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Sample records for organic-inorganic hybrid electrolyte

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Chiku, Masanobu; Tomita, Shoji; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1) at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  4. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  5. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  6. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  8. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  9. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins ...

  12. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  14. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  17. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  18. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks.

    Schreck, Kathleen M; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-09-15

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated.

  20. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  1. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  2. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  3. Coexisting Ferromagnetic and Ferroelectric Order in a CuCl4-based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid

    Polyakov, Alexey O.; Arkenbout, Anne H.; Baas, Jacob; Blake, Graeme R.; Meetsma, Auke; Caretta, Antonio; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material CuCl4(C6H5CH2CH2NH3)(2) and demonstrate that spontaneous ferroelectric order sets in below 340 K, which coexists with ferromagnetic ordering below 13 K. We use X-ray diffraction to show that

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  5. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  6. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  7. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  8. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  9. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  10. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  11. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  12. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Park, Nayoung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won; Cha, Pil-Ryung

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH) as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  13. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  15. Frequency Dependence of Electrical Parameters of an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Composite Based Humidity Sensor

    Rizwan Akram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the interdependence of ambient humidity levels on the electrical parameters of organic-inorganic hybrid composite based humidity sensor at varied AC frequencies of input signal. Starting from the bottom, the layer stack of the fabricated humidity sensor was 200-nm silver (Ag thin film and 4 μm spun-coated PEPC+NiPC+Cu2O active layer. Silver thin films were deposited by thermal evaporator on well cleaned microscopic glass slides, which served as a substrate. Conventional optical lithography procedure was adapted to define pairs of silver-silver surface electrodes with two sorts of configurations, i.e., interdigitated and rectangular. Humidity-sensitive layers of organic-inorganic composite were then spun-cast upon the channel between the silver electrodes. The changes in relative humidity levels induced variation in capacitance and impedance of the sensors. These variations in electrical parameters of sensors were also found to be highly dependent upon frequency of input AC signal. Our findings reveal that the organic-inorganic composite shows higher humidity sensitivity at smaller orders of frequency. This finding is in accordance with the established fact that organic semiconductors-based devices are not applicable for high frequency applications due to their lower charge carrier mobility values. Two distinct geometries of semiconducting medium between the silver electrodes were investigated to optimize the sensing parameters of the humidity sensor. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change on the resistance of organic composite has also been studied.

  16. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  17. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  18. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  19. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Advances in Organic and Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymeric Supports for Catalytic Applications

    Anna Maria Pia Salvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the most recent advances (2014–2016 on the synthesis of new polymer-supported catalysts are reported, focusing the attention on the synthetic strategies developed for their preparation. The polymer-supported catalysts examined will be organic-based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrids and will include, among others, polystyrenes, poly-ionic liquids, chiral ionic polymers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, as well as silica and halloysite-based catalysts. Selected examples will show the synthesis and application in the field of organocatalysis and metal-based catalysis both for non-asymmetric and asymmetric transformations.

  1. Efficient Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Graphene Anode.

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Hobeom; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Min-Ho; Jeong, Su-Hun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Han, Tae-Hee; Yoo, Seunghyup; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on graphene anode are developed for the first time. Chemically inert graphene avoids quenching of excitons by diffused metal atom species from indium tin oxide. The flexible PeLEDs with graphene anode on plastic substrate show good bending stability; they provide an alternative and reliable flexible electrode for highly efficient flexible PeLEDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The First Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Luminescent Multiferroic: (Pyrrolidinium)MnBr3.

    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Liu, Cai-Ming; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-07-08

    A hybrid organic-inorganic compound, (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3 , distinguished from rare earth (RE)-doped inorganic perovskites, is discovered as a new member of the ferroelectrics family, having excellent luminescent properties and relatively large spontaneous polarization of 6 μC cm(-2) , as well as a weak ferromagnetism at about 2.4 K. With a quantum yield of >28% and emission lifetime >0.1 ms, such multiferroic photoluminescence is a suitable candidate for future applications in luminescence materials, photovoltaics, and magneto-optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Nayoung Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  4. Low-Threshold Lasing from 2D Homologous Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Li, Shao-Sian; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Chao-Yuan; Liao, Yu-Ming; Haider, Golam; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chun; Sankar, Raman; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2018-05-09

    Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have recently attracted great attention in optical and optoelectronic applications due to their inherent natural quantum-well structure. We report the growth of high-quality millimeter-sized single crystals belonging to homologous two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic Ruddelsden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) of (BA) 2 (MA) n-1 Pb n I 3 n+1 ( n = 1, 2, and 3) by a slow evaporation at a constant-temperature (SECT) solution-growth strategy. The as-grown 2D hybrid perovskite single crystals exhibit excellent crystallinity, phase purity, and spectral uniformity. Low-threshold lasing behaviors with different emission wavelengths at room temperature have been observed from the homologous 2D hybrid RPP single crystals. Our result demonstrates that solution-growth homologous organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite single crystals open up a new window as a promising candidate for optical gain media.

  5. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  8. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  10. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO 2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm 2 hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm 2 . This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  11. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  12. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 + ) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  13. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    Privitera, Alberto; Righetto, Marcello; de Bastiani, Michele; Carraro, Francesco; Rancan, Marzio; Armelao, Lidia; Granozzi, Gaetano; Bozio, Renato; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  14. Preparation and properties of UV curable organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Shichang Lv; Wenfang Shi

    2007-01-01

    The organo-modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs), M-LDH and N-LDH, were obtained by the ionic exchange reaction of a magnesium-aluminium nitrate LDH with modifiers. The LDHs/acrylate organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were prepared from organo-modified LDHs, and aliphatic polyurethane acrylate oligomer and an acrylate monomer, through a bulk photopolymerization process at the presence of a photoinitiator. The effects of LDHs content in the resin on the dispersion, and the properties of UV cured nanocomposites film were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, pendulum/pencil hardness measurement. With the good solubility in acrylate resins, the organo-modified LDHs are hopefully to be used in adhesives, coating, inks as toughness modifiers, fire-retardant additives. (Author)

  15. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent V OC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable V OC without being limited by the materials' bandgap.

  16. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  17. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  18. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  19. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Lai Yuekun [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhuang Huifang; Sun Lan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin Changjian [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    The formation of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films by electrochemical anodizing titanium foils was investigated in a developed organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte. It was found that the structure and morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube layer were greatly dependent upon the electrolyte composition, anodizing potential and time. Under the optimized electrolyte composition and electrochemical conditions, a controllable, well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array layer could be fabricated in a short time. The diameters of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanotubes could be adjusted from 20 to 150 nm, and the thickness could be adjusted from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The photoresponse and the photocatalytic activity of the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films were also examined. The nanotube array film with a thickness of about 2.5 {mu}m had the highest incident photon to photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) (34.3%) at the 350 nm wavelength, and had better charge transfer ability under UV light illumination. The photocatalytic experimental results indicated that the 450 deg. C annealing samples have the highest photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange pollutant.

  1. A hybrid organic-inorganic electrode for enhanced charge injection or collection in organic optoelectronic devices

    Yilmaz, Omer F; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a novel hybrid organic-inorganic anode for organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic (PV) cells. This hybrid anode structure is realized from a composite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. Owing to the phase separation, this anodic structure leads to a graded work function from patterned ITO to the photoactive polymer, which in turn reduces the barrier height for holes by ∼70%. The resulting devices based on this design show up to 67% reduction in turn-on voltage (for polymer LEDs) and up to 40% increase in short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency (for PV cells). Current-voltage characteristics, Fowler-Nordheim analysis, SEM imaging and energy band diagram analysis are employed to characterize the improved performance of our devices. The reported approach is expected to be immensely useful for the molecular design of next-generation efficient organic devices

  2. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  3. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings based on alkoxy-terminated macromonomers

    Kaddami, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Cuney, S. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]|[BSN Emballage-Centre de Recherche de Saint-Romain-en-Gier, 69700 Givors Cedex (France); Pascault, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gerard, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-01-01

    From the use of alkoxysilane-terminated macromonomers based on hydrogenated polybutadiene and polycaprolactone oligomers and by using the polyurethane chemistry, hybrid organic{emdash}inorganic materials are prepared. These ones are two-phases systems in which the continuous phase is organic reinforced by silicon rich dispersed particles. These nanosized dispersed particles are formed {ital in} {ital situ} during the hydrolysis and condensation of the sol-gel process according to the phase separation process occurring between the organic and inorganic phases. The gelation process and the final morphologies were found to be very dependent on the acid(catalyst)-to-silicon ratio, on the molar mass of the oligomers, and on the solubility parameter of the soft segment. In fact, during the synthesis, there is a competition between the gelation and the phase separation process which could be perturbated by the vitrification of the silicon-rich clusters. The final morphologies observed by TEM and SAXS are discussed on the basis of the microstructural model proposed by Wilkes and Huang. Such hybrid organic-inorganic materials are applied as coatings on glass float plates tested in a bi-axial mode. The reinforcement is discussed as a function of the morphology of the coatings. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  5. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles controlled delivery system for anticancer drugs.

    Di Martino, Antonio; Guselnikova, Olga A; Trusova, Marina E; Postnikov, Pavel S; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-06-30

    The use of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers for controlled release of anticancer drugs has been gained a great interest, in particular, to improve the selectivity and efficacy of the drugs. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared then surface modified via diazonium chemistry and coated with chitosan, and its derivative chitosan-grafted polylactic acid. The purpose was to increase the stability of the nanoparticles in physiological solution, heighten drug-loading capacity, prolong the release, reduce the initial burst effect and improve in vitro cytotoxicity of the model drug doxorubicin. The materials were characterized by DLS, ζ-potential, SEM, TGA, magnetization curves and release kinetics studies. Results confirmed the spherical shape, the presence of the coat and the advantages of using chitosan, particularly its amphiphilic derivative, as a coating agent, thereby surpassing the qualities of simple iron oxide nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles exhibited great stability and high encapsulation efficiency for doxorubicin, at over 500μg per mg of carrier. Moreover, the intensity of the initial burst was clearly diminished after coating, hence represents an advantage of using the hybrid system over simple iron oxide nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate the increase in cytotoxicity of doxorubicin when loaded in nanoparticles, indirectly proving the role played by the carrier and its surface properties in cell uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  9. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br- (0.23 eV) than for I- (0.29-0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film.

  10. Local coordination of Eu(III) in organic/inorganic amine functionalized hybrids

    Carlos, L.D.; Sa Ferreira, R.A.; Goncalves, M.C.; Zea Bermudez, V. de

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method was used to prepare two families of organic/inorganic hybrids incorporating europium triflate, classed as di-urethanesils and aminosils. A siliceous network to which short polyether chains are covalently bonded through urethane linkages, composes the di-urethanesil host. A siliceous network containing pendant amine terminated propyl chains, forms the aminosils. The xerogels were investigated by photoluminescence, particularly the local interaction between the Eu 3+ ions and the host matrix. The Eu 3+ local coordination was modelled in terms of a local-field perturbation representing the ion's nearest ligands interaction potential. While for the aminosils the Eu 3+ ions occupy one low-symmetry local site--crystal-field strength of ca. 760.5 cm -1 and 5 D 0 lifetime of 0.6-0.7 ms--two local Eu 3+ environments with distinct point symmetry group, 5 D 0 lifetimes (ca. 0.2-0.3 and 1.4-1.8 ms, respectively) and covalent nature--crystal-field strengths of ca. 540 and 740-780 cm -1 , respectively--were identified in the di-urethanesils

  11. Excitonic Properties of Chemically Synthesized 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets.

    Zhang, Qi; Chu, Leiqiang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Wei; Eda, Goki

    2018-05-01

    2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) represent a unique class of materials with a natural quantum-well structure and quasi-2D electronic properties. Here, a versatile direct solution-based synthesis of mono- and few-layer OIHP nanosheets and a systematic study of their electronic structure as a function of the number of monolayers by photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are reported. The monolayers of various OIHPs are found to exhibit high electronic quality as evidenced by high quantum yield and negligible Stokes shift. It is shown that the ground exciton peak blueshifts by ≈40 meV when the layer thickness reduces from bulk to monolayer. It is also shown that the exciton binding energy remains effectively unchanged for (C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 with the number of layers. Similar trends are observed for (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 in contrast to the previous report. Further, the photoluminescence lifetime is found to decrease with the number of monolayers, indicating the dominant role of surface trap states in nonradiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Deleporte, Emmanuelle, E-mail: Emmanuelle.Deleporte@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent [Laboratoire de Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoleculaires et Macromoleculaires de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup +}) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  13. Optical studies of photoactive states in mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites stabilized in polymers

    Kardynal, Beata; Xi, Lifei; Salim, Teddy; Borghardt, Sven; Stoica, Toma; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2015-03-01

    Mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br,Cl) have been demonstrated as very attractive materials for absorbers of solar cells and active layers of light emitting diodes and optically driven lasers. The bandgap of the perovskites can be tuned by mixing halogen atoms in different ratios. In this presentation we study mixed MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br, Cl) particles synthesized directly in protective polymer matrices as light emitters. Both, time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence have been used to study the materials. So synthesized MAX-PbX2 are very stable when measured at room temperature and in air with radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers as the main decay path. In contrast, MAX-PbY2 with mixed halogen atoms display luminescence from sub-bandgap states which saturate at higher excitation levels. The density of these states depends on the used polymer matrix and increases upon illumination. We further compare the MAX-PbY2 synthesized in polymers and as films and show that these states are inherent to the material rather than its microstructure. This works has been supported by EU NWs4LIGHT grant.

  14. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  15. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  16. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  17. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  18. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  20. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  1. Self-assembled organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid adsorbent ferrite based on cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    Denadai, Angelo M L; De Sousa, Frederico B; Passos, Joel J; Guatimosim, Fernando C; Barbosa, Kirla D; Burgos, Ana E; de Oliveira, Fernando Castro; da Silva, Jeann C; Neves, Bernardo R A; Mohallem, Nelcy D S; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2012-01-01

    Organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid materials (MHMs) combine a nonmagnetic and a magnetic component by means of electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds, and notable features can be achieved. Herein, we describe an application of a self-assembled material based on ferrite associated with β-cyclodextrin (Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD) at the nanoscale level. This MHM and pure ferrite (Fe-Ni/Zn) were used as an adsorbent system for Cr(3+) and Cr(2)O(7) (2-) ions in aqueous solutions. Prior to the adsorption studies, both ferrites were characterized in order to determine the particle size distribution, morphology and available binding sites on the surface of the materials. Microscopy analysis demonstrated that both ferrites present two different size domains, at the micro- and nanoscale level, with the latter being able to self-assemble into larger particles. Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD presented smaller particles and a more homogeneous particle size distribution. Higher porosity for this MHM compared to Fe-Ni/Zn was observed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherms and positron-annihilation-lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the pKa values, potentiometric titrations demonstrated the presence of βCD in the inorganic matrix, indicating that the lamellar structures verified by transmission electronic microscopy can be associated with βCD assembled structures. Colloidal stability was inferred as a function of time at different pH values, indicating the sedimentation rate as a function of pH. Zeta potential measurements identified an amphoteric behavior for the Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD, suggesting its better capability to remove ions (cations and anions) from aqueous solutions compared to that of Fe-Ni/Zn.

  2. Characterization, phase change and conductivity crossover of new luminescent ferroelectric Mn (II) organic-inorganic hybrid

    Mostafa, Mohga F., E-mail: Mohga40@yahoo.com; El Dean, Thana Sh., E-mail: th_sh2000@yahoo.com; Tammam, Ahmed K., E-mail: physicsoman@yahoo.com

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of new luminescent ferroelectric [(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}P]{sub 2}MnBr{sub 4} organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the following phases: {sup P2/m} {sup (280 K)} Phase (IV) {sup P21} {sup (298 K)} Phase (III) {sup Pna21} {sup (350 K)} Phase (II) {sup Pnma} {sup (370 K)} Phase (I). Room temperature lattice parameters are a = 9.6233 (Å), b = 12.5653 (Å) c = 16.4503 (Å) and β = 105.6° (T = 298 K). UV-VIS and Ac magnetic susceptibility confirm tetrahedral symmetry of [MnBr{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. DSC and dielectric measurements showed four phase transitions at T{sub 4peak} = 279.1 ± 1 K (ΔS = 1.03 J/mol K), T{sub 3peak} = 300.1 ± 2 K (ΔS = 2.33 J/mol K), T{sub 2peakt} = 353.2 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.68 J/mol K) and T{sub 1peak} = 379.1 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.43 J/mol K). Calculated lattice potential energy values vary from 827 (kJ/mol) at 280 K to (797 kJ/mol) at 370 K. Ac conductivity measurements (220 < T(K) < 400) and (0.081 < f (kHz) < 30) are presented. It is ferroelectric with Curie temperature T{sub c} = 309 K. Hybrid is semiconductor in the temperature range 309 ± 14 K, where conductivity follows Jonscher’s universal dielectric response otherwise it is an insulator where crossover to super-linear power law prevails. Comparison to the corresponding chloride is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Plot of real part of permittivity [ln(ε′)] versus temperature (K). - Highlights: • Conductivity crossover from SlPL to UDR is confirmed. • Change from semiconductor to insulator. • Structural phase transformation.

  3. Improved efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires with small molecules

    Chang, Sehoon; Park, Hyesung; Cheng, Jayce J; Rekemeyer, Paul H; Gradečak, Silvija

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate improved photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanowire/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber hybrid devices using an interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires. Formation of cascade energy levels between the ZnO nanowire and P3HT nanofiber was achieved by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires using small molecules tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI). The successful demonstration of improved device performance owing to the cascade energy levels by small molecule modification is a promising approach toward highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  4. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  5. Understanding the Slow Transient Optoelectronic Response of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Jacobs, Daniel Louis

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites, particularly methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3), have emerged within the past decade as an exciting class of photovoltaic materials. In less than ten years, MAPbI3-based photovoltaic devices have seen unprecedented performance growth, with photoconversion efficiency increasing from 3% to over 22%, making it competitive with traditional high-efficiency solar cells. Furthermore, the fabrication of MAPbI3 devices utilize low-temperature solution processing, which could facilitate ultra low cost manufacturing. However, MAPbI3 suffers from significant instabilities under working conditions that have limited their applications outside of the laboratory. The instability of the MAPbI3 material can be generalized as a complex, slow transient optoelectronic response (STOR). The mechanism of the generalized STOR is dependent on the native defects of MAPbI3, but detailed understanding of the material defect properties is complicated by the complex ionic bonding of MAPbI3. Furthermore, characterization of the intrinsic material's response is complicated by the diverse approach to material processing and device architecture across laboratories around the world. In order to understand and mitigate the significant problems of MAPbI3 devices, a new approach focused on the material response, rather than the full device response, must be pursued. This dissertation highlights the work to analyze and mitigate the STOR intrinsic to MAPbI3. An experimental platform was developed based on lateral interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays capable of monitoring the current and photoluminescence response simultaneously. By correlating the dynamics of the current and photoluminescence (PL) responses, both charge trapping and ion migration mechanisms were identified to contribute to the STOR. Next, a novel fabrication technique is introduced that is capable of reliably depositing MAPbI3 thin films with grain sizes at least an order of magnitude

  6. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  7. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Open a New Era for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Guiming Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramping solar energy to electricity conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells during the last five years have opened new doors to low-cost solar energy. The record power conversion efficiency has climbed to 19.3% in August 2014 and then jumped to 20.1% in November. In this review, the main achievements for perovskite solar cells categorized from a viewpoint of device structure are overviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also briefly presented.

  8. Density Functional Theory Simulations of Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and III/V Heterostructures

    Jacky Even

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentialities of density functional theory (DFT based methodologies are explored for photovoltaic materials through the modeling of the structural and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and GaAs/GaP heterostructures. They show how the properties of these bulk materials, as well as atomistic relaxations, interfaces, and electronic band-lineups in small heterostructures, can be thoroughly investigated. Some limitations of available standard DFT codes are discussed. Recent improvements able to treat many-body effects or based on density-functional perturbation theory are also reviewed in the context of issues relevant to photovoltaic technologies.

  9. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  10. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  11. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  12. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    Nguyen, H. S.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  13. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature

  14. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  15. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Characterization of Selected Parameters of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Various Polymers and Nd-Fe-B Fillers

    Rybak A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on EC, PPO polymer matrices and various magnetic powder microparticles were synthesized and studied. Constant pressure permeation technique and the Time Lag method were used to obtain the gas transport coefficients. The mechanical, rheological and magnetic parameters of magnetic hybrid membranes were examined. It was found that their separation and gas transport properties (D, P, S and α were improved with the decrease in powder particle size and the increase of membrane’s remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The increase of the magnetic powder addition and a decrease of its granulation improved also mechanical and rheological parameters of the tested membranes. This improvement also had a positive effect on their gas separation properties and their potential usage in the future.

  18. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  19. Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography

    Cheng, Z. Y.; Wang, Z.; Xing, R. B.; Han, Y. C.; Lin, J.

    2003-07-01

    Perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid layered compound (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 was synthesized. The patterning of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 thin films on silicon substrate was realized by the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) process, a kind of soft lithography. Bright green luminescent stripes with different widths (50, 15, 0.8 μm) have been obtained. The structure and optical properties of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, respectively. It is shown that the organic-inorganic layered (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 film was c-axis oriented, paralleling to the substrate plane. Green exciton emission at 525 nm was observed in the film, and the explanations for it were given.

  20. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Syntheses, structures and properties of four organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging rare-earth-containing phosphotungstates

    Gong, Peijun; Pang, Jingjing; Zhai, Cuiping; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging dimeric rare-earth (RE)-containing phosphotungstates [H2N(CH3)2]8[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2·24H2O (RE = HoIII for 1, ErIII for 2, TbIII for 3, DyIII for 4; HNA = nicotinic acid) have been synthesized from the reaction of trivacant Keggin precursor Na9[α-PW9O34]•16H2O, RE(NO3)3·6H2O, HNA by employing dimethylamine hydrochloride as organic solubilizing agent in the conventional aqueous solution system, which have been further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that the hybrid dimeric {[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2}8- polyoxoanion in 1-4 can be considered as two head-to-head mono-RE-containing Keggin [RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]4- subunits bridged by two (η2,μ-1,1)-nicotinate linkers, which stands for the first organic-inorganic hybrid RE-containing phosphotungstates functionalized by nicotinate ligands. What's more, the solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay behaviors of 1-4 have been measured at room temperature and their photoluminescence spectra display the characteristic emission bands of corresponding trivalent RE cations.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  4. Degradation and Its Control of Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes Using PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Structure

    Abe, Tomoki; Uchida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Keita; Fujisawa, Takanobu; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi; Akaiwa, Kazuaki; Ichino, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    We investigated device degradation in PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe organic-inorganic hybrid ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (UV-APDs). ZnSSe/n-GaAs wafers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and PEDOT:PSS window layers were formed by inkjet technique. We observed rapid degradation with APD-mode stress (˜ 30 V) in the N2 (4 N) atmosphere, while we observed no marked change in forward bias current stress and photocurrent stress. In the case of a vacuum condition, we observed no detectable degradation in the dark avalanche current with APD-mode stress. Therefore, the degradation in the PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe interface under the APD-mode stress was caused by the residual water vapor or oxygen in the N2 atmosphere and could be controlled by vacuum packaging.

  5. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets with Bright, Tunable Photoluminescence and High Stability.

    Yang, Shuang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, An-Liang; Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Bo; Tan, Chaoliang; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanosheets (NSs) are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. Here, for the first time, we report the facile synthesis of single- and few-layer free-standing phenylethylammonium lead halide perovskite NSs, that is, (PEA) 2 PbX 4 (PEA=C 8 H 9 NH 3 , X=Cl, Br, I). Importantly, their lateral size can be tuned by changing solvents. Moreover, these ultrathin 2D perovskite NSs exhibit highly efficient and tunable photoluminescence, as well as superior stability. Our study provides a simple and general method for the controlled synthesis of 2D perovskite NSs, which may offer a new avenue for their fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Full color stop bands in hybrid organic/inorganic block copolymer photonic gels by swelling-freezing.

    Kang, Changjoon; Kim, Eunjoo; Baek, Heeyoel; Hwang, Kyosung; Kwak, Dongwoo; Kang, Youngjong; Thomas, Edwin L

    2009-06-10

    We report a facile way of fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic photonic gels by selective swelling and subsequent infiltration of SiO(2) into one type of lamellar microdomain previously self-assembled from modest-molecular-weight block copolymers. Transparent, in-plane lamellar films were first prepared by assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and subsequently the P2VP domains were swollen with a selective solvent, methanol. The swollen structures were then fixated by synthesizing SiO(2) nanoparticles within P2VP domains. The resulting frozen photonic gels (f-photonic gels) exhibited strong reflective colors with stop bands across the visible region of wavelengths.

  7. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  8. Flexible organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorod array

    Tong, Fei; Kim, Kyusang; Martinez, Daniel; Thapa, Resham; Ahyi, Ayayi; Williams, John; Park, Minseo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Sungkoo; Lim, Eunhee; Lee, Kyeong K

    2012-01-01

    We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ‘flexible’ transparent substrates. The solar cell device is composed of ZnO nanorod array and the bulk heterojunction structured organic layer which is the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The ZnO nanorod array was grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates via a low-temperature (85 °C) aqueous solution process. The blend solution consisting of conjugated polymer P3HT and fullerene PCBM was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure and then the photoactive layer was slow dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the nanorod network. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered on top of the photoactive layer. The flexible solar cell with the structure of PET/ITO/ZnO thin film/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag exhibited a photovoltaic performance with an open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 9.82 mA cm −2 , a fill factor (FF) of 35% and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.78%. All the measurements were performed under 100 mW cm −2 of illumination with an air mass 1.5 G filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of investigation into the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on bulk heterojunction structured conjugated polymer/fullerene photoactive layer and ZnO nanorod array constructed on flexible transparent substrates. (paper)

  9. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  11. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors

  12. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  13. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  14. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  15. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  16. Synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid gel with acid activated clay after γ-ray radiation.

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Daewon

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles and another is synthesized with AA clay particles. The composition and structure of AA clay particles and raw clay particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence instrument and surface area analyzer. And chemical and physical property of hybrid gel with different ratios of acrylic acid and clay particle was tested by Raman spectroscope and universal testing machine (UTM). The synthesized hydrogel with 76% gel contents can elongated approximately 1000% of its original size.

  17. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  18. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the

  19. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  20. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  1. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim, E-mail: eduardo.molina@unifran.edu.br [Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  2. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  4. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Photonics-on-a-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    Bastos, Ana R; Vicente, Carlos M S; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J O; Tacão, Marta; Costa, João P da; Lima, Mário; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2018-03-12

    The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers. The sensor performance was evaluated using, as an illustrative example, E. coli cell growth in an aqueous medium. The measured sensitivity (2 × 10 -4 RIU) and limit of detection (LOD = 2 × 10 -4 ) are among the best values known for low-refractive index contrast sensors. Furthermore, the di-ureasil hybrid used to produce this biosensor has additional advantages, such as mechanical flexibility, thermal stability, and low insertion losses due to fiber-device refractive index mismatch (~1.49). Therefore, the proposed sensor constitutes a direct, compact, fast, and cost-effective solution for monitoring the concentration of lived-cells.

  6. The Formation of Exciplex and Improved Turn-on Voltage in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode

    Zhang Yan-Fei; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Kong Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to take advantage of organic and inorganic materials, we chose the polymer MEH-PPV as the luminous layer and ZnS as the electron transporting layer to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes (HOILEDs): ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/ZnS(20 nm)/Al by thermal evaporation and spin coating. Compared with the single-layer device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/Al, spectral broadening and a slightly red shift are observed. Compared with the pure organic device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/Al and combined with the energy level structure diagram, it is concluded that the spectral broadening and red shift are due to the exciplex luminescence at the interface between MEH-PPV and ZnS or BCP. In addition, the hybrid inorganic-organic device shows a lower turn-on voltage, but the current efficiency is lower than that of the pure organic device with the same structure

  7. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  8. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells

    John, Łukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Podgórska, Marta [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Nedelec, Jean-Marie [Université Clermont Auvergne, SIGMA Clermont, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63178 Aubiere (France); Cwynar-Zając, Łucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Dzięgiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in Conservative and Interventional Medicine, 35 Paderewskiego, 51-612 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic–inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments. - Highlights: • New hybrid scaffolds derived from TEVS and HEMA doped with Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions have been developed. • A comprehensive characterization of the scaffolds for regenerative medicine was performed. • The incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} ions into the scaffolds was non-cytotoxic to the osteoblasts.

  10. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings and films containing conducting polyaniline nanoparticles

    Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 1 (2004), s. 343-348 ISSN 1022-1360. [Electrical and Related Properties of Polymers and Other Organic Solids /9./. Prague, 14.07.2002-18.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA ČR GA203/01/0735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * films * hybrid networks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  11. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  12. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V−1 S−1 is expected for MAPbI3. PMID:28150743

  13. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Efficient Ultrasound-Based Imaging and Controlled Drug Release

    Xiaoqin Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel anticancer drug delivery system with contrast-enhanced ultrasound-imaging performance was synthesized by a typical hard-templating method using monodispersed silica nanoparticles as the templates, which was based on unique molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow periodic mesoporous organosilicas (HPMOs. The highly dispersed HPMOs show the uniform spherical morphology, large hollow interior, and well-defined mesoporous structures, which are very beneficial for ultrasound-based theranostics. The obtained HPMOs exhibit excellent performances in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography both in vitro and in vivo and can be used for the real-time determination of the progress of lesion tissues during the chemotherapeutic process. Importantly, hydrophobic paclitaxel- (PTX- loaded HPMOs combined with ultrasound irradiation show fast ultrasound responsiveness for controlled drug release and higher in vitro and in vivo tumor inhibition rates compared with free PTX and PTX-loaded HPMOs, which is due to the enhanced ultrasound-triggered drug release and ultrasound-induced cavitation effect. Therefore, the achieved novel HPMOs-based nanoparticle systems will find broad application potentials in clinically ultrasound-based imaging and auxiliary tumor chemotherapy.

  14. Broadband-Emitting 2 D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Based on Cyclohexane-bis(methylamonium) Cation.

    Neogi, Ishita; Bruno, Annalisa; Bahulayan, Damodaran; Goh, Teck Wee; Ghosh, Biplab; Ganguly, Rakesh; Cortecchia, Daniele; Sum, Tze Chien; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh Gautam

    2017-10-09

    A new broadband-emitting 2 D hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (CyBMA)PbBr 4 based on highly flexible cis-1,3-bis(methylaminohydrobromide)cyclohexane (CyBMABr) core has been designed, synthesized, and investigated, highlighting the effects of stereoisomerism of the templating cation on the formation and properties of the resulting perovskite. The new 2 D material has high exciton binding energy of 340 meV and a broad emission spanning from 380 to 750 nm, incorporating a prominent excitonic band and a less intense broad peak at room temperature. Significant changes in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum were observed at lower temperatures, showing remarkable enhancement in the intensity of the broadband at the cost of excitonic emission. Temperature-dependent PL mapping indicates the effective role of only a narrow band of excitonic absorption in the generation of the active channel for emission. Based on the evidences obtained from the photophysical investigations, we attributed the evolution of the broad B-band of (CyBMA)PbBr 4 to excitonic self-trapped states. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  16. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  17. Structure and optical properties of several organic-inorganic hybrids containing corner-sharing chains of bismuth iodide octahedra.

    Mitzi, D B; Brock, P

    2001-04-23

    Two organic-inorganic bismuth iodides of the form (H3N-R-NH3)BiI5 are reported, each containing long and relatively flexible organic groups, R. The norganic framework in each case consists of distorted BiI6 octahedra sharing cis vertexes to form zigzag chains. Crystals of (H3NC18H24S2NH3)BiI5 were grown from a slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and AETH.2HI, where AETH = 1,6-bis[5'-(2' '-aminoethyl)-2'-thienyl]hexane. The new compound, (H2AETH)BiI5, adopts an orthorhombic (Aba2) cell with the lattice parameters a = 20.427(3) A, b = 35.078(5) A, c = 8.559(1) A, and Z = 8. The structure consists of corrugated layers of BiI5(2-) chains, with Bi-I bond lengths ranging from 2.942(3) to 3.233(3) A, separated by layers of the organic (H2AETH)(2+) cations. Crystals of the analogous (H3NC12H24NH3)BiI5 compound were also prepared from a concentrated aqueous hydriodic acid solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and the 1,12-dodecanediamine (DDDA) salt, DDDA.2HI. (H2DDDA)BiI5 crystallizes in an orthorhombic (Ibam) cell with a = 17.226(2) A, b = 34.277(4) A, c = 8.654(1) A, and Z = 8. The Bi-I bonds range in length from 2.929(1) to 3.271(1) A. While the inorganic chain structure is nearly identical for the two title compounds, as well as for the previously reported (H3NC6H12NH3)BiI5 [i.e., (H2DAH)BiI5] structure, the packing of the chains is strongly influenced by the choice of organic cation. Optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated thin films of the three organic-inorganic hybrids containing BiI5(2-) chains are reported as a function of temperature (25-290 K). The dominant long-wavelength feature in each case is attributed to an exciton band, which is apparent at room temperature and, despite the similar inorganic chain structure, varies in position from 491 to 541 nm (at 25 K).

  18. Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber.

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Brandt, Riley E; Osherov, Anna; Stevanović, Vladan; Stranks, Samuel D; Wilson, Mark W B; Kim, Hyunho; Akey, Austin J; Perkins, John D; Kurchin, Rachel C; Poindexter, Jeremy R; Wang, Evelyn N; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-18

    Methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3 ) perovskites exhibit exceptional carrier transport properties. But their commercial deployment as solar absorbers is currently limited by their intrinsic instability in the presence of humidity and their lead content. Guided by our theoretical predictions, we explored the potential of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) as a solar absorber through detailed materials characterization. We synthesized phase-pure MBI by solution and vapor processing. In contrast to MAPbX3, MBI is air stable, forming a surface layer that does not increase the recombination rate. We found that MBI luminesces at room temperature, with the vapor-processed films exhibiting superior photoluminescence (PL) decay times that are promising for photovoltaic applications. The thermodynamic, electronic, and structural features of MBI that are amenable to these properties are also present in other hybrid ternary bismuth halide compounds. Through MBI, we demonstrate a lead-free and stable alternative to MAPbX3 that has a similar electronic structure and nanosecond lifetimes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of dimensionality of nanostructured carbon on the architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Misra, R D K; Depan, D; Shah, J

    2013-08-21

    The natural tendency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to agglomerate is an underlying reason that prevents the realization of their full potential. On the other hand, covalent functionalization of CNTs to control dispersion leads to disruption of π-conjugation in CNTs and the non-covalent functionalization leads to a weak CNT-polymer interface. To overcome these challenges, we describe the characteristics of fostering of direct nucleation of polymers on nanostructured carbon (CNTs of diameters (~2-200 nm), carbon nanofibers (~200-300 nm), and graphene), which culminates in interfacial adhesion, resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction in the hybrid nanostructured carbon-polymer architecture. Furthermore, the structure is tunable through a change in undercooling. High density polyethylene and polypropylene were selected as two model polymers and two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set of experiments was carried out using CNTs of diameter ~2-5 nm to explore the effect of undercooling and polymer concentration. The second set of experiments was focused on studying the effect of dimensionality on geometrical confinements. The periodic crystallization of polyethylene on small diameter CNTs is demonstrated to be a consequence of the geometrical confinement effect, rather than epitaxy, such that petal-like disks nucleate on large diameter CNTs, carbon nanofibers, and graphene. The application of the process is illustrated in terms of fabricating a system for cellular uptake and bioimaging.

  20. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  1. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  2. Cu-containing Keggin-type polyoxometalates-based organic-inorganic hybrids with double electro-catalytic behaviors

    Zhou, Wanli; Zheng, Yanping; Peng, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Four new organic-inorganic hybrids consisting of Keggin-type polyoxometalates: [Cu5(bimpy)5(α-BW12O40)]·4H2O (1), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-SiW12O40)]·2H2O (2), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-HPMo12O40)2]·2H2O (3), [Cu2(bimpy)4(H2O)2(α-HPW12O40)2]·8H2O (4) (bimpy = 2,5-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)pyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized. Compounds 1-4 are constructed from Cu/bimpy segments modified different types of Keggin POMs. The 1D double chains of compound 1 are featured by {-Cu/bimpy-POM-Cu/bimpy-}n chains and {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n metal-organic chains; compound 2 with 1D "ladder-like" structure stemmed from {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n wave-like chains and α-SiW12 clusters; In compound 3, [Cu4(bimpy)4]4+ motifs are linked by α-PMo12 clusters to give rise to a (3,4)-connected two-dimensional architecture with the (83)(86) topology, while compound 4 has a (3,4,5)-connected 3D framework with the (42,6)(42,6,83)(42,65,83) topology. Cyclic voltammetries of compounds 1-4 show discrepant double electro-catalytic properties for reduction of nitrite and oxidation of ascorbic acid owing to variant Keggin-type POMs and Cu/bimpy complexes.

  3. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  4. Preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4

    Xiao Zelong; Chen Hongzheng; Shi Minmin; Wu Gang; Zhou Renjia; Yang Zhisheng; Wang Mang; Tang Benzhong

    2005-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 was prepared via the reaction between copper chloride and butylammonium chloride. Its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and elemental analysis. Its thin film was obtained by spin-coating, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the formation of two-dimensional layered perovskites structure, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The electronic structure, thermal properties and electrical properties of the hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 were also studied by UV-vis, photoluminescience (PL), TGA, DSC, and Hall measurement

  5. Characteristics of oxidative homolytic alkylation of imidazoles and organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks from large aromatic building blocks

    Li, Kunhao

    The discovery of the dramatic in vitro antimalarial activity of 2-iodo-L-histidine and 2-fluoro-L-histidine, as well as their in vivo limitations, has prompted a systematic search for novel 2-substituted imidazoles and bioimidazoles as agents against human malaria. Previous research has shown that the regioselective alkyl free radical substitution on imidazoles and bioimidazoles could serve as a simple and efficient route to a wide variety of 2-alkylimidazoles. In this research, this methodology was successfully extended to include alkyl radicals substituted with various functional groups such as amide or ester. While this novel methodology should be of some synthetic utility when tertiary radicals are used, poorer yields are usually encountered in the cases of primary radicals. In the second part of this dissertation, a series of novel ligands containing multiple ortho-bis(organothio) groups were synthesized and their coordination and network forming properties were studied in the context of crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks. For the syntheses of HRTTs [2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkylthio)triphenylenes], a simpler, safer and higher yielding one-pot process was developed. Quenching the hexa-anions (formed when sodium methylthiolate was refluxed with hexabromotriphenylene) with alkyl halides or acid chlorides afforded HRTTs. This newly developed process was also successfully expanded to the pyrene system. In the syntheses of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes, it was shown for the first time that the oxidative cyclization process is applicable to thioether containing systems, pointing to a novel strategy for the preparation of this type of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes. Treating these novel ligands with various metal salts [i.e. bismuth(III) chloride and bismuth(III) bromide] under carefully controlled conditions resulted in a series of air-stable semiconductive coordination networks. Their single crystal structures were

  6. Nearly Perfect Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from Wannier Excitons to Naphthalene in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Quantum-Well Materials

    Ema, K.; Inomata, M.; Kato, Y.; Kunugita, H.; Era, M.

    2008-06-01

    We report the observation of extremely efficient energy transfer (greater than 99%) in an organic-inorganic hybrid quantum-well structure consisting of perovskite-type lead bromide well layers and naphthalene-linked ammonium barrier layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements confirm that the transfer is triplet-triplet Dexter-type energy transfer from Wannier excitons in the inorganic well to the triplet state of naphthalene molecules in the organic barrier. Using measurements in the 10 300 K temperature range, we also investigated the temperature dependence of the energy transfer.

  7. Hybrid Organic - Inorganic Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Low to Medium Temperature Fuel Cells

    Cordova Chavez, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are currently the main resources of energy in the world. The World Energy Outlook claimed in 2007 that the major source of energy (about 84%) would still be generated from fossil fuels in 2030. By these projections, the world's fossil fuel reserves will be consumed within a

  8. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES)

    Demarchi, A.A.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  10. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  11. Luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a Zn2SiO4:Mn color-conversion layer

    Choo, D.C.; Ahn, S.D.; Jung, H.S.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layers used in this study were synthesized by using the sol-gel method and printed on the glass substrates by using a vehicle solution and a heating process. Organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer were fabricated. X-ray diffraction data for the synthesized Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor films showed that the Zn ions in the phosphor were substituted into Mn ions. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the deep blue OLEDs showed that a dominant peak at 461 nm appeared. The photoluminescence spectrum for the Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer by using a 470 nm excitation source showed that a dominant peak at 527 nm appeared, which originated from the 4 T 1 - 6 A 1 transitions of Mn ions. The appearance of the peak around 527 nm of the EL spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer demonstrated that the emitted blue color from the deep blue OLEDs was converted into a green color due to the existence of the color-conversion layer. The luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer are described on the basis of the EL and PL spectra.

  12. Stability and carrier mobility of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 in two-dimensional limit

    Huang, Kui; Lai, Kang; Yan, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Bing

    2017-10-01

    Recently, atomically thin organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been synthesized experimentally, which opens up new opportunities for exploring their novel properties in the 2D limit. Based on the comparative density functional theory calculation with and without spin-orbit coupling effects, the stability, electronic structure, and carrier mobility of the two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) have been investigated systemically. Two single-unit-cell-thick 2D MAPbI3 terminated by PbI2 and CH3NH3I are constructed, and their thermodynamic stabilities are also evaluated using the first-principles constrained thermodynamics method. Our results indicate that both 2D MAPbI3 with different terminations can be stable under certain conditions and have a suitable direct bandgap. Moreover, they are also found to have termination-dependent band edge and carrier mobility. The acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobilities estimated using the deformation theory and effective mass approximation are on the order of thousands of square centimeters per volt per second and also highly anisotropic. These results indicate that 2D MAPbI3 are competitive candidates for low-dimensional photovoltaic applications.

  13. Uso do processo sol-gel na obtenção de materiais híbridos organo-inorgânicos: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em eletrólitos de estado sólido Utilization of the sol-gel process to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid materials: preparation, characterization and application as solid state electrolytes

    Rita A Zoppi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é descrita a preparação de materiais híbridos constituídos de um copolímero orgânico contendo segmentos óxido de etileno e de sílica. A rede inorgânica foi formada na solução polimérica a partir da hidrólise e condensação do tetraetoxisilano, TEOS. Como copolímero foi utilizado o poli(óxido de etileno-b-amida-6, PEBAX. Foram preparados também híbridos contendo perclorato de lítio, denominados aqui híbridos eletrólitos. Os materiais foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, ensaios de tensão-deformação, análise dinâmico-mecânica e difratometria de raios-X. Os sistemas PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO foram também caracterizados por espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica e voltametria cíclica para avaliação de suas propriedades como eletrólito de estado sólido.In this work it was described the preparation of hybrid materials constituted by a organic copolymer, which contains ethylene oxide blocks, and silica. The inorganic network was formed by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, into the polymeric solution. As a copolymer, it was used poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6, PEBAX. Hybrids containing lithium perchlorate, known as hybrid electrolytes, were also prepared. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, stress-strain tests, dynamic-mechanical analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO4 systems were also characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate their properties as a solid state electrolyte.

  14. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  16. Growth and optical, magnetic and transport properties of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 organic-inorganic hybrid films (M = Cu, Sn)

    Aruta, C.; Licci, F.; Zappettini, A.; Bolzoni, F.; Rastelli, F.; Ferro, P.; Besagni, T.

    2005-10-01

    Films of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 (M=Cu and Sn) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been deposited in-situ by a single-source thermal ablation technique on glassy, crystalline and polymeric substrates. Independently of the substrate, the films were well crystallized, c-axis oriented and with a narrow rocking curve of the (0010) reflection (full width at half maximum photoluminescence spectra of typical (C4H9NH3)2SnCl4 films at 12 K had a broad yellow band, which did not correspond to any significant peak in the absorption spectrum. The films were semiconducting down to 250 K or, in the case of the best samples, down to 200 K and became insulating at lower temperature. The resistivity of the best films was (5±1) 104 Ω cm at 300 K, and the energy gap was 1.11 eV.

  17. Sol-gel approach to the novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary europium complex covalently bonded with silica matrix

    Dong Dewen; Yang Yongsheng; Jiang Bingzheng

    2006-01-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary lanthanide complex covalently bonded with silica matrix were prepared in situ via co-ordination of N-(3-propyltriethoxysilane)-4-carboxyphthalimide (TAT) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with europium ion (Eu 3+ ) during a sol-gel approach and characterized by the means of spectrofluorimeter, phosphorimeter and infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The resulting transparent films showed improved photophysical properties, i.e. increased luminescence intensity and longer luminescence lifetime, compared with the corresponding binary composite films without Phen. All the results revealed that the intense luminescence of the composite film was attributed to the efficient energy transfer from ligands, especially Phen, to chelated Eu 3+ and the reduced non-radiation through the rigid silica matrix and 'site isolation'

  18. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  19. Flame retardant and hydrophobic properties of novel sol-gel derived phytic acid/silica hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for silk fabric

    Cheng, Xian-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Xi; Guan, Jin-Ping; Yang, Xu-Hong; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel phosphorus-rich hybrid organic-inorganic silica coating for improving the flame retardancy of silk fabric was prepared using naturally occurring phytic acid as phosphorus precursor and catalyst for the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. In addition, three silane coupling agents, namely 3-aminopropyldimethoxymethylsilane, 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, were added in the hybrid sol as cross-linkers with the aim of developing hydrophobic coatings and improving the washing durability of the treated silk fabric. The condensation degree of the hybrid sol was characterized by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The flammability and thermal degradation properties of the treated silk fabrics were determined in terms of limiting oxygen index, vertical burning, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the treated silk fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle tests. The flammability tests revealed that the silicon sol could endow silk fabric with excellent flame retardancy when doped with phytic acid, and the treated silk fabrics self-extinguished immediately when the ignition source was removed. The silk fabrics treated with the modified hybrid sols exhibited hydrophobic surface and also better durability to washing.

  20. Synthesis of boronate-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the separation of cis-diol containing compounds at low pH.

    Zhao, Heqing; Lyu, Haixia; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared hybrid monolith exhibited mixed-interactions including hydrophilicity, cation exchange, and boronate affinity interaction. The run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the prepared hybrid monolith for thiourea's retention time were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 0.09, 1.45 and 4.05% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  2. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope by novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on quaternized chitosan and tetraethoxysilane.

    Uragami, Tadashi; Katayama, Takuya; Miyata, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Akon

    2004-01-01

    To control swelling of quaternized chitosan (q-Chito) membranes, mixtures of q-Chito as an organic component and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as an inorganic component were prepared using the sol-gel reaction, and novel q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes were formed. In the separation of an ethanol/water azeotrope by pervaporation, the effect of TEOS content on the water/ethanol selectivity of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes was investigated. Hybrid membranes containing up to 45 mol % TEOS exhibited higher water/ethanol selectivity than the q-Chito membrane. This resulted from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, introduction of excess TEOS led to greater swelling of the hybrid membranes. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of the hybrid membranes containing more than 45 mol % TEOS was lower than that of the q-Chito membrane. The relationship between the structure of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotrope is discussed in detail.

  3. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  4. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  5. BaZrO3 perovskite nanoparticles as emissive material for organic/inorganic hybrid light-emitting diodes

    Tamulevičius, S.; Ivaniuk, K.; Cherpak, V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we have demonstrated double-channel emission from organic exciplexes coupled to inorganic nanoparticles. The process is demonstrated by yellow-green emission in light-emitting diodes based on organic exciplexes hybridized with perovskite-type dispersed BaZrO3 nanoparticles...

  6. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  7. Direct Observation of Electron-Phonon Coupling and Slow Vibrational Relaxation in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Hurtado Parra, Sebastian; Straus, Daniel; Iotov, Natasha; Fichera, Bryan; Gebhardt, Julian; Rappe, Andrew; Subotnik, Joseph; Kikkawa, James; Kagan, Cherie

    Quantum and dielectric confinement effects in Ruddlesden-Popper 2D hybrid perovskites create excitons with a binding energy exceeding 150 meV. We exploit the large exciton binding energy to study exciton and carrier dynamics as well as electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in hybrid perovskites using absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. At temperatures 75 K, excitonic absorption and PL exhibit homogeneous broadening. While absorption remains homogeneous, PL becomes inhomogeneous at temperatures <75K, which we speculate is caused by the formation and subsequent dynamics of a polaronic exciton. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-SC0002158 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Grant DGE-1321851.

  8. Highly reliable photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid passivation layers for a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a photosensitive hybrid passivation material on amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that greatly enhance its stability and improve its electrical characteristics. The hybrid passivation based on polysilsesquioxane is transparent and fabricated using a simple solution process. Because the passivation is photosensitive, dry etching was never performed during TFT fabrication. TFTs passivated with this material had a small threshold voltage shift of 0.5 V during positive bias stress, 0.5 V during negative bias stress, and -2.5 V during negative bias illumination stress. Furthermore, TFTs passivated by this layer were stable after being subjected to high relative humidity stress — confirming the superb barrier ability of the passivation. Analysis of secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that a large amount of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine can be found in the channel region. We show that both hydrogen and fluorine reduced oxygen vacancies and that fluorine stabilized weak oxygen and hydroxide bonds. These results demonstrate the large potential of photosensitive hybrid passivation layers as effective passivation materials.

  9. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical sensors of benzene and toluene based on inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers elaborated by a sol-gel process

    Calvo Munoz, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    As mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH) are a matter of concern in terms of pollution, and are to be monitored due to new regulations regarding air quality control, this research thesis first aims at explaining why these compounds are to be monitored, at recalling their sources, at outlining what we know about their negative impact on health and how this impact is determined, which are the means implemented to monitor these compounds and which are their drawbacks, and at recalling which requirements are defined by European directives. The author then reports a literature survey of the current technology regarding chemical sensors, and identifies the required characteristics of an ideal sensor. The author proposes a review of studied performed on sol-gel process and of inorganic polymer synthesis methods based on sol-gel process. He reports the synthesis and characterization of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic host matrices, monolithic or in thin layers, used to produce MAH sensors. A matrix pore local polarity study is reported. Benzene and toluene trapping is studied with respect to the polarity and thickness of the host matrix. Pollutant trapping is directly monitored by their absorption in the near-UV and visible range. The author finally reports the study of interactions between fluorescent probe molecules and pollutants, as well as the effect of an interfering gas (oxygen) on the fluorescence of probe molecules [fr

  12. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  13. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  14. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  15. Bacterial self-defense antibiotics release from organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films for long-term anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

    Xu, Qingwen; Li, Xi; Jin, Yingying; Sun, Lin; Ding, Xiaoxu; Liang, Lin; Wang, Lei; Nan, Kaihui; Ji, Jian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Bailiang

    2017-12-14

    Implant-associated bacterial infections pose serious medical and financial issues due to the colonization and proliferation of pathogens on the surface of the implant. The as-prepared traditional antibacterial surfaces can neither resist bacterial adhesion nor inhibit the development of biofilm over the long term. Herein, novel (montmorillonite/poly-l-lysine-gentamicin sulfate) 8 ((MMT/PLL-GS) 8 ) organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films were developed to combine enzymatic degradation PLL for on-demand self-defense antibiotics release. Small molecule GS was loaded into the multilayer films during self-assembly and the multilayer films showed pH-dependent and linear growth behavior. The chymotrypsin- (CMS) and bacterial infections-responsive film degradation led to the peeling of the films and GS release. Enzyme-responsive GS release exhibited CMS concentration dependence as measured by the size of the inhibition zone and SEM images. Notably, the obtained antibacterial films showed highly efficient bactericidal activity which killed more than 99.9% of S. aureus in 12 h. Even after 3 d of incubation in S. aureus, E. coli or S. epidermidis solutions, the multilayer films exhibited inhibition zones of more than 1.5 mm in size. Both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests indicated good cell compatibility, and anti-inflammatory, and long-term bacterial anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

  16. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  17. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  18. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  19. Determination of Carrier Lifetimes in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Sb2S3 by Using the Time-Resolved Photocurrent

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ju; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells (SCs) based on ZnO/Sb2S3/P3HT heterojunctions. The ZnO and the Sb2S3 layers were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Although four cells were fabricated on one substrate by using the same process, their open-circuit voltages ( V OC ) and short-circuit current densities ( J SC ) were different. The SC with a high V OC has a low J SC . The causes of the changes in the V OC and the JSC were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and optically-biased time-resolved photocurrent (TRPC) measurements. The PL results at 300 K showed that the emission positions of the Sb2S3 layers in all cells were similar at approximately 1.71 eV. The carrier lifetime of the SCs was calculated from the TRPC results. The lifetime of cell 4 with the highest J SC decreased drastically with increasing intensity of the continuous-wave optical bias beam. Therefore, the defect states in the ZnO layer contribute to the J SC , but degrade the V OC .

  20. Preparation and characterization of a layered perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C8NH6-CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4

    Zheng Yingying; Wu Gang; Deng Meng; Chen Hongzheng; Wang Mang; Tang, B.-Z.

    2006-01-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C 8 NH 6 -CH 2 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 (AEI-CuCl 4 ) was synthesized from ethanol solution containing copper chloride and 3-2-(aminoethyl) indole hydrochloride (AEI-HCl). High order diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 l; l = 2, 4, 6, ...) observed in the X-ray diffraction profile of AEI-CuCl 4 indicated the formation of hybrid crystal with layered perovskite structure. The organic-inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 388 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 420 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue fluorescence emission comes from the cooperation of AEI-HCl and AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite, in which protonized aminoethyl indole dominates the shape of the spectrum and the enhancement of emission intensity is due to the formation of the perovskite structure. The thermal analysis presented that the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite started to melt at 182 deg. C, together with the beginning of the decomposition of the hybrids. Compared with the organic-inorganic perovskite hybrids reported previously, the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite shows a novel stepwise decomposition behavior

  1. Enhanced luminescence properties of hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO (organic/inorganic) composite films

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Pristine tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO hybrid) composites containing different weight percentages (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The optimum concentration of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} films to get the best luminescence yield has been identified. XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} film. The Alq{sub 3} films containing different weight percentages of ZnO show the presence of crystalline ZnO in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600−800 cm{sup −1}. The hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films indicate the presence of Zn−O vibration band along with the corresponding Alq{sub 3} band. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} film was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.87 eV for pristine films while it is 3.26 eV, 3.21 eV, 3.14 eV, 3.10 eV, 3.13 eV and 3.20 eV for the composite films containing 5–50 wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq{sub 3} films show a maximum PL intensity at 514 nm when excited at 390 nm. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) exhibit an emission in 485 nm and 514 nm. The composite films containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibit maximum luminescence yield. - Highlights: • The pure Alq{sub 3} and Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using dip coating method. • Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite film containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits two fold increases in luminescence intensity. • The shielding effect of ZnO on the Alq{sub 3} material suppresses the interactions among the host molecules in the excited state. • This leads to enhance the luminescence intensity in composite films.

  2. Pressure-induced phase transitions and templating effect in three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Lee, Yongjae; Mitzi, David; Barnes, Paris; Vogt, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Pressure-induced structural changes of conducting halide perovskites (CH3NH3)SnI3, (CH3NH3)0.5(NH2CH=NH2)0.5SnI3, and (NH2CH=NH2)SnI3, have been investigated using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. In contrast to low-temperature structural changes, no evidence of an increased ordering of the organic cations was observed under pressure. Instead, increase in pressure results first in a ReO3-type doubling of the primitive cubic unit cell, followed by a symmetry distortion, and a subsequent amorphization above 4 GPa. This process is reversible and points towards a pressure-induced templating role of the organic cation. Bulk compressions are continuous across the phase boundaries. The compressibilities identify these hybrids as the most compressible perovskite system ever reported. However, the Sn-I bond compressibility in (CH3NH3)SnI3 shows a discontinuity within the supercell phase. This is possibly due to an electronic localization.

  3. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  5. An organic-inorganic hybrid coagulant containing Al, Zn and Fe (HOAZF: preparation, efficiency and mechanism of removing organic phosphorus

    Y. Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF coagulant showing high removal of pollutants has been successfully developed using a galvanized slag in earlier works, but it gave less elimination of phosphorus. To improve phosphorus removal, a hybrid organic-Al-Zn-Fe (HOAZF coagulant was prepared using PAZF and polyacrylamide (PAM as an organic additive, and then was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Zeta potential, respectively. Removing efficiency and mechanism of organophosphorus by HOAZF was probed using jar tests in treating a simulated pesticide wastewater containing dichlorvos (DDVP, compared to that by PAZF and polyaluminum chloride. The results displayed that HOAZF having relative lower Zeta potential (compared to PAZF exhibited complex surface morphology composited by Al, Zn and Fe and PAM, forming some new crystalline and amorphous substances different from that in PAZF. HOAZF gave higher removal of organophosphorus and far lower dosage than PAZF, and also posed a suitable wider pH range (pH = 7–12 for HOAZF and 10–11 for PAZF, respectively and suitable wider organophosphorus level range than PAZF. Removing organophosphorus by HOAZF was a simultaneous complex process involving a non-phase transfer of adsorption/bridging/sweeping and a phase transfer of chemical precipitation.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  8. Characterization of the surface organization of nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Cerveau; Corriu; Dabosi; Fischmeister-Lepeytre; Combarieu

    1999-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the surface composition of organic-inorganic hybrid solids obtained by a sol-gel process. Gels of type O(1.5)Si-R-SiO(1. 5), obtained from bis-silylated precursors (R'O)(3)-R-Si(OR')(3) (R' = Me, Et and R = (-CH(2))(n)-, n = 1, 2, 6, 10, 12;--CH=CH-; (-CH(2))(3)NH(CH(2))(3)-; 1, 1'-ferrocenyl; (CH(2))(n)-Ph-(CH(2))(n)- with Ph = 1,4-phenylene and n = 0, 1, 2; Ph = 1,3,5-phenyl and n = 0) were analysed. The results were highly dependent on the nature of the organic group. When the organic group was small or 'rigid', the main peaks detected corresponded to SiOH and SiOR' residual groups. Fragment ions from the organic group were poorly detected in this case. When the organic group was larger and more 'flexible', characteristic mass fragment ions were detected at higher relative intensities, indicative of a different organization of the organic units in the solid. TOF-SIMS clearly showed the differences between the xerogels derived from mono- and bis-silylated organic precursors : the organic group is present at the surface of mono-silylated xerogels, whereas for bis-silylated ones, the organization is dependent on the length and the flexibility of the organic units. These TOF-SIMS results are in agreement with other features already reported. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    Moganty, Surya S.

    2010-10-22

    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  10. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  11. Hexatungstate subunit as building block in the hydrothermal synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials: synthesis, structure and optical properties of Co2(bpy)6 (W6O19)2 (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine)

    Zhang Lijuan; Wei Yongge; Wang Chongchen; Guo Hongyou; Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of WO 3 , CoCl 2 and 4,4'-bipyridine, yields a novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, Co 2 (bpy) 6 (W 6 O 19 ) 2 , at 170 deg. C. X-ray single crystal structure determination reveals a two-dimensional covalent structure belonging to monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/c, with cell parameters a=19.971(4) A, b=11.523(2) A, c=16.138(3) A, β=96.49(3) deg., V=3690.0 A 3 and Z=2. The hexatungstate, [W 6 O 19 ] 2- , acts as a building block in bidentate fashion to bridge the Co(II) centers in the crystal structure. The title compound is found to have an optical energy gap of 2.2 eV from UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite quantum dots with high PLQY and enhanced carrier mobility through crystallinity control by solvent engineering and solid-state ligand exchange.

    Woo Choi, Jin; Woo, Hee Chul; Huang, Xiaoguang; Jung, Wan-Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Jae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lyoul

    2018-05-22

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and charge carrier mobility of organic-inorganic perovskite QDs were enhanced by the optimization of crystallinity and surface passivation as well as solid-state ligand exchange. The crystallinity of perovskite QDs was determined by the Effective solvent field (Esol) of various solvents for precipitation. The solvent with high Esol could more quickly countervail the localized field generated by the polar solvent, and it causes fast crystallization of the dissolved precursor, which results in poor crystallinity. The post-ligand adding process (PLAP) and post-ligand exchange process (PLEP) increase the PLQY of perovskite QDs by reducing non-radiative recombination and the density of surface defect states through surface passivation. Particularly, the post ligand exchange process (PLEP) in the solid-state improved the charge carrier mobility of perovskite QDs in addition to the PLQY enhancement. The ligand exchange with short alkyl chain length ligands could improve the packing density of perovskite QDs in films by reducing the inter-particle distance between perovskite QDs. The maximum hole mobility of 6.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, one order higher than that of pristine QDs without the PLEP, is obtained at perovskite QDs with hexyl ligands. By using PLEP treatment, compared to the pristine device, a 2.5 times higher current efficiency in perovskite QD-LEDs was achieved due to the improved charge carrier mobility and PLQY.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of a new chiral porous hybrid organic-inorganic material based on γ-zirconium phosphates and L-(+)-phosphoserine

    Alhendawi, Hussein M. H.

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, a chiral layered derivative of γ-zirconium phosphate (γ-ZrP) containing L-(+)-phosphoserine (γ-ZrP-PS*) covalently attached to inorganic layers has been prepared by means of topotactic exchange reaction. This organic-inorganic derivative is characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Solid 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectrophotometries and thermal analyses. A maximum level of topotactic replacement of 20% is achieved. Under both the acidic environment of the interlayer region of γ-ZrP and the acidic synthesis conditions, the hydrolysis of the ester bond of PS* is expected to take place to some extent. For this reason, it was impossible to exceed the recent percentage, which in turn reflects the relative moderate stability of the above mentioned bond under these conditions. In order to be more certain with regard to an expected further hydrolysis for this bond after separation, a sample of γ-ZrP-PS* was stored in a desiccator over a saturated solution of BaCl2 (90% relative humidity) for three months, and then the sample re-analyzed once again. Surprisingly, the results show that the sample still keeps almost the same level of exchange (i.e., 20%). Second, it is revealed that the sample almost gives the same spectroscopic and thermal behavior. This could be attributed to the less acidic character of the partially exchanged inorganic layers of the sample in comparison with that of the precursor γ-ZrP. Therefore, the PS* molecules persist and stay there into the interlayer gallery without further hydrolysis.

  14. A rechargeable Na–CO 2 /O 2 battery enabled by stable nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    Xu, Shaomao

    2014-09-10

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We report on rechargeable batteries that use metallic sodium as the anode, a mixture of CO2 and O2 as the active material in the cathode, and an organic-inorganic hybrid liquid as electrolyte. The batteries are attractive among energy storage technologies because they provide a mechanism for simultaneously capturing CO2 emissions while generating electrical energy. Through in and ex situ chemical analysis of the cathode we show that NaHCO3 is the principal discharge product, and that its relative instability permits cell recharging. By means of differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) based on 12C and 13C we further show that addition of as little as 10% of 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide ionic liquid tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles extends the high-voltage stability of the electrolyte by at least 1 V, allowing recharge of the Na-CO2/O2 cells. This journal is

  15. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    Tchalala, Mohammed; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Varadhan, Purushothaman; He, Jr-Hau; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  16. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    Tchalala, Mohammed

    2017-05-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  17. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  18. Lead-free/rare earth-free Green-light-emitting crystal based on organic-inorganic hybrid [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] with high emissive quantum yields and large crystal size

    Cai, Xing-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Yuan; Li, Hong; Huang, Cui-Ping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    With the flourishing development of emitting materials, tremendous technological progress has been accomplished. However, they still face great challenges in convenient economical environmental-friendly large-scale commercial production. Herein we designed this organic-inorganic hybrid lead-free compound, an emerging class of high-efficiency emitting materials, [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] (1), which emits intense greenish photoluminescence with a high emissive quantum yields of 72.26%, was prepared through the convenient economical solution method. What's more, compared with rare earth fluorescent materials (especially green-emitting Tb), Mn material is rich in natural resources and low commercial cost, which would possess an increasingly predominant advantage in the preparation of luminescent materials. Additionally, the exceptional thermal stability as well as the low-cost/convenient preparation process makes crystal 1 with the large size of more than 1 cm to be an ideal technologically important green-emitting material and it would open up a new route towards the commercialization process of lead-free/rare earth-free hybrid emitting materials in display and sensing.

  19. Piperidinium tethered nanoparticle-hybrid electrolyte for lithium metal batteries

    Korf, Kevin S.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the synthesis of novel piperidinium-based ionic liquid tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes and investigate their physical and electrochemical properties. Hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PP-TFSI) were blended with propylene carbonate-1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide (LiTFSI). We employed NMR analysis to confirm the successful creation of the hybrid material. Dielectric and rheological measurements show that these electrolytes exhibit exceptional room-temperature DC ionic conductivity (10-2 to 10 -3 S cm-1) as well as high shear mechanical moduli (105 to 106 Pa). Lithium transference numbers were found to increase with particle loading and to reach values as high as 0.22 at high particle loadings where the particle jam to form a soft glassy elastic medium. Analysis of lithium electrodeposits obtained in the hybrid electrolytes using SEM and EDX spectra show that the SiO2-PP-TFSI nanoparticles are able to smooth lithium deposition and inhibit lithium dendrite proliferation in Li metal batteries. LTOSiO2-PP-TFSI/PC in 1 M LiTFSILi half-cells based on the SiO2-PP-TFSI hybrid electrolytes exhibit attractive voltage profiles and trouble-free extended cycling behavior over more than 1000 cycles of charge and discharge. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  20. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  1. Increasing the operation temperature of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells: From nanocomposites to hybrids

    Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Among the possible systems investigated for energy production with low environmental impact, polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as electrochemical power sources for application in portable technology and electric vehicles. For practical applications, operating FCs at temperatures above 100 °C is desired, both for hydrogen and methanol fuelled cells. When hydrogen is used as fuel, an increase of the cell temperature produces enhanced CO tolerance, faster reaction kinetics, easier water management and reduced heat exchanger requirement. The use of methanol instead of hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles has several practical benefits such as easy transport and storage, but the slow oxidation kinetics of methanol needs operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at intermediate temperatures. For this reason, new membranes are required. Our strategy to achieve the goal of operating at temperatures above 120 °C is to develop organic/inorganic hybrid membranes. The first approach was the use of nanocomposite class I hybrids where nanocrystalline ceramic oxides were added to Nafion. Nanocomposite membranes showed enhanced characteristics, hence allowing their operation up to 130 °C when the cell was fuelled with hydrogen and up to 145 °C in DMFCs, reaching power densities of 350 mW cm -2. The second approach was to prepare Class II hybrids via the formation of covalent bonds between totally aromatic polymers and inorganic clusters. The properties of such covalent hybrids can be modulated by modifying the ratio between organic and inorganic groups and the nature of the chemical components allowing to reach high and stable conductivity values up to 6.4 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C.

  2. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  3. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] show a reversible phase transition detected at T C  = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI 4 ] 2− ) ∞ ) and organic protonated molecules ([C 6 H 11 NH 3 ] + ). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing

  4. Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Near-Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Device Enabled by an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaic Absorber.

    Yu, By Hyeonggeun; Cheng, Yuanhang; Li, Menglin; Tsang, Sai-Wing; So, Franky

    2018-05-09

    Direct integration of an infrared (IR) photodetector with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) enables low-cost, pixel-free IR imaging. However, the operation voltage of the resulting IR-to-visible up-conversion is large because of the series device architecture. Here, we report a low-voltage near-IR (NIR)-to-visible up-conversion device using formamidinium lead iodide as a NIR absorber integrated with a phosphorescent OLED. Because of the efficient photocarrier injection from the hybrid perovskite layer to the OLED, we observed a sub-band gap turn-on of the OLED under NIR illumination. The device showed a NIR-to-visible up-conversion efficiency of 3% and a luminance on/off ratio of 10 3 at only 5 V. Finally, we demonstrate pixel-free NIR imaging using the up-conversion device.

  5. Temperature dependence of the effective mass of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Yang, Haozhi; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The material of methylammonium lead iodide, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), has shown significant promise in solar cell applications. A way to infer the microscopic scattering mechanism(s) in MAPbI3 is through the measured temperature dependence of carrier mobility. To this end, how does the carrier effective mass depend on temperature, m* = m*(T), is a useful information since the mobility is a function of m*. By atomistic first principles, we report the calculated m*(T) due to the thermal expansion of MAPbI3 materials, in the experimentally relevant range of 130 K to room temperature. The calculated results suggest m* = m*(T) to be linear in T. The increase of m* versus temperature is predominantly due to the expansion of the longitudinal atomic spacing that weakens the s/p hybridization between the I/Pb atoms.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material 4-(ammonium methyl) pipyridinium hexachloro stanate (II) trihydrate

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    The present paper undertakes the study of (C6H16N2) SnCl6·3H2O which is a new hybrid compound. It was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder, Hirshfeld surface, Spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence properties. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic Cc space group with cell parameters a = 8.3309(9) Å, b = 22.956(2) Å, c = 9.8381(9) Å, β = 101.334(9) ° and Z = 4. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is performed via Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional network. Hirshfeld surface analysis was used to investigate intermolecular interactions, as well 2D finger plots were conducted to reveal the contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. The X-ray powder is in agreement with the X-ray structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out. Furthermore, the room temperature infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded and analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Solid state 13C NMR spectrum shows four signals, confirming the solid state structure determined by X-ray diffraction. Besides, the thermal analysis studies were performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range between 30 and 450 °C. The optical and PL properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state at room temperature and exhibited three bands at 348 and 401 cm-1 and a strong fluorescence at 480 nm.

  7. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic features, and investigation of bioactive nature of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate

    Gatfaoui, Sofian; Issaoui, Noureddine; Mezni, Ali; Bardak, Fehmi; Roisnel, Thierry; Atac, Ahmet; Marouani, Houda

    2017-12-01

    The novel inorganic-organic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate (TAN) have been elaborated and crystallized to the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and the lattice parameters obtained are a = 8.8517(15) Å, b = 8.3791(15) Å, c = 7.1060(11) Å, β = 103.776(7)°, V = 511.89(15) Å3 and Z = 4. In order to enhance (TAN) on the applied plan, biophysicochemical characterization of the title compound have been obtained with experimentally and theoretically. The crystal structure exposed substantial hydrogen bonding stuck between the protonated 1,2,4-triazole ring and the nitrate forming thus sheets parallel to the plans (-1 0 1). The three-dimensional supramolecular network is formed through the π … π interactions involving heterocyclic rings in these sheets. Assessment of intermolecular contacts in the crystal arrangement was quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis and interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. This compound was also investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, thermal analysis TG-DTA, and DSC. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of TAN were determined via the DPPH radical scavenging, the ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP). Obtained results confirm the functionality of antioxidant potency of TAN. The molecular structure and vibrational spectral analysis of TAN have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular docking behaviors of TAN along with well-known triazole antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) with saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51 (Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase) were investigated. The potent of TAN as an inhibitor was discussed on the basis of noncovalent interaction profile. Furthermore, protonic conduction of this compound has been intentional in the temperature range of 295-373 K.

  8. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  9. 有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究进展%Advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane

    李杰; 王乃鑫; 纪树兰

    2014-01-01

    渗透汽化优先透醇膜分离技术可有效解决燃料乙醇和丁醇生产中发酵产率较低的瓶颈问题,受到广泛关注。膜材料的选择与改性以及膜结构的构建是提高透醇性能的关键。有机/无机杂化膜可以实现有机和无机材料的优势互补,被认为是未来分离膜领域最重要的发展方向之一。本文扼要回顾了用于优先透醇渗透汽化分离的有机无机杂化材料,结合本文作者课题组的研究工作,重点阐述了杂化粒子的结构、粒径、界面相容性、纳微分散、负载量等因素对渗透汽化传递过程的作用机制,进一步对近年来发展的成膜新方法进行了总结。在此基础上,提出今后有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究的主要方向是发展新型纳米级、超疏水并与有机聚合物具有高度界面相容性的无机粒子,以及构建高负载量的纳微结构与超亲醇表面。%Alcohol perm-selective pervaporations membrane could resolve the product inhibition problem effectively for the use of ethanol and butanol recovery from fermentation process. The selection and modification of membrane material,and the construction of membrane structure are the key issues for better pervaporation performance. Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes combine the advantages of both organic polymers and inorganic materials,forming highly promising membranes for separation. This paper reviews the advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane materials. Several issues and research priorities which will impact the pervaporation ability of hybrid membrane for biofuel recovery are identified and discussed,including particle structure,particle size,compatibility and dispersion of inorganic particles in the polymer,and particle loading. Novel preparation methods in recent years are also presented in detail. Finally,the prospect of developing novel particles with nano size

  10. Enhanced supercapacitance of activated vertical graphene nanosheets in hybrid electrolyte

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahoo, Gopinath; Polaki, S. R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kamruddin, M.; Mathews, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors are becoming the workhorse for emerging energy storage applications due to their higher power density and superior cycle life compared to conventional batteries. The performance of supercapacitors depends on the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and interaction between them. Owing to the beneficial interconnected porous structure with multiple conducting channels, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) have proved to be leading supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach based on the combination of surface activation and a new organo-aqueous hybrid electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in H2SO4, to achieve significant enhancement in supercapacitor performance of VGN. As-synthesized VGN exhibits an excellent supercapacitance of 0.64 mF/cm2 in H2SO4. However, identification of a novel electrolyte for performance enhancement is the subject of current research. The present manuscript demonstrates the potential of the hybrid electrolyte in enhancing the areal capacitance (1.99 mF/cm2) with excellent retention (only 5.4% loss after 5000 cycles) and Coulombic efficiency (93.1%). In addition, a five-fold enhancement in the capacitance of VGNs (0.64 to 3.31 mF/cm2) with a reduced internal resistance is achieved by the combination of KOH activation and the hybrid electrolyte.

  11. Crystal structures, Hirshfeld surface analysis, thermal behavior and dielectric properties of a new organic-inorganic hybrid [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8

    Salah, Najet; Hamdi, Besma; Bouzidia, Nabaa; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben

    2017-12-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid sample [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8 has been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis, FT-IR,NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. It is crystallized in the monoclinic system with P21/c space group. The cohesion and stabilization of the structure are provided by the hydrogen bond interactions, (Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Csbnd H⋯Cl), between [C6H10(NH3)2]2+ cation and [Cu2Cl8]2- anion. The Hirschfeld surface analysis has been performed to explore the behavior of these weak interactions. The presence of different functional groups and the nature of their vibrations were identified by FT-IR and Solid state NMR. The thermal study revealed that this compound undergoes two structural phase transitions around 353 and 376 K. Electrical measurements of our compounds have been investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) in the frequency and temperature range 331-399 K and 200 Hz-5 MHz, respectively. The AC conductivity is explained using the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) conduction mechanism. The nature of DC conductivity variation suggests Arrhenius type of electrical conductivity. A relationship between crystal structure and ionic conductivity was established and discussed. Finally, the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity constant are analyzed with the Cole-Cole formalism and the optical spectra indicate that the compound has a direct band gap (3.14 eV) due to direct transition. The wide band gap is due to low defect concentration in the grown crystal, which is more useful for the laser/optical applications.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS. I: SYNTHESIS ...

    a

    Reagents were obtained from commercial sources, and used without further purification. IR ... The structure was solved by direct method MULTAN [16] and refined by a full-matrix least .... consequence of α- and β-addition to the alkene. For the ...

  14. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  15. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  16. A highly conductive, non-flammable polymer–nanoparticle hybrid electrolyte

    Agrawal, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    liquid media as the electrolyte solvent. Remarkably, we also find that even in highly flammable liquid media, the bidisperse nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes can be formulated to exhibit low or no flammability without compromising their favorable room

  17. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S H [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  19. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits.

  20. Enantiomers Recognition of Propranolol Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Open-Tubular MIPs-CEC Column Using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)Propyl Methacrylate as a Cross-Linking Monomer.

    Chen, Guo-Ning; Li, Ning; Luo, Tian; Dong, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS), a bifunctional group compound, was used as a single cross-linking agent to prepare molecular imprinted inorganic-organic hybrid polymers by in situ polymerization for open-tubular capillary electro chromatography (CEC) column. The optimal preparation conditions were: the ratio between template molecule and functional monomer was 1:4; the volume proportion of porogen toluene and methanol was 1:1 and the volume of cross-linking agent γ-MPS was 69 μL. The optimal separation conditions were separation voltage of 15 kV; detection wavelength at 215 nm and background electrolyte composed of 70% acetonitrile/20 mmol/L boric acid salt (pH 6.9). Under the optimized conditions, the propranolol enantiomers can be separated well by CEC. The method is simple and fast, it can be a potentially useful approach for propranolol enantiomers separation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Preparation of novel, nanocomposite stannoxane-based organic-inorganic epoxy polymers containing ionic bonds

    Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Matějka, Libor; Whelan, P.; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pleštil, Josef; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kovářová, Jana; Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 221-237 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701; GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stannoxane * organic-inorganic hybrid * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  2. Research progress in zeolite-based organic-inorganic hybrid membranes%以分子筛为基础的有机-无机杂化膜研究进展

    延檬羽; 王晓东; 黄伟

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the preparation method and the research progress of organic - inorganic hybird membranes, in which the membranes filled with molecular sieves are focused on. The contents included the calssification, the advantages and the preparation methods of hybird membranes. The compatibility and ultra thin separation layer are the hotspot problems.%介绍了目前有机-无机杂化膜制备的常用方法,着重针对分子筛与高聚物共混型的有机-无机杂化膜的研究进展进行论述,包括有机-无机杂化改性的优势、杂化膜的分类及其制备方法等内容.其中,有机介质与无机粒子分子筛间的相容性、杂化膜的分离皮层薄化等是热点问题.

  3. Hybrid Metal/Electrolyte Monolithic Low Temperature SOFCs

    Cochran, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The program objective is to develop SOFCs, operating in the 500-700 degrees C range, based on Metal/Electrolyte square cell honeycomb formed by simultaneous powder extrusion of electrolyte and metal...

  4. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    Lu, Yingying; Das, Shyamal K.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes

  5. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  6. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  7. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH₃NH₃PbI₃ nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb²⁺ sites with Sn²⁺, Sr²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ca²⁺.

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Hernández, Norge Cruz; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; De los Santos, Desireé M; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-04-14

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb(2+) position with Sn(2+), Sr(2+), Cd(2+) and Ca(2+). The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn(2+), Sr(2+) and Cd(2+) did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca(2+), the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr(2+) Ca(2+) Cd(2+) > Sr(2+) for the tetragonal structure and Pb(2+) > Ca(2+) for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn(2+)-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr(2+) and Cd(2+). Furthermore, when Cd(2+) was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca(2+) doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.

  8. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films for flexible memory applications

    Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    We developed a hybrid organic-inorganic resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device that uses a solution-process to overcome the disadvantages of organic and inorganic materials for flexible memory applications. The drawbacks of organic and inorganic materials are a poor electrical characteristics and a lack of flexibility, respectively. We fabricated a hybrid organic-inorganic switching layer of ReRAM by blending HfOx or AlOx solution with PMMA solution and investigated the resistive switching behaviour in Ti/PMMA/Pt, Ti/PMMA-HfOx/Pt and Ti/PMMA-AlOx/Pt structures. It is found that PMMA-HfOx or PMMA-AlOx hybrid switching layer has a larger memory window, more stable durability and retention characteristics, and a better set/reset voltage distribution than PMMA layer. Further, it is confirmed that the flexibility of the PMMA-HfOx and PMMA-AlOx blended films was almost similar to that of the organic PMMA film. Thus, the solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films are considered a promising material for a non-volatile memory device on a flexible or wearable electronic system.

  9. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE PELÍCULAS HÍBRIDAS (ORGÁNICO-INORGÁNICO SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE 304 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Films (Organic-Inorganic on Stainless Steel 304

    Jorge H. Bautista-Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the creation of ceramic films of the SiO2-TiO2 Organic Polymer hybrid system from Tetraethyl-Orthosilicate (Si (OC2H54 and Titanium Tetrabutoxide (Ti(OBu4 synthesized through the sol-gel method in several volumetric concentrations of precursors. This hybrid system was deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates through the dip-coating technique. Feasibility for obtaining hybrid and homogeneous coatings on this type of substrate and evaluating the surface properties was studies. For such a purpose, the coating microhardness and adhesion were studies. Additionally, the film surface was characterized through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The study concluded that characteristics of films change in function of the volumetric amount of precursors used for creating films.Este trabajo muestra la conformación de películas cerámicas del sistema híbrido SiO2-TiO2-Polímero Orgánico, a partir de tetraetil-ortosilicato (Si (OC2H54, y tetra-butoxido de titanio (Ti(OBu4 y sintetizado por el método sol-gel en diferentes concentraciones volumétricas de los precursores. Este sistema híbrido se depositó sobre sustratos de acero inoxidable AISI 304 mediante la técnica de inmersión (dip-coating. Se estudió la viabilidad de obtener recubrimientos híbridos homogéneos sobre este tipo de sustrato y evaluar las propiedades superficiales. Para tal efecto, se estudió microdureza y adhesión del recubrimiento. Adicionalmente, se caracterizó la superficie de las películas por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Del estudio se concluye que las características de las películas cambian en función de la cantidad volumétrica de los precursores utilizados en la conformación de las mismas.

  11. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  12. A highly conductive, non-flammable polymer–nanoparticle hybrid electrolyte

    Agrawal, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report on the physical properties of lithium-ion conducting nanoparticle-polymer hybrid electrolytes created by dispersing bidisperse mixtures of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in an aprotic liquid host. At high particle contents, we find that the ionic conductivity is a non-monotonic function of the fraction of larger particles xL in the mixtures, and that for the nearly symmetric case xL ≈ 0.5 (i.e. equal volume fraction of small and large particles), the room temperature ionic conductivity is nearly ten-times larger than in similar nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of the pure small (xL ≈ 0) or large (xL ≈ 1) particle components. Complementary trends are seen in the activation energy for ion migration and effective tortuosity of the electrolytes, which both exhibit minima near xL ≈ 0.5. Characterization of the electrolytes by dynamic rheology reveals that the maximum conductivity coincides with a distinct transition in soft glassy properties from a jammed to partially jammed and back to jammed state, as the fraction of large particles is increased from 0 to 1. This finding implies that the conductivity enhancement arises from purely entropic loss of correlation between nanoparticle centers arising from particle size dispersity. As a consequence of these physics, it is now possible to create hybrid electrolytes with MPa elastic moduli and mS cm-1 ionic conductivity levels at room temperature using common aprotic liquid media as the electrolyte solvent. Remarkably, we also find that even in highly flammable liquid media, the bidisperse nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes can be formulated to exhibit low or no flammability without compromising their favorable room temperature ionic conductivity and mechanical properties.

  13. Conductivity and properties of polysiloxane-polyether cluster-LiTFSI networks as hybrid polymer electrolytes

    Boaretto, Nicola; Joost, Christine; Seyfried, Mona; Vezzù, Keti; Di Noto, Vito

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the synthesis and the properties of a series of polymer electrolytes, composed of a hybrid inorganic-organic matrix doped with LiTFSI. The matrix is based on ring-like oligo-siloxane clusters, bearing pendant, partially cross-linked, polyether chains. The dependency of the thermo-mechanic and of the transport properties on several structural parameters, such as polyether chains' length, cross-linkers' concentration, and salt concentration is studied. Altogether, the materials show good thermo-mechanical and electrochemical stabilities, with conductivities reaching, at best, 8·10-5 S cm-1 at 30 °C. In conclusion, the cell performances of one representative sample are shown. The scope of this report is to analyze the correlations between structure and properties in networked and hybrid polymer electrolytes. This could help the design of optimized polymer electrolytes for application in lithium metal batteries.

  14. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  15. Epoxy-silica hybrid organic–inorganic electrolytes with a high Li-ion conductivity

    Vélez, J.F.; Procaccini, R.A.; Aparicio, M.; Mosa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolytes were prepared by co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-glycidoxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) doped with lithium acetate as self-supported materials and thin-films. The effects of the relative molar content of LiAc on the physicochemical properties of electrolytes, such as morphology, thermal, chemical and electrochemical properties were investigated. Two and four probes test cells were designed for comparative studies of ionic conductivity of hybrid electrolytes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Similar ionic conductivities were obtained using both measurement methods, reaching a maximum ionic conductivity value of around 10 −6 S/cm at 25 °C. The conductivity mechanism presents Arrehenius behavior with the increase of the temperature from 25 °C to 120 °C. The electrochemical stability window is found to be in the range of 0–5 V, which ensures that hybrid organic–inorganic materials are potential electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  16. Preparation and application of a magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid ...

    chemsci

    Catalysts and Organic Synthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology ... disulfonate,18 nanocrystalline magnesium oxide,19 ..... arable γ-Fe2O3/N, Fe codoped TiO2 heterojunction for.

  17. Hybrid organic-inorganic system for producing biofuels

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Singer, Steven W.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Beller, Harry R.; Mueller, Jana

    2017-10-03

    The present invention provides for a system for converting CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 to one or more biologically derived compounds. In some embodiments, the system comprises a host cell comprising one or more nucleic acids encoding genes for a recombinant surface display protein which is capable of tethering an electrocatalyst molecule, such as a cobalt(II) complex supported by tetradentate polypyridyl ligand 2-bis(2-pyridyl)(methoxy)methyl-6-pyridylpyridine (PY4), and enzymes for synthesizing a biologically derived compound, such as an alkane, alcohol, fatty acid, ester, or isoprenoid.

  18. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  19. Photostability of 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Yi Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH32PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their molecular components: not only the inorganic part, but also the chemical structure of the organic moieties play an important role in bleaching and photo-chemical reaction processes which tend to destroy perovskites luminescent framework. In addition, we find the spatial arrangement in crystal also influences the photostability course. Following these trends, we propose a plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of the films, and also introduced options for optimized stability.

  20. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials. I: Synthesis, characterization ...

    Hydrosilylation of 2-chloroethylvinyl ether by octahydridosilsesilsesquioxane catalyzed by hexachloroplatinic acid gives a quantitative yield of 3 as white crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis of Si8O12(CH2CH2OCH2CH2Cl)83 revealed that it is thermally reasonably stable. Spectroscopic data and a crystal structure ...

  1. Hybrid Metal/Electrolyte Monolithic Low Temperature SOFCs

    2004-10-15

    ScSz system. • Modeling and simulation of steady state heat transfer and temperature distribution in externally insulated hybrid LCA fuel cell stack...amorphous LSM powder derived from the GNP was then annealed at 800oC for 4 hours to form the perovskite structure, as determined by X-ray diffraction...analysis. The perovskite LSM powder was then ball milled with YSZ in weight ratio of LSM:YSZ= 60:40, together with proper amount of an organic

  2. Optimization of the transport and mechanical properties of polysiloxane/polyether hybrid polymer electrolytes

    Boaretto, Nicola; Horn, Theresa; Popall, Michael; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-mechanical properties of networked, polysiloxane/polyether-based, hybrid polymer electrolytes are optimized with the aim of enabling room-temperature operation in lithium metal-polymer batteries. The structural parameters of the electrolytes (polyether chain length, cross-linking and salt concentration) are varied in order to get the best tradeoff between conductivity and mechanical stability. The optimized material has a conductivity close to 1.5·10 −4 S cm −1 at room temperature and a shear storage modulus of 50 kPa up to 100 °C. The effect of TiO 2 nano-particles is also studied with the results showing an overall ambiguous effect on the materials properties. Finally, one of the materials with the highest conductivity is used as electrolyte in a Li/LiFePO 4 cell. This cell has good rate capability and cyclability due to the high conductivity of the electrolyte. However, the high conductivity is reached at expense of the mechanical stability and the resulting electrolyte proves to be too weak to work as an efficient barrier against lithium dendrite growth.

  3. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  4. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Zachman, Michael J. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Choudhury, Snehashis [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Wei, Shuya [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Ma, Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Yang, Yuan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Kourkoutis, Lena F. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 USA; Archer, Lynden A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm-2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  5. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm−2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  6. A molecular hybrid polyoxometalate-organometallic moieties and its relevance to supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes

    Chinnathambi, Selvaraj; Ammam, Malika

    2015-06-01

    Supercapacitors operating in physiological electrolytes are of great relevance for both their environmentally friendly aspect as well as the possibility to be employed for powering implantable microelectronic devices using directly biological fluids as electrolytes. Polyoxometalate (POMs) have been proven to be useful for supercapacitors in acidic media. However, in neutral pH, POMs are usually not stable. One relevant alternative is to stabilize POMs by pairing them with organic moieties to form hybrids. In this study, we combined K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O (P2Mo18) with Ru(bpy)3Cl2.6H2O (Ru(bpy)). The synthesis was carried out with and without the mild reducing agent KI. The hybrids were characterized by CHN analysis, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. CHN elemental analysis revealed that one mole [P2Mo18O62]6- is paired with 3 mol [Ru(bpy)3]2+ to form [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. With KI present, [P2Mo18O62]6- is linked to 3.33 mol to yield [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O. Excess of Ru(bpy) in [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O was further confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. In turn, hybrid composition is found to strongly influence the supercapacitor behavior. The hybrid rich in Ru(bpy) is found to perform better for supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes. 125 F g-1 and 68 F g-1 are the capacitance values obtained with [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O and [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O, respectively. In terms of specific energy densities, 3.5 Wh kg-1 and 2 Wh kg-1 were obtained for both hybrid simultaneously. The difference in supercapacitor performance between both hybrids is also noticed in impedance spectroscopy which showed that [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O has lower electron transfer resistance if compared to [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. Finally, if compared of parent K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O, the stability of both hybrids is found to be highly improved.

  7. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH){sub 2} electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Chiaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu [Kurashiki Research Laboratory, Kuraray Co., Ltd., 2045-1 Sakazu, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-8691 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH){sub 2} positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities. (author)

  8. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH) 2 electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu; Iwakura, Chiaki

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH) 2 positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities.

  9. Electron-Rotor Interaction in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effects.

    Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao

    2016-08-04

    We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.

  10. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  11. Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites.

    Chen, Tianran; Chen, Wei-Liang; Foley, Benjamin J; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob P C; Ko, J Y Peter; Brown, Craig M; Harriger, Leland W; Zhang, Depei; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Chang, Yu-Ming; Choi, Joshua J; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2017-07-18

    Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of organic cation molecules can be a major contribution to the prolonged carrier lifetime. Our results reveal that the band-edge carrier lifetime increases when the system enters from a phase with lower rotational entropy to another phase with higher entropy. These results imply that the recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes is suppressed by the screening, leading to the formation of polarons and thereby extending the lifetime. Thus, searching for organic-inorganic perovskites with high rotational entropy over a wide range of temperature may be a key to achieve superior solar cell performance.

  12. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  13. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  14. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  15. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  16. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran; Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng; Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C 8 -BTBT) and n-type MoS 2 . We find that few-layer C 8 -BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS 2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C 8 -BTBT/MoS 2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10 5 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents

  17. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    He, Daowei; Pan, Yiming; Nan, Haiyan; Gu, Shuai; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Baigeng; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2015-11-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and n-type MoS2. We find that few-layer C8-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C8-BTBT/MoS2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 105 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  18. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xinran, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chai, Yang [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-11-02

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C{sub 8}-BTBT) and n-type MoS{sub 2}. We find that few-layer C{sub 8}-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS{sub 2} by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C{sub 8}-BTBT/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10{sup 5} at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  19. Role of surfactant on thermoelectric behaviors of organic-inorganic composites

    Shin, Sunmi; Roh, Jong Wook; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic composites have recently attracted intensive interests as a promising candidate for flexible thermoelectric (TE) devices using inherently soft polymers as well as for increasing the degree of freedom to control TE properties. Experimentally, however, enhanced TE performance in hybrid composites has not been commonly observed, primarily due to inhomogeneous mixing between the inorganic and organic components which leads to limited electrical conduction in the less conductive component and consequently a low power factor in the composites compared to their single-component counterparts. In this study, we investigated the effects of different surfactants on the uniformity of mixing and the TE behaviors of the hybrid composites consisting of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (BST) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). We found that compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, which is the most widely used surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100) can lead to homogenous dispersion of BST in PEDOT:PSS. By systematically studying the effects of the surfactant concentration, we can attribute the better mixing capability of TX-100 to its non-ionic property, which results in homogenous mixing with a lower critical micelle concentration. Consequently, we observed simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the BST/PEDOT:PSS composites with the TX-100 surfactant.

  20. Organic-inorganic semiconductor devices and 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride: an early history of organic electronics

    Forrest, S R

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration, over 20 years ago, of an organic-inorganic heterojunction (OI HJ) device along with investigations of the growth and physical properties of the archetypal crystalline molecular organic semiconductor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride are discussed. Possible applications of OI HJ devices are introduced and the dramatic change in conductive properties of these materials when exposed to high-energy ion beams is described. The past and future prospects for hybrid organic-on-inorganic semiconductor structures for use in electronic and photonic applications are also presented

  1. Structural and optical studies of local disorder sensitivity in natural organic-inorganic self-assembled semiconductors

    Vijaya Prakash, G; Pradeesh, K [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Ratnani, R; Saraswat, K [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, MDS University, Ajmer (India); Light, M E [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Baumberg, J J, E-mail: prakash@physics.iitd.ac.i [Nanophotonic Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-21

    The structural and optical spectra of two related lead iodide (PbI) based self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors are compared. During the synthesis, depending on the bridging of organic moiety intercalated between the PbI two-dimensional planes, different crystal structures are produced. These entirely different networks show different structural and optical features, including excitonic bandgaps. In particular, the modified organic environment of the excitons is sensitive to the local disorder both in single crystal and thin film forms. Such information is vital for incorporating these semiconductors into photonic device architectures.

  2. Functionalized carbon nanotube based hybrid electrochemical capacitors using neutral bromide redox-active electrolyte for enhancing energy density

    Tang, Xiaohui; Lui, Yu Hui; Chen, Bolin; Hu, Shan

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid electrochemical capacitor (EC) with enhanced energy density is realized by integrating functionalized carbon nanotube (FCNT) electrodes with redox-active electrolyte that has a neutral pH value (1 M Na2SO4 and 0.5 M KBr mixed aqueous solution). The negative electrode shows an electric double layer capacitor-type behavior. On the positive electrode, highly reversible Br-/Br3- redox reactions take place, presenting a battery-type behavior, which contributes to increase the capacitance of the hybrid cell. The voltage window of the whole cell is extended up to 1.5 V because of the high over-potentials of oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions in the neutral electrolyte. Compared with raw CNT, the FCNT has better wettability in the aqueous electrolyte and contributes to increase the electric double layer capacitance of the cell. As a result, the maximum energy density of 28.3 Wh kg-1 is obtained from the hybrid EC at 0.5 A g-1 without sacrificing its power density, which is around 4 times larger than that of the electrical double layer capacitor constructed by FCNT electrodes and 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the discharge capacity retained 86.3% of its initial performance after 10000 cycles of galvanostatic charge and discharge test (10 A/g), suggesting its long life cycle even at high current loading.

  3. Hybrid capacitors utilizing halogen-based redox reactions at interface between carbon positive electrode and aqueous electrolytes

    Yamazaki, Shigeaki; Ito, Tatsuya; Murakumo, Yuka; Naitou, Masashi; Shimooka, Toshiharu; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    We propose novel hybrid capacitors (HCs) with electrolyte-involved redox reactions of bromide or iodide species by pretreatment of an activated carbon positive electrode. The treatment is simple; impregnation of pores at an activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) as a positive electrode with bromine- or iodine-containing water before cell assembly. The treated positive electrode is applied to a HC cell with a non-treated negative electrode of ACFC and its electrochemical performance is investigated by galvanostatic cycling and leakage current tests. Few studies on such "electrolytic" charge storage systems have provided acceptable capacitor performance because of inevitable self-discharge caused by diffusion of charged species form an electrode to the other one through an electrolyte. Nevertheless, our electrolyte-redox-based HCs show excellent performance without undesirable diffusion of charged species. Moreover, the present HC utilizing a bromide redox system fulfills a practical cell voltage of 1.8 V in spite of an aqueous electrolyte system. This high voltage provides excellent energy density, which is 5 times higher than that in a conventional aqueous electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), and 1.2 times higher even than that in a 2.7 V-class non-aqueous EDLC, while keeping high charge-discharge rate capability.

  4. Nafion-TiO{sub 2} hybrid membranes for medium temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs)

    Sacca, A.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia Sopra Contesse, 98126 Messina (Italy); D' Epifanio, A.; Licoccia, S.; Traversa, E. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sala, E.; Traini, F.; Ornelas, R. [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Via Bistolfi 35, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    A nanocomposite re-cast Nafion hybrid membrane containing titanium oxide calcined at T=400{sup o}C as an inorganic filler was developed in order to work at medium temperature in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) maintaining a suitable membrane hydration under fuel cell operative critical conditions. Nanometre TiO{sub 2} powder was synthesized via a sol-gel procedure by a rapid hydrolysis of Ti(OiPr){sub 4}. The membrane was prepared by mixing a Nafion-dimethylacetammide (DMAc) dispersion with a 3wt% of TiO{sub 2} powder and casting the mixture by Doctor Blade technique. The resulting film was characterised in terms of water uptake and ion exchange capacity (IEC). The membrane was tested in a single cell from 80 to 130{sup o}C in humidified H{sub 2}/air. The obtained results were compared with the commercial Nafion115 and a home-made recast Nafion membrane. Power density values of 0.514 and 0.256Wcm{sup -2} at 0.56V were obtained at 110 and 130{sup o}C, respectively, for the composite Nafion-Titania membrane. Preliminary tests carried out using steam reforming (SR) synthetic fuel at about 110{sup o}C have highlighted the benefit of the inorganic filler introduction when PEFC operates at medium temperature and with processed hydrogen. (author)

  5. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  6. Design and electrical characterization of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A., E-mail: aaaalghamdi4@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nawar, Ahmed M.; El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Ameer [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully fabricated a Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction. • The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. • The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. • Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior. • Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%. - Abstract: Hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction of nanocrystalline Anthracene and p-Si was fabricated by using a conventional thermal evaporation technique. The crystal and molecular structure of the Anthracene thin films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of the Anthracene/p-Si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al heterojunction were investigated at room temperature (293 K). The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. The ideality factor and barrier height values of the Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al diode were obtained to be 1.1 and 0.464 eV, respectively. The dependence of capacitance-voltage (C{sup -2}-V) for the device Anthracene/p-Si was found to be almost linear. Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%.

  7. Organic-inorganic composite materials for high-performance supercapacitors

    Wu, N.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the use of super-absorbent polymers (SAP) to increase the geometric capacitance density (GCD) of supercapacitor metal current collectors. A manganese (MnO{sub 2}) supercapacitor with a polyacrylate (PAA) polymer was characterized in order to demonstrate the SAP's ability to facilitate electrolyte distribution throughout the active layer due to its electrolyte-absorbing and swelling behaviour. The study demonstrated that the capacitance of the MnO{sub 2} remained unchanged over a wide range of heavy-active material loadings and current rates. Placing the PAA throughout the entire active layer magnified interactions between the PAA and MnO{sub 2}, and enhanced the capacitance of individual MnO{sub 2} particles. GCD values were higher than values obtained in the literature. Results suggested that the same method can be used in other SAP supercapacitor systems.

  8. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  9. Effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of a hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cell

    Suri, Poonam; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2007-03-23

    The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell depends on the number of factors such as impedance due to anions in the electrolytes, oxidation-reduction process of anions and size of cations of the electrolyte. This paper reports the effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cells based on Eosin Y dye. The size of the cations has been varied by choosing different electrolytes such as LiBr+Br{sub 2}, LiI+I{sub 2}, tetrapropylammonium iodide +I{sub 2} in mixed solvent of acetronitrile and ethylene carbonate. The impedance of anions has been determined by electrochemical impedance spectra. It is observed that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} offers high impedance as compared to I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple. The oxidation-reduction reactions of electrolytes are measured by linear sweep voltammogram. It is found that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} is more suitable than an I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of higher open-circuit photovoltage production and higher overall energy conversion efficiency. This is attributed to more positive potential of the dye sensitizer than that of Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -}. The gain in V{sub oc} was due to the enlarged energy level difference between the redox potential of the electrolyte and the Fermi level (E{sub f}) of ZnO and the suppressed charge recombination as well. (author)

  10. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Zachman, Michael J.; Choudhury, Snehashis; Wei, Shuya; Ma, Lin; Yang, Yuan; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long

  11. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Krivovichev, S.V. [Saint Petersburg State Univ., Dept. of Crystallography, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.85}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}] (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.50}(H{sub 2}O) (2), and [C{sub 8}H{sub 20}N]{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (H{sub 2}O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO{sub 7} and SeO{sub 4} polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}NH{sub 3}]{sup 2+} molecules, H{sub 2}O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups but is based upon alternating [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}CH{sub 3}]{sup +}. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in

  12. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten W; Thygesen, Kristian S

    2016-11-03

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 MX 2 Y 2 , where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant.

  13. Influence of image charge effect on exciton fine structure in an organic-inorganic quantum well material

    Takagi, Hidetsugu; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sato, Mikio; Takeoka, Yuko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated experimentally excitonic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid multi quantum well crystals, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4} and (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}−C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4}, by measuring photoluminescence, reflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectra. In these materials, the excitonic binding energies are enhanced not only by quantum confinement effect (QCE) but also by image charge effect (ICE), since the dielectric constant of the barrier layers is much smaller than that of the well layers. By comparing the 1s-exciton and 2s-exciton energies, we have investigated the influence of ICE with regard to the difference of the Bohr radius.

  14. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.

  15. Organic-inorganic perovskites containing trivalent metal halide layers: the templating influence of the organic cation layer.

    Mitzi, D B

    2000-12-25

    Thin sheetlike crystals of the metal-deficient perovskites (H2AEQT)M2/3I4 [M = Bi or Sb; AEQT = 5,5"'-bis-(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene] were formed from slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solutions containing the bismuth(III) or antimony(III) iodide and AEQT.2HI salts. Each structure was refined in a monoclinic (C2/m) subcell, with the lattice parameters a = 39.712(13) A, b = 5.976(2) A, c = 6.043(2) A, beta = 92.238(5) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Bi and a = 39.439(7) A, b = 5.952(1) A, c = 6.031(1) A, beta = 92.245(3) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Sb. The trivalent metal cations locally adopt a distorted octahedral coordination, with M-I bond lengths ranging from 3.046(1) to 3.218(3) A (3.114 A average) for M = Bi and 3.012(1) to 3.153(2) A (3.073 A average) for M = Sb. The new organic-inorganic hybrids are the first members of a metal-deficient perovskite family consisting of (Mn+)2/nV(n-2)/nX4(2-) sheets, where V represents a vacancy (generally left out of the formula) and the metal cation valence, n, is greater than 2. The organic layers in the AEQT-based organic-inorganic hybrids feature edge-to-face aromatic interactions among the rigid, rodlike quaterthiophene moieties, which may help to stabilize the unusual metal-deficient layered structures.

  16. Supercapacitive properties of hybrid films of manganese dioxide and polyaniline based on active carbon in organic electrolyte

    Zou, Wu-yuan; Wang, Wei; He, Ben-lin; Sun, Ming-liang; Yin, Yan-sheng [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report about supercapacitive performance of hybrid film of manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) and polyaniline (PANI) in an organic electrolyte (1.0 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile). In this work, a high surface area and conductivity of active carbon (AC) electrode is used as a substrate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} film electro-codeposition. The redox properties of the coated PANI/MnO{sub 2} thin film exhibit ideal capacitive behaviour in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/AN. The specific capacitance (SC) of PANI/MnO{sub 2} hybrid film is as high as 1292 F g{sup -1} and maintains about 82% of the initial capacitance after 1500 cycles at a current density of 4.0 mA cm{sup -2}, and the coulombic efficiency ({eta}) is higher than 95%. An asymmetric capacitor has been developed with the PANI/MnO{sub 2}/AC positive and pure AC negative electrodes, which is able to deliver a specific energy as high as 61 Wh kg{sup -1} at a specific power of 172 W kg{sup -1} in the range of 0-2.0 V. These results indicate that the organic electrolyte is a promising candidate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} material application in supercapacitors. (author)

  17. Magnetic properties of Fe-doped organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Silva, N. J. O.; Amaral, V. S.; Carlos, L. D.; de Zea Bermudez, V.

    2003-05-01

    We present a magnetic study of Fe-doped diureasils (siloxane-based networks to which poly(ethylene oxide)-based chains are grafted by urea cross linkages doped with Fe(II) or Fe(III) ions. Structural studies show that the Fe(II) ions interact mainly with the organic chain, whereas the incorporation of Fe(III) leads to the formation of iron-based nanoclusters, with radius increasing from 20 to 40 Å. Fe(II)-doped samples behave as simple paramagnets, with μeff=5.32μB. Fe(III)-doped hybrids present antiferromagnetic interactions, with TN increasing with Fe(III) concentration up to 13.6 K for 6% doping. Thermal irreversibility was observed below ˜40 K and is stronger for higher concentrations. The coercive fields (HC) are of the order of 1000 Oe at 5 K. Hysteresis cycles are shifted to negative fields, revealing the presence of exchange anisotropy interactions with exchange fields (HE) of the order of 100 Oe. Both fields decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. We analyze this behavior in terms of the contribution of surface spin disorder to exchange anisotropy.

  18. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  19. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  20. Reactivity III: An Advanced Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity III is a new course that presents chemical reactions from the domains of organic, inorganic, and biochemistry that are not readily categorized by electrophile-nucleophile interactions. Many of these reactions involve the transfer of a single electron, in either an intermolecular fashion in the case of oxidation/reduction reactions or an…

  1. Control of the interphase interaction and morphology in the organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites

    Matějka, Libor; Murias, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2010), s. 45-50 ISSN 1934-8959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymer * interphase interaction * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.davidpublishing.com

  2. Aging investigations of a lithium-ion battery electrolyte from a field-tested hybrid electric vehicle

    Grützke, Martin; Kraft, Vadim; Hoffmann, Björn; Klamor, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Kwade, Arno; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The electrolyte of a used lithium-ion battery from a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was investigated. The liquid electrolyte was collected through the pressure valve of these 5 Ah cells. It consists of (29.8 ± 0.2) wt.% dimethyl carbonate (DMC), (21.7 ± 0.1) wt.% ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), (30.3 ± 0.3) wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC) and (2.2 ± 0.1) wt.% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) which were identified with GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID. Li+ (1.29 ± 0.04) mol L-1 and PF6- were determined with IC as the main ionic species in the solution. Furthermore, BF4- was clearly identified with IC-ESI-MS, IC-ICP-MS and 11B NMR and quantified to a concentration of (120.8 ± 8.3) mg L-1 with ICP-OES. The presence of POF3 (detected with GC-MS), F-, PO2F2-, HPO3F- and H2PO4- (determined with IC-ESI-MS) can be attributed to the reaction of the conducting salt LiPF6 via PF5 with traces of water. HPO3F- and H2PO4- could only be observed in cells which were opened in a laboratory hood under exposure of air humidity. This experiment was done to simulate escaping electrolyte from an HEV battery pack. Furthermore, several alkyl phosphates (identified with GC-MS and IC-ESI-MS) are present in the solution due to further reaction of the different fluorinated phosphates with organic carbonates.

  3. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    Kurc, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • The TiO 2 -SiO 2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO 2 -SiO 2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  5. Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon with a high surface area, synthesized through organic-inorganic coassembly, and its application in supercapacitors.

    Song, Yanfang; Li, Li; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Congxiao; Guo, Zaipin; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-07-21

    A new nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-doped OMC) is synthesized by using an organic-inorganic coassembly method, in which resol is used as the carbon precursor, dicyandiamide as the nitrogen precursor, silicate oligomers as the inorganic precursors, and F127 as the soft template. The N-doped OMC possesses a surface area as high as 1374 m(2)  g(-1) and a large pore size of 7.4 nm. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the obtained carbon exhibits excellent cycling stability and delivers a reversible specific capacitance as high as 308 F g(-1) in 1 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) aqueous electrolyte, of which 58 % of the capacity is due to pseudo-capacitance. The large specific capacitance is attributed to proper pore size distributions, large surface area, and high nitrogen content. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  7. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

    Takayoshi Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  9. Design of bone-integrating organic-inorganic composite suitable for bone repair.

    Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Several ceramics exhibit specific biological affinity, i.e. direct bone integration, when implanted in bony defects. They are called bioactive ceramics and utilized as important bone substitutes. However, there is limitation on clinical application, because of their inappropriate mechanical properties such as high Young's modulus and low fracture toughness. Novel bioactive materials exhibiting high machinability and flexibility have been desired in medical fields. Mixing bioactive ceramic powders and organic polymers have developed various organic-inorganic composites. Their mechanical property and bioactivity are mainly governed by the ceramics content. It is known that bioactive ceramics integrate with the bone through bone-like hydroxyapatite layer formed on their surfaces by chemical reaction with body fluid. This is triggered by a catalytic effect of various functional groups. On the basis of these facts, novel bioactive organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been developed. In these composites, inorganic components effective for triggering the hydroxyapatite nucleation are dispersed in polymer matrix at molecular level. Concept of the organic-inorganic composite is also applicable for providing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement with the bioactivity.

  10. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  11. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Iamamoto; Sacco; Biazzotto; Ciuffi; Serra

    2000-01-01

    New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica-template are compared.

  12. ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON OCTA(AMINOPHENYL)SILSESQUIOXANE

    Hai-bo Fan; Rong-jie Yang; Xiang-mei Li

    2013-01-01

    Octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) was used as the curing agent of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin.A study on comparison of DGEBA/OAPS with DGEBA/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) epoxy resins was achieved.Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the curing reaction and its kinetics,and the glass transition of DGEBA/OAPS.Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate thermal decomposition of the two kinds of epoxy resins.The reactions between amino groups and epoxy groups were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of the two epoxy resins.The results indicated that OAPS had very good compatibility with DGEBA in molecular level,and could form a transparent DGEBA/OAPS resin.The curing reaction of the DGEBA/OAPS prepolymer could occur under low temperatures compared with DGEBA/DDS.The DGEBA/OAPS resin didn't exhibit glass transition,but the DGEBA/DDS did,which meant that the large cage structure of OAPS limited the motion of chains between the cross-linking points.Measurements of the contact angle indicated that the DGEBA/OAPS showed larger angles with water than the DGEBA/DDS resin.Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of OAPS into epoxy system resulted in low mass loss rate and high char yield,but its initial decomposition temperature seemed to be lowered.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructured materials for photovoltaics and solar fuels

    Lai, Lai-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen economy aiming to use hydrogen as a new potential fuel for motive power has been proposed as a promising model for this century. However, until now most of the H2 in use still comes from steam reforming which produces H2 via steam reaction at high temperature with fossil fuel. Solar

  14. PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices

    2011-01-03

    per square) were cleaned via sequential ultrasonic rinses in detergent solution, deionized water, and acetone and then boiled in isopropanol for 5 min...TPD into the blue QDs due to the increased potential barrier at this junction (see band lineup in inset to Figure 4) or to the reduced tunneling rate

  15. Influence of crosslinker structure on performance of functionalised organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel coating

    Vasiljević, J.; Zorko, M.; Štular, D.; Tomšič, B.; Jerman, I.; Orel, B.; Medved, J.; Simončič, B.

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the influence of the co-condensation of the three different organofunctional trialkoxysilane precursors with two different crosslinkers, i.e. tetraethoxysilane or organocyclotetrasiloxane on the performance and the washing fastness of this multicomponent multifunctional sol-gel coating on cellulose fibres. To this aim, a three-component equimolar sol mixture (MC), which included 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (SiF), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (SiQ) and P,P-diphenyl-N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) phosphinic amide (SiP) in combination with two different concentrations of TEOS (T and 3T) or organocyclotetrasiloxane 2,4,6,8-tetrakis(2-(diethoxy(methyl)silyl)ethyl)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (T4) as crosslinkers, was applied to the cotton fibres by a pad-dry-cure process. The functional properties of the coated samples before and after repeated washing were investigated by the water θ (W) and n-hexadecane θ (C16) static contact angle as well as water sliding (roll-off) (α) angle measurements. The inclusion of both TEOS and T4 into the MC sol increased the hydrophobic affect and simultaneously decreased the oleophobic effect of the MC coating. These phenomena were more pronounced for higher concentration of TEOS and T4 crosslinker. The inclusion of T4 into the MC sol improved the coating washing fastness to a significantly higher extent than the inclusion of TEOS, with respect to the applied concentrations.

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Interfacial Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Yang, Hao; Cong, Shan; Lou, Yanhui; Han, Liang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu

    2017-09-20

    4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) is an efficient electron transport and hole blocking material in organic photoelectric devices. Here, we report cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) doped Bphen as cathode interfacial layer in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Investigation finds that introducing Cs 2 CO 3 suppresses the crystallization of Bphen and benefits a smooth interface contact between the perovskite and electrode, resulting in the decrease in carrier recombination and the perovskite degradation. In addition, the matching energy level of Bphen film in the PSCs effectively blocks the holes diffusion to cathode. The resultant power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieves as high as 17.03% in comparison with 12.67% of reference device without doping. Besides, experiments also demonstrate the stability of PSCs have large improvement because the suppressed crystallization of Bphen by doping Cs 2 CO 3 as a superior barrier layer blocks the Ag atom and surrounding moisture access to the vulnerable perovskite layer.

  17. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu; Haque, Mohammed; Parida, Manas R.; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Tao; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed

  18. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  19. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on MCM-41 and Its Applications

    Sana M. Alahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the covalent attachment of three different calix[4]arenes (calix[4]arene (C4, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (C4S, and p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (PC4 to MCM-41, using a three-step modification process. 3-Chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (ClPTS was first attached to the mesoporous silica surface and subsequently converted to amides via the reaction with toluene diisocyanate (TDI. Finally, calix[4]arene derivatives attached to the isocyanate ending remained available on toluene di-iso-cyanate. Changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous silica caused by the chemical modification were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA, and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verify that the calix[4]arene derivatives are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by the X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis. These materials were then used to evaluate the sorption properties of some organotins compounds (Tributyltin (TBT, Triphenyltin (TPT, and Dibutyltin (DBT.

  20. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Ngo, Quynh P; Cefarin, Nicola; Gardner, Kira L; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V; Drisdell, Walter S; Javey, Ali; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2018-06-13

    Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long-term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photoinduced halide demixing using in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of composition and phase changes in CH(NH 2 ) 2 CsPb-halide (FACsPb-) and CH 3 NH 3 Pb-halide (MAPb-) perovskites upon illumination, thereby providing insights into why FACs-perovskites are less prone to halide demixing than MA-perovskites. We find that halide demixing occurs in both materials. However, the I-rich domains formed during demixing accumulate strain in FACsPb-perovskites but readily relax in MA-perovskites. The accumulated strain energy is expected to act as a stabilizing force against halide demixing and may explain the higher Br composition threshold for demixing to occur in FACsPb-halides. In addition, we find that while halide demixing leads to a quenching of the high-energy photoluminescence emission from MA-perovskites, the emission is enhanced from FACs-perovskites. This behavior points to a reduction of nonradiative recombination centers in FACs-perovskites arising from the demixing process and buildup of strain. FACsPb-halide perovskites exhibit excellent intrinsic material properties with photoluminescence quantum yields that are comparable to MA-perovskites. Because improved stability is achieved without sacrificing electronic properties, these compositions are better candidates for photovoltaic applications, especially as wide bandgap absorbers in tandem cells.

  1. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    Sutter-Fella, CM; Ngo, QP; Cefarin, N; Gardener, K; Tamura, N; Stan, CV; Drisdell, WS; Javey, A; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photo-induced halide demixing using in-situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of comp...

  2. Full-color tuning in binary polymer:perovskite nanocrystals organic-inorganic hybrid blends

    Perulli, A.; Balena, A.; Fernandez, M.; Nedelcu, G.; Cretí, A.; Kovalenko, M. V.; Lomascolo, M.; Anni, M.

    2018-04-01

    The excellent optical and electronic properties of metal halide perovskites recently proposed these materials as interesting active materials for optoelectronic applications. In particular, the high color purity of perovskite colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) had recently motivated their exploration as active materials for light emitting diodes with tunable emission across the visible range. In this work, we investigated the emission properties of binary blends of conjugated polymers and perovskite NCs. We demonstrate that the emission color of the blends is determined by the superposition of the component photoluminescence spectra, allowing color tuning by acting on the blend relative composition. The use of two different polymers, two different perovskite NCs, and different blend compositions is exploited to tune the blend color in the blue-green, yellow-red, and blue-red ranges, including white light generation.

  3. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically Injected Laser Action

    2015-09-01

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Wake Forest University REPORT NUMBER Department of Physics...Action PI, Oana D. Jurchescu, Wake Forest University In collaboration with Z. Valy Vardeny ( University of Utah) -supported under N00014-15-1-2524 ONR...between mob ili ty and y can be clearly observed. The mobility increases over fi ve orders of magnitude as a result of decreasing y by about 20 times

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic porous semiconductor transducer for multi-parameters sensing.

    Caliò, Alessandro; Cassinese, Antonio; Casalino, Maurizio; Rea, Ilaria; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; De Stefano, Luca

    2015-07-06

    Porous silicon (PSi) non-symmetric multi-layers are modified by organic molecular beam deposition of an organic semiconductor, namely the N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2). Joule evaporation of PDIF-CN2 into the PSi sponge-like matrix not only improves but also adds transducing skills, making this solid-state device a dual signal sensor for chemical monitoring. PDIF-CN2 modified PSi optical microcavities show an increase of about five orders of magnitude in electric current with respect to the same bare device. This feature can be used to sense volatile substances. PDIF-CN2 also improves chemical resistance of PSi against alkaline and acid corrosion. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  6. High Excitation Intensity Opens a New Trapping Channel in Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanoparticles

    Zheng, K.; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Chen, J.S.; Chábera, P.; Zhang, W.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Pullerits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 6 (2016), s. 1154-1161 ISSN 2380-8195 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : LEAD HALIDE PEROVSKITES * QUANTUM DOTS * NANOCRYSTALS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Structural versus electrical properties of an organic-inorganic hybrid material based on sulfate

    Ben Rached, Asma; Guionneau, Philippe; Lebraud, Eric; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    A new organo-sulfate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and is characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) at variable temperatures. The benzylammonium monohydrogenosulfate of formula C6H5CH2NH3+. HSO4-, denoted (BAS), crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c space group with the following parameters at room temperature: a=5.623(5)Å, b=20.239(5) Å, c=8.188(5)Å, β=94.104(5)°. The crystal structure consists of infinite parallel two-dimensional planes built by HSO4- anions and C6H5CH2NH3+ cations interconnected by strong O-H….. O and N-H….. O hydrogen bonds. A phase transition is detected at 350 K by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confirmed by powder XRD. Conductivity measurements using the impedance spectroscopy technique allow to determine the conductivity relaxation parameters associated with the H+ conduction from an analysis of the M"/M"max spectrum measured in a wide temperature range. Transport properties of this material appear to be due to an H+ ion hopping mechanism.

  8. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    Fatieiev, Yevhen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Deng, Lin; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gurinov, Andrei; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes

  9. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol exhibited friction values of 0.2, compared with approx. 0.8 for the coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2 mixture (with and without methanol). Wear performance comparison between the two types of coating again indicated a significant organic component in the coatings deposited from the higher boiling point alcohols.

  11. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  12. Absorption and scattering effects by silver nanoparticles near the interface of organic/inorganic semiconductor tandem films

    Nemes, Coleen T.; Vijapurapu, Divya K.; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Cheung, Gary Z.; O’Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    nanoparticles placed near an organic/inorganic interface can be employed for light management in tandem or hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film semiconductor configurations for solar energy harvesting applications or light detection applications

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of hybrid membrane Nafion-SiO2 for application as polymer electrolyte in PEM fuel cell

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of sol-gel synthesis parameters on the preparation and polarization response of Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids as electrolytes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) operating at high temperatures (130 degree C) was evaluated. The inorganic phase was incorporated in a Nafion matrix with the following purposes: to improve the Nafion water uptake at high temperatures (> 100 degree C); to increase the mechanical strength of Nafion and; to accelerate the electrode reactions. The hybrids were prepared by an in-situ incorporation of silica into commercial Nafion membranes using an acid-catalyzed sol-gel route. The effects of synthesis parameters, such as catalyst concentration, sol-gel solvent, temperature and time of both hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and silicon precursor concentration (Tetraethyl orthosilicate - TEOS), were evaluated as a function on the incorporation degree and polarization response. Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids were characterized by gravimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive energy (SEM-EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and X-ray small angle scattering (SAXS). The hybrids were tested as electrolyte in single H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the temperature range of 80 - 130 degree C and at 130 degree C and reduced relative humidity (75% and 50%). Summarily, the hybrid performance showed to be strongly dependent on the synthesis parameters, mainly, the type of alcohol and the TEOS concentration. (author)

  14. Organic-Inorganic Graphite and Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Based Composites for 3D Printing

    Catalan Gonzalez, Jorge Alfredo

    were ≈ 5.27 Siemens-m-1 and 0.250 Ohm-m, respectively. In the process of forming the composites, some pretreatment of the 2D material may also be necessary. We studied one aspect of this pretreatment by looking at particle size measured using dynamic light scattering. The fragmentation rate (FR) of 2D MoS2, WS2, and graphite in N-methyl-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was computed in chemical exfoliants, where FR is a measure of the particle size reduction as a function of ultrasonication time. For the 2D layered materials, the highest FR generally occurred for sonication times tsonic = 30 min., after which point FR varied less sensitively with tsonic. The highest FR occurred for graphite, where FRGraphite was -1176.4 microm-hr -1, while FRWS2 and FRMoS2 was measured to be -32.4 microm-hr-1 and -3.8 microm-hr-1, respectively. This pretreatment maybe an important step to further tune the properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic composites of 2D materials with polymeric systems for a number of application platforms.

  15. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Chiu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jian-Ging; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Lin, King-Fu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  16. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  17. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration.Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi

  18. Environmental Effects on the Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Galisteo-López, Juan F; Anaya, M; Calvo, M E; Míguez, H

    2015-06-18

    The photophysical properties of films of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites under different ambient conditions are herein reported. We demonstrate that their luminescent properties are determined by the interplay between photoinduced activation and darkening processes, which strongly depend on the atmosphere surrounding the samples. We have isolated oxygen and moisture as the key elements in each process, activation and darkening, both of which involve the interaction with photogenerated carriers. These findings show that environmental factors play a key role in the performance of lead halide perovskites as efficient luminescent materials.

  19. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties

  20. Na3Si2Y0.16Zr1.84PO12-ionic liquid hybrid electrolytes: An approach for realizing solid-state sodium-ion batteries?

    de la Torre-Gamarra, Carmen; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Ulissi, Ulderico; Varzi, Alberto; Varez, Alejandro; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic electrolytes are prepared through sintering processes which are carried out at high temperatures and require prolonged operating times, resulting unwelcome in industrial applications. We report a physicochemical characterization on hybrid, sodium conducting, electrolyte systems obtained by coating NASICON ceramic powders with the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. The goal is to realize a ceramic-IL interface with improved sodium mobility, aiming to obtain a solid electrolyte with high ion transport properties but avoiding sintering thermal treatment. The purpose of the present work, however, is showing how simply combining NASICON powder and Py14TFSI does not lead to any synergic effect on the resulting hybrid electrolyte, evidencing that an average functionalization of the ceramic powder surface and/or ionic liquid is needed. Also, the processing conditions for preparing the hybrid samples are found to affect their ion transport properties.

  1. Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Dou, Sen; Liu, Wencong

    A series of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via simple emulsion polymerization method. The Si-sPS/A latexes show good film-forming capability and the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are prepared by pouring the Si-sPS/A nanoparticle latexes into glass plates and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The potential of the membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is characterized preliminarily by studying their thermal stability, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol diffusion coefficient). The results indicate that these membranes possess excellent thermal stability and methanol barrier due to the existence of self-crosslinked silica network. In addition, the proton conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10 -3-10 -2 S cm -1 and all the membranes show much higher selectivity in comparison with Nafion ® 117. These results suggest that the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are particularly promising in DMFC applications.

  2. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung

    2018-02-01

    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  3. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  4. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  5. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field

  6. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  7. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  8. Probing Local Heterogeneity in the Optoelectronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    De Quilettes, Dane W.

    rational design of materials and is leveraged to deploy chemical passivation techniques to improve the optoelectronic quality of the material, with the ultimate goal of improving photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. Reducing non-radiative recombination in semiconducting materials is a prerequisite for achieving the highest performance in a host of light-emitting and photovoltaic applications. In the first study described herein, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy correlated with scanning electron microscopy to spatially resolve the photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics from films of nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic perovskites, CH3NH 3PbI3(Cl). The PL intensities and lifetimes varied between different grains in the same film, even for films that exhibited long bulk lifetimes. The grain boundaries were dimmer and exhibited faster non-radiative decay. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a positive correlation between chlorine concentration and regions of brighter PL, while PL imaging revealed that chemical treatment with pyridine could activate previously dark grains. Next, to better elucidate the sources of these loss pathways, we performed a systematic study using confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy to deconvolve the contributions from diffusion and non-radiative recombination which lead to the observed image heterogeneity. We showed that, in addition to local variations in non-radiative loss, carriers diffuse anisotropically due to heterogeneous intergrain connectivity. In addition to non-radiative recombination impeding material performance, we also showed that the materials exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination. We used a unique combination of confocal PL microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH 3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrated that the photo-induced "brightening" of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order

  9. A hydrogen production experiment by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production in lower temperature range. System viability and preliminary thermal efficiency estimation

    Takai, Toshihide; Nakagiri, Toshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    A new experimental apparatus by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid-Hydrogen production in Lower Temperature range (HHLT) was developed and hydrogen production experiment was performed to confirm the system operability. Hydrogen production efficiency was estimated and technical problems were clarified through the experimental results. Stable operation of the SO 3 electrolysis cell and the sulfur dioxide solution electrolysis cell were confirmed during experimental operation and any damage which would be affected solid operation was not detected under post operation inspection. To improve hydrogen production efficiency, it was found that the reduction of sulfuric acid circulation and the decrease in the cell voltage were key issues. (author)

  10. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells.

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  11. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  12. Study of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)/CdS nanocomposite organic/inorganic gels.

    Bekiari, Vlasoula; Pagonis, Konstantinos; Bokias, Georgios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2004-09-14

    CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized in poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) hydrogels. The properties of the composite material have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. This material can be obtained in three different states: swollen, shrunk, and freeze-dried. The swollen and the freeze-dried states correspond to a nanocomposite organic/inorganic (wet or dry) gel containing CdS nanoparticles of approximately 50 nm diameter while the shrunk state is a two-phase system containing CdS crystals, which precipitate forming interesting geometrical shapes.

  13. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  14. Research progress on organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells

    Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the intensive research efforts across the world since 2009, perovskite solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are now comparable or even better than several other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In this topical review article, we review recent progress in the field of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells. We associate these achievements with the fundamental knowledge gained in the perovskite research. The major recent advances in the fundamental perovskite material and solar cell research are highlighted, including the current efforts in visualizing the dynamical processes (in operando) taking place within a perovskite solar cell under operating conditions. We also discuss the existing technological challenges. Based on a survey of recently published works, we point out that to move the perovskite PV technology forward towards the next step of commercialization, what perovskite PV technology need the most in the coming next few years is not only further PCE enhancements, but also up-scaling, stability, and lead-toxicity.

  15. Preparations and Characterizations of Luminescent Two Dimensional Organic-inorganic Perovskite Semiconductors

    Sanjun Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the synthesis, structural and optical characterizations of some novel luminescent two dimensional organic-inorganic perovskite (2DOIP semiconductors. These 2DOIP semiconductors show a self-assembled nano-layered structure, having the electronic structure of multi-quantum wells. 2DOIP thin layers and nanoparticles have been prepared through different methods. The structures of the 2DOIP semiconductors are characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of theb DOIP semiconductors are characterized from absorption and photoluminescence spectra measured at room and low temperatures. Influences of different components, in particular the organic parts, on the structural and optical properties of the 2DOIP semiconductors are discussed.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  17. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  18. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai; Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei; Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources

  19. Spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic composite film cured by low energy electron beam

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah; Eda Yuhana Ariffin

    2009-01-01

    Liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica particles formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reactions was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. The compounds that contain silica were crosslinked by electron beam. Structural properties studies were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. Morphology study by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at any concentrations of TEOS. (author)

  20. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  1. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  2. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Yanga, Dennis A.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Electrochemical performance of a hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with a graphite anode preloaded from lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide-based electrolyte

    Decaux, C.; Lota, G.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.; Frackowiak, E.; Béguin, F.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid LiC capacitor combining a lithium-ion battery type (graphite) electrode and an electrical double-layer (activated carbon) one has been developed by preloading graphite from 2 mol L −1 lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) organic electrolyte. The graphite intercalation compound was formed by applying ca. 10 successive charge/self-discharge pulses. The optimized hybrid device operates in the voltage range from 1.5 to 4.2 V and displays 60% higher gravimetric capacitance than an electric double-layer (EDL) capacitor using the same activated carbon for both electrodes. As a result, the energy density reaches 80 Wh kg −1 , which is four times higher than the value for the EDL capacitor with the same total mass of carbon.

  4. Functionalized Graphene–Polyoxometalate Nanodots Assembly as “Organic–Inorganic” Hybrid Supercapacitors and Insights into Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Processes

    Sanju Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and POM (and POW components create emergent “organic–inorganic” hybrids with desirable physicochemical properties (specific surface area, mechanical strength, diffusion, facile electron and ion transport enabled by molecularly bridged (covalently and electrostatically tailored interfaces for electrical energy storage. The synergistic hybridization between two electrochemical energy storage mechanisms, electrochemical double-layer from rGO and redox activity (faradaic of nanoscale POM (and POW nanodots, and the superior operating voltage due to high overpotential yielded converge yielding a significantly improved electrochemical performance. They include increase in specific capacitance from 70 F·g−1 for rGO to 350 F·g−1 for hybrid material with aqueous electrolyte (0.4 M sodium sulfate, higher current carrying capacity (>10 A·g−1 and excellent retention (94% resulting higher specific energy and specific power density. We performed scanning electrochemical microscopy to gain insights into physicochemical processes and quantitatively determine associated parameters (diffusion coefficient (D and heterogeneous electron transfer rate (kET at electrode/electrolyte interface besides mapping electrochemical (reactivity and electro-active site distribution. The experimental findings are attributed to: (1 mesoporous network and topologically multiplexed conductive pathways; (2 higher density of graphene edge plane sites; and (3 localized pockets of re-hybridized orbital engineered modulated band structure provided by polyoxometalates anchored chemically on functionalized graphene nanosheets, contribute toward

  5. Synthesis, Multinuclear NMR Characterization and Dynamic Property of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte Membrane Based on Alkoxysilane and Poly(oxyalkylene Diamine

    Hsien-Ming Kao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolyte membranes based on poly(propylene glycol-block-poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(propylene glycol bis(2-aminopropyl ether complexed with LiClO4 via the co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and 3-(triethoxysilylpropyl isocyanate have been prepared and characterized. A variety of techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, alternating current (AC impedance and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy are performed to elucidate the relationship between the structural and dynamic properties of the hybrid electrolyte and the ion mobility. A VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher-like temperature dependence of ionic conductivity is observed for all the compositions studied, implying that the diffusion of charge carriers is assisted by the segmental motions of the polymer chains. A maximum ionic conductivity value of 5.3 × 10−5 Scm−1 is obtained at 30 °C. Solid-state NMR results provide a microscopic view of the effects of salt concentrations on the dynamic behavior of the polymer chains.

  6. Direct growth of Fe3O4-MoO2 hybrid nanofilm anode with enhanced electrochemical performance in neutral aqueous electrolyte

    Ruizhi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the electrochemical energy storage performance of supercapacitors (SCs, the current researches are general directed towards the cathode materials. However, the anode materials are relatively less studied. In the present work, Fe3O4-MoO2 (FO-MO hybrid nano thin film directly grown on Ti substrate is investigated, which is used as high-performance anode material for SCs in Li2SO4 electrolyte with the comparison to pristine Fe3O4 nanorod array. The areal capacitance of FO-MO hybrid electrode was initially found to be 65.0 mF cm−2 at 2 mV s−1 and continuously increased to 260.0% after 50 cycles of activation. The capacitance values were considerably comparable or higher than many reported thin-film iron oxide-based anodes in neutral electrolyte. With the protection of MoO2 shell, the FO-MO electrode developed in this study also exhibited excellent cyclic stability (increased to 230.8% after 1000 cycles. This work presents a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of iron oxide-based anodes for SCs.

  7. Hierarchical Canopy Dynamics of Electrolyte-Doped Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2013-12-23

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are organic-inorganic hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counterions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and pulsed-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on 18-nm silica NPs with a covalently bound anionic corona, neutralized by amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. The NMR relaxation studies show that the nanosecond-scale canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration, and crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. Two canopy populations are observed in the diffusion experiments, demonstrating that one fraction of the canopy is bound to the NP surface on the time scale (milliseconds) of the diffusion experiment and is surrounded by a more mobile layer of canopy that is unable to access the surface due to molecular crowding. The introduction of electrolyte ions (Na+ or Mg2+) screens the canopy-corona electrostatic interactions, resulting in a reduced bulk viscosity and faster canopy exchange. The magnitude of the screening effect depends upon ion concentration and valence, providing a simple route for tuning the macroscopic properties of NIMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Hierarchical Canopy Dynamics of Electrolyte-Doped Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    Jespersen, Michael L.; Mirau, Peter A.; von Meerwall, Ernst D.; Koerner, Hilmar; Vaia, Richard A.; Fernandes, Nikhil J.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are organic-inorganic hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counterions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and pulsed-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on 18-nm silica NPs with a covalently bound anionic corona, neutralized by amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. The NMR relaxation studies show that the nanosecond-scale canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration, and crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. Two canopy populations are observed in the diffusion experiments, demonstrating that one fraction of the canopy is bound to the NP surface on the time scale (milliseconds) of the diffusion experiment and is surrounded by a more mobile layer of canopy that is unable to access the surface due to molecular crowding. The introduction of electrolyte ions (Na+ or Mg2+) screens the canopy-corona electrostatic interactions, resulting in a reduced bulk viscosity and faster canopy exchange. The magnitude of the screening effect depends upon ion concentration and valence, providing a simple route for tuning the macroscopic properties of NIMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  10. Enhanced electrochemical performance of in situ reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites using redox-additive aqueous electrolyte

    Devi, Madhabi; Kumar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polyaniline nanotubes (PAniNTs) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ reduction of GO. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites are characterized by HRTEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The electrical and electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites are investigated for different RGO concentrations by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 448.71 F g-1 is obtained for 40 wt.% of RGO-PAniNTs nanocomposite as compared to 194.92 F g-1 for pure PAniNTs in 1 M KCl electrolyte. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrode, KI is used as redox-additive with 1 M KCl electrolyte. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 876.43 F g-1 and an improved cyclic stability of 91% as compared to 79% without KI after 5000 cycles is achieved for an optimized 0.1 M KI concentration. This is attributed to the presence of different ionic species of I- ions that give rise to a number of possible redox reactions improving the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. This improved capacitive performance is compared with that of catechol redox-additive in 1 M KCl electrolyte, and that of KI and catechol redox-additives added to 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  11. Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites under Different Relative Humidity.

    Gao, Hao; Bao, Chunxiong; Li, Faming; Yu, Tao; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Weidong; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Fu, Gao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-05-06

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite compounds are very promising materials for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. But how to fabricate high-quality perovksite films under controlled humidity conditions is still an important issue due to their sensitivity to moisture. In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient humidity on crystallization and surface morphology of one-step spin-coated perovskite films, as well as the performance of solar cells based on these perovskite films. On the basis of experimental analyses and thin film growth theory, we conclude that the influence of ambient humidity on nucleation at spin-coating stage is quite different from that on crystal growth at annealing stage. At the spin-coating stage, high nucleation density induced by high supersaturation prefers to appear under anhydrous circumstances, resulting in layer growth and high coverage of perovskite films. But at the annealing stage, the modest supersaturation benefits formation of perovskite films with good crystallinity. The films spin-coated under low relative humidity (RH) followed by annealing under high RH show an increase of crystallinity and improved performance of devices. Therefore, a mechanism of fast nucleation followed by modest crystal growth (high supersaturation at spin-coating stage and modest supersaturation at annealing stage) is suggested in the formation of high-quality perovskite films.

  12. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  13. Efficient epoxidation over cyanocobalamine containing SBA-15 organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Karimi, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjoub, A.R., E-mail: mahjouba@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silica is synthesized using triblock copolymer P123 surfactant and chemically modified by aminopropyl, thiol, ammonium and sulfonic acid functional groups. Functionalization is performed via post synthesize method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) or 3-mercatopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) precursor. The as synthesized mesoporous systems are applied for immobilization of cyanocobalamine. Functionalization effectively improves sorption properties of the supports, while different functional groups exert different effects. The organic-inorganic mesoporous materials are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). The newly synthesized systems exhibit high catalytic activity for heterogeneous epoxidation of cyclooctene in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Reaction conditions are optimized, effect of functional groups on performance of the catalysts is taken into consideration and reusability of the designed heterogeneous systems is studied. Systems with chemically modified supports are shown to be more efficient and stable catalysts however; chemical nature of functional groups plays a crucial role.

  14. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  15. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  16. [Responses of rice-wheat rotation system in south Jiangsu to organic-inorganic compound fertilizers].

    Tian, Heng-Da; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Qiu-Jun; Xu, Da-Bing; Yibati, Halihashi; Xu, Jia-Le; Huang, Qi-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-2007, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of applying three kinds of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers [rapeseed cake compost plus inorganic fertilizers (RCC), pig manure compost plus inorganic fertilizers (PMC), and Chinese medicine residues plus inorganic fertilizers (CMC)] on the crop growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of rice-wheat rotation system in South Jiangsu. Grain yield of wheat and rice in the different fertilization treatments was significantly higher than the control (no fertilization). In treatments RCC, PMC and CMC, the wheat yield was 13.1%, 32.2% and 39.3% lower than that of the NPK compound fertilizer (CF, 6760 kg x hm(-2)), respectively, but the rice yield (8504-9449 kg x hm(-2)) was significantly higher than that (7919 kg x hm(-2)) of CF, with an increment of 7.4%-19.3%. In wheat season, the aboveground dry mass, N accumulation, and N use efficiency in treatments RCC, PMC, and CMC were lower than those of CF, but in rice season, these parameters were significantly higher than or as the same as CF. In sum, all the test three compound fertilizers had positive effects on the rice yield and its nitrogen use efficiency in the rice-wheat rotation system, being most significant for RCC.

  17. Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and nano-SiO2

    Pu Hongting; Liu Lu; Chang Zhihong; Yuan Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) and nano-SiO 2 were prepared in this work. However, the preparation of PBI/SiO 2 composite membrane is not easy since PBI is insoluble in water, while nano-SiO 2 is hydrophilic due to the hydrophilicity of nano-SiO 2 and water-insolubility of PBI. Thus, a solvent-exchange method was employed to prepare the composite membrane. The morphology of the composite membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was revealed that inorganic particles were dispersed homogenously in the PBI matrix. The thermal stability of the composite membrane is higher than that of pure PBI, both for doped and undoped membranes. PBI/SiO 2 composite membranes with up to 15 wt% SiO 2 exhibited improved mechanical properties compared with PBI membranes. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes containing phosphoric acid was studied. The nano-SiO 2 in the composite membranes enhanced the ability to trap phosphoric acid, which improved the proton conductivity of the composite membranes. The membrane with 15 wt% of inorganic material is oxidatively stable and has a proton conductivity of 3.9 x 10 -3 S/cm at 180 deg. C.

  18. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-10-09

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of crude protein concentration and dietary electrolyte balance on litter quality, foot pad dermatitis, growth performance and processing yields in two medium heavy turkey hybrids.

    Veldkamp, T; Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J

    2017-10-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of crude protein (CP) concentration and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, processing yields, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in male turkeys from two commercial hybrids. Soya bean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources selected for lower K concentrations to lower DEB in order to improve litter quality and subsequent quality of foot pads. 2. Effects of CP on litter friability and wetness were not consistent during the production period. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low CP was significantly lower than FPD in turkeys fed on diets with high CP until 84 d. Growth performance was adversely affected at low CP. Processing yields were not affected by CP. 3. Litter was significantly dryer in pens of turkeys fed on diets with low DEB than in pens of turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low DEB was significantly lower than in turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. Growth performance and processing yields were adversely affected at low DEB. 4. FPD in turkey hybrid A was higher than in turkey hybrid B at 28 d of age. Thereafter, no differences in FPD between turkey hybrids were observed. Growth performance and processing yields were not affected by turkey hybrid. 5. Overall, a significant interaction effect of CP × DEB was observed for FCR: in turkeys fed on the high DEB treatment, FCR of turkeys fed on the high CP diets was lower than FCR of turkeys fed on the low CP (LCP) diets whereas on the low DEB treatment, FCR was not affected by CP treatment. 6. It was concluded that litter quality can be improved and FPD may be decreased in turkeys fed on diets containing lower CP and DEB levels.

  20. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  1. High-Purity Hybrid Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles Obtained by Pulsed-Laser Irradiation in Liquid

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Fortunati, Ilaria; Marega, Carla; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attracted a great deal of attention due to their variety of optoelectronic properties, their low cost, and their easier integration into devices with complex geometry, compared

  2. Ultralong Radiative States in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: Compositions for Submillimeter Diffusion Lengths

    Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Yin, Jun; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Yang, Chen; Alhabshi, Esra; Gereige, Issam; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Malko, Anton V.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently evolved into the leading candidate solution-processed semiconductor for solar cells due to their combination of desirable optical and charge transport properties. Chief among

  3. Anisotropic Mg Electrodeposition and Alloying with Ag-based Anodes from Non-Coordinating Mixed-Metal Borohydride Electrolytes for Mg Hybrid Batteries

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2017-01-01

    A highly anisotropic electrodeposition was observed using the hybrid battery electrolyte Mg(BH 4 ) 2 with LiBH 4 in diglyme. At low overpotentials high aspect ratio platelet morphologies are observed with a strong fiber texture composed of a {10-10} and a {11-20} component, the first evidence of behavior of this kind in magnesium battery electrolytes. At high overpotentials the deposit aspect ratio is indistinguishable but the texture is shown to be primarily composed of a {11-20} fiber texture. The kinetic parameters relative to the relevant crystallographic faces are extracted from electron microscopy images and compared with the observed bulk rate extracted from the electrochemical data. The use of polycrystalline Ag foil substrates with little preferred orientation at the surface allowed highly polycrystalline nucleation at lower overpotentials than that of platinum, likely due to Ag alloying with Mg. Characterization using focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) elemental analysis confirm that the deposits are primarily Mg although Mg‐Ag alloys of various compositions were observed. It is proposed that the orientation at slow rates of growth is due to the underlying kinetics of adatom diffusion on Mg and that higher rates diminish the phenomenon due to decreased time for adatom diffusion and instead are governed by the rates of adatom formation or more specifically the adatom vacancy formation on the different low-index planes of Mg.

  4. Developing a novel magnesium glycerophosphate/silicate-based organic-inorganic composite cement for bone repair.

    Ding, Zhengwen; Li, Hong; Wei, Jie; Li, Ruijiang; Yan, Yonggang

    2018-06-01

    Considering that the phospholipids and glycerophosphoric acid are the basic materials throughout the metabolism of the whole life period and the bone is composed of organic polymer collagen and inorganic mineral apatite, a novel self-setting composite of magnesium glycerophosphate (MG) and di-calcium silicate(C2S)/tri-calcium silicate(C3S) was developed as bio-cement for bone repair, reconstruction and regeneration. The composite was prepared by mixing the MG, C2S and C3S with the certain ratios, and using the deionized water and phosphoric acid solution as mixed liquid. The combination and formation of the composites was characterized by FTIR, XPS and XRD. The physicochemical properties were studied by setting time, compressive strength, pH value, weight loss in the PBS and surface change by SEM-EDX. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in the leaching solution of the composites. The preliminary results showed that when di- and tri-calcium silicate contact with water, there are lots of Ca(OH) 2 generated making the pH value of solution is higher than 9 which is helpful for the formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) that is the main bone material. The new organic-inorganic self-setting bio-cements showed initial setting time is ranged from 20 min to 85 min and the compressive strength reached 30 MPa on the 7th days, suitable as the bone fillers. The weight loss was 20% in the first week, and 25% in the 4th week. Meanwhile, the new HA precipitated on the composite surface during the incubation in the SBF showed bioactivity. The cell cultured in the leaching liquid of the composite showed high proliferation inferring the new bio-cement has good biocompatibility to the cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design, Structure, and Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Containing an Oligothiophene Chromophore.

    Mitzi, David B.; Chondroudis, Konstantinos; Kagan, Cherie R.

    1999-12-27

    A quaterthiophene derivative, 5,5' "-bis(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2' ':5' ',2' "-quaterthiophene (AEQT), has been selected for incorporation within the layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure. In addition to having an appropriate molecular shape and two tethering aminoethyl groups to bond to the inorganic framework, AEQT is also a dye and can influence the optical properties of lead(II) halide-based perovskites. Crystals of C(20)H(22)S(4)N(2)PbBr(4) were grown from a slowly cooled aqueous solution containing lead(II) bromide and quaterthiophene derivative (AEQT.2HBr) salts. The new layered perovskite adopts a monoclinic (C2/c) subcell with the lattice parameters a = 39.741(2) Å, b = 5.8420(3) Å, c = 11.5734(6) Å, beta = 92.360(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Broad superstructure peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction data, indicative of a poorly ordered, doubled supercell along both the a and b axes. The quaterthiophene segment of AEQT(2+) is nearly planar, with a syn-anti-syn relationship between adjacent thiophene rings. Each quaterthiophene chromophore is ordered between nearest-neighbor lead(II) bromide sheets in a herringbone arrangement with respect to neighboring quaterthiophenes. Room temperature optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated films of the perovskites (AEQT)PbX(4) (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit an exciton peak arising from the lead(II) halide sheets, along with absorption from the quaterthiophene moiety. No evidence of the inorganic sheet excitonic transition is observed in the photoluminescence spectra for any of the chromophore-containing perovskites. However, strong quaterthiophene photoluminescence is observed for X = Cl, with an emission peak at approximately lambda(max) = 532 nm. Similar photoluminescence is observed for the X = Br and I materials, but with substantial quenching, as the inorganic layer band gap decreases relative to the chromophore HOMO-LUMO gap.

  6. Procurement of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials

    2015-12-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: After acquiring the Infrared Imaging Microscope with large area mapping capabilities for structure -function research and...Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials Report Title After acquiring the Infrared

  7. Polymer Electrolytes

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  8. Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2

    Abid, H.; Samet, A.; Dammak, T.; Mlayah, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Abid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal belonging to the large hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites compounds family. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Bands to band absorption peak at 2.44 eV as well as an extremely strong yellow-green photoluminescence emission at 2.17 eV is observed at room temperature. First principle calculations based on the DFT and FLAPW methods combined with LDA approximation are performed as well. Density of state close to the gap is presented and discussed in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence experimental results. The perfect agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations is highlighted. - Highlights: → (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal with strong yellow-green PL emission at 2.17 eV. → Calculations based on DFT and FLAPW method combined with LDA approximation are performed. → Gap, optical transitions and exciton presence were predicted from density of states. → Agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations.

  9. Amine-Based Passivating Materials for Enhanced Optical Properties and Performance of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Lee, Seungjin; Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Bo Ram; Jung, Eui Dae; Yu, Jae Choul; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2017-04-20

    The use of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in optoelectronic applications are attracting an interest because of their outstanding characteristics, which enable a remarkable enhancement of device efficiency. However, solution-processed perovskite crystals unavoidably contain defect sites that cause hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) and blinking in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we report significant beneficial effects using a new treatment based on amine-based passivating materials (APMs) to passivate the defect sites of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3 ) through coordinate bonding between the nitrogen atoms and undercoordinated lead ions. This treatment greatly enhanced the PeLED's efficiency, with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 6.2%, enhanced photoluminescence (PL), a lower threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a longer PL lifetime, and enhanced device stability. Using confocal microscopy, we observed the cessation of PL blinking in perovskite films treated with ethylenediamine (EDA) due to passivation of the defect sites in the MAPbBr 3 .

  10. Poly(Acrylic acid–Based Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Electrolytes Membrane for Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Application

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes (NCPEMs based on poly(acrylic acid(PAA and titania (TiO2 are prepared by a solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of NCPEMs increases with the weight ratio of TiO2.The highest ionic conductivity of (8.36 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S·cm−1 is obtained with addition of 6 wt % of TiO2 at ambient temperature. The complexation between PAA, LiTFSI and TiO2 is discussed in Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR studies. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs are fabricated using the filler-free polymer electrolyte or the most conducting NCPEM and carbon-based electrodes. The electrochemical performances of fabricated EDLCs are studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. EDLC comprising NCPEM shows the specific capacitance of 28.56 F·g−1 (or equivalent to 29.54 mF·cm−2 with excellent electrochemical stability.

  11. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Wang, Weimin

    glasses as involving a jump by the migrating cation and transient reversible isotropic displacement of atoms in the immediate vicinity, and express the activation energy as a sum of Coulomb and elastic terms. By fitting our experimental data to this model, we find that the number of affected atoms in the vicinity ranges between 20 and 30. Furthermore, elastic deformations in ion jumping are almost purely hydrostatic and hardly shear. Considering that the energy required for the cation jump is made available by concentrating thermal phonons at the jump site, we establish a relationship between structural stiffness and activation energy. Moreover, the more atoms that partake in the cation jump, the more degrees of freedom for atomic motion can be relied upon to achieve the required net outward expansion to facilitate the passage of the jumping cation, lowering the activation energy. To combine the flexibility of polymers and the good mechanical and electrochemical properties of silica, we use sol-gel methods for fabricating silica-based hybrid organic-inorganic electrolytes. Polyethylene glycol is covalently grafted onto the silica backbone as the organic filler that provides the environment for ion conduction. We developed synthesis methods in which grafting and polycondensation occur concurrently, or the grafting occurs after the silica backbone has formed. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal that different structures are achieved depending on the method used. The two-step procedure allows for a larger amount of conducting polymer to be embedded into network pores than in the one-pot method. This greatly enhances the ionic conductivity without sacrificing mechanical stability afforded by the continuous silica backbone. Here we provide a cumulative account of a systematic materials design efforts, in which we sequentially implement several important design aspects to identify their respective importance and influence on the materials performance

  12. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites of ZnO/CuO/chitosan with improved properties

    Ma, Xingfa, E-mail: xingfamazju@aliyun.com [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zhang, Bo; Cong, Qin; He, Xiaochun; Gao, Mingjun [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); Li, Guang [National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To extend the visible light response of ZnO, ZnO/CuO heterostructured nanocomposite was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach. At the same time, chitosan (Ch) is considered as a very promising natural polymer. It holds not only abundant resource and low cost, but also has excellent adsorption properties to a broad range of organic pollutants and some heavy metal ions. To improve the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite, ZnO/CuO/chitosan organic-inorganic composites were prepared with precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), SAED pattern (Selected Area Electron Diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), UV–Vis (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy), PL (Photoluminescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR) et al. To examine the surface and interface properties of nanocomposites, chemical prototype sensor arrays were constructed based on ZnO, ZnO/CuO, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O, ZnO/CuO/chitosan, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan nanocomposites and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) arrays devices. The adsorption response behaviors of the sensor arrays to some typical volatile compounds were examined under similar conditions. The results indicated that with comparison to ZnO nanostructure, the ZnO/CuO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced adsorption properties to some typical volatile compounds greatly, and the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO/chitosan are much better than that of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite. The adsorption of ZnO/CuO system is super to that of ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O. Therefore, ZnO/CuO/chitosan nanocomposite not only showed broadening visible light response, but also possessed of excellent adsorption properties, and has good potential applications in photocatalysts, chemical sensors, biosensors, self-cleaning coating fields et al. - Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanocomposites exhibited good response in near whole visible

  13. Electronic, structural and chemical effects of charge-transfer at organic/inorganic interfaces

    Otero, R.; Vázquez de Parga, A. L.; Gallego, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    reactivity of the adsorbates. The aim of this review is to start drawing general conclusions and developing new concepts which will help the scientific community to proceed more efficiently towards the understanding of organic/inorganic interfaces in the strong interaction limit, where charge-transfer effects must be taken into consideration.

  14. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Multifunctional Nanocomposite Coating via Sol-Gel Routes

    Li Haoying; Chen Yunfa; Ruan Chengxiang; Gao Weimin; Xie Yusheng

    2001-01-01

    The inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings are prepared on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate by the spinning technique which involves incorporating homogeneously nanosized ZnO particle into the molecular inorganic-organic hybrid matrices. The hybrid matrices are derived from tetraethoxyasilane (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxyailane (GLYMO). To avoid the destruction of the polymer structure caused by ZnO and modify the interface between nanoparticles and organic groups, ZnO was first surface-coated with SiO 2 from hydrolyzed TEOS using ammonia water as catalyst. The coatings thus obtained are dense, flexible, abrasion resistant and UV absorbent

  15. Effects of the Charge Ions Strength on the Swelling of Organic-Inorganic Nanogels

    Yu, Qin; Lu, Xiangguo; Wang, Jing; Guo, Qi; Niu, Liwei [Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing (China)

    2016-07-15

    The swelling behavior and swelling mechanism of hydrogels can be greatly affected by the charge strength of ions in them. To investigate such effects, we prepared two gels: a carboxylic acid gel (CAG) and a poly (2-acrylamide–methyl propane sulfonic acid) gel (SAG) based on starchy polyacrylamide (PAM) nanocomposite gels, both with montmorillonite, which underwent in situ intercalation, and used them as probes in swelling experiments. The equilibrium swelling rates (ESRs) of the hydrogels in both salt water and acidic water strongly depended on the charge strength of the ions in the chains. SAG had a higher ESR than CAG at the same mole ratio of polymer/water, which is attributed to the greater electrostatic repulsion between the strong electrolyte ions of SAG. Both water salinity and hydrogen ion contact of the hydrogels weakened ESR with the enhancement of charge ionic strength. The downward trend of ESR with increasing concentration of salt or hydrogen ions became weaker in SAG compared to CAG, which is attributed to the shielding and deprotonation effects of the strong electrolyte ions. Regarding the swelling mechanism, the chain relaxation occurred in neutral and acidic solutions for SAG and in neutral and weak acidic solutions for CAG, but water diffusion dominated in strong acidic solutions for CAG, leading to different swelling behaviors.

  16. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  17. Identification and characterization of the intermediate phase in hybrid organic-inorganic MAPbI3 perovskite.

    Guo, Xin; McCleese, Christopher; Kolodziej, Charles; Samia, Anna C S; Zhao, Yixin; Burda, Clemens

    2016-03-07

    Perovskite films were prepared using single step solution deposition at different annealing temperatures and annealing times. The crystal structure, phases and grain size were investigated with XRD, XPS and SEM/EDX. The prepared films show a typical orientation of tetragonal perovskite phase and a gradual transition at room temperature from the yellow intermediate phase to the black perovskite phase. Films with high purity were obtained by sintering at 100 °C. In addition, the chemical composition and crystal structure of intermediate phase were investigated in detail. FTIR, UV-vis and NMR spectra revealed the occurance of DMF complexes. Interestingly, the intermediate phase could be transformed to the black perovskite phase upon X-ray irradiation. In addition, the recovery of the aged perovskite films from a yellow intermediate phase back to the black perovskite was shown to be viable via heating and X-ray irradiation.

  18. UV-curable hybrid organic-inorganic composite inks with a high refractive index for printing interference images and holograms

    Eremeeva, Elena A.; Yakovlev, Aleksandr V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report a new, facile and inexpensive methodology for obtaining highly refractive polymers suitable for inkjet printing using hexacoordinated titanium complexes (THC) and a UV-curable lacquer based on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TGD) that is a cheap and non-toxic monomer that can be

  19. Tailoring of transition metal alkoxides via complexation for the synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic sols and gels

    Sanchez, C.; In, M.; Toledano, P.; Griesmar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the chemical control of hydrolysis-condensation reactions of transition metal alkoxides can be performed through the modification of the transition metal coordination sphere by using strong complexing ligands (SCL). Complexing organic groups can be bonded to the transition metal oxide network in two different ways, as network modifiers or network formers. Different illustrations of the role of complexing ligands on Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) alkoxides are presented. As a network modifier, SCL act as termination agents for condensation reactions allowing a control of particle growth. The complexing ligands being located at the periphery of the oxo core open many opportunities for colloid surface protection. SCL carrying organofunctional groups which exhibit non linear optical (NLO) properties have also been used as probes to study sol-gel transformations. SCL functionalized with organic polymerizable functions act as network formers

  20. Ring opening of azetidine cycle: First examples of 1-azetidinepropanamine molecules as a template in hybrid organic-inorganic compounds

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2018-01-01

    Three novel uranyl selenate and sulfate oxysalts templated by protonated azetidine molecules, [AzH]+, and its ring-opened counterpart 1-azetidinepropanamine, [AzH(CH2)3NH3]2+, have been prepared and studied by X-ray structural analysis. Conformations of azetidinium cations were analysed by means of infrared vibrational assignments supported by the DFT calculations. Crystallization of [AzH]2 [(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (I) from highly acidic solutions suggests that low pH does not necessarily result in the opening of azetidine ring. [AzH(CH2)3NH3][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)](H2O) (II) and [AzH(CH2)3NH3](H5O2)[(UO2)2(SO4)3(HSO4)] (III) are the first structurally characterized crystalline compounds bearing isolated ring-opened azetidine moiety.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  2. New highly fluorescent biolabels based on II-VI semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures for bioimaging

    Santos, B.S.; Farias, P.M.A.; Menezes, F.D.; Brasil, A.G.; Fontes, A.; Romao, L.; Amaral, J.O.; Moura-Neto, V.; Tenorio, D.P.L.A.; Cesar, C.L.; Barbosa, L.C.; Ferreira, R.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots based on II-VI materials may be prepared to develop good biolabeling properties. In this study we present some well-succeeded results related to the preparation, functionalization and bioconjugation of CdY (Y = S, Se and Te) to biological systems (live cells and fixed tissues). These nanostructured materials were prepared using colloidal synthesis in aqueous media resulting nanoparticles with very good optical properties and an excellent resistance to photodegradation

  3. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas; Schiestel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 ± 2.6 kJ mol -1 . High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  4. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Schiestel@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  5. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C4H9NH3)4Pb3I4Br6

    Dammak, T.; Elleuch, S.; Bougzhala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Chtourou, R.; Abid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2 1 /a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX 6 (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm -1 frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  6. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  8. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2} and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2}

    Luberda-Durnaś, K. [Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Research Centre in Krakow, Senacka 1, Krakow 31-002 (Poland); Guillén, A. González [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland); Łasocha, W., E-mail: lasocha@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek 8, Krakow 30-239 (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine){sub 1/2}, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} in non-centrosymmetric Ccm2{sub 1}, ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS. - Highlights: • New hybrid compounds: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} and ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} were obtained. • Hybrids were studied using XRD, TG/DSC, XRK, SEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Structures of both materials were solved by powder diffraction methods.

  9. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC ...

  10. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    Carja, Gabriela; Chiriac, Horia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2007-01-01

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments

  11. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions.

    Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2002-04-22

    Crystals of several new hybrid tin(II) iodide-based perovskites, involving 2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorophenethylammonium or phenethylammonium cation bilayers and intercalated aryl or perfluoroaryl molecules, were grown by slow evaporation of a methanol solution containing the hybrid perovskite and the intercalating species. The (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) structure was solved at -75 degrees C in a monoclinic C2/c subcell [a = 41.089(12) A, b = 6.134(2) A, c = 12.245(3) A, beta = 94.021(5) degrees, Z = 4] and consists of sheets of corner-sharing distorted SnI(6) octahedra separated by bilayers of pentafluorophenethylammonium cations. The intercalated benzene molecules form a single well-ordered layer interposed between adjacent fluoroaryl cation layers. The corresponding hybrid with an unfluorinated organic cation and fluorinated intercalating molecule, (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)), is isostructural [a = 40.685(4) A, b = 6.0804(6) A, c = 12.163(1) A, beta = 93.136(2) degrees, Z = 4]. For each intercalated system, close C...C contacts (3.44-3.50 A) between the aromatic cation and the intercalated molecule are indicative of a significant face-to-face interaction, similar to that found in the complex C(6)H(6).C(6)F(6). Crystal growth runs with the organic cation and prospective intercalating molecule either both fluorinated or both unfluorinated did not yield stable intercalated compounds, demonstrating the significance of fluoroaryl-aryl interactions in the current intercalated structures. Thermal analysis of (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) and (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)) crystals yields, in addition to the characteristic transitions of the parent perovskite, endothermic transitions [12.6(5) and 32.1(8) kJ/mol, respectively] with an onset at 145 degrees C and a weight loss corresponding to the complete loss of the intercalated molecule. The relatively high deintercalation temperature (well above the boiling point of

  12. Proton-conductive nano zeolite-PVA composite film as a new water-absorbing electrolyte for water electrolysis

    M. Nishihara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, organic-inorganic composite electrolyte membranes are developed for a novel water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. As the materials of the composite electrolyte membrane, 80 wt% of a proton-conducting nano zeolite (H-MFI as an electrolyte and 20 wt% of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as a cross-linkable matrix are used. The nano zeolite is prepared by a milling process. The nano zeolite-PVA composite membrane precursors are prepared by spraying onto a substrate, followed by cross-linking. The resulting nano zeolite-cross-linked PVA composite films are then evaluated for their properties such as proton conductivity as electrolyte membranes for the water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. It is confirmed that conventional materials such as zeolites and PVA can be used for the water electrolysis as an electrolyte.

  13. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    Carja, Gabriela [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Technical University of Iasi, 71 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: hchiriac@phys-iasi.ro; Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments.

  14. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we...... report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data...... for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant....

  15. White light emission from organic-inorganic hererostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer

    Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications

  16. Sol-gel synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor by mixed organic-inorganic polymerization

    Valente, I.; Sanchez, C.; Henry, M.; Livage, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel processes are quite attractive methods to produce films or fibers of high Tc superconducting materials. The gel step allows a good chemical homogeneity and generally provides a rather low processing temperature. Blue sols or monolithic gels can be easily produced using mixed organic-inorganic polymerisation of molecular precursors. An aqueous solution of copper, barium acetates and yttrium nitrate is mixed with an acrylic acid solution where a radical organic polymerisation process has been initiated. After pH adjustments, the viscosity of the resulting solution can be adjusted by heating. After drying at 150 0 C and calcination above 700 0 C, the YBaCuO network is formed and superconducting properties appears above 850 0 C. Fine particles (0.1-1 μm) are obtained which can be sintered to produce a ceramic material with a particularly narrow resistive transition [fr

  17. Temperature dependent electrical characteristics of an organic-inorganic heterojunction obtained from a novel organometal Mn complex

    Ocak, Y.S.; Ebeoglu, M.A.; Topal, G.; Kilicoglu, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study includes synthesizing a Mn hexaamide (MnHA) organometal compound (C 27 H 21 N 9 O 6 MnCl 2 ).(1/2H 2 O), fabrication of MnHA/n-Si organic-inorganic heterojunction and analysis of conduction mechanism of the device over the room temperature. After synthesizing the molecule, the structure of the compound was determined using spectroscopic methods. The Sn/MnHA/n-Si structure was constructed by forming a thin MnHA layer on n-Si inorganic semiconductor and evaporating Sn metal on organic complex. The structure has shown good rectifying behavior and obeys the thermionic emission theory. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode have been measured at temperatures ranging from 300 to 380 K at 10 K intervals to determine the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of the device.

  18. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  19. Modulation of solid electrolyte interphase of lithium-ion batteries by LiDFOB and LiBOB electrolyte additives

    Huang, Shiqiang; Wang, Shuwei; Hu, Guohong; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Shen, Cai

    2018-05-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is an organic-inorganic composite layer that allows Li+ transport across but blocks electron flow across and prevents solvent diffusing to electrode surface. Morphology, thickness, mechanical and chemical properties of SEI are important for safety and cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we employ a combination of in-situ AFM and XPS to investigate the effects of two electrolyte additives namely lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) on SEI layer. LiDFOB is found to result in a thin but hard SEI layer containing more inorganic species (LiF and LiCO3); meanwhile LiBOB promotes formation of a thick but soft SEI layer containing more organic species such as ROCO2Li. Findings from present study will help development of electrolyte additives that promote formation of good SEI layer.

  20. The Electrochemical Assembly of Semiconducting Organic-Inorganic Lamellar Domains for Photovoltaics

    Herman, David John

    This dissertation investigates the one-step electrodeposition of alternating nanoscale domains of n-type ZnO and p-type organic molecules for photovoltaics. In such hybrid photovoltaic systems, a nanoscale lamellar periodicity of 5-10 nm between electron donor and electron acceptor materials is ideal for efficient exciton separation. In addition, achieving uniform density and substrate-wide alignment of the hybrid lamellar structures with orientation perpendicular to substrate surfaces is important in providing direct pathways for charge carriers to the electrodes. To this end, it is first reported how to control the assembly of the pyrene-based surfactant 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PyBA) with zinc hydroxide (a precursor to the semiconductor ZnO), resulting in a nanoscale lamellar structure with a periodicity of 3.2 nm. By exploring solution chemistry parameters, the surfactant concentration and solvent composition are shown to have the greatest effect on the morphology of lamellar growth. By studying the early nucleation and growth on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with 2D grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, it is revealed that the lamellae preferentially nucleate parallel to the hydrophilic ITO surface. It is hypothesized that the conductive and more hydrophobic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) surface increases the affinity for the pyrene functions to the surface, and therefore the oriented growth of the lamellae changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the substrate surface. The second part of this thesis investigates the effects of conjugated surfactant design in directing the growth of hybrid lamellar structures by incorporating either a pyrene or terthiophene moiety and varying overall molecular design. It is found that high aspect ratio and amphiphilic surfactants possessing a flexible alkyl spacer between the carboxylic acid and conjugated moiety consistently allow for the controlled and directed

  1. Metal-Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Thermal Interface Materials with Ultralow Thermal Resistances.

    Yegin, Cengiz; Nagabandi, Nirup; Feng, Xuhui; King, Charles; Catalano, Massimo; Oh, Jun Kyun; Talib, Ansam J; Scholar, Ethan A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Cagin, Tahir; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kim, Moon J; Matin, Kaiser; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2017-03-22

    As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach. These hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate bulk thermal conductivities ranging from 211 to 277 W/(m K), which are very high considering their relatively low elastic modulus values on the order of 21.2-28.5 GPa. The synergistic combination of these properties led to the ultralow total thermal resistivity values in the range of 0.38-0.56 mm 2 K/W for a typical bond-line thickness of 30-50 μm, advancing the current state-of-art transformatively. Moreover, its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 11 ppm/K, forming a mediation zone with a low thermally induced axial stress due to its close proximity to the CTE of most coupling surfaces needing thermal management.

  2. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  3. TEM analysis and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings on Q235 steel prepared by hybrid method of hot-dipping aluminum and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Lu Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Science and Research Department, Chinese People' s Armed Police Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Zhang Jingwu [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen Dejiu, E-mail: sdj217@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wu Lailei; Jiang Guirong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li Liang [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was firstly used to analyze the phase composition of the ceramic coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase composition of the ceramic coatings is mainly amorphous phase and crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cross-section micro-hardness of the treated samples was investigated, the hardness of the ceramic coatings is about HV1300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the PEO samples is about 3 times higher than that of the heat treated 45 steel. - Abstract: The hybrid method of PEO and hot-dipping aluminum (HDA) was employed to deposit composite ceramic coatings on the surface of Q235 steel. The composition of the composite coatings was investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The cross-section microstructure and micro-hardness of the treated specimens were investigated and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microscopic hardness meter (MHM), respectively. The wear resistance of the ceramic coatings was investigated by a self-made rubbing wear testing machine. The results indicate that metallurgical bonding can be observed between the ceramic coatings and the steel substrate. There are many micro-pores and micro-cracks, which act as the discharge channels and result of quick and non-uniform cooling of melted sections in the plasma electrolytic oxidation ceramic coatings. The phase composition of the ceramic coatings is mainly composed of amorphous phase and crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. The crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase includes {kappa}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {theta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The grain size of the {kappa}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal is quite non-uniform. The hardness of the ceramic coatings is about HV1300 and 10 times higher than that of the Q235 substrate, which was favorable to the better wear resistance of the ceramic

  4. Enhanced Performance of a Self-Powered Organic/Inorganic Photodetector by Pyro-Phototronic and Piezo-Phototronic Effects.

    Peng, Wenbo; Wang, Xingfu; Yu, Ruomeng; Dai, Yejing; Zou, Haiyang; Wang, Aurelia C; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-01

    Self-powered photodetectors (PDs) have long been realized by utilizing photovoltaic effect and their performances can be effectively enhanced by introducing the piezo-phototronic effect. Recently, a novel pyro-phototronic effect is invented as an alternative approach for performance enhancement of self-powered PDs. Here, a self-powered organic/inorganic PD is demonstrated and the influences of externally applied strain on the pyro-phototronic and the photovoltaic effects are thoroughly investigated. Under 325 nm 2.30 mW cm -2 UV illumination and at a -0.45% compressive strain, the PD's photocurrent is dramatically enhanced from ≈14.5 to ≈103 nA by combining the pyro-phototronic and piezo-phototronic effects together, showing a significant improvement of over 600%. Theoretical simulations have been carried out via the finite element method to propose the underlying working mechanism. Moreover, the pyro-phototronic effect can be introduced by applying a -0.45% compressive strain to greatly enhance the PD's response to 442 nm illumination, including photocurrent, rise time, and fall time. This work provides in-depth understandings about the pyro-phototronic and the piezo-phototronic effects on the performances of self-powered PD to light sources with different wavelengths and indicates huge potential of these two effects in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    A. Zuend

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  6. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  7. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  8. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Layered halide hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells

  9. Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis andImaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Researchand Education in Low Density Organic Inorganic Materials

    2017-12-02

    Report: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density...Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0475 Organization: University of Texas at El Paso Title: Acquisition of an Advanced Thermal Analysis and Imaging System ...for Integration with Interdisciplinary Research and Education in Low Density Organic-Inorganic Materials Report Term: 0-Other Email: dmisra2

  10. A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs)

    Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja V.; Koh, Ai Leen; Zhu, Jing; Nguyen, Lienchi N.; Mitchell, Dennis J.; Zhang, Jingwu; Swartz, Kenneth B.; Sun, Lei; Chan, Selena; Sinclair, Robert; Nolan, Garry P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities. Methodology/Principal Findings To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using ?Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles? (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhan...

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  12. High-Performance CH3NH3PbI3-Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Fill Factor Over 83% via Excess Organic/Inorganic Halide.

    Jahandar, Muhammad; Khan, Nasir; Lee, Hang Ken; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Song, Chang Eun; Moon, Sang-Jin

    2017-10-18

    The reduction of charge carrier recombination and intrinsic defect density in organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorber materials is a prerequisite to achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells with good efficiency and stability. Here, we fabricated inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporation of a small amount of excess organic/inorganic halide (methylammonium iodide (CH 3 NH 3 I; MAI), formamidinium iodide (CH(NH 2 ) 2 I; FAI), and cesium iodide (CsI)) in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite film. Larger crystalline grains and enhanced crystallinity in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite films with excess organic/inorganic halide reduce the charge carrier recombination and defect density, leading to enhanced device efficiency (MAI+: 14.49 ± 0.30%, FAI+: 16.22 ± 0.38% and CsI+: 17.52 ± 0.56%) compared to the efficiency of a control MAPbI 3 device (MAI: 12.63 ± 0.64%) and device stability. Especially, the incorporation of a small amount of excess CsI in MAPbI 3 perovskite film leads to a highly reproducible fill factor of over 83%, increased open-circuit voltage (from 0.946 to 1.042 V), and short-circuit current density (from 18.43 to 20.89 mA/cm 2 ).

  13. Solid electrolytes

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  14. Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2}

    Abid, H., E-mail: haithamlpa@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Samet, A.; Dammak, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Mlayah, A. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS-Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2} compound is a new crystal belonging to the large hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites compounds family. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Bands to band absorption peak at 2.44 eV as well as an extremely strong yellow-green photoluminescence emission at 2.17 eV is observed at room temperature. First principle calculations based on the DFT and FLAPW methods combined with LDA approximation are performed as well. Density of state close to the gap is presented and discussed in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence experimental results. The perfect agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations is highlighted. - Highlights: > (C{sub 9}H{sub 19}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 2}Br{sub 2} compound is a new crystal with strong yellow-green PL emission at 2.17 eV. > Calculations based on DFT and FLAPW method combined with LDA approximation are performed. > Gap, optical transitions and exciton presence were predicted from density of states. > Agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations.

  15. Organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish by chemical vapor generation with collection on a gold gauze and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Duarte, Fabio Andrei; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Goldschmidt Antes, Fabiane; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    A method for organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish tissue has been developed using chemical vapor generation and collection of mercury vapor on a gold gauze inside a graphite tube and further atomization by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After drying and cryogenic grinding, potassium bromide and hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol L - 1 KBr in 6 mol L - 1 HCl) was added to the samples. After centrifugation, total mercury was determined in the supernatant. Organomercury compounds were selectively extracted from KBr solution using chloroform and the resultant solution was back extracted with 1% m/v L-cysteine. This solution was used for organic Hg determination. Inorganic Hg remaining in KBr solution was directly determined by chemical vapor generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury vapor generation from extracts was performed using 1 mol L - 1 HCl and 2.5% m/v NaBH 4 solutions and a batch chemical vapor generation system. Mercury vapor was collected on the gold gauze heated resistively at 80 deg. C and the atomization temperature was set at 650 deg. C. The selectivity of extraction was evaluated using liquid chromatography coupled to chemical vapor generation and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method was applied for mercury analysis in shark, croaker and tuna fish tissues. Certified reference materials were used to check accuracy and the agreement was better than 95%. The characteristic mass was 60 pg and method limits of detection were 5, 1 and 1 ng g - 1 for organic, inorganic and total mercury, respectively. With the proposed method it was possible to analyze up to 2, 2 and 6 samples per hour for organic, inorganic and total Hg determination, respectively.

  16. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Hong Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Blake, Graeme R.; Palstra, Thomas T.M.; Ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C6H5CH2NH3)2PbI4) using two different soft

  18. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  19. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  20. Flexible magnetic polyurethane/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as organic-inorganic nanocomposites for biomedical applications: Properties and cell behavior

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875/4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseinian, Monireh Sadat [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghollasi, Marzieh [Department of Cell & Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karbalaeimahdi, Ali [Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Ali, E-mail: salimiali@bmsu.ac.ir [Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabar, Fatemeh Ahmadi [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875/4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the discovery of cell behaviors and their responses in communication with the stem cell niches and/or microenvironments are one of the major topics in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared for better understanding of cell signaling and the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on cell proliferation and cell responses. The properties of PU-IONs were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) affects on the properties of polyurethane nanocomposites such as bulk morphology, mechanical, electrochemical, and biological properties. The electrical conductivity and hydrophilicity of PU-IONs were improved by increasing the magnetite nanoparticles; therefore water absorption, biodegradation and cell viability were changed. The biocompatibility of PU-IONs was investigated by MTT assay, cell attachment and cell staining. According to the results, the magnetite polyurethane nanocomposites could be a potential choice for cell therapy and tissue engineering, especially nerve repair. - Highlights: • Biodegradable and biocompatible incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared. • The hydrophilicity of polyurethane/iron oxide nanocomposites (PU-IONs) was improved by increasing of magnetite nanoparticles. • The magnetite nanocomposites showed greater electrical conductivity and surface roughness in contrast to neat polyurethane. • The PU-IONs nanocomposites had suitable cell viability and hold promising potential for tissue engineering applications.

  1. US work on technical and economic aspects of electrolytic, thermochemical, and hybrid processes for hydrogen production at temperatures below 550 deg. C

    Petri, M.C.; Yyldyz, B.; Klickman, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen demand is increasing, but there are few options for affordable hydrogen production free of greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power is one of the most promising options. Most research is focused on high-temperature electrolytic and thermochemical processes for nuclear-generated hydrogen, but it will be many years before very high temperature reactors become commercially available. For light water reactors or supercritical reactors, low-temperature water electrolysis is a currently available technology for hydrogen production. Higher efficiencies may be gained through thermo-electrochemical hydrogen production cycles, but there are only a limited number that have heat requirements consistent with the lower temperatures of light-water reactor technology. Indeed, active research is ongoing for only three such cycles in the USA. Reductions in electricity and system costs would be needed (or the imposition of a carbon tax) for low-temperature water electrolysis to compete with today's costs for steam methane reformation. The interactions between hydrogen and electricity markets and hydrogen and electricity producers are complex and will evolve as the markets evolve. (author)

  2. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  3. The use of halloysite functionalized with isothiouronium salts as an organic/inorganic hybrid adsorbent for uranium(VI) ions removal.

    Gładysz-Płaska, A; Majdan, M; Tarasiuk, B; Sternik, D; Grabias, E

    2018-07-15

    Elimination of U(VI) from nuclear wastes and from the underground water near the uranium mines is the serious problem. Therefore search for new sorbents for U(VI) is still a big challenge for the scientists. This paper investigates of U(VI) ions sorption on halloysite modified with the isothiouronium salts: S-dodecaneisothiouronium bromide (ligand 1), S,S'-dodecane-1,12-diylbis(isothiouronium bromide) (ligand 2), S-hexadecaneisothiouronium chloride (ligand 3), S,S'-naphthalene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 4), and S,S'-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 5). It was established that halloysite modified by the ligands with four nitrogen atoms in their structure (ligand-5, 2 and 4) was characterized by higher sorption capacity compared with that modified by the ligands with two donor nitrogens (ligand-1 and 3). The maximum sorption capacity of halloysite-5 toward U(VI) was 157 mg U/g and this places the modified mineral among the most effective sorbents for U(VI) removal from wastes. As follows from ATR, XPS and thermal degradation spectra of the sorption products [R-S-C(NH)(NH 2 )] n = 1-2 (UO 2 2+ ) complexes are formed on the external surface of the halloysite whereas oligomeric hydroxy complexes (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + and (UO 2 ) 4 (OH) 7 + are present in the interior of halloysite structure and interact predominantly with aluminols. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanocrystalline p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol) and gold core-shell structure as a model drug deliverable organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure

    Das, Subhojit; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-09-01

    We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH < 3), the Au shell could be dissolved, subsequently releasing pHA molecules. The dissolution of Au shell was marked by a gradual diminishing of its SPR band, while the release of pHA molecules in the solution was confirmed from TEM and FTIR studies. The findings suggest that the core-shell NP could be hypothesized to be a model for encapsulating drug molecules, in their crystalline forms, for slow as well as targeted release. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03566b

  5. Encapsulation of Polymer Colloids in a Sol-Gel Matrix. Direct-Writing of Coassembling Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Photonic Crystals.

    Mikosch, Annabel; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2016-03-22

    The spontaneous self-assembly of polymer colloids into ordered arrangements provides a facile strategy for the creation of photonic crystals. However, these structures often suffer from defects and insufficient cohesion, which result in flaking and delamination from the substrate. A coassembly process has been developed for convective assembly, resulting in large-area encapsulated colloidal crystals. However, to generate patterns or discrete deposits in designated places, convective assembly is not suitable. Here we experimentally develop conditions for direct-writing of coassembling monodisperse dye-doped polystyrene particles with a sol-gel precursor to form solid encapsulated photonic crystals. In a simple procedure the colloids are formulated in a sol-gel precursor solution, drop-cast on a flat substrate, and dried. We here establish the optimal parameters to form reproducible highly ordered photonic crystals with good optical performance. The obtained photonic crystals interact with light in the visible spectrum with a narrow optical stop-gap.

  6. Mechanical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I perovskites for solar cell absorbers

    Jing Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures, elastic and anisotropic properties of CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I compounds as solar cell absorber layers are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The type and strength of chemical bond B-X are found to determine the elastic properties. B-X bonds and the organic cations are therefore crucial to the functionalities of such absorbers. The bulk, shear, Young's modulus ranges from 12 to 30 GPa, 3 to 12 GPa, and 15 to 37 GPa, respectively. Moreover, the interaction among organic and inorganic ions would have negligible effect for elastic properties. The B/G and Poisson's ratio show it would have a good ductile ability for extensive deformation as a flexible/stretchable layer on the polymer substrate. The main reason is attributed to the low shear modulus of such perovskites. The anisotropic indices AU, AB AG, A1, A2, and A3 show ABX3 perovskite have very strong anisotropy derived from the elastic constants, chemical bonds, and symmetry.

  7. Improving the Morphology of the Perovskite Absorber Layer in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Halide Perovskite MAPbI3 Solar Cells

    I. J. Ogundana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent power conversion efficiency, low cost, simple fabrications, and high photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the perovskite solar cells are lightweight and possess thin film and semitransparency. However, the nonuniformity in perovskite layer constitutes a major setback to the operation mechanism, performance, reproducibility, and degradation of perovskite solar cells. Therefore, one of the main challenges in planar perovskite devices is the fabrication of high quality films with controlled morphology and least amount of pin-holes for high performance thin film perovskite devices. The poor reproducibility in perovskite solar cells hinders the accurate fabrication of practical devices for use in real world applications, and this is primarily as a result of the inability to control the morphology of perovskites, leading to large variability in the characteristics of perovskite solar cells. Hence, the focus of research in perovskites has been mostly geared towards improving the morphology and crystallization of perovskite absorber by selecting the optimal annealing condition considering the effect of humidity. Here we report a controlled ambient condition that is necessary to grow uniform perovskite crystals. A best PCE of 7.5% was achieved along with a short-circuit current density of 15.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.81 V, and a fill factor of 0.612 from the perovskite solar cell prepared under 60% relative humidity.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  9. Effect of Nonionic Surfactant Additive in PEDOT:PSS on PFO Emission Layer in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    Cho, Seong Rae; Porte, Yoann; Kim, Yun Cheol; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2018-03-21

    Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) has attracted significant interests owing to its versatility in electronic devices. However, changes in its optical properties caused by its various phases and the formation of oxidation defects limit the application of PFO in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We investigated the effects of the addition of Triton X-100 (hereinafter shortened as TX) in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to induce interlayer diffusion between PEDOT:PSS and PFO to enhance the stability of the PFO phase and suppress its oxidation. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement on PFO/TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS layers revealed that, upon increasing the concentration of TX in the PEDOT:PSS layer, the β phase of PFO could be suppressed in favor of the glassy phase and the wide PL emission centered at 535 nm caused by ketone defects formed by oxidation was decreased considerably. LEDs were then fabricated using PFO as an emission layer, TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS as hole-transport layer, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as electron-transport layer. As the TX concentration reached 3 wt %, the devices exhibited dramatic increases in current densities, which were attributed to the enhanced hole injection due to TX addition, along with a shift in the dominant emission wavelength from a green electroluminescence (EL) emission centered at 518 nm to a blue EL emission centered at 448 nm. The addition of TX in PEDOT:PSS induced a better hole injection in the PFO layer, and through interlayer diffusion, stabilized the glassy phase of PFO and limited the formation of oxidation defects.

  10. Comprehensive investigation of core-shell dimer nanoparticles size, distance and thicknesses on performance of a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell

    Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Significant performance enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell is done using plasmonic embedded core–shell dimer nanoparticles. Three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used. A perovskite absorber with a volume of 400 × 400 × 200 nm3 is considered. At first, a cell with one embedded nanoparticle is simulated. Absorptance of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber and gold nanoparticle are obtained. An optimization is done. Then a cell with embedded dimer nanoparticles is evaluated. The results show higher photocurrent enhancement for that in compared to a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. To further photocurrent enhancement, gold-SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are used. Photocurrents of 23.37 mA cm‑2, 23.3 mA cm‑2, 22.5 mA cm‑2 and 21.47 mA cm‑2 are obtained for a cell with two embedded core–shell nanoparticles with core radius of 60 nm and shell thickness of 2 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm and 20 nm, respectively. It is important to mention that the photocurrent is 17.9 mA cm‑2 for reference cell and 19.8 mA cm‑2 for a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. Higher photocurrent is due to the near-field plasmonic effect.

  11. The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable battery of Zn/Na0.44MnO2 based on hybrid electrolyte

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Yehua; Xiang, Yanhong; Liu, Zhixiong; He, Zeqiang; Wu, Xianming; Li, Youji; Xiong, Lizhi; Li, Chuanchang; Chen, Jian

    2016-12-01

    There is a broad application prospect for smart grid about aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery. In order to improve its electrochemical performance, a hybrid cationic aqueous-based rechargeable battery system based on the nanostructural Na0.44MnO2 and metallic zinc foil as the positive and negative electrodes respectively is built up. Nano rod-like Na0.44MnO2 is synthesized by sol-gel method followed by calcination at 850 °C for 9 h, and various characterization techniques including the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the as-prepared material. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge measurements are performed at the same time. The results show that the battery delivers a very high initial discharge capacity of 186.2 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C-rate in the range of 0.5-2.0 V, and it exhibits a discharge capacity of 113.3 mAh g-1 at high current density of 4 C-rate, indicative of excellent rate capability.

  12. Spray-deposition and photopolymerization of organic-inorganic thiol-ene resins for fabrication of superamphiphobic surfaces.

    Xiong, Li; Kendrick, Laken L; Heusser, Hannele; Webb, Jamie C; Sparks, Bradley J; Goetz, James T; Guo, Wei; Stafford, Christopher M; Blanton, Michael D; Nazarenko, Sergei; Patton, Derek L

    2014-07-09

    Superamphiphobic surfaces, exhibiting high contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis to both water and low surface tension liquids, have attracted a great deal attention in recent years because of the potential of these materials in practical applications such as liquid-resistant textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, and antifouling/anticorrosion coatings. In this work, we present a simple strategy for fabricating of superamphiphobic coatings based on photopolymerization of hybrid thiol-ene resins. Spray-deposition and UV photopolymerization of thiol-ene resins containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and perfluorinated thiols provide a multiscale topography and low-energy surface that endows the surface with superamphiphobicity. The wettability and chemical composition of the surfaces were characterized by contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The hierarchical roughness features of the thiol-ene surfaces were investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Droplet impact and sandpaper abrasion tests indicate the coatings respectively possess a robust antiwetting behavior and good mechanical durability.

  13. Pressure effects on the magnetic behaviour of copper (II) compounds: magnetic ordering of layered organic/inorganic magnets

    Levchenko, G; Varyukhin, V N; Berezhnaya, L V; Rusakov, V F

    2012-01-01

    The high hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic properties of the layered hybrid compounds Cu 2 (OH) 3 (C n H 2n+1 CO 2 )⋅mH 2 O with distance between magnetic layers of up to 40 Å is studied. It is shown that the temperature of the ferromagnetic ordering decreases linearly with pressure increase. From measurements of susceptibility in the paramagnetic region, using both quantum Heisenberg and Ising exchange coupling models in layers and dipole interaction between layers, the in- and interlayer interactions are deduced. The dipole interactions are calculated and are shown to coincide with the model of Ising interactions in the layers. The value and decrease of T c under pressure are mainly driven by the value and decrease of the in-plane interactions. The formation of the long range ordering in the layered sample with dipolar interaction between layers is analysed. As a conclusion it is suggested that for designing high temperature ferromagnetism in layer compounds it is enough to have large in-plane interactions of ions with specific symmetry in layers and weak dipole interactions between layers. (paper)

  14. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2014-08-01

    The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3-xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  15. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Christian Wehrenfennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3−xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  16. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  17. Sequential Dip-spin Coating Method: Fully Infiltration of MAPbI 3-x Cl x into Mesoporous TiO 2 for Stable Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    Kim, Woochul; Park, Jiyoon; Kim, Hyeonghun; Pak, Yusin; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached a power conversion efficiency of 22.1% in a short period (∼7 years), which has been obtainable in silicon-based solar cells for decades. The high power conversion efficiency

  18. A novel method for detection of phosphorylation in single cells by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS using composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs.

    Catherine M Shachaf

    Full Text Available Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities.To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer. Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701 and Stat6 (Y641, with results comparable to flow cytometry.Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

  19. A novel method for detection of phosphorylation in single cells by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs).

    Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja V; Koh, Ai Leen; Zhu, Jing; Nguyen, Lienchi N; Mitchell, Dennis J; Zhang, Jingwu; Swartz, Kenneth B; Sun, Lei; Chan, Selena; Sinclair, Robert; Nolan, Garry P

    2009-01-01

    Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities. To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs) Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer). Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701) and Stat6 (Y641), with results comparable to flow cytometry. Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

  20. Crystal structure and electrical conduction of the new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4

    Zhang, Liuqi; Wang, Jilin; Han, Feifei; Mo, Shuyi; Long, Fei; Gao, Yihua

    2018-03-01

    The new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was prepared by slow evaporation method using a mixture solution of CdI2 and ethylenediamine iodide (EDAI) in the γ-butyrolactone (GBL). The synthesized compound was further characterized by single crystal diffraction, Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis. The relaxation behavior and conductivity mechanism of (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was studied by the electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 had a monoclinic structure with space group P21/c at room temperature. The complex impedance plotted as semicircle arcs and the proposed electrical equivalent circuit was to interpret the impedance behavior at different temperatures. The electrical equivalent circuit was made of a parallel combination of resistance (R) and fractal capacitance (CPE). Furthermore, the alternating current conductivity of the sample obeyed the Jonscher's law: σf =σdc + Afs and the conduction could be attributed to the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.

  1. Interfacial dynamic surface traps of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals: test-platform for interfacial charge carrier traps at the organic/inorganic functional interface

    Kim, Youngjun; Ko, Hyungduk; Park, Byoungnam

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystal (NC) size and ligand dependent dynamic trap formation of lead sulfide (PbS) NCs in contact with an organic semiconductor were investigated using a pentacene/PbS field effect transistor (FET). We used a bilayer pentacene/PbS FET to extract information of the surface traps of PbS NCs at the pentacene/PbS interface through the field effect-induced charge carrier density measurement in the threshold and subthreshold regions. PbS size and ligand dependent trap properties were elucidated by the time domain and threshold voltage measurements in which threshold voltage shift occurs by carrier charging and discharging in the trap states of PbS NCs. The observed threshold voltage shift is interpreted in context of electron trapping through dynamic trap formation associated with PbS NCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of interfacial dynamic trap density of PbS NC in contact with an organic semiconductor (pentacene). We found that the dynamic trap density of the PbS NC is size dependent and the carrier residence time in the specific trap sites is more sensitive to NC size variation than to NC ligand exchange. The probing method presented in the study offers a means to investigate the interfacial surface traps at the organic-inorganic hetero-junction, otherwise understanding of the buried surface traps at the functional interface would be elusive.

  2. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  3. Flexible magnetic polyurethane/Fe2O3 nanoparticles as organic-inorganic nanocomposites for biomedical applications: Properties and cell behavior.

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen; Hoseinian, Monireh Sadat; Ghollasi, Marzieh; Karbalaeimahdi, Ali; Salimi, Ali; Tabar, Fatemeh Ahmadi

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the discovery of cell behaviors and their responses in communication with the stem cell niches and/or microenvironments are one of the major topics in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, incorporated organic-inorganic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared for better understanding of cell signaling and the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on cell proliferation and cell responses. The properties of PU-IONs were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) affects on the properties of polyurethane nanocomposites such as bulk morphology, mechanical, electrochemical, and biological properties. The electrical conductivity and hydrophilicity of PU-IONs were improved by increasing the magnetite nanoparticles; therefore water absorption, biodegradation and cell viability were changed. The biocompatibility of PU-IONs was investigated by MTT assay, cell attachment and cell staining. According to the results, the magnetite polyurethane nanocomposites could be a potential choice for cell therapy and tissue engineering, especially nerve repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  5. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  6. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  7. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  8. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  9. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  10. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Priante, Davide; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  12. A review of electrolyte materials and compositions for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Zhong, Cheng; Deng, Yida; Hu, Wenbin; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-11-07

    Electrolytes have been identified as some of the most influential components in the performance of electrochemical supercapacitors (ESs), which include: electrical double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors and hybrid supercapacitors. This paper reviews recent progress in the research and development of ES electrolytes. The electrolytes are classified into several categories, including: aqueous, organic, ionic liquids, solid-state or quasi-solid-state, as well as redox-active electrolytes. Effects of electrolyte properties on ES performance are discussed in detail. The principles and methods of designing and optimizing electrolytes for ES performance and application are highlighted through a comprehensive analysis of the literature. Interaction among the electrolytes, electro-active materials and inactive components (current collectors, binders, and separators) is discussed. The challenges in producing high-performing electrolytes are analyzed. Several possible research directions to overcome these challenges are proposed for future efforts, with the main aim of improving ESs' energy density without sacrificing existing advantages (e.g., a high power density and a long cycle-life) (507 references).

  13. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}

    Dammak, T., E-mail: thameurlpa@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Elleuch, S. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Bougzhala, H. [Laboratoire de cristallochimie et des materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia); Mlayah, A. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Chtourou, R. [Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie CRTEn BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semiconducteur (Tunisia); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2{sub 1}/a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX{sub 6} (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm{sup -1} frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  14. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  15. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  16. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  17. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  18. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  19. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  20. Proton Conducting Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Composite Electrolytes as Gate Dielectrics for New-Concept Devices.

    Feng, Ping; Du, Peifu; Wan, Changjin; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-09-30

    New-concept devices featuring the characteristics of ultralow operation voltages and low fabrication cost have received increasing attention recently because they can supplement traditional Si-based electronics. Also, organic/inorganic composite systems can offer an attractive strategy to combine the merits of organic and inorganic materials into promising electronic devices. In this report, solution-processed graphene oxide/chitosan composite film was found to be an excellent proton conducting electrolyte with a high specific capacitance of ~3.2 μF/cm 2 at 1.0 Hz, and it was used to fabricate multi-gate electric double layer transistors. Dual-gate AND logic operation and two-terminal diode operation were realized in a single device. A two-terminal synaptic device was proposed, and some important synaptic behaviors were emulated, which is interesting for neuromorphic systems.

  1. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl 2 O 4 )] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF 6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl 2 O 4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO 2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl 2 O 4 ] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator

  2. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  3. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  4. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  5. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  6. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  7. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Ferreira, A. C.

    2018-01-26

    Much recent attention has been devoted towards unravelling the microscopic optoelectronic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP). Here we investigate by coherent inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear modulus C44. Further, a tendency towards an incipient ferroelastic transition is observed in FAPbBr3. We observe a systematic lower sound group velocity in the technologically important iodide-based compounds compared to the bromide-based ones. The findings suggest that low thermal conductivity and hot phonon bottleneck phenomena are expected to be enhanced by low elastic stiffness, particularly in the case of the ultrasoft α-FAPbI3.

  8. Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte

    Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref

  9. Progress in electrolytes for rechargeable Li-based batteries and beyond

    Qi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to almost unmatched volumetric energy density, Li-based batteries have dominated the portable electronic industry for the past 20 years. Not only will that continue, but they are also now powering plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and zero-emission vehicles. There is impressive progress in the exploration of electrode materials for lithium-based batteries because the electrodes (mainly the cathode are the limiting factors in terms of overall capacity inside a battery. However, more and more interests have been focused on the electrolytes, which determines the current (power density, the time stability, the reliability of a battery and the formation of solid electrolyte interface. This review will introduce five types of electrolytes for room temperature Li-based batteries including 1 non-aqueous electrolytes, 2 aqueous solutions, 3 ionic liquids, 4 polymer electrolytes, and 5 hybrid electrolytes. Besides, electrolytes beyond lithium-based systems such as sodium-, magnesium-, calcium-, zinc- and aluminum-based batteries will also be briefly discussed. Keywords: Electrolyte, Ionic liquid, Polymer, Hybrid, Battery

  10. Investigation de fluides électrorhéologiques sur la base des matériaux hybrides

    Marins , Jéssica Alves ,

    2014-01-01

    Electrorheology is an area has been exploring the application of these organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, to obtain better performance in electrorheological properties. Electro-rheological fluids consist of a colloidal dispersion, where the liquid is non-conductive and the particles dispersed in the fluid are able of polarized at presence of electric field. When the fluids ER are subjected to an external electric field the rheological properties change, and may increase or decrease the appar...

  11. Hybrid inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes: synthesis, FT-Raman studies and conductivity of {l_brace}Zr[(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 8.7}]{sub {rho}}/(LiClO{sub 4}){sub z}{r_brace}{sub n} network complexes

    Di Noto, Vito; Zago, Vanni; Biscazzo, Simone; Vittadello, Michele

    2003-01-15

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional hybrid inorganic-organic networks prepared by a polycondensation reaction between Zr(O(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3}){sub 4} and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Eleven hybrid networks doped with varying concentrations of LiClO{sub 4} salt were prepared. On the basis of analytical data and FT-Raman studies it was concluded that these polymer electrolytes consist of inorganic-organic networks with zirconium atoms bonded together by PEG400 bridges. These polymers are transparent with a solid rubber consistency and are very stable under inert atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth glassy surface. X-ray fluorescence microanalysis with energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that all the constituent elements are homogeneously distributed in the materials. Thermogravimetric measurements revealed that these materials are thermally stable up to 262 deg. C. Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements indicated that the glass transition temperature T{sub g} of these inorganic-organic hybrids varies from -43 to -15 deg. C with increasing LiClO{sub 4} concentration. FT-Raman investigations revealed the TGT (T=trans, G=gauche) conformation of polyether chains and allowed characterization of the types of ion-ion and ion-polymer host interactions in the bulk materials. The conductivity of the materials at different temperatures was determined by impedance spectroscopy over the 20 Hz-1 MHz frequency range. Results indicated that the materials conduct ionically and that their ionic conductivity is strongly influenced by the segmental motion of the polymer network and the type of ionic species distributed in the bulk material. Finally, it is to be highlighted that the hybrid network with a n{sub Li}/n{sub O} molar ratio of 0.0223 shows a conductivity of ca. 1x10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} at 40 deg. C.

  12. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material and investigation of its catalytic activity.

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-03-14

    In the present work, the preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material in which tetrakis(p-aminophenylporphyrin) is covalently linked to a Lindqvist structure of polyoxometalate, is reported. This new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided spectral data of the synthesis of this compound. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the porphyrin on the redox process of the polyoxometalate. The catalytic activity of this hybrid material was investigated in the alkene epoxidation with NaIO(4).

  14. based gel polymer electrolytes

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  15. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  16. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  17. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  18. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  19. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  20. Conductometry of electrolyte solutions

    Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.

    1992-09-01

    A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  1. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  2. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  3. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  4. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  5. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  6. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  7. Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC, open-circuit voltage (VOC, and power conversion efficiencies (η of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  8. Biexciton Auger Recombination Differs in Hybrid and Inorganic Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    Eperon, Giles E; Jedlicka, Erin; Ginger, David S

    2018-01-04

    We use time-resolved photoluminescence measurements to determine the biexciton Auger recombination rate in both hybrid organic-inorganic and fully inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal volume. We find that the volume scaling of the biexciton Auger rate in the hybrid perovskites, containing a polar organic A-site cation, is significantly shallower than in the fully inorganic Cs-based nanocrystals. As the nanocrystals become smaller, the Auger rate in the hybrid nanocrystals increases even less than expected, compared to the fully inorganic nanocrystals, which already show a shallower volume dependence than other material systems such as chalcogenide quantum dots. This finding suggests there may be differences in the strength of Coulombic interactions between the fully inorganic and hybrid perovskites, which may prove to be crucial in selecting materials to obtain the highest performing devices in the future, and hints that there could be something "special" about the hybrid materials.

  9. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Hou Aiqin; Chen Huawei

    2010-01-01

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  11. New 'chimie douce' approach to the synthesis of hybrid nanosheets of MoS2 on CNT and their anti-friction and anti-wear properties.

    Altavilla, Claudia; Sarno, Maria; Ciambelli, Paolo; Senatore, Adolfo; Petrone, Vincenzo

    2013-03-29

    Hybrid organic-inorganic oleylamine@MoS2-CNT nanocomposites with different compositions were obtained by thermal decomposition of tetrathiomolybdate in the presence of oleylamine and high quality multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) previously prepared by the CCVD technique. The nanocomposite samples were characterized by the TEM, SEM TG-MS, Raman and XRD techniques and successfully tested as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for grease lubricants.

  12. Investigation of vacuum deposited hybrid coatings of protic organic UV absorbers embedded in a silica matrix used for the UV protection of Polycarbonate glazing

    Weber, C.; Schulz, U.; Mühlig, C.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for UV protection of polycarbonate is presented. UV-absorbing compounds, which are commonly used for polycarbonate, were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. In addition to the optical properties of the coatings, the influence of the silica network on the organic UV absorber and the stability of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are discussed. A model is presented to show the interaction be...

  13. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  14. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  15. Effects of electrolytes variation on formation of oxide layers of 6061 Al alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Kai WANG; Bon-Heun KOO; Chan-Gyu LEE; Young-Joo KIM; Sung-Hun LEE; Eungsun BYON

    2009-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO) processes were carried out to produce ceramic layers on 6061 aluminum substrates in four kinds of electrolytes such as silicate and aluminate solution with and without sodium fluorosilicate. The PEO processes were carried out under a hybrid voltage (260 V DC combined with 200 V, 60 Hz AC amplitude) at room temperature for 5 min. The composition, microstructure and element distribution analyses of the PEO-treated layers were carried out by XRD and SEM & EDS. The effect of the electrolyte contents on the growth mechanism, element distribution and properties of oxide layers were studied. It is obvious that the layers generated in aluminate solutions show smoother surfaces than those in silicate solutions. Moreover, an addition of fluorine ion can effectively control the layer porosity; therefore, it can enhance the properties of the layers.

  16. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  18. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  19. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  20. A novel thermosetting gel electrolyte for stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Lan, Z.; Lin, J.M.; Huang, M.L.; Hao, S.C. [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Sato, T.; Yin, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-Chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wu, J.H.

    2007-11-19

    Using poly(acrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-absorbing liquid electrolyte, we prepare a novel thermosetting gel electrolyte (TSGE) with ionic conductivity of 6.12 mS cm{sup -1}. Based on the TSGE, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with a good long-term stability and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.10 % is attained under AM 1.5 irradiation. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)