the pristine pentacene were identified by angle-dependent near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. It is concluded that pentacene molecules stand up on the substrate surface, while both functionalized pentacenes lie down. A significant increase of the VOC from 0.28 to 0.83 V can be achieved upon the utilization of functionalized pentacene, owing to the modulation of molecular stacking orientation, which induced a vacuum-level shift.

  1. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    1990-04-16

    18. SUB3ECT TERMS (oont’d) epidermal injury organ culture •ranuaear vacuoles C-leucine incorpora’tion by full-thickness human akin explants hi stamine ...mast- cell degranulation prostaglandin E2 lysobomal enzymes: acid phosphatase, B-glucuronidase, 0-galactcsidase, lysozyme and lactic dehydrogenase...that histamline (from local mast cells ), and PA and POgk (probably from mast cells and epidermal cells ) are s3e of the early mediators of the inflmma

  2. Surface characterization studies of walnut-shell biochar catalysts for simultaneously removing of organic sulfur from yellow phosphorus tail gas

    Song, Xin; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Wang, Chi; Sun, Xin; Tang, Lihong; Ruan, Haotian; Han, Shuang

    2017-12-01

    The influences of different preparation conditions for surface characteristics on removing organic sulfur were studied. From BET, XRD, FTIR, DRIFTS, TG/DTA, CO2-TPD results, it can be seen that these preparation conditions had great influences on the pore structure, specific surface area, crystal structure and surface functional groups. The micropore volume, amorphous structure and alkalinity site strength played major roles in desulfurization process. H2S was oxidized by oxygen containing functional groups, such as sbnd COO, sbnd Cdbnd O. H2O molecule could be converted into some groups, such as sbnd CH and Csbnd OH groups, and promoted the hydrolysis reaction. The strong alkalinity site was the key factor for chemical adsorption and hydrolysis. H2O molecule, sbnd CH, Csbnd OH groups promoted the hydrolysis reaction and sbnd COO, sbnd Cdbnd O groups promoted the oxidation of H2S on the surface of WSB. Meanwhile, the main desulfurization process over WSB after carbonization was adsorption and it changed to hydrolysis reaction after activation on the surface of WSB. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism was investigated by DRIFTS measurement according to the change of surface functional groups.

  3. Influence of Molecular Shape on Molecular Orientation and Stability of Vapor-Deposited Organic Semiconductors

    Walters, Diane M.; Johnson, Noah D.; Ediger, M. D.

    Physical vapor deposition is commonly used to prepare active layers in organic electronics. Recently, it has been shown that molecular orientation and packing can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature during deposition, while still producing macroscopically homogeneous films. These amorphous materials can be highly anisotropic when prepared with low substrate temperatures, and they can exhibit exceptional kinetic stability; films retain their favorable packing when heated to high temperatures. Here, we study the influence of molecular shape on molecular orientation and stability. We investigate disc-shaped molecules, such as TCTA and m-MTDATA, nearly spherical molecules, such as Alq3, and linear molecules covering a broad range of aspect ratios, such as p-TTP and BSB-Cz. Disc-shaped molecules have preferential horizontal orientation when deposited at low substrate temperatures, and their orientation can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature. Alq3 forms stable, amorphous films that are optically isotropic when vapor deposited over a broad range of substrate temperatures. This work may guide the choice of material and deposition conditions for vapor-deposited films used in organic electronics and allow for more efficient devices to be fabricated.

  4. Reactions of the nitrate radical with a series og reduced organic sulfur-compounds in air

    JENSEN, NR; HJORTH, J; LOHSE, C

    1992-01-01

    A 480 L evacuable reaction chamber, equipped with FT-IR spectroscopy on-line and ion chromatography off-line, has been used to study the gas phase reaction between the nitrate radical, NO3, and the reduced organic sulphur compounds CH3CH2SH, (CH3CH2)2S, (CH3CH2)2S2, and CH3CH2SCH3 in air. The pro......A 480 L evacuable reaction chamber, equipped with FT-IR spectroscopy on-line and ion chromatography off-line, has been used to study the gas phase reaction between the nitrate radical, NO3, and the reduced organic sulphur compounds CH3CH2SH, (CH3CH2)2S, (CH3CH2)2S2, and CH3CH2SCH3 in air......, and CH3SSCH3 lead to the conclusion that all these species, in the reaction with the NO3 radical, follow a similar degradation mechanism producing SO2, H2SO4, R-SO3H, R-CHO, and R-CH2ONO2, as the main reaction products. The inital step of the reaction of NO3 with R-S-R and R-S- H type (R = CH3, CH2CH3...

  5. Sulfidization of Organic Freshwater Flocs from a Minerotrophic Peatland: Speciation Changes of Iron, Sulfur, and Arsenic.

    ThomasArrigo, Laurel K; Mikutta, Christian; Lohmayer, Regina; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2016-04-05

    Iron-rich organic flocs are frequently observed in surface waters of wetlands and show a high affinity for trace metal(loid)s. Under low-flow stream conditions, flocs may settle, become buried, and eventually be subjected to reducing conditions facilitating trace metal(loid) release. In this study, we reacted freshwater flocs (704-1280 mg As/kg) from a minerotrophic peatland (Gola di Lago, Switzerland) with sulfide (5.2 mM, S(-II)spike/Fe = 0.75-1.62 mol/mol) at neutral pH and studied the speciation changes of Fe, S, and As at 25 ± 1 °C over 1 week through a combination of synchrotron X-ray techniques and wet-chemical analyses. Sulfidization of floc ferrihydrite and nanocrystalline lepidocrocite caused the rapid formation of mackinawite (52-81% of Fesolid at day 7) as well as solid-phase associated S(0) and polysulfides. Ferrihydrite was preferentially reduced over lepidocrocite, although neoformation of lepidocrocite from ferrihydrite could not be excluded. Sulfide-reacted flocs contained primarily arsenate (47-72%) which preferentially adsorbed to Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides, despite abundant mackinawite precipitation. At higher S(-II)spike/Fe molar ratios (≥1.0), the formation of an orpiment-like phase accounted for up to 35% of solid-phase As. Despite Fe and As sulfide precipitation and the presence of residual Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides, mobilization of As was recorded in all samples (Asaq = 0.45-7.0 μM at 7 days). Aqueous As speciation analyses documented the formation of thioarsenates contributing up to 33% of Asaq. Our findings show that freshwater flocs from the Gola di Lago peatland may become a source of As under sulfate-reducing conditions and emphasize the pivotal role Fe-rich organic freshwater flocs play in trace metal(loid) cycling in S-rich wetlands characterized by oscillating redox conditions.

  6. Entrepreneurial orientation rhetoric in franchise organizations: The impact of national culture

    Watson , Anna; Dada , O. Lola; Wright , Owen; Perrigot , Rozenn

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This study examines the role of national culture on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) rhetoric contained within franchisee recruitment promotional materials, where EO rhetoric is defined as the strategic use of words in organizational narratives to convey the risk taking, innovativeness, proactiveness, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness of the firm. The sample comprised 378 franchise organizations, in five different countries (Australia, France, India, South Af...

  7. OBJECT ORIENTED MODELLING, A MODELLING METHOD OF AN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY

    TĂNĂSESCU ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Now, most economic organizations use different information systems types in order to facilitate their activity. There are different methodologies, methods and techniques that can be used to design information systems. In this paper, I propose to present the advantages of using the object oriented modelling at the information system design of an economic organization. Thus, I have modelled the activity of a photo studio, using Visual Paradigm for UML as a modelling tool. For this purpose, I have identified the use cases for the analyzed system and I have presented the use case diagram. I have, also, realized the system static and dynamic modelling, through the most known UML diagrams.

  8. Theoretical insight into an empirical rule about organic corrosion inhibitors containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur atoms

    Guo, Lei, E-mail: cqglei@163.com [School of Material and Chemical Engieering, Tongren University, Tongren 554300 (China); Obot, Ime Bassey [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zheng, Xingwen [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Zigong 643000 (China); Shen, Xun [School of Material and Chemical Engieering, Tongren University, Tongren 554300 (China); Qiang, Yujie [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Zigong 643000 (China); Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • We obtained the habit information of α-Fe obtained by the “Morphology” module. • The adsorption of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene on Fe(110) surface were studied by DFT calculations. • Our DFT modeling provided a reasonable micro-explanation to the empirical rule. - Abstract: Steel is an important material in industry. Adding heterocyclic organic compounds have proved to be very efficient for steel protection. There exists an empirical rule that the general trend in the inhibition efficiencies of molecules containing heteroatoms is such that O < N < S. However, an atomic-level insight into the inhibition mechanism is still lacked. Thus, in this work, density functional theory calculations was used to investigate the adsorption of three typical heterocyclic molecules, i.e., pyrrole, furan, and thiophene, on Fe(110) surface. The approach is illustrated by carrying out geometric optimization of inhibitors on the stable and most exposed plane of α-Fe. Some salient features such as charge density difference, changes of work function, density of states were detailedly described. The present study is helpful to understand the afore-mentioned experiment rule.

  9. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    Joris Meijaard; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of family ownership and management on firm performance. Other variables in the analysis include various organization structure variables including standard...

  10. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    Meijaard, J.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses

  11. Attitudes vs. Purchase Behaviors as Experienced Dissonance: The Roles of Knowledge and Consumer Orientations in Organic Market.

    Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice.

  12. Attitudes vs. Purchase Behaviors as Experienced Dissonance: The Roles of Knowledge and Consumer Orientations in Organic Market

    Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude–behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice. PMID:28286489

  13. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Spontaneous Interfacial Mixing on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Graham, Kenneth; Li, Ruipeng; Conron, Sarah M; Erwin, Patrick; Chou, Kang Wei; Burkhard, George; Zhao, Kui; Hoke, Eric T.; Thompson, Mark E; McGehee, Michael D.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    A critically important question that must be answered to understand how organic solar cells operate and should be improved is how the orientation of the donor and acceptor molecules at the interface influences exciton diffusion, exciton dissociation by electron transfer and recombination. It is exceedingly difficult to probe the orientation in bulk heterojunctions because there are many interfaces and they are arranged with varying angles with respect to the substrate. One of the best ways to study the interface is to make bilayer solar cells with just one donor-acceptor interface. Zinc phthalocyanine is particularly interesting to study because its orientation can be adjusted by using a 2-nm-thick copper iodide seed layer before it is deposited. Previous studies have claimed that solar cells in which fullerene acceptor molecules touch the face of zinc phthalocyanine have more current than ones in which the fullerenes touch the edge of zinc phthalocyanine because of suppressed recombination. We have more thoroughly characterized the system using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found that the interfaces are not as sharp as previous studies claimed when formed at room temperature or above. Fullerenes have a much stronger tendency to mix into the face-on films than into the edge-on films. Moreover we show that almost all of the increase in the current with face-on films can be attributed to improved exciton diffusion and to the formation of a spontaneously mixed interface, not suppressed recombination. This work highlights the importance of spontaneous interfacial molecular mixing in organic solar cells, the extent of which depends on molecular orientation of frontier molecules in donor domains.

  14. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Spontaneous Interfacial Mixing on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier

    2015-07-28

    A critically important question that must be answered to understand how organic solar cells operate and should be improved is how the orientation of the donor and acceptor molecules at the interface influences exciton diffusion, exciton dissociation by electron transfer and recombination. It is exceedingly difficult to probe the orientation in bulk heterojunctions because there are many interfaces and they are arranged with varying angles with respect to the substrate. One of the best ways to study the interface is to make bilayer solar cells with just one donor-acceptor interface. Zinc phthalocyanine is particularly interesting to study because its orientation can be adjusted by using a 2-nm-thick copper iodide seed layer before it is deposited. Previous studies have claimed that solar cells in which fullerene acceptor molecules touch the face of zinc phthalocyanine have more current than ones in which the fullerenes touch the edge of zinc phthalocyanine because of suppressed recombination. We have more thoroughly characterized the system using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found that the interfaces are not as sharp as previous studies claimed when formed at room temperature or above. Fullerenes have a much stronger tendency to mix into the face-on films than into the edge-on films. Moreover we show that almost all of the increase in the current with face-on films can be attributed to improved exciton diffusion and to the formation of a spontaneously mixed interface, not suppressed recombination. This work highlights the importance of spontaneous interfacial molecular mixing in organic solar cells, the extent of which depends on molecular orientation of frontier molecules in donor domains.

  15. Outer personal marketing as the element of the holistic orientation of organization

    Agnieszka Izabela Baruk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems related to outer personal marketing as the fundamental element of the holistic marketing orientation were presented. The essence of holistic attitude was shown and its role in the effective marketing activities directed to employees of a scientific organization was underlined. The special attention was paid to the key role of potential empoyees’ knowledge about this approach. On the base of the results of the empirical researches one can state that its level is very low. It is one of the main barriers in the process of outer personal marketing implementing in the case of a scientific organization as well as in the case of others organizations.

  16. Identifying different methods for creating knowledge from lessons learned in project oriented organizations

    Ahmad Norang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increase in competition has increased the relative importance of innovation for most firms and many managers believe a good innovation must be knowledge oriented. This paper has tried to determine different methods for creating knowledge in project oriented organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 32 experts who were well informed about different methods of knowledge creation and lessons learned. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey were well above the desirable level. The study has detected 11 methods for knowledge creation and lessons learned. In terms of preliminary assessment, business transactions has received the highest impact while knowledge team has received the highest effect in terms of necessary assessment. The results of this survey have indicated that although there are several methods for detecting knowledge within organizations, in most cases, it is not easy to gain value added knowledge within an organization, quickly. The people who participated in our survey have indicated that organizational commitment, brainstorming, Delphi and storytelling also have played important role for creation of knowledge. The results have also shown that brainstorming, knowledge brokers, map knowledge and work experience were easier to use for knowledge creation and lessons learned compared with other forms of knowledge creation.

  17. Developing an integrated organ/system curriculum with community-orientation for a new medical college in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Mostafa M El-Naggar

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: The new curriculum adopted by the Jazan Faculty of Medicine is an integrated, organ/ system based, community-oriented, with early clinical skills, elective modules, and innovative methods of instructions.

  18. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  19. Effects of Market, E-Marketing, and Technology Orientations on Innovativeness and Performance in Turkish Health Organizations.

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We hypothesize that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  20. Evaluation of the Strategy Management Implementation in Project- Oriented Service Organizations

    Abolfazl Sherafat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although developing strategic and operational plans is a difficult and complicated process, their successful implementation is much more difficult. Many organizations fail in the full implementation of their strategies. This is not due to the partial definition of strategies and organization‘s operational plan, but this is likely due to the lack of strong framework for creating alignment between employees and operational process and the organizational goals. To implement strategies effectively and to develop a comprehensive management system and to improve the performance, Robert Kaplan and David Norton introduced a modern management system which is Balanced ScoreCard. Likewise they introduced five main criteria: leadership, translation, alignment, every day process and ongoing process for a strategy oriented organization. This paper is intended to offer a systematic approach for measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the strategic plan performance. For this study the questionnaire was distributed in a project- orientated service organization and after collection, by the use of statistical. Analysis especially factor analysis the grouping of sub-criteria under the five main criteria was confirmed. The statistical analysis showed that, two criteria of alignment and every day work had the lowest scores in terms of both implementation and effectiveness in the organization‘s senior and executive manager‘s point of view. With deep interview, studying of scorecards and meeting of the strategic committee of the studied organization, the two dimension of alignment and every day work were further examined and after identifying upgradeable areas, some suggestions for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the studied organization were presented.

  1. Sulfur cycle

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  2. Sulfur Mustard

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  3. Radiation-Induced Organizing Pneumonia: A Characteristic Disease that Requires Symptom-Oriented Management.

    Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-27

    Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is occasionally observed after irradiation to the breast. It is a type of secondary organizing pneumonia that is characterized by infiltrates outside the irradiated volume that are sometimes migratory. Corticosteroids work acutely, but relapse of pneumonia is often experienced. Management of RIOP should simply be symptom-oriented, and the use of corticosteroids should be limited to severe symptoms from the perspective not only of cost-effectiveness but also of cancer treatment. Once steroid therapy is started, it takes a long time to stop it due to frequent relapses. We review RIOP from the perspective of its diagnosis, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and patient management.

  4. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  5. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  6. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  7. Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nitride Polymers for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutant and Reduction of Cr(VI).

    Zheng, Yun; Yu, Zihao; Lin, Feng; Guo, Fangsong; Alamry, Khalid A; Taib, Layla A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wang, Xinchen

    2017-04-01

    As a promising conjugated polymer, binary carbon nitride has attracted extensive attention as a metal-free and visible-light-responsive photocatalyst in the area of photon-involving purification of water and air. Herein, we report sulfur-doped polymeric carbon nitride microrods that are synthesized through thermal polymerization based on trithiocyanuric acid and melamine (TM) supramolecular aggregates. By tuning the polymerization temperature, a series of sulfur-doped carbon nitride microrods are prepared. The degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) are selected as probe reactions to evaluate the photocatalytic activities. Results show that increasing pyrolysis temperature leads to a large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, and accelerated electron-hole separation. Compared to bulk carbon nitride, the highly porous sulfur-doped carbon nitride microrods fabricated at 650 °C exhibit remarkably higher photocatalytic activity for degradation of RhB and reduction of Cr(VI). This work highlights the importance of self-assembly approach and temperature-control strategy in the synthesis of photoactive materials for environmental remediation.

  8. Clear-cut and practice-oriented organization - the connecting link between man and nuclear power plant operation requirements

    Steiner, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Practice-oriented plant organization takes into account the human spheres of task and responsibility, training and qualification, communication and exchange of experience, setting of targets, management and control as well as motivation and loyalty. It constitutes the basis for meeting the demands on a safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. This is demonstrated by the organization at the Grafenrheinfeld NPP. (DG) [de

  9. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling.

  10. Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Entrepreneurial Strategic Orientation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Fields, Dail; Riesenmy, Kelly; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    This research studied the relationships of the components of entrepreneurial strategic orientation (ESO) with implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) within organizations that treat patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). A national sample of 317 SUD treatment providers were studied in a period after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was enacted (2009) and meaningful use EHR requirements were established (2010), but before implementation of the Affordable Care Act. The study sample was selected using stratified random sampling and was part of a longitudinal study of treatment providers across the United States. After we controlled for potentially confounding variables, four components of ESO had a significant relationship with EHR implementation. Levels of slack resources in an organization moderated the relationship of ESO with meaningful use of EHRs, increasing the strength of the relationship for some components but reducing the strength of others. From a policy and practice perspective, the results suggest that training and education to develop higher levels of ESO within SUD treatment organizations are likely to increase their level of meaningful use of EHRs, which in turn may enhance the integration of SUD treatment with primary medical providers, better preparing SUD treatment providers for the environmental changes of the Affordable Care Act.

  11. Sulfur Earth

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  12. Knowledge-Centric Technical Support Organization (TSO) Using Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States of America, Process Oriented Knowledge Management (POKM) Model has been successfully implemented in most of Nuclear Power Plants. This approach has been introduced in Nuclear Knowledge Management program by the IAEA since 2011. Malaysia has involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) focusing the approach started in 2011. The main objective for Malaysian participation of this project is to support readiness in terms of nuclear technical knowledge by Technical Support Organization (TSO) for Nuclear Power Program. This project has focused on several nuclear technical areas which consist of Public Information (PI), Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA), Nuclear Reactor Technology (NRT), Plant and Prototype Development (PDC) and nuclear knowledge management. This paper articulates the detail POKM approach and project experience in implementing the approach at organizational level. (author)

  13. The oriented and patterned growth of fluorescent metal–organic frameworks onto functionalized surfaces

    Jinliang Zhuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A metal–organic framework (MOF material, [Zn2(adc2(dabco] (adc = anthracene-9,10-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane, the fluorescence of which depends on the loading of its nanopores, was synthesized in two forms: as free-flowing nanocrystals with different shapes and as surface-attached MOFs (SURMOFs. For the latter, we used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs bearing functional groups, such as carboxylate and pyridyl groups, capable of coordinating to the constituents of the MOF. It could be demonstrated that this directed coordination also orients the nanocrystals deposited at the surface. Using two different patterning methods, i.e., microcontact printing and electron-beam lithography, the lateral distribution of the functional groups could be determined in such a way that the highly localized deposition of the SURMOF films became possible.

  14. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  15. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-08-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ˜100 meV even in the "half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing" microcavity structure.

  16. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  17. Barriers in local practice-oriented teaching networks to organize climate and science teaching

    Grunwald, Annette

    The poster takes its point of departure from a need to meet primary and lower secondary pupils interest in climate, science and technology by giving them possibilities to learn “in the real world” in a more problem based way. This possibility is given through out-of-school learning organized in co......-operation between educational actors, here primary/lower secondary schools, Aalborg University, and other actors, here Aalborg municipality and companies. The poster will present the first results of an ongoing developing and research project “Learning in reality: Practice-oriented teaching networks strengthen...... primary and lower secondary school pupils’ interest in climate and science”, funded by the Danish Energy Foundation (August 2014 – December 2016). The aim of the project is e.g. to: - Develop, establish and explore new forms of local cooperation between schools, companies, Aalborg University...

  18. Tc-99m sulfur colloid spleen imaging following splenic artery and vein resection for pancreas organ donation

    Kuni, C.C.; Crass, J.R.; Du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.; Loken, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors retrospectively studied the records and Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TSC) splenic artery and vein resection for donation to HLA-compatible relatives. Of 37 patients with postoperative TSC studies, four had no postoperative splenic abnormalities. Nineteen of the abnormal TSC studies were followed with TSC studies 2 weeks to 14 months later; three showed no change, seven showed improvements,and ten became normal. One patient required splenectomy 2 days after pancreatectomy for splenic infarction; her TSC study showed no uptake. These data suggest that the spleen usually survives splenic artery and vein resection. Absent splenic TSC uptake raises the possibility of splenic infarction but usually improves

  19. Microbial conversion of sulfur dioxide in flue gas to sulfide using bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source by mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Rao, A. Gangagni; Ravichandra, P.; Joseph, Johny; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated from anaerobic cultures and enriched with SRB media. Studies on batch and continuous reactors for the removal of SO 2 with bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source using isolated mixed cultures of SRB revealed that isolation and enrichment methodology adopted in the present study were apt to suppress the undesirable growth of anaerobic bacteria other than SRB. Studies on anaerobic reactors showed that process was sustainable at COD/S ratio of 2.2 and above with optimum sulfur loading rate (SLR) of 5.46 kg S/(m 3 day), organic loading rate (OLR) of 12.63 kg COD/(m 3 day) and at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8 h. Free sulfide (FS) concentration in the range of 300-390 mg FS/l was found to be inhibitory to mixed cultures of SRB used in the present studies

  20. Observation of new particle formation and measurement of sulfuric acid, ammonia, amines and highly oxidized organic molecules at a rural site in central Germany

    A. Kürten

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms for new particle formation (NPF under different boundary layer conditions are not known yet. One important question is whether amines and sulfuric acid lead to efficient NPF in the atmosphere. Furthermore, it is not clear to what extent highly oxidized organic molecules (HOMs are involved in NPF. We conducted field measurements at a rural site in central Germany in the proximity of three larger dairy farms to investigate whether there is a connection between NPF and the presence of amines and/or ammonia due to the local emissions from the farms. Comprehensive measurements using a nitrate chemical ionization–atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF mass spectrometer, a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, particle counters and differential mobility analyzers (DMAs, as well as measurements of trace gases and meteorological parameters, were performed. We demonstrate here that the nitrate CI-APi-TOF is suitable for sensitive measurements of sulfuric acid, amines, a nitrosamine, ammonia, iodic acid and HOMs. NPF was found to correlate with sulfuric acid, while an anti-correlation with RH, amines and ammonia is observed. The anti-correlation between NPF and amines could be due to the efficient uptake of these compounds by nucleating clusters and small particles. Much higher HOM dimer (C19/C20 compounds concentrations during the night than during the day indicate that these HOMs do not efficiently self-nucleate as no nighttime NPF is observed. Observed iodic acid probably originates from an iodine-containing reservoir substance, but the iodine signals are very likely too low to have a significant effect on NPF.

  1. Dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, humic substances and dissolved organic carbon in a temperate river system affected by agricultural practices.

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Gabon, Marine; Riso, Ricardo

    2015-12-15

    Although reduced organic sulfur substances (RSS) as well as humic substances (HS) are widely suspected to play a role in, for example, metal speciation or used as a model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in laboratory studies, reports of their quantification in natural waters are scarce. We have examined the dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, HS and DOC over an annual cycle in a river system affected by agricultural practices. The new differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry was successfully applied to measure glutathione-like compounds (GSHs), thioacetamide-like compounds (TAs) and the liquid chromatography coupled to organic detector to analyze HS and DOC at high frequency in the Penzé River (NW France). The streamflow-concentration patterns, principal components analysis and flux analysis allowed discrimination of the source of each organic compound type. Surprisingly, the two RSS and HS detected in all samples, displayed different behavior. As previously shown, manuring practice is the main source of DOC and HS in this watershed where agricultural activity is predominant. The HS were then transferred to the river systems via runoff, particularly during the spring and autumn floods, which are responsible of >60% of the annual flux. TAs had a clear groundwater source and may be formed underground, whereas GSHs displayed two sources: one aquagenic in spring and summer probably linked to the primary productivity and a second, which may be related to bacterial degradation. High sampling frequency allowed a more accurate assessment of the flux values which were 280 tC y(-1) for DOC representing 20 kg C ha(-1) y(-1). HS, TAs and GSHs fluxes represented 60, 13, and 4% of the total annual DOC export, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conformation and orientation effects in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of organic polymers

    Beamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    Conformation and orientation effects in the XPS spectra of organic polymers are small but can be observed with modem high performance equipment. This paper discusses some of the experimental factors that should be considered when attempting to detect such effects, and describes several recent studies which illustrate the subtle phenomena that can now be observed. Conformation effects, revealed by melting semicrystalline polymer samples in the analysis chamber of an XPS spectrometer, are reported for the valence band and C 1s spectra of nylon 12 and poly(ethylene adipate), and for the valence band spectrum of poly(ethylene succinate). For nylon 12 the changes in the C 2s region of the valence band spectrum are interpreted in terms of disordering of the planar zig-zag conformation of the (CH 2 ) 11 segments of the polymer chain. Pendant group surface orientation effects, detected by angle resolved XPS (with emission angles as low as 5 deg. relative to the sample surface), are reported for poly(2-chloroethyl methacrylate) (PCEMA), poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). For PCEMA and PLMA the uppermost surfaces are enriched with -CH 2 CH 2 Cl and -(CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 pendant groups respectively, whereas for PHEMA the data suggest relatively few -CH 2 CH 2 OH pendant groups at the surface. The C 1s and Cl 2p spectra of PCEMA reveal surface core level binding energy shifts of - +0.2 eV, and the Cl L 23 M 23 M 23 spectrum a surface Auger kinetic energy shift of ∼ -0.6. The C 1s spectra of PLMA and PHEMA also reveal surface core level shifts and for PLMA this is interpreted in terms of a disordered and open arrangement of the -(CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 pendant groups at the polymer surface. (author)

  3. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  4. The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of Lithium-sulfur cell containing various organic electrolytes

    Kim, Seok; Jung, Yongju; Lim, Hong S.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) cell and the optimal composition of ternary electrolyte for the improved discharge performance of the cell have been investigated. The capacity value and capacity stability with cycle are dependent on the nature of solvent as well as the composition of mixed solvent. The change trend of discharge performance as a function of content of each solvent component is studied. Capacity value increases as the 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) content decreases. Average discharge voltage shows larger value when the 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) content is small. Finally, we have obtained the optimal solvent composition by using a statistical method

  5. LOGICAL-ORIENTED TASKS AS A FORM OF ORGANIZATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL CONTENT IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS TO STUDENTS

    Oksana Smirnova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the need to improve the logical preparation of students. The authors regard the logical-oriented tasks as a form of organization of the content of educational material in teaching Mathematics and discriminate the types of tasks aimed at the formation of logical methods and operations.

  6. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

    Sophie Bertrand

    Full Text Available How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD. GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS, both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1 providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2 using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3 studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  7. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  8. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

    Bertrand, Sophie; Joo, Rocío; Fablet, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW) models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1) providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2) using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3) studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  9. Sports-Oriented Model of Organization of Classes on Physical Education with Freshman

    Olena Sіnіcina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of questionnaires, which made it possible to determine the priority kinds of sports among the freshmen of the National University of Water Management and Nature Management. Respondents were offered the choice of the following sports: volleyball, basketball, football, mini football, swimming, track and field, table tennis, wrestling, weight sport, arm wrestling, chess, checkers, boxing, fitness. It was found that 33% of male freshman who took part in the study prioritized football above all. Volleyball is the second most common kind of sport among boys (it was chosen by 16% of respondents. The third position (11.4% of respondents was taken by basketball. The least popular (0.6% of the polled is the power kind of sports – weight lifting. Among female freshman, fitness was placed on the first place by 82% of respondents; athletics occupied the second position (4.8%; in the third place was tennis (4.2% of the respondents. The sports-oriented model of organizing the physical education courses provides students of the university who have chosen a certain sport to take part in competitions of different levels.

  10. Content-oriented Approach to Organization of Theories and Its Utilization

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguch, Riichiro

    In spite of the fact that the relation between theory and practice is a foundation of scientific and technological development, the trend of increasing the gap between theory and practice accelerates in these years. The gap embraces a risk of distrust of science and technology. Ontological engineering as the content-oriented research is expected to contribute to the resolution of the gap. This paper presents the feasibility of organization of theoretical knowledge on ontological engineering and new-generation intelligent systems based on it through an application of ontological engineering in the area of learning/instruction support. This area also has the problem of the gap between theory and practice, and its resolution is strongly required. So far we proposed OMNIBUS ontology, which is a comprehensive ontology that covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, which is a theory-aware and standard-compliant authoring system for making learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS ontology. We believe the theory-awareness and standard-compliance bridge the gap between theory and practice because it links theories to practical use of standard technologies and enables practitioners to easily enjoy theoretical support while using standard technologies in practice. The following goals are set in order to achieve it; computers (1) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on the organization of them, (2) utilize the understanding for helping authors' learning/instructional scenario making and (3) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of standard technologies. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to the achievement of these three goals. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study address high-level technical challenges from the viewpoint of the current state of the art in the research area

  11. Biologically produced sulfur

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  12. Mesoscopic self-organization of a self-assembled supramolecular rectangle on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces.

    Gong, Jian-Ru; Wan, Li-Jun; Yuan, Qun-Hui; Bai, Chun-Li; Jude, Hershel; Stang, Peter J

    2005-01-25

    A self-assembled supramolecular metallacyclic rectangle was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces. The rectangles spontaneously adsorb on both surfaces and self-organize into well ordered adlayers. On highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, the long edge of the rectangle stands on the surface, forming a 2D molecular network. In contrast, the face of the rectangle lays flat on the Au(111) surface, forming linear chains. The structures and intramolecular features obtained through high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging are discussed.

  13. The moderating role of alienation on the relation between social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and person-organization fit.

    Nicol, Adelheid A M; Rounding, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation have been found to be related with Person-Organization fit. This study examined whether alienation also plays a role in the relation between Person-Organization fit and these two socio-political attitudes. Measures of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, alienation, and Person-Organization fit were given to a sample of Officer Cadets (N = 99; M age = 22.8 yr., SD = 5.4). The findings suggest that when individuals felt alienated, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism were not related to Person-Organization fit. When alienation was low, Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism interacted to predict Person-Organization fit. Therefore, feelings of alienation can influence the perception of fit within an organization and the relation between perception of fit with Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism.

  14. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    Khalid, R.; Khan, K.S.; Islam, M.; Yousaf, M.; Shabbir, G.

    2012-01-01

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  15. Characterization of sludge properties for sewage treatment in a practical-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor: oxygen consumption and removal of organic matter, ammonium, and sulfur.

    Nomoto, Naoki; Hatamoto, Masashi; Ali, Muntjeer; Jayaswal, Komal; Iguchi, Akinori; Okubo, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Kubota, Kengo; Tagawa, Tadashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of sludge retained in a down-flow hanging sponge reactor were investigated to provide a better understanding of the sewage treatment process in the reactor. The organic removal and sulfur oxidation conditions were found to differ between the first layer and the following three layers. It was found that 63% and 59% of the organic matter was removed in the first layer, even though the hydraulic retention time was only 0.2 h. It is thought that the organic removal resulted from aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation on the sponge medium. The sulfate concentration increased 1.5-1.9-fold in the first layer, with almost no subsequent change in the second to fourth layers. It was shown that oxidation of sulfide in the influent was completed in the first layer. The result of the oxygen uptake rate test with an ammonium nitrogen substrate suggested that the ammonium oxidation rate was affected by the condition of dissolved oxygen (DO) or oxidation-reduction potential (ORP).

  16. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compostos organicos do diesel e do petroleo: hidrocarbonetos, sulfurados e nitrogenados

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  17. The Search for Hesperian Organic Matter on Mars: Pyrolysis Studies of Sediments Rich in Sulfur and Iron.

    Lewis, James M T; Najorka, Jens; Watson, Jonathan S; Sephton, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Jarosite on Mars is of significant geological and astrobiological interest, as it forms in acidic aqueous conditions that are potentially habitable for acidophilic organisms. Jarosite can provide environmental context and may host organic matter. The most common extraction technique used to search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars is pyrolysis. However, thermal decomposition of jarosite releases oxygen into pyrolysis ovens, which degrades organic signals. Jarosite has a close association with the iron oxyhydroxide goethite in many depositional/diagenetic environments. Hematite can form by dehydration of goethite or directly from jarosite under certain aqueous conditions. Goethite and hematite are significantly more amenable than jarosite for pyrolysis experiments employed to search for organic matter. Analysis of the mineralogy and organic chemistry of samples from a natural acidic stream revealed a diverse response for organic compounds during pyrolysis of goethite-rich layers but a poor response for jarosite-rich or mixed jarosite-goethite samples. Goethite units that are associated with jarosite, but do not contain jarosite themselves, should be targeted for organic detection pyrolysis experiments on Mars. These findings are extremely timely, as exploration targets for Mars Science Laboratory include Vera Rubin Ridge (formerly known as "Hematite Ridge"), which may have formed from goethite precursors. Key Words: Mars-Pyrolysis-Jarosite-Goethite-Hematite-Biosignatures. Astrobiology 18, 454-464.

  18. Natural sulfurization of carbohydrates in marine sediments : consequences for the chemical and carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter

    Dongen, B.E. van

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrates make up the largest part of the organic matter in the biosphere and are used by living organism for many different reasons. They serve, among others, as carbon and energy source as well as metabolic intermediates. Carbohydrates are generally thought to be remineralized during early

  19. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  20. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.

  1. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  2. High-efficiency orange and tandem white organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes with horizontally oriented emitting dipoles.

    Lee, Sunghun; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-03

    Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes in an exciplex-forming co-host are presented, along with an orange OLED. A high external quantum efficiency of 32% is achieved for the orange OLED at 1000 cd m(-2) and the tandem WOLEDs exhibit a high maximum EQE of 54.3% (PE of 63 lm W(-1)). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The structure of pairwise correlation in mouse primary visual cortex reveals functional organization in the absence of an orientation map.

    Denman, Daniel J; Contreras, Diego

    2014-10-01

    Neural responses to sensory stimuli are not independent. Pairwise correlation can reduce coding efficiency, occur independent of stimulus representation, or serve as an additional channel of information, depending on the timescale of correlation and the method of decoding. Any role for correlation depends on its magnitude and structure. In sensory areas with maps, like the orientation map in primary visual cortex (V1), correlation is strongly related to the underlying functional architecture, but it is unclear whether this correlation structure is an essential feature of the system or arises from the arrangement of cells in the map. We assessed the relationship between functional architecture and pairwise correlation by measuring both synchrony and correlated spike count variability in mouse V1, which lacks an orientation map. We observed significant pairwise synchrony, which was organized by distance and relative orientation preference between cells. We also observed nonzero correlated variability in both the anesthetized (0.16) and awake states (0.18). Our results indicate that the structure of pairwise correlation is maintained in the absence of an underlying anatomical organization and may be an organizing principle of the mammalian visual system preserved by nonrandom connectivity within local networks. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  5. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  6. Thermal Expansion of Self-Organized and Shear-Oriented Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    Jairo A. Diaz; Xiawa Wu; Ashlie Martini; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon

    2013-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was characterized using novel experimental techniques complemented by molecular simulations. The characteristic birefringence exhibited by CNC films was utilized to calculate the in-plane CTE of selforganized and shear-oriented self-standing CNC films from room temperature to 100 °...

  7. From Turnover-Oriented to Functional Soil Organic Matter Pools: a Lesson Learned from Stable Isotope Tracing

    Cotrufo, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Globally soils contain three times the amount of carbon (C) stored in the atmosphere, and 68% of this is stored in soil below 30cm. Changes to the size of the soil C stocks could significantly impact the net terrestrial-atmosphere CO2 exchange and thus either mitigate or increase concentrations of CO2. Yet we are currently unable to conduct reliable predictions of the direction and magnitude of soil C stock changes, since current soil C models fail to accurately capture the current understanding of how soil organic matter (SOM) forms and persists, and (2) the vertical movement and deep soil processing of SOM. We propose shifting soil C modelling approaches from a turnover-oriented approach to a more functional-oriented approach, where measurable SOM pools with specific function in soils, with respect to their physical structure (soluble versus particulate), microbial accessibility (free versus mineral or aggregate protection) and ability to transfer along the soil profile (through water flow or by mass transport) are represented. We will present experimental evidence from a number of studies conducted in the past few years using stable isotope tracing in support of incorporating a dissolved organic matter (DOM)-microbial path and a physical transfer of particulate organic matter path in SOM models. We will also show how, through the DOM-microbial path, fresh plant inputs quickly result in the formation of new mineral-associated organic matter.

  8. Inhibitory effect of self-generated extracellular dissolved organic carbon on carbon dioxide fixation in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during a chemoautotrophic cultivation process and its elimination.

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Wang, Lei; Fu, Xiaohua; Hu, Jiajun; Li, Huan; Le, Yiquan

    2018-03-01

    The features of extracellular dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) generation in two typical aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus thioparus DSM 505 and Halothiobacillus neapolitanus DSM 15147) and its impact on CO 2 fixation during chemoautotrophic cultivation process were investigated. The results showed that EDOC accumulated in both strains during CO 2 fixation process. Large molecular weight (MW) EDOC derived from cell lysis and decay was dominant during the entire process in DSM 505, whereas small MW EDOC accounted for a large proportion during initial and middle stages of DSM 15147 as its cytoskeleton synthesis rate did not keep up with CO 2 assimilation rate. The self-generated EDOC feedback repressed cbb gene transcription and thus decreased total bacterial cell number and CO 2 fixation yield in both strains, but DSM 505 was more sensitive to this inhibition effect. Moreover, the membrane bioreactor effectively decreased the EDOC/TOC ratio and improved carbon fixation yield of DSM 505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concept-Oriented Task Design: Making Purposeful Case Comparisons in Organic Chemistry

    Graulich, Nicole; Schween, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Acquiring conceptual understanding seems to be one of the main challenges students face when studying organic chemistry. Traditionally, organic chemistry presents an extensive variety of chemical transformations, which often lead students to recall an organic transformation rather than apply conceptual knowledge. Strong surface level focus and…

  10. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W; Köstlbacher, Stephan; Albertsen, Mads; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Huemer, Martin; Nielsen, Per H; Rattei, Thomas; Stingl, Ulrich; Tringe, Susannah G; Trojan, Daniela; Wentrup, Cecilia; Woebken, Dagmar; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2018-02-23

    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  11. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    Shekhah, Osama; Cadiau, Amandine; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1

  12. The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of High-Grade Al Deposits of the Dopolan Karst Type Bauxite, Iran: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Sulfur Isotope Data

    Somayeh Salamab Ellahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Dopolan karstic bauxite ore were performed to identify the characteristics of four bauxite horizons, which comprise from top to bottom, bauxitic kaolinite, diaspore-rich bauxite, clay-rich bauxite, and pyrite-rich bauxite. Diaspore, kaolinite, and pyrite are the main minerals; böhmite, muscovite, rutile, and anatase are the accessory minerals. The main minerals of the Dopolan bauxite deposit indicate slightly acidic to alkaline reducing conditions during bauxitization. Immobile elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and rare earth elements are enriched in the diaspore-rich horizon, which also has the highest alumina content, whereas redox sensitive elements (e.g., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, and V are enriched in the lowest horizon of pyrite-rich bauxite. The presence of a high content of organic matter was identified in different horizons of bauxitic ore from wet chemistry. The presence of organic matter favored Fe bioleaching, which resulted in Al enrichment and the formation of diaspore-rich bauxite. The leached Fe2+ reacted with the hydrogen sulfur that was produced due to bacterial metabolism, resulting in the formation of the pyrite-rich horizon towards the bottom of the Dopolan bauxite horizons. Biogeochemical activity in the Dopolan bauxitic ore was deduced from the reducing environment of bauxitization, and the deposition of framboidal and cubic or cubic/octahedral pyrite crystals, with large negative values of δ34S of pyrite (−10‰ to −34‰ and preserved fossil cells of microorganisms.

  13. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Amos Owamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  14. Dutch Sport Federations Changing into Market Oriented Organizations: The Institutional Theory Applied on Three Case Studies

    Marije van 't Verlaat

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006, almost sixty Dutch National Sport Federations (NSFs) participated in a special program for creating a marketing strategy for the next four years. This program was initiated and organized by NOC*NSF (the Dutch Olympic Umbrella Sports Organization). The NSFs had to joint the project

  15. The Features of Forming and Using the Finansial and Material Resources of Socially Oriented Non-Profit Organizations of Volgograd Region

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.

  16. Designing a lessons learned model to improve the success of new product development in project oriented organizations

    Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, project-based organizations need to utilize intellectual capital and knowledge to become leader in their business activities. The new approach to use knowledge based skills from one side and development of the new complicated products from the other side have increased the need for designing a lessons learned model. The purpose of this paper is to design a lessons learned model to improve the success of new product development for project oriented organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 56 experts who were well informed about various techniques of new product development and lessons learned. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey were well above the desirable level. The results of the survey have indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between lessons learned components and the success of the new product development.

  17. Template-free formation of vertically oriented TiO2 nanorods with uniform distribution for organics-sensing application

    Mu Qinghui; Li Yaogang; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: High-density arrays of vertically oriented TiO 2 nanorods with uniform distribution on Ti foil have been formed through template-free oxidation of Ti in hydrogen peroxide solutions. Subsequent thermal treatment was applied for growing mixed crystal structures to pursue higher performance. Morphology characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows a nanorod diameter in the range of 20-50 nm with a length of 1.5 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement demonstrates the crystallization of the TiO 2 nanorods prior to thermal treatment and the formation of anatase and rutile mixed phase after thermal treatment. The mixed crystal TiO 2 nanorods show a much higher performance than pure anatase in photoelectrochemical experiments. Steady-state photocurrent resulted from photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds by TiO 2 nanorods is employed as response signal in determination of the organics to yield a linear range of 0-1.1 mM for glucose. For other organics, an excellent linear relationship between the net steady-state photocurrent and the concentration of electrons transferred in exhaustive oxidation for these organics is obtained, which empowers the mixed crystal TiO 2 nanorods to serve as versatile material in organics-sensing application.

  18. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.

  19. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  20. Organization dependent collective magnetic properties of secondary nanostructures with differential spatial ordering and magnetic easy axis orientation

    Saikia, K. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Sarma, D.D. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Deb, P., E-mail: pdeb@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Achieving control on the formation of different organization states of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to harness their organization dependent physical properties in desired ways. In this study, three organization states of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), defining as (i) assembly (ii) network aggregate and (iii) cluster, have been developed by simply changing the solvent evaporation conditions. All three systems have retained the same phase and polydispersity of primary particles. Magnetic measurements show that the partial alignment of the easy axes of the particles in the network system due to the stacking aggregation morphology can result in significant enhancement of the coercivity and remanence values, while the opposite is obtained for the cluster system due to the random orientation of easy axes. Partial alignment in the aggregate system also results in noticeable non-monotonic field dependence of ZFC peak temperature (T{sub peak}). The lowest value of the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) for the cluster system is related to the lowering of the effective anisotropy due to the strongest demagnetizing effect. FC (Field cooled) memory effect was observed to be decreasing with the increasing strength of dipolar interaction of organization states. Therefore, the stacking aggregation and the cluster formation are two interesting ways of magnetic nanoparticles organization for modulating collective magnetic properties significantly, which can have renewed application potentials from recording devices to biomedicine. - Highlights: • Three organization states of magnetic nanoparticles were developed. • Aggregation enhances the H{sub c} and M{sub r}/M{sub s,} while spherical clustering shows opposite. • Organization morphology hardly effects on FC memory effect. • Developed secondary systems can have renewed application potentials in wide spectrum.

  1. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-16

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate their polarization energies in the bulk and at the organic-vacuum interface using a polarizable force field that accounts for induced-dipole and quadrupole interactions. Though both oligoacenes pack in a herringbone motif, the tetraphenyl substituents on the tetracene backbone of rubrene alter greatly the nature of the packing. The resulting change in relative orientations of neighboring molecules is found to reduce the bulk polarization energy of holes in rubrene by some 0.3 eV when compared to tetracene. The consideration of model organic-vacuum interfaces highlights the significant variation in the electrostatic environment for a charge carrier at a surface although the net change in polarization energy is small; interestingly, the environment of a charge even just one layer removed from the surface can be viewed already as representative of the bulk. Overall, it is found that in these herringbone-type layered crystals the polarization energy has a much stronger dependence on the intralayer packing density than interlayer packing density.

  2. Building Social Change Oriented Leadership Capacity Among Student Organizations: Developing Students and Campuses Simultaneously.

    Kezar, Adrianna; Acuña Avilez, Arely; Drivalas, Yianna; Wheaton, Marissiko M

    2017-09-01

    This chapter highlights nontraditional forms of leadership development in student organizations. Using the social change model for leadership as a framework, the authors discuss the ways in which collectivist and activist approaches can result in similar skills obtained through traditional forms of leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. The orientation of organizations to their environments: Functions of the unconscious mind

    van Woerkum, C.M.J.; Aarts, M.N.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the unconscious processes involved in dealing with the environment of organizations, a main concern of public relations. To do so, we analytically distinguish between 3 types of relationships: those based on rules, those based on profitability, and those based on values. We

  4. The Orientation of Organizations to their Environments: Functions of the Unconscious Mind

    Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Aarts, M.N.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the unconscious processes involved in dealing with the environment of organizations, a main concern of public relations. To do so, we analytically distinguish between 3 types of relationships: those based on rules, those based on profitability, and those based on values. We

  5. Coupling between diffusion and orientation of pentacene molecules on an organic surface.

    Rotter, Paul; Lechner, Barbara A J; Morherr, Antonia; Chisnall, David M; Ward, David J; Jardine, Andrew P; Ellis, John; Allison, William; Eckhardt, Bruno; Witte, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The realization of efficient organic electronic devices requires the controlled preparation of molecular thin films and heterostructures. As top-down structuring methods such as lithography cannot be applied to van der Waals bound materials, surface diffusion becomes a structure-determining factor that requires microscopic understanding. Scanning probe techniques provide atomic resolution, but are limited to observations of slow movements, and therefore constrained to low temperatures. In contrast, the helium-3 spin-echo (HeSE) technique achieves spatial and time resolution on the nm and ps scale, respectively, thus enabling measurements at elevated temperatures. Here we use HeSE to unveil the intricate motion of pentacene admolecules diffusing on a chemisorbed monolayer of pentacene on Cu(110) that serves as a stable, well-ordered organic model surface. We find that pentacene moves along rails parallel and perpendicular to the surface molecules. The experimental data are explained by admolecule rotation that enables a switching between diffusion directions, which extends our molecular level understanding of diffusion in complex organic systems.

  6. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  7. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Hackley, K.C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W. (Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (USA). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylen PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (S{sup o}) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether S{sup o} extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted S{sup o} was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The S{sup o} was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, S{sup o} and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  9. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Giamberini, Marta, E-mail: marta.giamberini@urv.net [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia-Valls, Ricard [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Reina, Jose Antonio [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcel.li Domingo s/n, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Gumi, Tania [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion Registered-Sign N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  10. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria; Giamberini, Marta; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Reina, José Antonio; Gumí, Tània

    2012-01-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion® N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: ► We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. ► In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. ► We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. ► Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  11. Prosocial motivation and physicians' work attitudes. Effects of a triple synergy on prosocial orientation in a healthcare organization.

    Kim, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Employees work attitudes are key determinants to organizational performance. This article proposes a model integrating servant leadership, prosocial motivation, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to explain a mechanism through which prosocial motivation plays a central role in enhanding physicians' work attitudes. A cross sectional survey from a sample of physicians indicates that (1) prosocial motivation can be shaped from servant leadership when physicians perceive high value fit with their supervisors, (2) prosocial motivation improves physicians' job satisfaction. Its effects is strengthened when physicians perceive high CSR, and (3) job satisfaction improves organizational commitment. The results provide meaningful insights that a triple synergy of prosocial orientation among physicians, supervisors and organization enhances physicians' work attitudes.

  12. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  13. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  14. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer-chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS).

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-03-30

    Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is responsible for non-quantitative H 2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer-Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems. The EA-Cr/HTC reactor was substantially modified for the conversion of halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples. The performance of the novel conversion setup for solid and liquid samples was monitored and optimized using a simultaneously operating dual-detection system of IRMS and ion trap MS. The method with several variants in the reactor, including the addition of manganese metal chips, was evaluated in three laboratories using EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line method) and compared with traditional uranium-reduction-based conversion combined with manual dual-inlet IRMS analysis (off-line method) in one laboratory. The modified EA-Cr/HTC reactor setup showed an overall H 2 -recovery of more than 96% for all halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds. All results were successfully normalized via two-point calibration with VSMOW-SLAP reference waters. Precise and accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis was achieved for a variety of organics containing F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and S-bearing heteroelements. The robust nature of the on-line EA-Cr/HTC technique was demonstrated by a series of 196 consecutive measurements with a single reactor filling. The optimized EA-Cr/HTC reactor design can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available material and

  15. Programme on radioactive waste management of the C.E.C.: orientations, motivations, organization and evolution

    Bishop, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities favours the development of nuclear energy to contribute to the solution of the energy problems. The Commission favours also the development of a complete nuclear fuel cycle including reprocessing and fast breeders. Thus the Commission is interested in the setting-up of effective solutions to problems of radioactive waste management. The Commission is operating by means of a Direct Action Programme, developed in the Joint Research Centre, and of an Indirect Action Programme, developed under contracts with national laboratories and industries. The programmes of the Commission cover all of the most important aspects of radioactive waste conditioning and disposal. The Commission is operating in strict connection with international organizations; collaboration agreements are in preparation with non-Community countries. The Plan of Action (1980 to 1992) in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management, recently approved by the Council, entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the implementation of the waste management policies

  16. The roles of bulk and interfacial molecular orientations in determining the performance of organic bilayer solar cells

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy O.

    2014-09-09

    Molecular orientation plays a significant role in determining the performance of small molecule solar cells. Key photovoltaic processes in these cells are strongly dependent on how the molecules are oriented in the active layer. We isolate contributions arising from the bulk molecular orientations vs. those from interfacial orientations in ZnPc/C60 bilayer systems and we probe these contributions by comparing device pairs in which only the bulk or the interface differ. By controlling the orientation in the bulk the current can be strongly modulated, whereas controlling the interfacial molecular orientation and degree of intermixing mediate the voltage.

  17. The roles of bulk and interfacial molecular orientations in determining the performance of organic bilayer solar cells

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy O.; Graham, Kenneth R.; Conron, Sarah; Erwin, Patrick; Li, Ruipeng; Chou, Kang Wei; Burkhard, George; Krishnan Jagadamma, Lethy; Hoke, Eric T.; McGehee, Michael D.; Thompson, Mark E.; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Molecular orientation plays a significant role in determining the performance of small molecule solar cells. Key photovoltaic processes in these cells are strongly dependent on how the molecules are oriented in the active layer. We isolate contributions arising from the bulk molecular orientations vs. those from interfacial orientations in ZnPc/C60 bilayer systems and we probe these contributions by comparing device pairs in which only the bulk or the interface differ. By controlling the orientation in the bulk the current can be strongly modulated, whereas controlling the interfacial molecular orientation and degree of intermixing mediate the voltage.

  18. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  19. Self-assembled peptides for coating of active sulfur nanoparticles in lithium–sulfur battery

    Jewel, Yead; Yoo, Kisoo; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-01-01

    Development of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is hindered by poor cyclability due to the loss of sulfur, although Li–S battery can provide high energy density. Coating of sulfur nanoparticles can help maintain active sulfur in the cathode of Li–S battery, and hence increase the cyclability. Among myriad of coating materials, synthetic peptides are very attractive because of their spontaneous self-assembly as well as electrical conductive characteristics. In this study, we explored the use of various synthetic peptides as a coating material for sulfur nanoparticles. Atomistic simulations were carried out to identify optimal peptide structure and density for coating sulfur nanoparticles. Three different peptide models, poly-proline, poly(leucine–lysine) and poly-histidine, are selected for this study based on their peptide–peptide and peptide-sulfur interactions. Simulation results show that both poly-proline and poly(leucine–lysine) can form self-assembled coating on sulfur nanoparticles (2–20 nm) in pyrrolidinone, a commonly used solvent for cathode slurry. We also studied the structural integrity of these synthetic peptides in organic [dioxolane (DOL) and dimethoxyethane (DME)] electrolyte used in Li–S battery. Both peptides show stable structures in organic electrolyte (DOL/DME) used in Li–S battery. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfur molecules in organic electrolyte is investigated in the absence and presence of these peptide coatings. It was found that only poly(leucine–lysine)-based peptide can most effectively suppress the sulfur loss in electrolyte, suggesting its potential applications in Li–S battery as a coating material.Graphical abstract

  20. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  1. Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria

    Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images PMID:16348934

  2. Effect of sulfur supplements on cellulolytic rumen micro-organisms and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed a high fibre diet.

    McSweeney, C S; Denman, S E

    2007-11-01

    To examine the effect of sulfur-containing compounds on the growth of anaerobic rumen fungi and the fibrolytic rumen bacteria Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in pure culture and within the cattle rumen. The effect of two reduced sulfur compounds, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid as the sole S source on growth of pure fibroyltic fungal and bacterial cultures showed that these compounds were capable of sustaining growth. An in vivo trial was then conducted to determine the effect of sulfur supplements (MPA and sodium sulfate) on microbial population dynamics in cattle fed the roughage Dichanthium aristatum. Real-time PCR showed significant increases in fibrolytic bacterial and fungal populations when cattle were supplemented with these compounds. Sulfate supplementation leads to an increase in dry matter intake without a change in whole tract dry matter digestibility. Supplementation of low S-containing diets with either sodium sulfate or MPA stimulates microbial growth with an increase in rumen microbial protein supply to the animal. Through the use of real-time PCR monitoring, a better understanding of the effect of S supplementation on discrete microbial populations within the rumen is provided.

  3. Object-oriented sociology and organizing in the face of emergency: Bruno Latour, Graham Harman and the material turn.

    Pierides, Dean; Woodman, Dan

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the material turn in sociology and the tools it provides for understanding organizational problems highlighted by the Royal Commission into the 2009 'Black Saturday' bushfires during which 173 people died in the Australian State of Victoria. Often inspired by Bruno Latour's material-semiotic sociology of associations, organization scholars employing these tools focus on the messy details of organization otherwise overlooked by approaches assuming a macroscopic frame of analysis. In Latour's approach no object is reducible to something else - such as nature, the social, or atoms - it is instead a stabilized set of relations. A Latourian approach allows us to highlight how the Royal Commission and macroscopic models of organizing do unwitting damage to their objects of inquiry by purifying the 'natural' from the 'social'. Performative elements in their schemas are mistaken for descriptive ones. However, a long standing critique of this approach claims that it becomes its own form of reduction, to nothing but relations. Graham Harman, in his object-oriented philosophy develops this critique by showing that a 'relationist' metaphysics cannot properly accommodate the capacity of 'objects' to cause or mediate surprises. Through our case of the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, we argue that a purely relational model of objects loosens a productive tension between the structural and ephemeral that drives sociological analysis. By drawing on elements of Harman's ontology of objects we argue that it is necessary for material-semiotic sociology to retain a central place for the emergence of sociological objects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  4. Genomic Insights into the Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for anaerobic photoautotrophic growth. Genome sequence data is currently available for 12 strains of GSB. We present here a genome-based survey of the distribution...... and phylogenies of genes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in these strains. Sulfide:quinone reductase, encoded by sqr, is the only known sulfur-oxidizing enzyme found in all strains. All sulfide-utilizing strains contain the dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrABCEFHLNMKJOPT genes, which appear...... to be involved in elemental sulfur utilization. All thiosulfate-utilizing strains have an identical sox gene cluster (soxJXYZAKBW). The soxCD genes found in certain other thiosulfate-utilizing organisms like Paracoccus pantotrophus are absent from GSB. Genes encoding flavocytochrome c (fccAB), adenosine-5...

  5. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  7. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    Liu, J.

    2012-09-05

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4\\'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  9. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    Liu, J.; Shekhah, O.; Stammer, X.; Arslan, H.K.; Liu, B.; Schupbach, B.; Terfort, A.; Woll, C.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  10. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Stammer, Xia; Arslan, Hasan K.; Liu, Bo; Schüpbach, Björn; Terfort, Andreas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  11. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Christof Wöll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE of the metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA, 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyltriptycene (CMMT. The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100 direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111 direction.

  12. Selection system orientations as an explanation for the differences between dual leaders of the same organization in their perception of organizational performance

    Bhansing, P.V.; Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate to what extent individual managers operating in a dual leadership structure have different perceptions of how well his/her organization is performing. Using selection system theory we develop hypotheses on the relationships between a leader’s selection system orientation and his/her

  13. Selection system orientations as an explanation for the differences between dual leaders of the same organization in their perception of organizational performance

    P.V. Bhansing (Pawan); M.A.A.M. Leenders (Mark); N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate to what extent individual managers operating in a dual leadership structure have different perceptions of how well his/her organization is performing. Using selection system theory we develop hypotheses on the relationships between a leader’s selection system orientation

  14. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Person-Oriented Organization of Academic Process – the Way of Genuine Flexibility and Individualization of Educational Curricula

    B. A. Sazonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the necessity for Russian universities to switch over from the conservative stream-group scheduling to progressive individual scheduling of educational process where each particular student becomes an object of planning and implementing the higher educational curricula. The new liberal student- centered form called the «credit system» or in Russian variant the «credit units system» brings forward the students interests and rights. Gradually, such system tends to prevail in the world environment of vocational education, though in Russian higher school it still exist as an experiment and is not fast adopted. The prevailing stream-group model of educational process with steady group division throughout the whole academic period indicates our serious technological lagging behind the leaders of the world educational market. Rejection of traditional stream-group educational model and steady group formation brings about new opportunities for Russian universities providing real flexibility and individualization of educational curricula, giving students the option for individual term planning and scheduling, as well as the right for choosing teachers. Combining the modern approach to students’ assessment and person-oriented organization of academic process, the complete mass adoption of the model in question in bachelor and specialists training can guarantee a qualitative leap in developing Russian higher educational system. 

  16. Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U.

    2004-01-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E r and thus of E r xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E r xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions

  17. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  18. PHYSICAL OBJECT-ORIENTED MODELING IN DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALIZED TEACHING AND ORGANIZATION OF MINI-RESEARCH IN MECHANICS COURSES

    Alexander S. Chirtsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a relatively simple method to develop interactive computer models of physical systems without computer programming skills or automatic generation of the numerical computer code for the complex physical systems. Developed computer models are available over the Internet for educational purposes and can be edited by users in an unlimited number of possibilities. An applicability of computer simulations for the massive open individualized teaching and an organization of undergraduate research are also discussed. Method. The presented approach employs an original physical object-oriented modeling method, which is an extension of object-oriented programming ideas to tasks of developing simulations of the complex physical systems. In this framework, a computer model of the physical system is constructed as a set of interconnected computer objects simulating the system components: particles and fields. Interactions between the system components are described by self-adapting algorithms that are specified during the model initiation stage and are set according to either the classical or relativistic approach. The utilized technique requires neither a priori knowledge regarding an evolution of the physical system nor a formulation of differential equations describing the physical system. Main Results. Testing of the numerical implementation and an accuracy of the algorithms was performed with the use of benchmarks with the known analytical solutions. The developed method - a physical reality constructor - has provided an opportunity to assemble a series of computer models to demonstrate physical phenomena studied in the high school and university mechanic courses. More than 150 original interactive models were included into the collections of multi-level multimedia resources to support teaching of the mechanics. The physical reality constructor was successfully tested to serve as a test bed for the independent

  19. Effects of Sulfurization Temperature on Properties of CZTS Films by Vacuum Evaporation and Sulfurization Method

    Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper zinc tin sulfur (CZTS thin films have been extensively studied in recent years for their advantages of low cost, high absorption coefficient (≥104 cm−1, appropriate band gap (~1.5 eV, and nontoxicity. CZTS thin films are promising materials of solar cells like copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS. In this work, CZTS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by vacuum evaporation and sulfurization method. Sn/Cu/ZnS (CZT precursors were deposited by thermal evaporation and then sulfurized in N2 + H2S atmosphere at temperatures of 360–560°C to produce polycrystalline CZTS thin films. It is found that there are some impurity phases in the thin films with the sulfurization temperature less than 500°C, and the crystallite size of CZTS is quite small. With the further increase of the sulfurization temperature, the obtained thin films exhibit preferred (112 orientation with larger crystallite size and higher density. When the sulfurization temperature is 500°C, the band gap energy, resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of the CZTS thin films are 1.49 eV, 9.37 Ω · cm, 1.714×1017 cm−3, and 3.89 cm2/(V · s, respectively. Therefore, the prepared CZTS thin films are suitable for absorbers of solar cells.

  20. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  1. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by dsr operon to maintain environmental sulfur balance.

    Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur metabolism is one of the oldest known redox geochemical cycles in our atmosphere. These redox processes utilize different sulfur anions and the reactions are performed by the gene products of dsr operon from phylogenetically diverse sets of microorganisms. The operon is involved in the maintenance of environmental sulfur balance. Interestingly, the dsr operon is found to be present in both sulfur anion oxidizing and reducing microorganisms and in both types of organisms DsrAB protein complex plays a vital role. Though there are various reports regarding the genetics of dsr operon there are practically no reports dealing with the structural aspects of sulfur metabolism by dsr operon. In our present study, we tried to compare the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by Allochromatium vinosum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris respectively through DsrAB protein complex. We analyzed the modes of bindings of sulfur anions to the DsrAB protein complex and observed that for sulfur anion oxidizers, sulfide and thiosulfate are the best substrates whereas for reducers sulfate and sulfite have the best binding abilities. We analyzed the binding interaction pattern of the DsrA and DsrB proteins while forming the DsrAB protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Allochromatium vinosum. To our knowledge this is the first report that analyzes the differences in binding patterns of sulfur substrates with DsrAB protein from these two microorganisms. This study would therefore be essential to predict the biochemical mechanism of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by these two microorganisms i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris (sulfur anion reducer) and Allochromatium vinosum (sulfur anion oxidizer). Our observations also highlight the mechanism of sulfur geochemical cycle which has important implications in future study of sulfur metabolism as it has a huge application in waste remediation and production of industrial bio-products viz. vitamins, bio-polyesters and bio

  2. Nanoscale charge localization induced by random orientations of organic molecules in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite-based solar cells have achieved high solar-energy conversion efficiencies and attracted wide attentions nowadays. Despite the rapid progress in solar-cell devices, many fundamental issues of the hybrid perovskites have not been fully understood. Experimentally, it is well known that in CH3NH3PbI3, the organic molecules CH3NH3 are randomly orientated at the room temperature, but the impact of the random molecular orientation has not been investigated. Using linear-scaling ab-initiomethods, we have calculated the electronic structures of the tetragonal phase of CH3NH3PbI3 with randomly orientated organic molecules in large supercells up to ~20,000 atoms. Due to the dipole moment of the organic molecule, the random orientation creates a novel system with long-range potential fluctuations unlike alloys or other conventional disordered systems. We find that the charge densities of the conduction-band minimum and the valence-band maximum are localized separately in nanoscales due to the potential fluctuations. The charge localization causes electron-hole separation and reduces carrier recombination rates, which may contribute to the long carrier lifetime observed in experiments. We have also proposed a model to explain the charge localization.

  3. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  4. In situ tribochemical sulfurization of molybdenum oxide nanotubes.

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Tomala, Agnieszka; Gabler, Christoph; DraŽić, Goran; Pirker, Luka; Remškar, Maja

    2018-02-15

    MoS 2 nanoparticles are typically obtained by high temperature sulfurization of organic and inorganic precursors under a S rich atmosphere and have excellent friction reduction properties. We present a novel approach for making the sulfurization unnecessary for MoO 3 nanotubes during the synthesis process for friction and wear reduction applications while simultaneously achieving a superb tribological performance. To this end, we report the first in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes during sliding contact in the presence of sulfur-containing lubricant additives. The sulfurization leads to the tribo-chemical formation of a MoS 2 -rich low-friction tribofilm as verified using Raman spectroscopy and can be achieved both during sliding contact and under extreme pressure conditions. Under sliding contact conditions, MoO 3 nanotubes in synergy with sulfurized olefin polysulfide and pre-formed zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate tribofilms achieve an excellent friction performance. Under these conditions, the tribochemical sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes leads to a similar coefficient of friction to the one obtained using a model nanolubricant containing MoS 2 nanotubes. Under extreme pressure conditions, the in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes using sulfurized olefin polysulfide results in a superb load carrying capacity capable of outperforming MoS 2 nanotubes. The reason is that while MoO 3 nanotubes are able to continuously sulfurize during sliding contact conditions, MoS 2 nanotubes progressively degrade by oxidation thus losing lubricity.

  5. Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms

    Vetter, R.D.; Fry, B.

    1998-01-01

    Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

  6. The effect of synthetic pesticides and sulfur used in conventional and organically grown strawberry and soybean on Neozygites floridana, a natural enemy of spider mites.

    Castro, Thiago; Roggia, Samuel; Wekesa, Vitalis W; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Gb Demétrio, Clarice; Delalibera, Italo; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    Gu, Zhigang

    2014-06-17

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    Gu, Zhigang; Bü rck, Jochen; Bihlmeier, Angela; Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Weidler, Peter G.; Azucena, Carlos; Wang, Zhengbang; Heiß ler, Stefan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Klopper, Wim; Ulrich, Anne S.; Wö ll, Christof H.

    2014-01-01

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  10. The Relationship Between Learning Orientation And Business Performance And The Moderating Effect Of Competitive Advantage: A Service Organization Perspective

    Louis A. Martinette; Alice Obenchain-Leeson

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of learning orientation on business performance (the achievement of sales and profit objectives) in the context of pure service.  The conceptual framework used in this research has been drawn from marketing, finance, and organizational behavior theory. Specifically, relationships related to learning orientation, sources of competitive advantage, and business performance have been identified.  This research develops and tests a framework about learning orienta...

  11. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    Shekhah, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1 film was functionalized by non-covalent modification via post-synthetic exchange of different probe molecules, such as acridine yellow, methylene blue, and Nile red. In addition, encapsulation of a porphyrin moiety was achieved via in situ synthesis and construction of the rho-ZMOF. Adsorption kinetics of volatile organic compounds on rho-ZMOF-1 thin films was also investigated. This study suggests that rho-ZMOF-1 thin films can be regarded as a promising platform for various applications such as sensing and catalysis. This journal is

  12. The coordination of sulfur in synthetic and biogenic Mg calcites: The red coral case

    Perrin, J.; Rivard, C.; Vielzeuf, D.; Laporte, D.; Fonquernie, C.; Ricolleau, A.; Cotte, M.; Floquet, N.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur has been recognized in biogenic calcites for a long time. However, its structural position is matter of debate. For some authors, sulfur is a marker of the organic matrix while it is part of the calcite structure itself for others. To better understand the place of sulfur in calcite, sulfated magnesian calcites (S-MgCalcite) have been synthetized at high pressure and temperature and studied by μ-XANES spectroscopy. S-MgCalcite XANES spectra show two different types of sulfur: sulfate (SO42-) as a predominant species and a small contribution of sulfite (SO32-), both substituting for carbonate ions in the calcite structure. To address the question of the position of sulfur in biogenic calcites, the oxidation states of sulfur in the skeleton and organic tissues of Corallium rubrum have been investigated by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and sulfur K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) on beamline ID21. In the skeleton, sulfur is mainly present as oxidized sulfur SO42- (+VI), plus a weak sulfite contribution. XANES spectra indicate that sulfur is inorganically incorporated as sulfur structurally substituted to carbonate ions (SSS). Although an organic matrix is present in the red coral skeleton, reduced organic sulfur could not be detected by μ-XANES spectroscopy in the skeleton probably due to low organic/inorganic sulfur ratio. In the organic tissues surrounding the skeleton, several sulfur oxidation states have been detected including disulfide (S-S), thioether (R-S-CH3), sulfoxide (SO2), sulfonate (SO2O-) and sulfate (SO42-). The unexpected occurrence of inorganic sulfate within the organic tissues suggests the presence of pre-organized organic/inorganic complexes in the circulatory system of the red coral, precursors to biomineralization ahead of the growth front.

  13. Extraction of sulfuric acid with TOPO

    Shuyun, Xue; Yonghui, Yang; Yanzhao, Yang; Sixiu, Sun; Borong, Bao

    1998-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction of sulfuric acid by tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-heptane has been made. Extraction coefficients of H 2 SO 4 as a function of H 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, and extractant concentrations in organic phase have been studied. The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants of extraction reaction have been evaluated. These results are important for interpreting extraction equilibrium data of uranium(VI) or other metal ions with TOPO in sulfuric acid media. (author)

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  15. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  16. Arsenic-induced stress activates sulfur metabolism in different organs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants accompanied by a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots.

    Ruíz-Torres, Carmelo; Feriche-Linares, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruíz, Marta; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out. Data showed a correlation among arsenic accumulation in the different organs, PCs content and the antioxidative response, with a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are clear connections between arsenic uptake, increase of their As-chelating capacity in roots and a decline of antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and the ascorbate peroxidase) whose alteration provoked As-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest that roots act as barrier of arsenic mediated by a prominent sulfur metabolism which is characterized by the biosynthesis of high amount of PCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  18. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  19. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  20. Organizational changes and automation: Towards a customer-oriented business organization for energy distribution companies: Part 1

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Automation offers great opportunities in the efforts of energy utilities in the Netherlands to reorganize towards more customer-oriented businesses. However, automation in itself is not enough. First, the organizational structure has to be changed considerably. Various energy utilities have already started on it. The restructuring principle is the same everywhere, but the way it is implemented differs widely

  1. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Bastos Caramao, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Vladimir de [URI, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO{sub x} gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC x GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC x GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC x GC. (orig.)

  2. Impact of a high magnetic field on the orientation of gravitactic unicellular organisms--a critical consideration about the application of magnetic fields to mimic functional weightlessness.

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C M; Albers, Peter W; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The gravity-dependent behavior of Paramecium biaurelia and Euglena gracilis have previously been studied on ground and in real microgravity. To validate whether high magnetic field exposure indeed provides a ground-based facility to mimic functional weightlessness, as has been suggested earlier, both cell types were observed during exposure in a strong homogeneous magnetic field (up to 30 T) and a strong magnetic field gradient. While swimming, Paramecium cells were aligned along the magnetic field lines; orientation of Euglena was perpendicular, demonstrating that the magnetic field determines the orientation and thus prevents the organisms from the random swimming known to occur in real microgravity. Exposing Astasia longa, a flagellate that is closely related to Euglena but lacks chloroplasts and the photoreceptor, as well as the chloroplast-free mutant E. gracilis 1F, to a high magnetic field revealed no reorientation to the perpendicular direction as in the case of wild-type E. gracilis, indicating the existence of an anisotropic structure (chloroplasts) that determines the direction of passive orientation. Immobilized Euglena and Paramecium cells could not be levitated even in the highest available magnetic field gradient as sedimentation persisted with little impact of the field on the sedimentation velocities. We conclude that magnetic fields are not suited as a microgravity simulation for gravitactic unicellular organisms due to the strong effect of the magnetic field itself, which masks the effects known from experiments in real microgravity.

  3. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    Huang, Su

    ) (PVP) and TOPAS as well as ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE), 65/35 copolymer), which differ largely from the others in dielectric constant, conductivity and surface properties. The only common feature of them is that they all lowered the charge injection and leakage current for 1-2 orders during poling. On every buffer layer we tried, similar trend of stability enhancement is found. These results suggest that the observed temporal stability enhancement is indeed an effect from the abovementioned mechanism. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an innovative new poling method, which utilizes pyroelectric effect instead of external power sources to overcome the limitations of conventional contact poling and corona poling. With careful theory assisted design, we developed a reliable protocol to efficiently introduce dipole orientation in organic E-O materials by heating and cooling them with detachable pyroelectric crystals. This new method can potentially improve the process adaptability of organic E-O materials in a variety of photonic devices. Large Pockels coefficients (up to 81 pm/V at 1.3 micron) have been successfully achieved in thin films poled using this method. The effective fields in these experiments are estimated to be around 0.5 to 0.9 MV/cm, which agree well with the electrostatics analysis using an idealized model. The same method is directly applied to surface modified hybrid polymer silicon slot waveguide ring-resonator modulators devices. A 25 pm/V tunability of resonance peak wavelength shift has been realized, which was higher than any reported results in similar devices. Chapter 5 discusses about the possible application of the pyroelectric poling in a multi-stack waveguide device architecture. A long-existing challenge to pole E-O polymer based photonic devices is how to effectively drop the poling voltage to the core layer, which is usually sandwiched between two dielectric claddings. In the past

  4. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Packing Density on Electronic Polarization in the Bulk and at Surfaces of Organic Semiconductors

    Ryno, Sean; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The polarizable environment surrounding charge carriers in organic semiconductors impacts the efficiency of the charge transport process. Here, we consider two representative organic semiconductors, tetracene and rubrene, and evaluate

  5. Complete genome sequence of the photoautotrophic and bacteriochlorophyll e-synthesizing green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum DSM 1677T

    Tank, Marcus; Liu, Zhenfeng; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Chlorobaculum limnaeum DSM 1677T is a mesophilic, brown-colored, chlorophototrophic green sulfur bacterium that produces bacteriochlorophyll e and the carotenoid isorenieratene as major pigments. This bacterium serves as a model organism in molecular research on photosynthesis, sulfur metabolism...

  6. Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate is the second most abundant anion (behind chloride) in modern seawater, and its cycling is intimately coupled to the cycling of organic matter and oxygen at the Earth’s surface. For example, the reduction of sulfide by microbes oxidizes vast amounts of organic carbon and the subsequent......, these compositions do not deviate substantially from the modern surface-water input to the oceans. When applied to mass balance models, these results support previous interpretations of sulfur cycle operation and counter recent suggestions that sulfate has been a minor player in sulfur cycling through...... reaction of sulfide with iron produces pyrite whose burial in sediments is an important oxygen source to the atmosphere. The concentrations of seawater sulfate and the operation of sulfur cycle have experienced dynamic changes through Earth’s history, and our understanding of this history is based mainly...

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  8. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    Eichinger, BE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-transition of elemental sulfur occurring at about 159°C has long been associated with the conversion of cyclic S8 rings (c-S8) to amorphous polymer (a-S) via a ring opening polymerization. It is demonstrated, with the use of both density...

  9. Sulfur impacts on forest health in west-central Alberta

    Maynard, D.G.; Stadt, J.J.; Mallett, K.I.; Volney, W.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate forest health and tree growth in relation to sulfur deposition in mature and immature lodgepole pine and mature trembling aspen. Soil samples were taken in forests near two sour gas processing plants in west-central Alberta. The soil sample sites were classified into high, medium and low deposition classes. The impact of sulfur deposition on soil and foliar chemistry, tree growth, and forest health was evaluated. The analysis of tree growth, using radial increments, revealed no impact associated with the sulfur deposition class. The only indicators of extensive sulfur impacts on major forest communities detected to date are elevated sulfur concentrations in the surface organic horizon and foliage, the proportion of healthy lodgepole pines, and a depression in the annual specific volume increment. No evidence of widespread forest decline has been found. 42 refs., 35 tabs., 29 figs

  10. Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.

    Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention.

  11. Nanoscale orientation and lateral organization of chimeric metal-binding green fluorescent protein on lipid membrane determined by epifluorescence and atomic force microscopy

    Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy was successfully applied to explore the orientation and lateral organization of a group of chimeric green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) on lipid membrane. Incorporation of the chimeric GFP carrying Cd-binding region (His6CdBP4GFP) to the fluid phase of DPPC monolayer resulted in a strong fluorescence intensity at the air-water interface. Meanwhile, non-specific adsorption of the GFP having hexahistidine (His6GFP) led to the perturbation of the protein structure in which very low fluorescence was observed. Specific binding of both of the chimeric GFPs to immobilized zinc ions underneath the metal-chelating lipid membrane was revealed. This specific binding could be reversibly controlled by addition of metal ions or metal chelator. Binding of the chimeric GFPs to the metal-chelating lipid membrane was proven to be the end-on orientation while the side-on adsorption was contrarily noted in the absence of metal ions. Increase of lateral mobility owing to the fluidization effect on the chelating lipid membrane subsequently facilitated crystal formation. All these findings have opened up a potential approach for a specific orientation of immobilization of protein at the membrane interface. This could have accounted for a better opportunity of sensor development

  12. Managing Relationships and Competence to Stay Market-Oriented: The Case of a Finnish Contract Research Organization

    Seppänen, Veikko; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    Relationships influence organizations' competencies. A model of competence dynamics at the organization, dyad, and network levels is developed and applied in a contractual R&D case. It is argued that the model also depicts marketing concerns of knowledge-intensive professional services firms....... Finally developing processual models of relationship-related competence management is discussed....

  13. Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses assessed by stable sulfur isotopes—a synthesis of current results

    Holmer, Marianne; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    of sedimentary sulfide in the plant increases, and accumulation of elemental sulfur (S0) inside the plant with δ34S values similar to the sedimentary sulfide suggests that S0 is an important reoxidation product of the sedimentary sulfide. The accumulation of S0 can, however, not account for the increase...... in sulfur in the tissue, and other sulfur containing compounds such as thiols, organic sulfur, and sulfate contribute to the accumulated sulfur pool. Experimental studies with seagrasses exposed to environmental and biological stressors show decreasing δ34S in the tissues along with reduction in growth...

  14. Getting sulfur on target

    Halbert, T.R.; Brignac, G.B. [ExxonMobil Process Research Labs. (United States); Greeley, J.P.; Demmin, R.A.; Roundtree, E.M. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The paper focuses on how the required reductions in sulfur levels in motor vehicle fuel may be achieved over about the next five years. It is said that broadly there are two possible approaches, they are: (a) to hydrotreat the feed to the FCC unit and (b) to treat the naphtha produced by the FCC unit. The difficulties associated with these processes are mentioned. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) technology options for cat naphtha desulfurisation; (ii) optimising fractionator design via improved VLE models; (iii) commercial experience with ICN SCANfining; (iv) mercaptan predictive models and (v) process improvements. It was concluded that the individual needs of the refiner can be addressed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) and the necessary reductions in sulfur levels can be achieved.

  15. Carbon/Sulfur Composite Cathodes for Flexible Lithium/Sulfur Batteries: Status and Prospects

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Bakenova, Zagipa; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    High specific energy and low cost flexible lithium/sulfur batteries have attracted significant attention as a promising power source to enable future flexible and wearable electronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the development of free-standing sulfur composite cathodes, with special emphasis on electrode material selectivity and battery structural design. The mini-review is organized based on the dimensionality of different scaffold materials, namely one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT), two-dimensional graphene, and three-dimensional CNT/graphene composite, respectively. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives of the future research directions are discussed.

  16. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  17. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  18. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  19. Online Dialogue Measurement Index – A Measurement of the Dialogic Orientation of Organizations in the Online Environment

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    Dialogue has been recognized as an important component of organization-stakeholder relations and a communicative sign of openness and responsibility towards others. Still, developing dialogic communications with stakeholders is not an easy task and can also result to be counterproductive when...... dialogic communications create conflicts or bad reputations. Organizations require public relations professionals to measure the results of their communication activities including their dialogic efforts. Yet, dialogic communication measurements are scarce and often incomplete. The purpose of this study...

  20. Effects of energy, distance and orientation on electron transfer rates studied by pulse radiolysis in organic media

    Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the past few years the methods of radiation chemistry in organic media have made an enormous change in how we view electron transfer processes, as these media have proved the most useful for studying long distance electron transfer between molecules. This paper briefly summarizes a few of the aspects of this area and discusses some of the attributes and limitations of radiation tehniques, particularly pulse radiolysis, in organic solvents. 14 refs., 2 figs

  1. One-step method of producing uniaxially oriented layers of organic discotic molecules for field effect transistors

    Miskiewicz, P.; Rybak, A.; Jung, J. Y.; Glowacki, I.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Tracz, A.; Pfleger, Jiří; Ulanski, J.; Müllen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, 1-3 (2007), s. 207-218 ISSN 1543-0537. [International Conference Erpos on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids and Polymers /10./. Carges, 10.7.2005-15.7.2005] Grant - others:Cordis(PL) G5RD-CT-2000-0032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : FETs * discotic liquid crystals * organic semiconductors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Isotope effects of sulfur in chemical reactions

    Mikolajczuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur is an important component of organic matter because it forms compounds with many elements. Due to high chemical activity of sulfur, it takes part in biological and geological processes in which isotope effects are occurring. It has been shown during last years research of isotope effects that we have take into account not only mass difference but also many other physical properties of nuclides e.g. even or odd number of neutrons in nuclei, shape and distribution of charge, turn of nuclear spin etc. The factor remains that new theoretical ideas have been formed on the base of data, being obtained in fractionation processes of heavy element isotope, particularly uranium. Now it is being well known that effects unconnected with vibration energy have also caused an effect on fractionation of considerably lighter elements like iron and magnesium. The important question is, if these effects would come to light during the separation of sulfur isotopes. Sulfur have three even isotopes M = (32, 34, 36) and one odd M 33). This problem is still open. (author)

  3. Oriented Approach

    Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting productivity is one of the goals of usinginformation technology in organizations. The purpose of this research isexamining the impact of IT on organizational productivity andrecognizing its mechanisms based on process-oriented approach. For thisend, by reviewing the literature of the subject a number of impacts of ITon organizational processes were identified. Then, through interviewswith IT experts, seven main factors were selected and presented in aconceptual model. This model was tested through a questionnaire in 148industrial companies. Data analysis shows that impact of IT onproductivity can be included in the eight major categories: Increasing ofthe Automation, Tracking, Communication, Improvement, Flexibility,Analytic, Coordination and Monitoring in organizational processes.Finally, to improve the impact of information technology onorganizational productivity, some suggestions are presented.

  4. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  5. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  6. Levels of Sulfur as an Essential Nutrient Element in the Soil-Crop-Food System in Austria

    Manfred Sager

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total sulfur data of various agricultural and food items from the lab of the author, have been compiled to develop an understanding of sulfur levels and ecological cycling in Austria. As sulfur level is not an included factor among the quality criteria of soil and fertilizer composition, the database is rather small. Problems in analytical determinations of total sulfur, in particular digestions, are outlined. As a protein component, sulfur is enriched in matrices of animal origin, in particular in egg white. There is substantial excretion from animals and man via urine. Organic fertilizers (manures, composts might contribute significantly to the sulfur budget of soils, which is important for organic farming of crops with high sulfur needs. For soils, drainage is a main route of loss of soluble sulfate, thus pot experiments may yield unrealistic sulfur budgets.

  7. Metabolomic profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds and malate

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Dahl, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations require rapid adjustment of the physiology of bacteria. Anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, like Allochromatium vinosum, thrive in environments that are characterized by steep gradients of important nutrients for these organisms, i.e., reduced sulfur compounds, light, oxygen and carbon sources. Changing conditions necessitate changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, two global analyses of A. vinosum responses to ...

  8. This Mechanistic Step Is ''Productive'': Organic Chemistry Students' Backward-Oriented Reasoning

    Caspari, I.; Weinrich, M. L.; Sevian, H.; Graulich, N.

    2018-01-01

    If an organic chemistry student explains that she represents a mechanistic step because ''it's a productive part of the mechanism,'' what meaning could the professor teaching the class attribute to this statement, what is actually communicated, and what does it mean for the student? The professor might think that the explanation is based on…

  9. From Metal-Organic Framework to Li2S@C-Co-N Nanoporous Architecture: A High-Capacity Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-12-27

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1166 mAh g -1 ), lithium sulfide (Li 2 S) has been considered as a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of Li 2 S limit its further application in next-generation Li-S batteries. In this report, a nanoporous Li 2 S@C-Co-N cathode is synthesized by liquid infiltration-evaporation of ultrafine Li 2 S nanoparticles into graphitic carbon co-doped with cobalt and nitrogen (C-Co-N) derived from metal-organic frameworks. The obtained Li 2 S@C-Co-N architecture remarkably immobilizes Li 2 S within the cathode structure through physical and chemical molecular interactions. Owing to the synergistic interactions between C-Co-N and Li 2 S nanoparticles, the Li 2 S@C-Co-N composite delivers a reversible capacity of 1155.3 (99.1% of theoretical value) at the initial cycle and 929.6 mAh g -1 after 300 cycles, with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency and a capacity fading of 0.06% per cycle. It exhibits excellent rate capacities of 950.6, 898.8, and 604.1 mAh g -1 at 1C, 2C, and 4C, respectively. Such a cathode structure is promising for practical applications in high-performance Li-S batteries.

  10. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  11. Clear-cut and practice-oriented organization - the connecting link between man and nuclear power plant operation requirements. Eine eindeutige und praxisgerechte Organisation - das Bindeglied zwischen Mensch und Anforderungen des Kernkraftwerkbetriebes

    Steiner, E.K. (Bayernwerk AG, Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    Practice-oriented plant organization takes into account the human spheres of task and responsibility, training and qualification, communication and exchange of experience, setting of targets, management and control as well as motivation and loyalty. It constitutes the basis for meeting the demands on a safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. This is demonstrated by the organization at the Grafenrheinfeld NPP. (DG)

  12. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine

    Schönberger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  13. Sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal under high pressure by using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer

    W.-C. Xu; M. Kumagai

    2003-02-01

    The behavior of sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal was investigated using a pressurized, continuous free fall pyrolyzer under the conditions of temperature ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa. The yields of sulfur converted to gas, tar and char were determined, together with the analyses of sulfur form distributions in coals and chars. The results showed that the decomposition of inorganic sulfur species was affected only by the temperature, while the increases in temperature and hydrogen pressure obviously enhanced the removal of organic sulfur from coal. The extent of organic sulfur removal was proportional to the coal conversion, depending on coal type. A significant retention of gaseous sulfur products by the organic matrix of the char was observed during hydropyrolysis of a Chinese coal above 1023 K, even under the pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. The kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of organic sulfur removal from coal was 0.2th-order with respect to the hydrogen pressure, and the activation energy for total sulfur removal and organic sulfur removal is 17 26 and 13 55 kJ/mol, respectively. The low activation energies suggest that the transformation and removal of sulfur from coal might be controlled by the diffusion and/or thermodynamic equilibrium during hydropyrolysis under the pressurized conditions. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  15. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  16. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  17. Management demands on information and communication technology in process-oriented health-care organizations: the importance of understanding managers' expectations during early phases of systems design.

    Andersson, Anna; Vimarlund, Vivian; Timpka, Toomas

    2002-01-01

    There are numerous challenges to overcome before information and communication technology (ICT) can achieve its full potential in process-oriented health-care organizations. One of these challenges is designing systems that meet users' needs, while reflecting a continuously changing organizational environment. Another challenge is to develop ICT that supports both the internal and the external stakeholders' demands. In this study a qualitative research strategy was used to explore the demands on ICT expressed by managers from functional and process units at a community hospitaL The results reveal a multitude of partially competing goals that can make the ICT development process confusing, poor in quality, inefficient and unnecessarily costly. Therefore, from the perspective of ICT development, the main task appears to be to coordinate the different visions and in particular clarify them, as well as to establish the impact that these visions would have on the forthcoming ICT application.

  18. Sulfur degassing due to contact metamorphism during flood basalt eruptions

    Yallup, Christine; Edmonds, Marie; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a study aimed at quantifying the potential for generating sulfur-rich gas emissions from the devolatilization of sediments accompanying sill emplacement during flood basalt eruptions. The potential contribution of sulfur-rich gases from sediments might augment substantially the magma-derived sulfur gases and hence impact regional and global climate. We demonstrate, from a detailed outcrop-scale study, that sulfur and total organic carbon have been devolatilized from shales immediately surrounding a 3-m thick dolerite sill on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Localized partial melting occurred within a few centimetres of the contact in the shale, generating melt-filled cracks. Pyrite decomposed on heating within 80 cm of the contact, generating sulfur-rich gases (a mixture of H2S and SO2) and pyrrhotite. The pyrrhotite shows 32S enrichment, due to loss of 34S-enriched SO2. Further decomposition and oxidation of pyrrhotite resulted in hematite and/or magnetite within a few cm of the contact. Iron sulfates were produced during retrogressive cooling and oxidation within 20 cm of the contact. Decarbonation of the sediments due to heating is also observed, particularly along the upper contact of the sill, where increasing δ13C is consistent with loss of methane gas. The geochemical and mineralogical features observed in the shales are consistent with a short-lived intrusion, emplaced in desulfurization, as well as decarbonation, of shales adjacent to an igneous intrusion. The liberated fluids, rich in sulfur and carbon, are likely to be focused along regions of low pore fluid pressure along the margins of the sill. The sulfur gases liberated from the sediments would have augmented the sulfur dioxide (and hydrogen sulfide) yield of the eruption substantially, had they reached the surface. This enhancement of the magmatic sulfur budget has important implications for the climate impact of large flood basalt eruptions that erupt through thick, volatile-rich sedimentary

  19. Decoupling of Neoarchean sulfur sources recorded in Algoma-type banded iron formation

    Diekrup, David; Hannington, Mark D.; Strauss, Harald; Ginley, Stephen J.

    2018-05-01

    Neoarchean Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely viewed as direct chemical precipitates from proximal volcanic-hydrothermal vents. However, a systematic multiple sulfur isotope study of oxide-facies BIF from a type locality in the ca. 2.74 Ga Temagami greenstone belt reveals mainly bacterial turnover of atmospheric elemental sulfur in the host basin rather than deposition of hydrothermally cycled seawater sulfate or sulfur from direct volcanic input. Trace amounts of chromium reducible sulfur that were extracted for quadruple sulfur isotope (32S-33S-34S-36S) analysis record the previously known mass-independent fractionation of volcanic SO2 in the Archean atmosphere (S-MIF) and biological sulfur cycling but only minor contributions from juvenile sulfur, despite the proximity of volcanic sources. We show that the dominant bacterial metabolisms were iron reduction and sulfur disproportionation, and not sulfate reduction, consistent with limited availability of organic matter and the abundant ferric iron deposited as Fe(OH)3. That sulfur contained in the BIF was not a direct volcanic-hydrothermal input, as expected, changes the view of an important archive of the Neoarchean sulfur cycle in which the available sulfur pools were strongly decoupled and only species produced photochemically under anoxic atmospheric conditions were deposited in the BIF-forming environment.

  20. Sulfur dioxide: foe or friend for life?

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO₂ can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats. In addition, SO₂ reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, SO₂ exerts both detrimental and protective effects in mammals. Is SO₂ a foe or friend for life?.

  1. The effects of market orientation

    Sandvik, Kåre

    1998-01-01

    This research is designed to accomplish three goals. The first goal is to revisit the market orientation construct in order to define the different facets of it. A review of the market orientation literature is made to assess and synthesize the stock of accumulated knowledge regarding the market orientation construct. The second goal of the research is to develop a theory of the effects ofmarket orientation. Using the literature concerning resource-based theory and organization...

  2. New method for reduction of burning sulfur of coal

    Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The coal pyrolysis is key phase in the the pyrolysis-combustion cycle as it provides char for combustor. The behaviour of sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis depends on factors as rank of coal, quantity of sulfur and sulfur forms distribution in the coal, quantity and kind of mineral matter and the process conditions. The mineral content of coal may inhibit or catalyze the formation of volatile sulfur compounds. The pyrolysis itself is a mean of removing inorganic and organic sulfur but anyway a portion of it remains in the char while the other moves into the tar and gas. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal reduction of burning sulfur at the coal pyrolysis by varying parametric conditions. The pyrolysis of different kinds of coal has been studied. The samples with size particles o C at atmospheric pressure and with a heating rate of 6-50 o C min -1 . They were treated with exhaust gas and nitrogen at an addition of steam and air. The char obtained remains up to 10 min at the final temperature. The char samples cool without a contact with air. Two methods of desulfurization-pyrolysis were studied - using 9-vertical tubular reactor and 9-horizontal turning reactor. The results obtained show that at all samples there is a decrease of burning sulfur with maximal removal efficiency 83%. For example at a pyrolysis of Maritsa Iztok lignite coal the burning sulfur is only 16% in comparison with the control sample. The remained is 90% sulfate, 10% organic and pyrite traces when a mixture 'exhaust gas-water stream-air' was used. The method of desulfurization by pyrolysis could be applied at different kinds of coal and different conditions. Char obtained as a clean product can be used for generating electric power. This innovation is in a stage of patenting

  3. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  4. Thermal dynamic analysis of sulfur removal from coal by electrolysis

    Li, D.; Gao, J.; Meng, F. [Qinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2002-06-01

    The electrolytic reactions about sulfur removal from coal were studied by using chemical thermal dynamic analysis. According to the thermodynamical data, the Gibbs free energy value of the electrolytic reactions of pyritic and organic sulfur removal from coal is higher than zero. So, these electrolytic reactions are not spontaneous chemical reactions. In order to carry out desulfurisation by electrolysis, a certain voltage is necessary and important. Because theoretic decomposition voltage of pyrite and some parts of organic sulfur model compound is not very high, electrolysis reactions are easily to be carried out by using electrolysis technology. Mn ion and Fe ion are added into electrolysis solutions to accelerate the desulfurisation reaction. The electrolytic decomposition of coal is discussed. Because the theoretical decomposition voltage of some organic model compound is not high, the coal decomposition might happen. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. The Problem-Oriented Approach to Organization of the Functioning of the State Control System in Ukraine

    Ivanova Olga Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There conducted an analysis of the number of inspections of business entities that were carried out by controlling bodies in Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it is justified that the issue of reducing the number of inspections of business entities is of primary importance for improving the business climate in Ukraine. The control functions of some central bodies of executive power that are similar or identical are singled out, the cases of dividing one sphere of control between several bodies are considered. By analyzing the organization of the functioning of the state control system in Ukraine, there revealed its main problems and directions for their solution, among which: the depriving of the State Forest Resource Agency of Ukraine and the State Agency of Fisheries of Ukraine of the duplicating control functions; the depriving of the State Service of Ukraine for Labor of functions of control over business entities delegating these functions to the above bodies. As a result, the State Service of Ukraine for Labor will only perform functions of control over activities of the Funds. These changes will make it possible not only to simplify the system of central bodies of executive power that have the right to conduct inspections of business entities by reducing the number of such bodies but also ensure the conducting of the inspections by special bodies.

  6. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Our understanding of environmental microbiology has been greatly enhanced by community genome sequencing of DNA recovered directly the environment. Community genomics provides insights into the diversity, community structure, metabolic function, and evolution of natural populations of uncultivated microbes, thereby revealing dynamics of how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for reconstructing near-complete genomes from natural environments while highlighting the challenges of analyzing community genomic sequence, especially from diverse environments. A major challenge of shotgun community genome sequencing is identification of DNA fragments from minor community members for which only low coverage of genomic sequence is present. We analyzed community genome sequence retrieved from biofilms in an acid mine drainage (AMD) system in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA, with an emphasis on identification and assembly of DNA fragments from low-abundance community members. The Richmond mine hosts an extensive, relatively low diversity subterranean chemolithoautotrophic community that is sustained entirely by oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The activity of these microorganisms greatly accelerates the generation of AMD. Previous and ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on reconstrucing genomes of dominant community members, including several bacteria and archaea. We binned contigs from several samples (including one new sample and two that had been previously analyzed) by tetranucleotide frequency with clustering by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The binning, evaluated by comparison with information from the manually curated assembly of the dominant organisms, was found to be very effective: fragments were correctly assigned with 95% accuracy. Improperly assigned fragments often contained sequences that are either evolutionarily constrained (e.g. 16S rRNA genes) or mobile elements that are

  7. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Benter, T; Arsene, C

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  8. STRUCTURE AND VALIDATION OF A CONTEXTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN SOCIAL SERVICES: AN ORGANIZATION-ORIENTED MEASURE FROM AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Carolina Moliner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.

  9. German Orientalism

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  10. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  11. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  12. Influence of sulfur and nitrogen supply on the susceptibility of Pisum sativum to SO/sub 2/

    Klein, H; Jaeger, H J; Steubing, L

    1974-01-01

    The susceptibility of Pisum to SO/sub 2/ injury was examined in relation to the sulfur and nitrogen nutrition. The injury was measured by comparing the dry matter yield to control and treated plants. SO/sub 2/ effects on metabolism were established by determining the content of organic and inorganic sulfur and, indirectly, by measuring total nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen, and protein nitrogen. The plants grown in nutrient solutions deficient in sulfur or nitrogen showed a decreased sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ pollution compared to the control. The higher content of amino acid nitrogen and organic sulfur of the plants grown in a nitrogen-deficient solution suggests that an increased synthesis of sulfur containing amino acids occurs. The slighter injury of the plants deficient in sulfur may be explained by the delayed sulfur supply.

  13. Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.

    Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation.

  14. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  15. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  16. Health Endpoint Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollutants

    Geravandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas, released from burning of coal, high-sulfur coal,s and diesel fuel. Sulfur dioxide harms human health by reacting with the moisture in the nose, nasal cavity and throat and this is the way by which it destroys the nerves in the respiratory system. Objectives The aim of this study was to focus on identifying the effects associated with sulfur dioxide on health in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods Data collections were performed by Ahvaz meteorological organization and the department of environment. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in four stations. Methods of sampling and analysis were according to US environmental protection agency (EPA guideline. Afterwards, we processed the raw data including instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering by Excel software and then, the impact of meteorological parameters were converted as the input file to the AirQ model. Finally, we calculated the health effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide. Results According to the findings, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in Ahvaz had an annual average of 51 μg/m3. Sum of the numbers of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases attributed to sulfur dioxide was 25 cases in 2012. Approximately, 5% of the total hospital admissions for respiratory disease and respiratory mortality happened when sulfur dioxide concentration was more than 10 mg/m3. Conclusions According to the results of this study, this increase could be due to higher fuel consumption, usage of gasoline in vehicles, oil industry, and steel and heavy industries in Ahwaz. The risk of mortality and morbidity were detected at the current concentrations of air pollutants.

  17. Sulfur metabolism in Escherichia coli and related bacteria: facts and fiction.

    Sekowska, A; Kung, H F; Danchin, A

    2000-04-01

    Living organisms are composed of macromolecules made of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Much work has been devoted to the metabolism of the first five elements, but much remains to be understood about sulfur metabolism. We review here the situation in Escherichia coli and related bacteria, where more than one hundred genes involved in sulfur metabolism have already been discovered in this organism. Examination of the genome suggests that many more will be found, especially genes involved in regulation, scavenging of sulfur containing molecules and synthesis of coenzymes or prosthetic groups. Furthermore, the involvement of methionine as the universal start of proteins as well as that of its derivative S-adenosylmethionine in a vast variety of cell processes argue in favour of a major importance of sulfur metabolism in all organisms.

  18. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  19. Orienteering injuries

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  20. Panorama 2018 - Reducing sulfur emissions in shipping: an economic and technological challenge

    Dumas, Cecile; Marion, Pierre; Saint Antonin, Valerie; Weiss, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur oxides emissions from maritime traffic are constantly rising, unlike those generated by all land-based sources, which are subject to numerous regulations on both fuels and emission caps on equipment that uses them. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a resolution to reduce the sulfur content of marine fuels, but its implementation, set for 2020, could prove complicated. (authors)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of N-t-BOC protected pyrrole-sulfur oligomers and polymers

    Groenendaal, L.; Pieterse, K.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Meijer, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new class of pyrrole-sulfur compounds is described. These compounds are designed to be precursors for an organic analogue of poly(sulfur nitride). Poly(N-t-BOC-2.5-pyrrolyl sulfide) was prepared from N-t-BOC-2,5-dibromopyrrole by first lithiating this compound

  2. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments

  3. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    Jia, Juanjuan [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Kara, Abdelkader, E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Pasquali, Luca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria “E. Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Esaulov, Vladimir A., E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  4. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  5. A XANES Study of Sulfur Speciation and Reactivity in Cokes for Anodes Used in Aluminum Production

    Jahrsengene, Gøril; Wells, Hannah C.; Rørvik, Stein; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Svensson, Ann Mari

    2018-06-01

    Availability of anode raw materials in the growing aluminum industry results in a wider range of petroleum cokes being used to produce carbon anodes. The boundary between anode grade cokes and what previously was considered non-anode grades are no longer as distinct as before, leading to introduction of cokes with higher sulfur and higher trace metal impurity content in anode manufacturing. In this work, the chemical nature of sulfur in five industrial cokes, ranging from 1.42 to 5.54 wt pct S, was investigated with K-edge XANES, while the reactivity of the cokes towards CO2 was measured by a standard mass loss test. XANES identified most of the sulfur as organic sulfur compounds. In addition, a significant amount is identified (16 to 53 pct) as S-S bound sulfur. A strong inverse correlation is observed between CO2-reactivity and S-S bound sulfur in the cokes, indicating that the reduction in reactivity is more dependent on the amount of this type of sulfur compound rather than the total amount of sulfur or the amount of organic sulfur.

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of biological effect of sulfur-35

    Borisova, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental materials related to evaluation of dosimetric characteristics of sulfur-35 are presented. Hemogenic organs are subjected to greatest influence especially in the first hours after radionuclide entry into the organism. Comparison is made of absorbed doses in blood with observed blastomogen effect of hemogenic organs. It is noted, that quantitative evaluation of relative biological efficiency of low energy beta-emitters should be performed with account of dosimetric peculiarities of the nuclides mentioned above. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  7. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  8. New uses of sulfur - update

    Almond, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  9. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin; Lyu, Jianxin; Ding, Huangen

    2017-08-15

    While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions than they

  10. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    Heiderscheit, J.

    1992-01-01

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  11. Management oriented process

    2004-01-01

    ANAV decided to implement process-oriented management by adopting the U. S. NEI (Nuclear Electric Industry) model. The article describes the initial phases of the project, its current status and future prospects. The project has been considered as an improvement in the areas of organization and human factors. Recently, IAEA standard drafts are including processes as an accepted management model. (Author)

  12. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  13. Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    Bao, L.M.; Zhang, G.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Q.C.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ma, C.Y.; Han, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics

    2009-11-15

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO{sub 4}2{sup -}. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  14. A source-orientated approach for estimating daytime concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds in an upper layer of a boreal forest canopy

    Lappalainen, H.K. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Sevanto, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kolari, P.; Back, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Biologically justified statistical models for daytime atmospheric concentrations of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpene were tested using measurements at a boreal forest stand in southern Finland in 2006-2007 and in summer 2008. The canopy-scale concentrations of all compounds except monotepene were closely correlated with shoot-scale concentrations indicating a strong link to biological emission source. All the models were based on the exponential relationship between air temperature and atmospheric concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The first model - an exponential function of air temperature (T model) - could explain 27%-64% of the variation in BVOC daytime concentrations in the test data. The second model - a Temperature-State of Development model (T-S model) having two explaining variables (air temperature and seasonal photosynthetic efficiency) - was derived from an empirical adjustment of seasonality. This model slightly increased the fraction of explained variation but it still could not explain the high concentration peaks, which accounted for most of the unexplained variation. To better analyse these peaks we tested the Trigger model including two potential environmental triggers, a PAR index (high photosynthetically active photon flux density (PAR) and high ozone concentration, that could increase the concentrations momentarily. However, the Trigger model described the peak concentrations only somewhat better than the T or T-S model. It seems that it is very difficult to explain more than 32%-67% of variation in BVOC concentrations by a straightforward source-oriented modelling without deep understanding of biological and physical processes. In order to improve the models profound studies on specific stress factors and events inducing BVOC emissions are needed. (orig.)

  15. Sulfur availability regulates plant growth via glucose-TOR signaling.

    Dong, Yihan; Silbermann, Marleen; Speiser, Anna; Forieri, Ilaria; Linster, Eric; Poschet, Gernot; Allboje Samami, Arman; Wanatabe, Mutsumi; Sticht, Carsten; Teleman, Aurelio A; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Saito, Kazuki; Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2017-10-27

    Growth of eukaryotic cells is regulated by the target of rapamycin (TOR). The strongest activator of TOR in metazoa is amino acid availability. The established transducers of amino acid sensing to TOR in metazoa are absent in plants. Hence, a fundamental question is how amino acid sensing is achieved in photo-autotrophic organisms. Here we demonstrate that the plant Arabidopsis does not sense the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine itself, but its biosynthetic precursors. We identify the kinase GCN2 as a sensor of the carbon/nitrogen precursor availability, whereas limitation of the sulfur precursor is transduced to TOR by downregulation of glucose metabolism. The downregulated TOR activity caused decreased translation, lowered meristematic activity, and elevated autophagy. Our results uncover a plant-specific adaptation of TOR function. In concert with GCN2, TOR allows photo-autotrophic eukaryotes to coordinate the fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur for efficient cysteine biosynthesis under varying external nutrient supply.

  16. Reduction of produced elementary sulfur in denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Lihong; Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-05-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewater into elemental sulfur, dinitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. The failure of a DSR process is signaled by high concentrations of sulfide in reactor effluent. Conventionally, DSR reactor failure is blamed for overcompetition for heterotroph to autotroph communities. This study indicates that the elementary sulfur produced by oxidizing sulfide that is a recoverable resource from sulfide-laden wastewaters can be reduced back to sulfide by sulfur-reducing Methanobacterium sp. The Methanobacterium sp. was stimulated with excess organic carbon (acetate) when nitrite was completely consumed by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Adjusting hydraulic retention time of a DSR reactor when nitrite is completely consumed provides an additional control variable for maximizing DSR performance.

  17. Understanding chemistry behind secondary aerosol production from nitrogen and sulfur compounds from agriculture

    Agricultural emissions impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Evidence from laboratory and field work suggest that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but nitrogen and sulfur containing volatile organic compounds also contribute. ...

  18. Sulfur Cycling in an Iron Oxide-Dominated, Dynamic Marine Depositional System: The Argentine Continental Margin

    Natascha Riedinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sediment deposition patterns, organic matter type and the quantity and quality of reactive mineral phases determines the accumulation, speciation, and isotope composition of pore water and solid phase sulfur constituents in marine sediments. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry of siliciclastic sediments from two sites along the Argentine continental slope—a system characterized by dynamic deposition and reworking, which result in non-steady state conditions. The two investigated sites have different depositional histories but have in common that reactive iron phases are abundant and that organic matter is refractory—conditions that result in low organoclastic sulfate reduction rates (SRR. Deposition of reworked, isotopically light pyrite and sulfurized organic matter appear to be important contributors to the sulfur inventory, with only minor addition of pyrite from organoclastic sulfate reduction above the sulfate-methane transition (SMT. Pore-water sulfide is limited to a narrow zone at the SMT. The core of that zone is dominated by pyrite accumulation. Iron monosulfide and elemental sulfur accumulate above and below this zone. Iron monosulfide precipitation is driven by the reaction of low amounts of hydrogen sulfide with ferrous iron and is in competition with the oxidation of sulfide by iron (oxyhydroxides to form elemental sulfur. The intervals marked by precipitation of intermediate sulfur phases at the margin of the zone with free sulfide are bordered by two distinct peaks in total organic sulfur (TOS. Organic matter sulfurization appears to precede pyrite formation in the iron-dominated margins of the sulfide zone, potentially linked to the presence of polysulfides formed by reaction between dissolved sulfide and elemental sulfur. Thus, SMTs can be hotspots for organic matter sulfurization in sulfide-limited, reactive iron-rich marine sedimentary systems. Furthermore, existence of elemental sulfur and iron

  19. Sulfur isotope signatures in New Zealand

    Cainey, J.

    2001-01-01

    The role of sulfur in cloud formation makes it a crucial ingredient in the global climate change debate. So it is important to be able to measure sulfur in the atmosphere and identify where it came from. (author)

  20. Model Prebiotic Iron-Sulfur Peptides

    Bonfio, C.; Scintilla, S.; Shah, S.; Evans, D. J.; Jin, L.; Szostak, J. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sutherland, J. D.; Mansy, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters form easily in aqueous solution in the presence of thiolates and iron ions. Polymerization of short, iron-sulfur binding tripeptide sequences leads to ferredoxin-like ligand spacing and activity.

  1. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  2. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  3. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.

    1981-07-15

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized.

  4. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  5. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  6. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  7. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. Synthesis and reactivity of novel sulfur pentafluorides-Effect of the SF5 group on reactivity of nitrobenzenes in nucleophilic substitution

    Beier, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 2 (2017), s. 212-215 ISSN 1042-6507. [International Symposium on the Organic Chemistry of Sulfur (ISOCS) /27./. Jena, 26.07.2016-29.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleophilic substitution * sulfur * fluorine * reaction rate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2016

  10. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative process for sulfur removal from petroleum product feedstock.

    Mello, Paola de A; Duarte, Fábio A; Nunes, Matheus A G; Alencar, Mauricio S; Moreira, Elizabeth M; Korn, Mauro; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M

    2009-08-01

    A procedure using ultrasonic irradiation is proposed for sulfur removal of a petroleum product feedstock. The procedure involves the combination of a peroxyacid and ultrasound-assisted treatment in order to comply with the required sulfur content recommended by the current regulations for fuels. The ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process was applied to a petroleum product feedstock using dibenzothiophene as a model sulfur compound. The influence of ultrasonic irradiation time, oxidizing reagents amount, kind of solvent for the extraction step and kind of organic acid were investigated. The use of ultrasonic irradiation allowed higher efficiency for sulfur removal in comparison to experiments performed without its application, under the same reactional conditions. Using the optimized conditions for UAOD, the sulfur removal was about 95% after 9min of ultrasonic irradiation (20kHz, 750W, run at 40%), using hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid, followed by extraction with methanol.

  11. Source apportionment of secondary organic aerosol in China using a regional source-oriented chemical transport model and two emission inventories.

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Lin, Yingchao; Mao, Hongjun

    2018-06-01

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with source-oriented lumped SAPRC-11 (S11L) photochemical mechanism and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module was applied to determine the contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources to SOA concentrations in China. A one-year simulation of 2013 using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) shows that summer SOA are generally higher (10-15 μg m -3 ) due to large contributions of biogenic (country average 60%) and industrial sources (17%). In winter, SOA formation was mostly due to anthropogenic emissions from industries (40%) and residential sources (38%). Emissions from other countries in southeast China account for approximately 14% of the SOA in both summer and winter, and 46% in spring due to elevated open biomass burning in southeast Asia. The Regional Emission inventory in ASia v2.1 (REAS2) was applied in this study for January and August 2013. Two sets of simulations with the REAS2 inventory were conducted using two different methods to speciate total non-methane carbon into model species. One approach uses total non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and representative speciation profiles from the SPECIATE database. The other approach retains the REAS2 speciated species that can be directly mapped to S11L model species and uses source specific splitting factors to map other REAS2 lumped NMHC species. Biogenic emissions are still the most significant contributor in summer based on these two sets of simulations. However, contributions from the transportation sector to SOA in January are predicted to be much more important based on the two REAS2 emission inventories (∼30-40% vs. ∼5% by MEIC), and contributions from residential sources according to REAS2 was much lower (∼21-24% vs. ∼42%). These discrepancies in source contributions to SOA need to be further investigated as the country seeks for optimal emission control strategies to fight severe air pollution. Copyright

  12. Orientation Club

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  13. Orienteering Club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  14. Biogeochemical conversion of sulfur species in saline lakes of Steppe Altai

    Borzenko, Svetlana V.; Kolpakova, Marina N.; Shvartsev, Stepan L.; Isupov, Vitaly P.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the main mechanisms of sulfur behavior in saline lakes in the course of time and followed transformations in their chemical composition. The influence of water on chemical composition of biochemical processes involved in decomposition of organic matter was determined by the study of behavior of reduced forms of sulfur in lakes. The determination of reduced forms of sulfur was carried out by successive transfer of each form of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide followed by photometric measurements. The other chemical components were determined by standard methods (atomic absorption, potentiometric method, titration method and others). The salt lakes of the Altai steppe were studied in summer season 2013-2015. Analysis of the chemical composition of the saline lakes of Altai Krai has shown that carbonate-, hydrocarbonate- and chloride ions dominate among anions; sodium is main cation; sulfates are found in subordinate amounts. Reduced forms of sulfur occur everywhere: hydrogen and hydrosulfide sulfur S2- prevail in the bottom sediments; its derivative—elemental S0—prevails in the lakes water. The second important species in water of soda lakes is hydrosulfide sulfur S2-, and in chloride lakes is thiosulfate sulfur S2O3 2- . The lag in the accumulation of sulfates in soda lakes in comparison to chloride lakes can be explained by their bacterial reduction, followed by the formation and deposition of iron sulfides in sediments. In chloride lakes gypsum is a predominantly barrier for sulfates.

  15. A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries

    Li, Guochun; Yang, Liuqing; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tianran; Lin, Haibin; Yao, Qiaofeng; Lee, Jim Yang

    2018-02-01

    The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5 mAh g-1DMTS (1.66 A h L-1), which decreases to 59 mAh g-1DMTS (0.75 A h L-1) after 40 cycles. The RTLSFB delivers a significantly higher application performance - initial discharge capacity of 1225.3 mAh g-1sulfur (3.83 A h L-1), for which 1030.9 mAh g-1sulfur (3.23 A h L-1) is still available after 40 cycles. The significant increase in the discharge and charge duration of the LFB after sulfur addition indicates that DMTS is better used as a redox mediator in a RTLSFB than as a catholyte in a LFB.

  16. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  17. Environment-Friendly Control of Pear Scab and Rust Using Lime Sulfur

    Ju Hoon Cha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear scab and rust are the major diseases causing severe epidemics in organic cultivation of pear trees. Incidences of pear scab and rust were compared in organically managed plots and conventionally managed plots to obtain optimum application schedule of environment-friendly control agents in organically managed plots. Organically cultural practice with 10 time-applications of lime sulfur and Bordeaux mixture showed higher than 40% of control efficacies of pear scab and rust compared to conventionally cultural practice. Organically cultural practice with 8 time-applications of lime sulfur considering weather condition showed higher than 30% of control efficacies of pear scab compared to conventionally cultural practice. The results suggest that proper application of environment-friendly control agents such as lime sulfur considering weather condition will enable effective control of the major diseases for organic cultivation of pear.

  18. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely...... chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when...... immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified....

  19. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ► A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ► S 0 nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ► The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ► PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the

  20. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  1. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile

    Zopfi, Jakob; Michael E., Böttcher; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-01-01

    suggest further that pyritization at depth includes light sulfide, potentially originating from bacterial sulfur disproportionation. The δ34S-values of pyrite down to -38‰ vs. V-CDT are among the lightest found in organic-rich marine sediments. Seasonal variations in the sulfur isotope composition...... of dissolved sulfate indicated a dynamic non-steady-state sulfur cycle in the surface sediments. The 18O content of porewater sulfate increased with depth at all sites compared to the bottom water composition due to intracellular isotope exchange reactions during microbial sulfur transformations....

  2. Organics.

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  4. Conversion of sulfur compounds and microbial community in anaerobic treatment of fish and pork waste.

    He, Ruo; Yao, Xing-Zhi; Chen, Min; Ma, Ruo-Chan; Li, Hua-Jun; Wang, Chen; Ding, Shen-Hua

    2018-04-07

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are not only the main source of malodor in anaerobic treatment of organic waste, but also pose a threat to human health. In this study, VSCs production and microbial community was investigated during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. The results showed that after the operation of 245 days, 94.5% and 76.2% of sulfur compounds in the fish and pork waste was converted into VSCs. Among the detected VSCs including H 2 S, carbon disulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol was the major component with the maximum concentration of 4.54% and 3.28% in the fish and pork waste, respectively. The conversion of sulfur compounds including total sulfur, SO 4 2- -S, S 2- , methionine and cysteine followed the first-order kinetics. Miseq sequencing analysis showed that Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Proteus, Thiobacillus, Hyphomicrobium and Pseudomonas were the main known sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms in the fish and pork waste. The C/N value had most significant influence on the microbial community in the fish and pork waste. A main conversion of sulfur compounds with CH 3 SH as the key intermediate was firstly hypothesized during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. These findings are helpful to understand the conversion of sulfur compounds and to develop techniques to control ordor pollution in the anaerobic treatment of organic waste. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Physiology and genetics of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Friedrich, C G

    1998-01-01

    Reduced inorganic sulfur compounds are oxidized by members of the domains Archaea and Bacteria. These compounds are used as electron donors for anaerobic phototrophic and aerobic chemotrophic growth, and are mostly oxidized to sulfate. Different enzymes mediate the conversion of various reduced sulfur compounds. Their physiological function in sulfur oxidation is considered (i) mostly from the biochemical characterization of the enzymatic reaction, (ii) rarely from the regulation of their formation, and (iii) only in a few cases from the mutational gene inactivation and characterization of the resulting mutant phenotype. In this review the sulfur-metabolizing reactions of selected phototrophic and of chemotrophic prokaryotes are discussed. These comprise an archaeon, a cyanobacterium, green sulfur bacteria, and selected phototrophic and chemotrophic proteobacteria. The genetic systems are summarized which are presently available for these organisms, and which can be used to study the molecular basis of their dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. Two groups of thiobacteria can be distinguished: those able to grow with tetrathionate and other reduced sulfur compounds, and those unable to do so. This distinction can be made irrespective of their phototrophic or chemotrophic metabolism, neutrophilic or acidophilic nature, and may indicate a mechanism different from that of thiosulfate oxidation. However, the core enzyme for tetrathionate oxidation has not been identified so far. Several phototrophic bacteria utilize hydrogen sulfide, which is considered to be oxidized by flavocytochrome c owing to its in vitro activity. However, the function of flavocytochrome c in vivo may be different, because it is missing in other hydrogen sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but is present in most thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria. A possible function of flavocytochrome c is discussed based on biophysical studies, and the identification of a flavocytochrome in the operon encoding enzymes involved

  6. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  7. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  8. Bacterial sulfur cycle shapes microbial communities in surface sediments of an ultramafic hydrothermal vent field

    Schauer, Regina; Røy, Hans; Augustin, Nico

    2011-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis, was characterized by the capability to metabolize sulfur components. High sulfate reduction rates as well as sulfide depleted in (34)S further confirmed the importance of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. In contrast, methane was found to be of minor relevance for microbial life in mat......, these sediments were investigated in order to determine biogeochemical processes and key organisms relevant for primary production. Temperature profiling at two mat-covered sites showed a conductive heating of the sediments. Elemental sulfur was detected in the overlying mat and metal-sulfides in the upper...

  9. Sulfur ligand mediated electrochemistry of gold surfaces and nanoparticles: what, how, and why

    Chi, Qijin; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    Gold surfaces are widely used in electrochemistry whilst gold nanoparticles have very many uses, with both the surfaces and the particles often being protected by sulfur-bound organic ligands. The ligands not only provide chemical stability but also directly participate in many desired processes....... This review considers the diversity of known atomic structures for gold-sulfur interfaces, how these structures facilitate a diversity of mechanisms in electrochemical applications, and why this is possible based on recent advances in the basic understanding of the electronic structure of gold-sulfur bonds...

  10. Determination of sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil by potentiometric titration.

    Chao, Qiu; Sheng, Han; Cheng, Xingguo; Ren, Tianhui

    2005-06-01

    A method was developed to analyze the distribution of sulfur compounds in model sulfur compounds by potentiometric titration, and applied to analyze hydrotreated transformer base oil. Model thioethers were oxidized to corresponding sulfoxides by tetrabutylammonium periodate and sodium metaperiodate, respectively, and the sulfoxides were titrated by perchloric acid titrant in acetic anhydride. The contents of aliphatic thioethers and total thioethers were then determined from that of sulfoxides in solution. The method was applied to determine the organic sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil.

  11. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  12. Orienteering club

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  13. Orienteering club

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  14. COURSE ORIENTATION

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  15. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  16. Orienteering Club

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  17. Orienteering Club

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  18. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  19. Orienteering Club

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  20. Orienteering Club

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  1. Club Orientation

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  2. Orienteering Club

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  3. Organizations

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  4. Optimization of low sulfur jerusalem artichoke juice for fossil fuels biodesulfurization process

    Silva, Tiago P.; Paixão, Susana M.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Luís Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world’s energy is generated from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and its derivatives. When burnt, these fuels release into the atmosphere volatile organic compounds, sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the fine particulate matter of metal sulfates. These are pollutants which can be responsible for bronchial irritation, asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer mortality, and they also contribute for the occurrence of acid rains and the increase of the hole i...

  5. The effects of gender role orientation on team schema: a multivariate analysis of indicators in a US Federal health care organization.

    Scherer, R F; Petrick, J A

    2001-02-01

    In this empirical study of 649 employees at a federally supported health care facility in the United States, the authors investigated the effects of individual gender role orientation on team schema. The results indicated (a) that nontraditional male and female employees perceived the greatest amount of group cohesion in their team schemas and (b) that both traditional and nontraditional male employees perceived greater problem-solving potential in their team schemas. Meaningful implications for team composition are discussed.

  6. Orienting hypnosis.

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  7. Neoproterozoic sulfur-isotope variation in Australia

    Gorjan, P.; Walter, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    A number of stages are apparent in sulfur-isotope geochemistry throughout the Neoproterozoic. Prior to the Sturtian glaciation (840-700 Ma) δ 34 S sulfate varied little (19 to 17.5 per mil), and δ 34 S sulfide ranged from -20 to +23 per mil. In the Bitter Springs Formation δ 34 S sulfide is greater in the non-marine portion compared to the marine portion. This can be explained by a paucity of sulfate in the non-marine waters, and is consistent with mineralogical evidence (Southgate, 1991). In the Sturtian glacial sediments δ 34 S sulfide starts below 0 per mil and rises to >30 per mil at the top of the glacial sediments. After the Sturtian glaciation δ 34 S sulfide averages ∼30 per mil (and 34 per mil for δ 34 S organic ) for the extent of silt deposition. This increase in δ 34 S sulfide also appears in China, Canada and Namibia (Gorjan et al., 2000). δ 34 S sulfate also rises but is lower than the average δ 34 S sulfate (5 sulfate nodules in the Tapley Hill Formation average 26 per mil). However, the sulfate nodules may not be preserving the original seawater δ 34 S sulfate 34 S enrichment in sulfides usually occurs in freshwater or euxinic settings, but all evidence points to a sulfate-rich and non-euxinic environment in the Sturtian post-glacial deposits (linear %C vs. %S plots; high FeS 2 :FeS ratios; low degree of pyritisation; Gorjan et al. 2000, Gorjan, 1998). Such a situation points to sulfides being formed from extremely 34 S enriched sulfate (perhaps up to 45 per mil). This global rise in δ 34 S of both sulfur fractions in the Sturtian postglacial has led us to speculate that 34 S enriched sulfate was formed beneath a stagnant, ice-covered ocean, an environment postulated by Hoffman (1998), during the Sturtian glaciation and was brought to shallower waters in an ocean-upwelling event. Sulfide depleted in 34 S may have been deposited on abyssal plains. δ 34 S sulfide and δ 34 S sulfate falls sharply at the conclusion of siltstone deposition

  8. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  9. Dynamics of biogeochemical sulfur cycling in Mono Lake

    Phillips, A. A.; Fairbanks, D.; Wells, M.; Fullerton, K. M.; Bao, R.; Johnson, H.; Speth, D. R.; Stamps, B. W.; Miller, L.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mono Lake, California is a closed-basin soda lake (pH 9.8) with high sulfate (120mM), and is an ideal natural laboratory for studying microbial sulfur cycling. Mono Lake is typically thermally stratified in summer while mixing completely in winter. However, large snowmelt inputs may induce salinity stratification that persists for up to five years, causing meromixis. During the California drought of 2014-16, the lake has mixed thoroughly each winter, but the abundant 2017 snowmelt may usher in a multi-year stratification. This natural experiment provides an opportunity to investigate the temporal relationship between microbial sulfur cycling and lake biogeochemistry. We analyzed water samples from five depths at two stations in May of 2017, before the onset of meromixis. Water column sulfate isotope values were generally constant with depth, centering at a δ34SVCDT of 17.39 ± 0.06‰. Organic sulfur isotopes were consistently lighter than lake sulfate, with a δ34SVCDT of 15.59 ± 0.56‰. This significant offset between organic and inorganic sulfur contradicts the minimal isotope effect associated with sulfate assimilation. Sediment push core organic values were further depleted, ranging between δ34SVCDT of -8.94‰ and +0.23‰, implying rapid turnover of Mono Lake sulfur pools. Both lipid biomarkers and 16S rRNA gene amplicons identify Picocystis salinarum, a unicellular green alga, as the dominant member of the microbial community. However, bacterial biomarkers and 16S rRNA genes point to microbes capable of sulfur cycling. We found that dsrA increased with depth (R2 = 0.9008, p reducers and sulfide oxidizers after >1 year of stratification. We saw no evidence in May of 2017 of sulfate reducing bacteria across the oxycline. Additionally, no sulfide was detectable in lake bottom waters despite oxygen below 6.25 µM. Preliminary results suggest a dynamic interplay between sulfide oxidation, sulfate reduction, and the onset of lake stratification. Additional

  10. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  11. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  12. Effects of mineral matter on products and sulfur distributions in hydropyrolysis

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1999-05-01

    The effects of the mineral matter on the product yield and sulfur distribution in hydropyrolysis and pyrolysis of Chinese Hongmiao lignite were investigated using a fixed-bed reactor. The volatile sulfur-containing gases (H{sub 2}S, COS, CH{sub 3}SH) were also analyzed as a function of pyrolysis temperature. Coal samples were treated with HCl/HF or HCl/HF and CrCl{sub 2} solution to eliminate minerals and pyrite respectively. In hydropyrolysis, demineralized Hongmiao lignite showed lower yields of tar and water than the raw coal. Demineralization cannot only minimize the fixation effect of basic mineral matter on sulfur-containing gases, but also increase the sulfur distribution of the tar. Further, from the evolution profiles of sulfur-containing gases, it is possible to elucidate the contribution of minerals, pyrite and organic sulfur to the sulfur evolution. Pyrite may not be the only source of COS formation. 32 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Facile synthesis of graphene oxide @ mesoporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites for lithium sulfur battery

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Chengkun; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel design and synthesis of GO@Meso-C using GO@MOF-5 as precursor. • GO@Meso-C hybrid material as a host material was applied for sulfur cathode. • Electrochemical performances were improved in sulfur cathode using Go@Meso-C. - Abstract: We present a design and synthesis of a hierarchical architecture of graphene oxide @ mesoporous carbon (GO@Meso-C) using graphene oxide @ metal-organic framework hybrid materials (GO@MOF-5) as both the template and precursor. Active sulfur is encapsulated into the GO@Meso-C matrix prepared via carbonize GO@MOF-5 polyhedrons for high performance lithium sulfur battery. The initial and 100th cycle discharge capacity of GO@Meso-C/S sulfur cathode are as high as 1122 mAh g −1 and 820 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 0.2 C. The remarkably high special capacity and capacity retention rate indicate that the GO@Meso-C is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium sulfur battery applications

  14. Stabilized sulfur as cathodes for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

    Xu, Yunhua [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Liu, Yang [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Zhu, Yujie [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Zheng, Shiyou [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Liu, Yihang [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Luo, Chao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Gaskell, Karen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Eichhorn, Bryan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Wang, Chunsheng [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2013-05-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries, offering high capacity and low cost, are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage applications. The conventional sodium-sulfur batteries, operating at a high temperature of 300–350°C in a molten state, could lead to severe safety problems. However, the room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries using common organic liuid electrolytes still face a significant challenge due to the dissolution of intermediate sodium polysulfides. For this study, we developed room temperatue sodium-sulfur batteries using a unique porous carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathode, which was synthesized by infusing sulfur vapor into porous carbon sphere particles at a high temperatrure of 600°C. The porous C/S composites delivered a reversible capacity of ~860 mAh/g and retained 83% after 300 cycles. The Coulombic efficiency of as high as 97% was observed over 300 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is attrbuted to the super sulfur stability as evidenced by its lower sensitivity to probe beam irradiation in TEM, XPS and Raman charaterization and high evaperation temperature in TGA. The results make it promising for large-scale grid energy storage and electric vehicles.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-09-15

    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated

  16. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  17. Sulfur Speciation in Peat: a Time-zero Signature for the " Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" Experiment

    Furman, O.; Toner, B. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Nater, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the "Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change" (SPRUCE) experiment, we made initial measurements of sulfur speciation in peat. These observations represent a "time-zero" relative to the intended soil warming experiment which begins in 2015. Total sulfur and sulfur speciation were measured in peat cores (solid phase) from nine plots (hollows and hummocks) to a depth of 2 m. Peat samples were packed under nitrogen and frozen in the field immediately after collection. All subsequent sample storage, handling, and processing were conducted under inert gas. Sulfur speciation was measured using bulk sulfur 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the SXRMB instrument at the Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada and at the 9-BM instrument, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL, USA. Total sulfur concentrations ranged from 968 to 4077 mg sulfur / kg dry peat. Sulfur content increased with depth from 2 g sulfur / m2 in the 0-10 cm increment to a maximum value of 38 g sulfur / m2 in the 50-60 cm increment. These sulfur loadings produced high quality XANES spectra. The nine cores exhibited reproducible trends with depth in both total sulfur and specific sulfur species; however, variability in sulfur speciation was greatest in the top 40 cm. All sulfur detected within the peat solids was in an organic form. The most abundant sulfur species group was composed of organic mono-sulfide and thiol forms, representing approximately half of the total sulfur at all depths. Sulfonate and ester-sulfate species were 10-15 mol% of sulfur and exhibited low variability with depth. A subsurface maximum in organic di-sulfide was observed in the 20-30 cm depth increment, which is the transition zone between transiently oxidized acrotelm and permanently saturated anaerobic catotelm. Quantification of major sulfur pools is important for the SPRUCE experiment as they are likely to be indicators of changes in the

  18. The organic matter of the Potosi basin (Cordillera Oriental, Bolivia) during the Upper Cretaceous-Lower tertiary: stratigraphic and palaeogeographic data

    Blanc-Valleron, M.M.; Rouchy, J.M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)); Schuler, M.; Rauscher, R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France)); Camoin, G. (Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France))

    1994-12-01

    Palynological and Rock-Eval pyrolysis studies of the Chaunaca and El Molino Fm (Santonian to Thanetian, Cordillera Oriental, Bolivia) indicate that some facies have economic significance as potential oil source rocks. The occurrence of Pediastrum and Azolla testify a lacustrine environment. In the Upper Molino, the environmental interpretation of an almost monospecific association of dinocysts is discussed. The presence of Apectodinium quinquelatum indicates that the age of the upper part of the Upper El Molino Fm is likely to be Upper Thanetian. (authors). 22 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The significance of elemental sulfur dissolution in liquid electrolyte lithium sulfur batteries

    Harks, Peter Paul R.M.L.; Robledo, Carla B.; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Notten, Peter H.L.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the dissolution of elemental sulfur into, and its diffusion through, the electrolyte allows cycling of lithium–sulfur batteries in which the sulfur is initially far removed and electrically insulated from the current collector. These findings help to understand why liquid

  20. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g-1 at 5 C.

  1. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium–sulfur batteries

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium–sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium–sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium–sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g−1 at 5 C. PMID:26065407

  2. Competing strategically through market orientation.

    Rapert, M I; Yarbrough, L

    1997-01-01

    As organizations seek to better understand their customers, competitors, and environments, the marketing function effectively serves as the support mechanism for these activities in many industries. Accordingly, in many organizations the marketing concept has been elevated to the stature of a strategic weapon, manifested in the form of market orientation. Market-oriented firms emphasize the collection, organization, and dissemination of information regarding both customers and competitors. This strategy is especially well-suited for the health care industry where customer knowledge is of paramount importance, customer interaction is instantaneous, and customer satisfaction is essential. Results of a national study of general service hospitals suggest that firms which embrace a market orientation benefit through enhanced customer satisfaction and quality.

  3. Orienteering Club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  4. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  5. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  6. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  7. Orienteering Club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  8. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  10. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  11. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  12. Orienteering Club

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  13. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  14. Orienteering club

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  15. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  17. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems; Schwefel-K-Kanten-Absorptionsspektroskopie an ausgewaehlten biologischen Systemen

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-15

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H{sub 2}S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  18. The roles of sulfuric acid in new particle formation and growth in the mega-city of Beijing

    D. L. Yue

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of gaseous sulfuric acid and particle number size distributions were performed to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth during CAREBeijing-2008. The analysis of the measured aerosols and sulfuric acid with an aerosol dynamic model shows the dominant role of sulfuric acid in new particle formation (NPF process but also in the subsequent growth in Beijing. Based on the data of twelve NPF events, the average formation rates (2–13 cm−3 s−1 show a linear correlation with the sulfuric acid concentrations (R2=0.85. Coagulation seems to play a significant role in reducing the number concentration of nucleation mode particles with the ratio of the coagulation loss to formation rate being 0.41±0.16. The apparent growth rates vary from 3 to 11 nm h−1. Condensation of sulfuric acid and its subsequent neutralization by ammonia and coagulation contribute to the apparent particle growth on average 45±18% and 34±17%, respectively. The 30% higher concentration of sulfate than organic compounds in particles during the seven sulfur-rich NPF events but 20% lower concentration of sulfate during the five sulfur-poor type suggest that organic compounds are an important contributor to the growth of the freshly nucleated particles, especially during the sulfur-poor cases.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  20. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    Way, J Douglas [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  1. Tailored Band Gaps in Sulfur- and Nitrogen-Containing Porous Donor-Acceptor Polymers

    Schwarz, D.; Kochergin, Y. S.; Acharjya, A.; Ichangi, Arun; Opanasenko, Maksym; Čejka, Jiří; Lappan, U.; Arki, P.; He, J.; Schmidt, J.; Nachtigall, P.; Thomas, A.; Tarábek, Ján; Bojdys, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 53 (2017), s. 13023-13027 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : conjugated microporous polymers * donor-acceptor dyads * photocatalysis * sulfur * triazine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 5.317, year: 2016

  2. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  3. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  4. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  5. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  6. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  7. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  8. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central chile

    Zopfi, Jakob; Böttcher, Michael E.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-02-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur, were analyzed at high resolution in the top 20 cm. All stations were characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction, but only the sediments within the Bay of Concepción contained dissolved sulfide. Due to advection and/or in-situ reoxidation of sulfide, dissolved sulfate was close to bottom water values. Whereas the concentrations of sulfite and thiosulfate were mostly in the submicromolar range, elemental sulfur was by far the dominant sulfur intermediate. Although the large nitrate- and sulfur-storing bacteria Thioploca were abundant, the major part of S 0 was located extracellularly. The distribution of sulfur species and dissolved iron suggests the reaction of sulfide with FeOOH as an important pathway for sulfide oxidation and sulfur intermediate formation. This is in agreement with the sulfur isotope composition of co-existing elemental sulfur and iron monosulfides. In the Bay of Concepción, sulfur isotope data suggest that pyrite formation proceeds via the reaction of FeS with polysulfides or H 2S. At the shelf stations, on the other hand, pyrite was significantly depleted in 34S relative to its potential precursors FeS and S 0. Isotope mass balance considerations suggest further that pyritization at depth includes light sulfide, potentially originating from bacterial sulfur disproportionation. The δ 34S-values of pyrite down to -38‰ vs. V-CDT are among the lightest found in organic-rich marine sediments. Seasonal variations in the sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicated a dynamic non-steady-state sulfur cycle in the surface sediments. The 18O content of porewater sulfate increased with depth at all sites compared to the

  9. Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases—and therefore the life that produces them—if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. Key Words: Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Anoxic atmospheres—Planetary atmospheres—Remote life detection—Photochemistry. Astrobiology 11, 419–441. PMID:21663401

  10. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets.

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Claire, Mark W; Kasting, James F

    2011-06-01

    We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS(2), OCS, CH(3)SH, CH(3)SCH(3), and CH(3)S(2)CH(3)) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3), or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH(3)S(2)CH(3), or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C(2)H(6)) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH(4)) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

  11. Influence of deposition substrate temperature on the morphology and molecular orientation of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine films as well the performance of organic photovoltaic cells

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing; Komino, Takeshi; Adachi, Chihaya; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of the morphology of neat chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) films on substrate temperature (T_s_u_b) during deposition is investigated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain detailed information about the molecular orientation, phase separation, and crystallinity. AFM images indicate that both grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness noticeably increase with T_s_u_b both in neat and blend films. Increasing T_s_u_b from room temperature to 420 K increases the horizontal orientation of the ClAlPc molecules with an increase of the mean molecular tilt angle from 60.13° (300 K) to 65.86° (420 K). The UV–vis absorption band of the corresponding films increases and the peak wavelength slightly red shifts with the T_s_u_b increase. XRD patterns show a clear diffraction peak at T_s_u_b over 390 K, implying the π-stacking of interconnected ClAlPc molecules at high T_s_u_b. Planar and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells containing pristine ClAlPc films and ClAlPc:C_6_0 blend films fabricated at T_s_u_b of 390 K show increases in the power conversion efficiency (η_P_C_E) of 28% (η_P_C_E = 3.12%) and 36% (η_P_C_E = 3.58%), respectively, relative to devices as-deposited at room temperature. The maximum short circuit current in BHJs is obtained at 390 K in the T_s_u_b range from 300 K to 450 K. (paper)

  12. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  13. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  14. Who takes more sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions? The role of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander; Bhattacharjee, Amitab

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role o...... of sustainable entrepreneurship, by providing answers for recent calls for better understanding which entrepreneurial ventures engage more in sustainability-oriented actions.......We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role...... of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations when taking sustainability-oriented actions. We confirm that individual differences in the set of values, beliefs and orientations can foster or hinder the sustainability-oriented actions across organizations. Our paper contributes to the growing literature...

  15. Epitaxial growth of ReS2(001) thin film via deposited-Re sulfurization

    Urakami, Noriyuki; Okuda, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the formation of large-size rhenium disulfide (ReS2) films via the sulfurization of Re films deposited on sapphire substrates. The effects of sulfurization temperature and pressure on the crystal quality were investigated. A [001]-oriented single crystal of ReS2 films with 6 × 10 mm2 area was realized. By sulfurizing Re films at 1100 °C, ReS2 films with well-defined sharp interfaces to c-plane sapphire substrates could be formed. Below and above the sulfurization temperature of 1100 °C, incomplete sulfurization and film degradation were observed. The twofold symmetry of the monocrystalline in-plane structure composed of Re-Re bonds along with Re-S bonds pointed to a distorted 1T structure, indicating that this structure is the most stable atomic arrangement for ReS2. For a S/Re compositional ratio equal to or slightly lower than 2.0, characteristic Raman vibrational modes with the narrowest line widths were observed. The typical absorption peak of ReS2 can be detected at 1.5 eV.

  16. The facilitative orientation of the teacher as a base condition for the organization of group work with the elementary school students

    Maslova E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the questions connected with the organization of group work with the elementary school students are revised in this article as well as its object, objectives, advantages and difficulties which may occur during the preparation work. The author reveals the essence and meaning of the pedagogical facilitation and draws attention that one of the conditions for its effective organization is the pedagogical facilitation of the teacher and the safe educational environment. The pedagogical facilitation is being reviewed though the following components: emotionally-cognitive, praxeologically-behavioural, reflexive ones.

  17. A Conditioned Visual Orientation Requires the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila"

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using…

  18. Learning and corporate social responsibility : a study on the role of the learning organization, individual competencies, goal orientation and the learning climate in the CSR adaptation process

    Osagie, Eghe Rice

    2016-01-01

    People and other organisms depend on natural resources such as fresh water, land, clean air, wood, and food for critical life requirements and wellbeing. It is well documented that today’s Western way of living and the spread of capitalism is having a detrimental impact on societies and the

  19. Manual de Orientacion para la Organizacion de Servicios de Vida Independiente a Jovenes con Impedimentos (Orientation Manual for the Organization of Independent Living Services for Youth with Disabilities).

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    The Secretary of Special Education of Puerto Rico has been searching for ways to offer appropriate special education services for young people between 13 and 21 years of age whose educational level does not allow them to benefit from current prevocational or vocational services. At present groups are being organized to offer services for…

  20. Orientation on electron transport system activity measurement in different organisms (training for Indonesian-Dutch Snellius II-expedition in 1984-1985)

    Ruyitno; Pauptit, E.; Vosjan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary experiments about ETS-activity were done in different organisms and different ecosystems; a vertebrate, an invertebrate, yeast, bacteria, methane forming consortia, suspended matter and sediment. It proved that the method is useful for the different systems but research has to be done

  1. A clinical study of postoperative changes in immunity of patients with digestive organ cancers and effectiveness of oriental medicine in esophageal cancer preoperative irradiation therapy

    Yamada, Teruji

    1993-01-01

    In esophageal cancer, the operative stress caused by thoracotomy and laparotomy is great and, postoperatively, immunity suppressive conditions are seen. Again, it is a known fact that when irradiation is applied pre- and postoperatively, the immunity aptitude will drop even further. Experimentally, Juzen-taiho-to is an oriental medicine reported as having immunity suppressive preventive effects. Juzen-taiho-to is also reported as effective in decreasing side effects caused by anti-cancer agents. However, detailed reports on administration effects of Juzen-taiho-to against irradiation therapy for esophageal cancer has yet to be seen. This time, studies were made on the administration effects of Juzen-taiho-to in esophageal cancer. The subjects of examination were 21 cases in which preoperative irradiation therapy and curative resection was made. Also, 46 cases of non-irradiation therapy and curative resection were studied. These cases were divided into two groups: the Juzen-taiho-to dosaged group (JT), and the non-dosaged (controlled) group (NJT). The hemoglobin value in the irradiated and non-irradiated group did not display apparent differences in both the JT group and the NJT group. In blood serum albumin value, at one month postoperatively, an improvement trend was seen in the JT group as opposed to the NJT group. (author)

  2. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  3. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  4. Influence of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Schroeder, J

    1872-01-01

    It has been determined that of the trees living in an atmosphere containing sulfurous oxide, the conifers suffer more injuries than ordinary foliaged trees. Experiments were conducted to find the causes of injuries and their relation in these two kinds of plants. Pine and alder were chosen as test plants. It was found that 1000 square centimeters of pine leaves had absorbed 1.6 c.c. of sulfurous oxide and the same surface area of alder leaves had accumulated 7.9 c.c. of sulfurous oxide. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of sulfurous oxide on transpiration in plants. Two similar twigs of a sycamore were arranged so that the water transpired could be weighed. Results indicate that the ratio between the total amount of water transpired by the leaves not acted on by the sulfurous oxide and those under its influence was 3.8:1. The author concludes that the amount of sulfurous oxide absorbed by pine leaves is smaller than that absorbed by trees with ordinary foliage for equal surfaces. Since its effect on transpiration is less in the case of pine, the cause of the greater injury to pine trees in nature must be due to the accumulation of sulfur. In trees annual leaves the damage to one year's foliage would have only an indirect influence on that of the following year.

  5. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  6. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  7. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  8. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  9. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  10. Insight into the loading temperature of sulfur on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost-effective chemical activation method to prepare porous carbon nanospheres. • Carbon nanospheres with bimodal microporous structure show high specific area and large micropore volume. • The S/C composite cathodes with in-situformed S−C bond exhibit high sulfur activity with a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 . • S−C bond enables well confinement on sulfur and polysulfides. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries are highly desired because of their characteristics such as high energy density. However, the applications of Li-S batteries are limited because they exist dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes. This study reports the preparation of sulfur cathodes by using bimodal microporous (0.5 nm and 0.8 nm to 2.0 nm) carbon spheres with high specific area (1992 m 2 g −1 ) and large micropore volume (1.2 g cm −1 ), as well as the encapsulation of polysulfides via formation of carbon–sulfur bonds in a sealed vacuum glass tube at high temperature. Given that sulfur and polysulfides are well confined by the S−C bond, the shuttle effect is effectively suppressed. The prepared S/C cathodes with a sulfur loading of up to 75% demonstrate high sulfur activity with reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 and good cycling stability (667 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles).

  11. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-06-06

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  12. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  13. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-12-26

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  14. Sulfur-Kβ /sub emission studies on sulfur-bearing heterocycles

    Phillips, D.R.; Andermann, G.G.; Fujiwara, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfur-K/β /sub x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) has been used to study the electronic structure and bonding in sulfur-bearing heterocycles. XFS not only has the capability of experimentally measuring valence electron energies in molecular species, but can also provide intensity data which can help define the nature of the molecular orbitals defined by the electrons. This report discusses the feasibility of using XFS as an analytical tool for the determination of total and specific sulfur heterocycle content in samples. A variety of compounds were studied. These include thiophene, thiophene derivatives, tetranydrothiophene, several more complex saturated and unsaturated sulfur heterocycles, and heterocycles containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The sulfur-K/β /sub spectra were obtained using a double crystal spectrometer which provided an instrumental resolution of about 0.7 eV

  15. Low-Temperature Preparation of (111)-oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Films Using Lattice-Matched (111)SrRuO3/Pt Bottom Electrode by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Kuwabara, Hiroki; Sumi, Akihiro; Okamoto, Shoji; Hoko, Hiromasa; Cross, Jeffrey S.; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) films 170 nm thick were prepared at 415 °C by pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The (111)-oriented PZT films with local epitaxial growth were obtained on (111)SrRuO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates and their ferroelectricities were ascertained. Ferroelectricity was improved by postannealing under O2 gas flow up to 550 °C. Larger remanent polarization and better fatigue endurance were obtained using a SrRuO3 top electrode compared to a Pt top electrode for PZT films after annealing at 500 °C.

  16. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  17. Study on the Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on Chemical ...

    Purpose: To study the influence of different sulfur fumigation time and ... after sulfur fumigation though sulfur fumigation time and dosage were at low levels – 2 h ... Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation is not a desirable method for field processing of ...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  19. Milestones in plant sulfur research on sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR in Europe

    Elke eBloem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1970´s of the last century sulfur (S was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980´s SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer fertilized indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990´s and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals.The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed.

  20. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.

    2001-01-01

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  1. Electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane

    Vorob' ev, A.S.; Gavrilova, A.A.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1985-09-01

    Solutions of sulfur dioxide in aproptic media are promising electrolyte oxidizing agents for chemical current sources with anodes of active metals. This work describes the electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte which was investigated by the methods of voltamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The dependence of the current of the cathodic peak on the concentration of the supporting electrolyte salts, sulfur dioxide and water, was studied. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis was advanced on the nature of the limiting step. The investigation showed that at low polarizing current densities, a substantial influence on the reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte is exerted by blockage of the electrode surface by sparingly soluble reaction products.

  2. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  3. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  4. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  5. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  7. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe

    2018-02-01

    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  8. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Abedinzadeh, Z. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, UMR, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS{sup .}, RSS{sup .}, RS{sup .+}, (RSSR){sup .+}] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  9. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS . , RSS . , RS .+ , (RSSR) .+ ] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  10. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  11. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  12. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  13. TBV 361 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ORIENTATION

    Lin, M.; Kicker, D.C.; Sellers, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this To Be Verified/To Be Determined (TBX) resolution analysis is to release ''To Be Verified'' (TBV)-361 related to the emplacement drift orientation. The system design criterion in ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9) specifies that the emplacement drift orientation relative to the dominant joint orientations should be at least 30 degrees. The specific objectives for this analysis include the following: (1) Collect and evaluate key block data developed for the repository host horizon rock mass. (2) Assess the dominant joint orientations based on available fracture data. (3) Document the maximum block size as a function of drift orientation. (4) Assess the applicability of the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion in the ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9). (5) Consider the effects of seepage on drift orientation. (6) Verify that the viability assessment (VA) drift orientation complies with the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion, or provide justifications and make recommendations for modifying the VA emplacement drift layout. In addition to providing direct support to the System Description Document (SDD), the release of TBV-361 will provide support to the Repository Subsurface Design Department. The results from this activity may also provide data and information needs to support the MGR Requirements Department, the MGR Safety Assurance Department, and the Performance Assessment Organization

  14. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  15. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  17. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    Anon.

    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry [fr

  18. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  19. Energy generation and the sulfur-carbon cycles: Final technical report for period March 1981 thru February 1985

    Zeikus, J.G.

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this research was to understand the role of anaerobic bacteria in natural and man-influenced carbon cycles in nature. The major goal was to elucidate how sulfur metabolism influenced organic decomposition in aquatic sediments. The research compared these processes in two different anaerobic ecosystems: the sulfate-depleted sediments of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin and the sulfate-saturated sediments of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The approach was both ecological and physiological, and employed both in situ characterization of carbon and sulfur metabolism with radiotracers and laboratory species isolation-characterization studies with pure and defined mixed cultures to demonstrate the prevalent environmental paths of carbon electrons, and sulfur during the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. The significance of this research encompassed fundamental knowledge of the carbon sulfur cycles, applied knowledge on the microbial genesis of flammable gas and oil and extended knowledge on the diversity and metabolic activity of obligately anaerobic bacteria in nature. 13 refs

  20. Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production.

    Andersson, Fräs Annika T; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2004-07-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  1. Contribution to the study by infrared spectroscopy of addition compounds of boron fluorides and ethers-oxides or organic sulphides; Contribution a l'etude par spectroscopie infrarouge des composes d'addition des fluorures de bore et des ethers-oxydes ou des sulfures organiques

    Le Calve, Jacques

    1964-03-09

    This research thesis reports the study of complexes formed with boron fluoride and ethers or organic sulphides. In a first part, the author recalls vibration modes of free boron fluoride and of this compound in a complex. In the next parts, he reports the analysis of infrared spectra of groups present in addition compounds (between 400 and 1500 cm{sup -1}). He discusses spectrum modifications of electron donors by formation of a coordination bound. Experimental conditions are presented in appendix [French] Nous avons enregistre les spectres infrarouges de 400 a 4000 cm{sup -1} des composes d'addition du fluorure de bore et des oxydes de methyle, d'ethyle et du tetrahydrofuranne a l'etat gazeux, a l'etat liquide et a - 180 deg. a l'etat solide. Nous avons egalement etudie les complexes du fluorure de bore et des sulfures de methyle, d'ethyle et du tetrahydrothiophene a l'etat liquide. Le groupement c-c-OBF{sub 3} des trois composes des ethers avait fait l'objet d'une analyse tres recente que nous avons discutee. La comparaison des spectres et leur evolution en fonction de l'etat physique nous a notamment permis de mettre en evidence un couplage des vibrations de valence symetrique ν{sub s}(BF{sub 3}) et ν(OB) avec celles de meme symetrie du squelette de l'ether, en particulier la vibration ν{sub s}(COC). Ce couplage rend illusoires les correlations qui avaient ete proposees entre la basicite du donneur et la position d'une bande attribuee hativement a la vibration ν{sub s}(BF{sub 3}). Pour les composes d'addition des sulfures, nous avons attribue les principales vibrations du groupement C-C-SBF{sub 3}. La vibration de valence degeneree ν{sub s}(BF{sub 3}) apparait vers 1180 cm{sup -1}. Les vibrations de valence symetriques ν{sub s}(BF{sub 3}) et ν(SB) sont couplees et se manifestent dans les spectres par deux bandes vers 800 et 600 cm{sup -1}. Enfin, une absorption vers 460 cm{sup -1} correspond a l'une des vibrations de deformation symetrique ou degeneree

  2. MnO2-graphene nanosheets wrapped mesoporous carbon/sulfur composite for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Li, Zhengzheng

    2018-02-01

    MnO2-graphene nanosheets wrapped mesoporous carbon/sulfur (MGN@MC/S) composite is successfully synthesized derived from metal-organic frameworks and investigated as cathode for lithium-ion batteries. Used as cathode, MGN@MC/S composite possesses electronic conductivity network for redox electron transfer and strong chemical bonding to lithium polysulfides, which enables low capacity loss to be achieved. MGN@MC/S cathodes exhibit high reversible capacity of 1475 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an ultra-low capacity fading of 0.042% per cycle at 1 C over 450 cycles.

  3. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA

    The distribution and quantity of organic sulfur and iron sulfur species were determined in theHolocene sediments from Mud Lake, Florida. The sediments of this shallow, sinkhole lake are characterized by high sulfur and organic carbon contents as well as active sulfate reducti...

  4. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  5. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  6. Quantification of Discrete Oxide and Sulfur Layers on Sulfur-Passivated InAs by XPS

    Petrovykh, D. Y; Sullivan, J. M; Whitman, L. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The S-passivated InAs(001) surface can be modeled as a sulfur-indium-arsenic layer-cake structure, such that characterization requires quantification of both arsenic oxide and sulfur layers that are at most a few monolayers thick...

  7. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    2010-07-01

    ....0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input for the coal-fired boiler and 0.4... BTU actual heat input for coal-fired boiler C exiting through stack 5. (3) 2.24 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU acutal heat input for coal-fired boiler D exiting through stack 6. (E) In lieu of...

  9. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  10. Relative Order of Sulfuric Acid, Bisulfate, Hydronium, and Cations at the Air-Water Interface.

    Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2015-11-04

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), bisulfate (HSO4(-)), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) are among the most abundant species in tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols due to high levels of atmospheric SO2 emitted from biomass burning and volcanic eruptions. The air/aqueous interfaces of sulfuric acid and bisulfate solutions play key roles in heterogeneous reactions, acid rain, radiative balance, and polar stratospheric cloud nucleation. Molecular-level knowledge about the interfacial distribution of these inorganic species and their perturbation of water organization facilitates a better understanding of the reactivity and growth of atmospheric aerosols and of the aerosol surface charge, thus shedding light on topics of air pollution, climate change, and thundercloud electrification. Here, the air/aqueous interface of NaHSO4, NH4HSO4, and Mg(HSO4)2 salt solutions as well as H2SO4 and HCl acid solutions are investigated by means of vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected (HD) VSFG spectroscopy. VSFG spectra of all acid solutions show higher SFG response in the OH-bonded region relative to neat water, with 1.1 M H2SO4 being more enhanced than 1.1 M HCl. In addition, VSFG spectra of bisulfate salt solutions highly resemble that of the dilute H2SO4 solution (0.26 M) at a comparable pH. HD-VSFG (Im χ((2))) spectra of acid and bisulfate salt solutions further reveal that hydrogen-bonded water molecules are oriented preferentially toward the bulk liquid phase. General agreement between Im χ((2)) spectra of 1.1 M H2SO4 and 1.1 M HCl acid solutions indicate that HSO4(-) ions have a similar surface preference as that of chloride (Cl(-)) ions. By comparing the direction and magnitude of the electric fields arising from the interfacial ion distributions and the concentration of each species, the most reasonable relative surface preference that can be deduced from a simplified model follows the order H3O(+) > HSO4(-) > Na(+), NH4(+), Mg(2+) > SO4(2-). Interestingly

  11. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  12. Strain-Compensated InGaAsP Superlattices for Defect Reduction of InP Grown on Exact-Oriented (001 Patterned Si Substrates by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Ludovico Megalini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of InGaAsP strain-compensated superlattices (SC-SLs as a technique to reduce the defect density of Indium Phosphide (InP grown on silicon (InP-on-Si by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD. Initially, a 2 μm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs layer was grown with very high uniformity on exact oriented (001 300 mm Si wafers; which had been patterned in 90 nm V-grooved trenches separated by silicon dioxide (SiO2 stripes and oriented along the [110] direction. Undercut at the Si/SiO2 interface was used to reduce the propagation of defects into the III–V layers. Following wafer dicing; 2.6 μm of indium phosphide (InP was grown on such GaAs-on-Si templates. InGaAsP SC-SLs and thermal annealing were used to achieve a high-quality and smooth InP pseudo-substrate with a reduced defect density. Both the GaAs-on-Si and the subsequently grown InP layers were characterized using a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD; atomic force microscopy (AFM; transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI; which indicate high-quality of the epitaxial films. The threading dislocation density and RMS surface roughness of the final InP layer were 5 × 108/cm2 and 1.2 nm; respectively and 7.8 × 107/cm2 and 10.8 nm for the GaAs-on-Si layer.

  13. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata, E-mail: bgodlew@uwb.edu.pl

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L{sup −1} and 36.4 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically < 5%. The accuracy of the method was tested by analysis of digested biological certified reference materials (soya bean flour, corn flour and herbs) and recovery experiment for beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93–105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1–5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg{sup −1}), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg{sup −1}), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L{sup −1}), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L{sup −1}) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L{sup −1}), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • HR-CS FMAS technique was used for sulfur measurement via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. • Organic DL

  14. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (θ) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ɛ and θ provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an

  15. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Jae-Pyeung [Advanced Analysis Center, Research Planning & Coordination Division, KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  16. Bonding and orientation of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol on Au(111) prepared from solution and from gas phase

    Pasquali, L; Terzi, F; Zanardi, C; Seeber, R; Paolicelli, G; Mahne, N; Nannarone, S

    2007-01-01

    The orientation and bonding of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol molecules on Au(111) is studied by means of x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) photoemission, x-ray absorption and metastable deexcitation spectroscopy. The organic films are prepared both from solution and by exposing the clean substrate to the vapours of the substance in an evacuated environment. This leads to two different growth modes: when self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are prepared from solution, the molecules tend to form a bilayer film with the molecules standing upright and with the molecular axis forming an angle of about 30 0 with respect to the substrate normal; when growth is carried out from the gas phase, the molecules tend to assume at the earliest stages of exposure a flat-lying configuration, with both sulfur end-groups bonding to Au; at increasing exposure the surface coverage presents a saturation and the chemisorbed molecules tend to assume an upright arrangement

  17. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Fieg, J.

    1981-07-01

    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  18. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  19. A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist

    Theilig, E.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

  20. A comparison of sulfur mustard and heptane penetrating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane

    Mueller, Thomas J., E-mail: t.mueller@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller-Plathe, Florian [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-08-30

    In the present molecular dynamics simulations we study the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) and the alkane heptane inserted into a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, a generic model for a biological membrane. We investigate the diffusion, the orientation, the preferred positioning, and the end-to-end distance of the solutes within the membrane as well as the corresponding coupling times. We compare results of equilibrium simulations and simulation at different external forces, which drag the solutes through the membrane. These properties lead to a general comparison of the rotational and translational behaviors of the two solutes during the penetration of the membrane. We show that sulfur mustard, due to its atomic charge polarization, its bigger flexibility and its smaller molecular volume, is the faster moving molecule within the membrane. In last consequence, we show that this leads to different limits for the transport mechanism as observed in these simulations. For heptane the hindrance to penetrate into the membrane is significantly higher than for sulfur mustard. In contrast to heptane molecules, which spend the most of the time penetrating the tail groups, sulfur mustard needs more time to escape the tail group-head group interface of the membrane.

  1. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  2. Biotransformation and removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene using improved bio catalytic methods

    La Rotta, C. E; Mora, A.L; Madero, A; Mogollon, L.I

    1998-01-01

    Three methods for the removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene were evaluated using bio catalytic processes. The methods were a microbial, an enzymatic and a combined one that involves a previous enzymatic oxidation followed by microbial degradation. The bioconversion was evaluated over the molecular dibenzothiophene model, obtaining higher bioconversion percentages through the combined method. The microorganisms used in this study correspond to several Colombian indigenous strains isolated by direct methods from natural sources, and using a standard strain as positive control. All strains have shown sulfur removal capacity, and organic solvent tolerance. The enzyme used was a hemo protein with peroxidase activity, Cytochrome C, obtained from equine heart

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on sulfur-cured chlorobutyl rubber

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Ono, Lilian S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) is similarly manufactured to butyl rubber (IIR). The insertion of chlorine atom in isoprene group represents an improvement in its properties, such as: high vulcanizing speed, low permanent stress and compatibility with other types of rubber. The presence of reactive chlorine in butyl chlorate allows a variety of vulcanizing techniques, being the cure via sulfur, the most conventional. In these compounds carbon-halogen bonds are weaker than carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds, and the main effect of radiation is to break the carbon-halogen bond to give an organic free radical. Irradiations of certain alkyl chlorides can bring about isomerism in which the location of the halogen atom is changed, the carbon skeleton of molecule remaining unaltered. Irradiation of n-butyl chlorides gives high yields of tertiary carbon. The major effect of high energy photon, such as gamma rays, in organic polymers is the generation of free radicals, along changes in mechanical properties. This work aims to the study of irradiation effect on mechanical properties of a sulfur cured chlorobutyl rubber compound, gamma irradiated within 25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kGy doses range. The techniques used in their characterization were: strength - stress analysis and elasticity modulus. Results obtained were investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on sulfur-cured chlorobutyl rubber

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Ono, Lilian S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) is similarly manufactured to butyl rubber (IIR). The insertion of chlorine atom in isoprene group represents an improvement in its properties, such as: high vulcanizing speed, low permanent stress and compatibility with other types of rubber. The presence of reactive chlorine in butyl chlorate allows a variety of vulcanizing techniques, being the cure via sulfur, the most conventional. In these compounds carbon-halogen bonds are weaker than carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds, and the main effect of radiation is to break the carbon-halogen bond to give an organic free radical. Irradiations of certain alkyl chlorides can bring about isomerism in which the location of the halogen atom is changed, the carbon skeleton of molecule remaining unaltered. Irradiation of n-butyl chlorides gives high yields of tertiary carbon. The major effect of high energy photon, such as gamma rays, in organic polymers is the generation of free radicals, along changes in mechanical properties. This work aims to the study of irradiation effect on mechanical properties of a sulfur cured chlorobutyl rubber compound, gamma irradiated within 25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kGy doses range. The techniques used in their characterization were: strength - stress analysis and elasticity modulus. Results obtained were investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  5. Microbial pathways in colonic sulfur metabolism and links with health and disease

    Franck eCarbonero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is both crucial to life and a potential threat to health. While colonic sulfur metabolism mediated by eukaryotic cells is relatively well studied, much less is known about sulfur metabolism within gastrointestinal microbes. Sulfated compounds in the colon are either of inorganic (e.g., sulfates, sulfites or organic (e.g., dietary amino acids and host mucins origin. The most extensively studied of the microbes involved in colonic sulfur metabolism are the sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are common colonic inhabitants. Many other microbial pathways are likely to shape colonic sulfur metabolism as well as the composition and availability of sulfated compounds, and these interactions need to be examined in more detail. Hydrogen sulfide is the sulfur derivative that has attracted the most attention in the context of colonic health, and the extent to which it is detrimental or beneficial remains in debate. Several lines of evidence point to sulfate-reducing bacteria or exogenous hydrogen sulfide as potential players in the etiology of intestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer in particular. Generation of hydrogen sulfide via pathways other than dissimilatory sulfate reduction may be as, or more, important than those involving the sulfate-reducing bacteria. We suggest here that a novel axis of research is to assess the effects of hydrogen sulfide in shaping colonic microbiome structure. Clearly, in-depth characterization of the microbial pathways involved in colonic sulfur metabolism is necessary for a better understanding of its contribution to colonic disorders and development of therapeutic strategies.

  6. Microbial ecology of soda lakes: investigating sulfur and nitrogen cycling at Mono Lake, CA, USA

    Fairbanks, D.; Phillips, A. A.; Wells, M.; Bao, R.; Fullerton, K. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Speth, D. R.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soda lakes represent unique ecosystems characterized by extremes of pH, salinity and distinct geochemical cycling. Despite these extreme conditions, soda lakes are important repositories of biological adaptation and have a highly functional microbial system. We investigated the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Mono Lake, California, located east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Mono lake is characterized by hyperalkaline, hypersaline and high sulfate concentrations and can enter prolonged periods of meromixis due to freshwater inflow. Typically, the microbial sulfur cycle is highly active in soda lakes with both oxidation and reduction of sulfur compounds. However, the biological sulfur cycle is connected to many other main elemental cycles such as carbon, nitrogen and metals. Here we investigated the interaction between sulfur and nitrogen cycling in Mono lake using a combination of molecular, isotopic, and geochemical observations to explore the links between microbial phylogenetic composition and functionality. Metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were determined at two locations and five depths in May 2017. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis revealed organisms capable of both sulfur and nitrogen cycling. The relative abundance and distribution of functional genes (dsrA, soxAB, nifH, etc) were also determined. These genetic markers indicate the potential in situ relevance of specific carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pathways in the water column prior to the transition to meromictic stratification. However, genes for sulfide oxidation, denitrification, and ammonification were present. Genome binning guided by the most abundant dsrA sequences, GC content, and abundance with depth identified a Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus bin containing genes capable of sulfur oxidation, denitrification, and nitrate reduction. The presence of a large number of sulfur and nitrogen cycling genes associated with Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus

  7. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  8. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  9. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  10. Late Pleistocene to Holocene environmental changes as recorded in the sulfur geochemistry of coastal plain sediments, southwestern Taiwan

    Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Shieh, Y.-N.; Liu, T.-K.

    2004-01-01

    A core, drilled at San-liao-wan in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan, has been analyzed for total sulfur contents, isotopic values, as well as ratios of pyritic sulfur to organic carbon. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between late Pleistocene sea-level change and the proxies generated in this study. The inorganic sulfur contents indicate that at our study site, the Holocene transgression started at ???11 ka and remained under seawater for thousands of years until the late Holocene, corresponding to a depth of 20 m in the study core. The uppermost 20 m of core shows relatively high total organic carbon (TOC) and ??34S of inorganic sulfur, suggesting a transitional environment such as muddy lagoon or marsh, before the site turned into a modern coastal plain. In the lower part of the core, at depths of 110-145 m (corresponding ages of ???12-30 ka), low sulfur contents are recorded, probably indicating fluvial sediments deposited during the oceanic isotope stage (OIS) 2, a sea-level lowstand. The lower part of the core, roughly within OIS 3, records at least two transgressions, although the transgressional signals may be somewhat obscured by subsequent weathering. The reworked origin of organic matter reported in previous studies is confirmed by our organic sulfur data; however, the marine organic source was periodically dominant. The modern high sulfate concentrations in pore water have no correlation to the other sulfur species in the sediments, probably indicating that the sulfate migrated into the site subsequent to early diagenesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY - SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  12. Sulfur restriction extends fission yeast chronological lifespan through Ecl1 family genes by downregulation of ribosome.

    Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Takinami, Masahiro; Shimasaki, Takafumi; Hibi, Takahide; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2017-07-01

    Nutritional restrictions such as calorie restrictions are known to increase the lifespan of various organisms. Here, we found that a restriction of sulfur extended the chronological lifespan (CLS) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The restriction decreased cellular size, RNA content, and ribosomal proteins and increased sporulation rate. These responses depended on Ecl1 family genes, the overexpression of which results in the extension of CLS. We also showed that the Zip1 transcription factor results in the sulfur restriction-dependent expression of the ecl1 + gene. We demonstrated that a decrease in ribosomal activity results in the extension of CLS. Based on these observations, we propose that sulfur restriction extends CLS through Ecl1 family genes in a ribosomal activity-dependent manner. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Idiosyncrasies of volcanic sulfur viscosity and the triggering of unheralded volcanic eruptions

    Teresa eScolamacchia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unheralded blue-sky eruptions from dormant volcanoes cause serious fatalities, such as at Mt. Ontake (Japan on 27 September 2014. Could these events result from magmatic gas being trapped within hydrothermal system aquifers by elemental sulfur (Se clogging pores, due to sharp increases in its viscosity when heated above 159oC? This mechanism was thought to prime unheralded eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu in New Zealand. Impurities in sulfur (As, Te, Se are known to modify S-viscosity and industry experiments showed that organic compounds, H2S, and halogens dramatically influence Se viscosity under typical hydrothermal heating/cooling rates and temperature thresholds. However, the effects of complex sulfur compositions are currently ignored at volcanoes, despite its near ubiquity in long-lived volcano-hydrothermal systems. Models of impure S behavior must be urgently formulated to detect pre-eruptive warning signs before the next blue-sky eruption

  14. Metal-free reduction of the greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride, formation of SF5 containing ion pairs and the application in fluorinations

    Rueping, Magnus; Nikolaienko, Pavlo; Lebedev, Yury; Adams, Alina

    2017-01-01

    A protocol for the fast and selective two-electron reduction of the potent greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) by organic electron donors at ambient temperature has been developed. The reaction yields solid ion pairs consisting of donor

  15. Market Orientation Practices and Effects on Organizational Performance

    Haim Hilman; Narentheren Kaliappen

    2014-01-01

    Today’s organizations need market orientation practices to strive and generate superior performance and competitive advantage in the modern turbulent marketplace. Thus, this research inspects the respective links between the dimensions of (a) competitor orientation and (b) customer orientation and performance in the context of hotels in Malaysia. Data were gathered through self-administrated mail questionnaires directe...

  16. Hydrolysis of Pentosan for Furfural Preparing Using Sulfuric Acid Catalyst to Improve Diesel Engine Fuel Quality

    Setyadji, Moch

    2007-01-01

    The investigation on furfural preparation from peanut shell using sulfuric acid catalyst has been done. Furfural is an organic solvent used in industry especially petroleum industry. The purpose of this investigation is to know the effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solvent feed ratio towards furfural resulted and the reaction kinetics. The experiment was performed in the batch reactor. The result of this investigation showed that the process optimum condition was reached at sulfuric acid concentration of 7% and the solvent feed ratio of 12.5. The result at the optimum condition above was 5.97% of furfural. The relation between percentage of furfural resulted (Y) and sulfuric acid concentration (X) is Y = 0.893 X 1.7023 . e -0.2554X with average deviation of 5.880 %. The relation between percentage of furfural resulted (Y) and solvent feed ratio (X) is Y = -53.0411 + 9.4137 X - 0.3780 X 2 with average deviation 5.154 %. The relation between reaction rate constant (Y) and sulfuric acid concentration (X) is Y = 3.1916 . 10 -3 + 8.2432 . 10 -3 X - 5.2324 . 10 -4 X 2 with average deviation 8.024 %. (author)

  17. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  19. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  20. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.