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Sample records for organic potato production

  1. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  2. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  3. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  4. Fungal pathogens and antagonists in root-soil zone in organic and integrated systems of potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenc Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of culturable Fungi and Oomycota in root-soil habitat of potato cv. Owacja in organic and integrated production systems at Osiny (northern Poland was compared in 2008-2010. The densities of both pathogens were significantly greater in the organic system. The eudominant fungal taxa (with frequency > 10% in at least one habitat included species of Fusarium + Gibberella + Haematonectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma. The dominant taxa (with frequency 5-10% included species from 13 genera. In the rhizoplane, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, the total density of potential pathogens was greater in the integrated system, and of potential antagonists in the organic system. Among eudominant and dominant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibellulopsis nigrescens occurred at greater density in the integrated system and Haematonectria haematococca and Phoma spp. in the organic system. Among eudominant antagonists, Trichoderma species occurred at greater density in the organic system. The organic system provided more disease suppressive habitat than the integrated system. The occurrence of brown leaf spot and potato blight was however similar in both systems. The mean yield of organic potatoes (24.9 t · ha-1 was higher than the mean organic potato yield in Poland (21.0 t · ha-1 and similar to the mean in other European countries (Germany 25.1 t · ha-1, Great Britain 25.0 t · ha-1. The organic system, based on a 5-year rotation, with narrow-leafed lupin, white mustard and buckwheat as a cover crop, inorganic fertilization based on ground rock phosphate + potassium sulphate, and biological and chemical control of insects and diseases (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis + copper hydroxide + copper oxychloride, may be recommended for use in central Europe.

  5. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  6. Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno

    2013-01-01

    Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...

  7. ASSESSING CHANGES IN POTATO CANOPY CAUSED BY LATE BLIGHT IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION SYSTEMS THROUGH UAV-BASED PUSHBROOM IMAGING SPECTROMETER

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    M. H. D. Franceschini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution. This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  8. Assessing Changes in Potato Canopy Caused by Late Blight in Organic Production Systems Through Uav-Based Pushbroom Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M. H. D.; Bartholomeus, H.; van Apeldoorn, D.; Suomalainen, J.; Kooistra, L.

    2017-08-01

    Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum) under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution). This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm) are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  9. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  10. Biogas production from potato-juice, a by-product from potato-starch processing, in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/gVS-added. Ana......In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/g...

  11. Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impact of Late Blight and State-of-the-Art Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamm, L.; Smit, A.B.; Hospers, M.; Janssens, S.R.M.; Buurma, J.S.; Molgaard, J.P.; Laerke, P.E.; Hansen, H.H.; Hermans, A.; Bodker, L.; Bertrand, C.; Lambion, J.; Finckh, M.R.; Schuler, C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Ruissen, T.; Nielsen, B.J.; Solberg, S.; Speiser, B.; Wolfe, M.S.; Philips, S.; Wilcoxon, S.J.; Leifert, C.

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight

  12. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  13. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  14. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; De Weijer, Van Antonius H.P.; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Vos, De Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial

  15. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...

  16. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamria Sidauruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato monoculture potato with cabbage potato with mustard potato with celery potato with cabbage and mustard potato with cabbage and celery potato with mustard and celery potato with cabbage mustard and celery. Research carried out for two planting season. The first at May-August and the second at September-December. The results showed that M. persicae was consistently at different densities in different intercropping system on potato. The aphid was first recorded at three week until planting. The kind of intercroppingculture plants significantly reduced the number of aphid at two planting season. Intercropping system decrease population of M. persicae at potato. At 9 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 3.97 aphidleaf potato with cabbage and mustard 4.43 aphidleaf and potato with celery 4.45 aphidleaf. At 11 weeks after planting the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard 2.99 aphid per leaf potato with cabbage 3.10 aphidleaf and potato with cabbage and mustard 3.60 aphidleaf. At 7 weeks after planting the highest population of natural enemies Braconid wasp was found on intercropping potato with cabbage2.62 braconid waspplant and at 9 weeks was found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 2.38 braconid waspplant. The highest population of Coccinellidae found on intercropping potato with cabbage mustard and celery 1.80plant at 11 weeks after planting.

  17. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  18. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

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    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  19. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  20. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  1. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  2. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  3. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT

    2017-01-01

    Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...

  4. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella

  5. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  6. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  7. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  8. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  9. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  10. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  11. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  12. Cultivares de batata para sistemas orgânicos de produção Potato cultivars for organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Rossi

    2011-09-01

    cultivars adapted to the organic system of production is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate in an organic production system, Brazilian and foreign potato genotypes adapted for conventional systems, in terms of quality and yield potential. The experiment was carried out in 2008, at the Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Polo APTA Leste Paulista, in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was adopted with 18 treatments and four replications. Each plot consisted of 80 seeds, arranged in four rows of 5 m spaced 0.80 m and with 0.25 m between tubers. The treatments consisted of the cultivars Agata, Apuã, Aracy, Asterix, Caesar, Catucha, Cupido, Éden, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Itararé, Melody, Monte Alegre 172, Novella, and Vivaldi, in addition to the advanced clones IAC 6090, APTA 16.5, APTA 15.20 and APTA 21.54. The following parameters were evaluated: yield, marketable yield, average total and marketable tuber mass, dry matter content and severity of potato early blight. The advanced clones APTA 16.5, APTA 21.54, IAC 6090, and the cultivars Cupido, Apuã, Itararé and Monte Alegre 172 showed the highest yield values. 'APTA 21.54' presente the highest marketable yield (18.07 t ha-1, whereas 'APTA 16.5', 'Cupido', 'IAC 6090' and 'Itararé' formed the subsequent group. The highest tuber mass values were presented by the cultivars Itararé and Cupido. The clone IAC 6090 and the cultivars Aracy and Aracy Ruiva showed the highest dry matter content, with an average of 22.91%. 'APTA 16.5', 'Apuã', 'Aracy', 'Aracy Ruiva', 'Éden', 'Ibituaçú' and 'Monte Alegre 172' exhibited high level of field tolerance to early blight. Potato genotypes Itararé, Apuã and Cupido are, thus, adapted to organic farming, and the advanced clones APTA 16.5, APTA 21.54 and IAC 6090 have potential for cultivation in the organic system.

  13. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling. Also organic production systems can benefit from continuous monitoring focusing on crop management and stress detection, but few studies have evaluated applications with this objective. In this study, ground-based and UAV spectrometers were compared in the context of organic potato cultivation. Relatively accurate estimates were obtained for leaf chlorophyll (RMSE = 6.07 µg·cm−2, leaf area index (RMSE = 0.67 m2·m−2, canopy chlorophyll (RMSE = 0.24 g·m−2 and ground cover (RMSE = 5.5% using five UAV-based data acquisitions, from 43 to 99 days after planting. These retrievals are slightly better than those derived from ground-based measurements (RMSE = 7.25 µg·cm−2, 0.85 m2·m−2, 0.28 g·m−2 and 6.8%, respectively, for the same period. Excluding observations corresponding to the first acquisition increased retrieval accuracy and made outputs more comparable between sensors, due to relatively low vegetation cover on this date. Intercomparison of vegetation indices indicated that indices based on the contrast between spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared, like OSAVI, MCARI2 and CIg provided, at certain extent, robust outputs that could be transferred between sensors. Information sampling at plot level by both sensing solutions resulted in comparable discriminative potential concerning advanced stages of late blight incidence. These results indicate that optical

  14. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The

  15. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  16. Organoleptic damage classification of potatoes with the use of image analysis in production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.

    2014-04-01

    In the agro-food sector security it is required the safety of a healthy food. Therefore, the farms are inspected by the quality standards of production in all sectors of production. Farms must meet the requirements dictated by the legal regulations in force in the European Union. Currently, manufacturers are seeking to make their food products have become unbeatable. This gives you the chance to form their own brand on the market. In addition, they use technologies that can increase the scale of production. Moreover, in the manufacturing process they tend to maintain a high level of quality of their products. Potatoes may be included in this group of agricultural products. Potatoes have become one of the major and popular edible plants. Globally, potatoes are used for consumption at 60%, Poland 40%. This is due to primarily advantages, consumer and nutritional qualities. Potatoes are easy to digest. Medium sized potato bigger than 60 mm in diameter contains only about 60 calories and very little fat. Moreover, it is the source of many vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin E, etc. [1]. The parameters of quality consumer form, called organoleptic sensory properties, are evaluated by means of sensory organs by using the point method. The most important are: flavor, flesh color, darkening of the tuber flesh when raw and after cooking. In the production process it is important to adequate, relevant and accurate preparing potatoes for use and sale. Evaluation of the quality of potatoes is determined on the basis of organoleptic quality standards for potatoes. Therefore, there is a need to automate this process. To do this, use the appropriate tools, image analysis and classification models using artificial neural networks that will help assess the quality of potatoes [2, 3, 4].

  17. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  18. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  19. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.

  20. ​Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One of the biggest threats to potato production is late blight disease, which requires ... an ancestral recipes handbook; a manual for technical management of new ... Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method to quantify ...

  1. Production of manganese peroxidase by white rot fungi from potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... production rate of the MnP using the potato-processing wastewater-based medium were higher (ca. 2.5- ... Ligninolytic enzymes, such as manganese peroxidase ... not currently reached industrial levels except for the laccase.

  2. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  3. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  4. Resource Use Efficiency Analysis for Potato Production in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important staple foods supporting food security and livelihood to millions of marginalized and poor farmers in Nepal. Generally the smallholders’ farmers, especially those located in remote villages are inadequately informed about technical knowledge, inputs and efficient use of resources causing poor production and low productivity. Thus, the present survey aimed to examine the efficiency of resources used in potato production in Baglung District, one of the remote hilly place located in Central Himalaya. The total of 120 potato growing households was selected using simple random sampling technique from the two potato pocket in 2016. The regression coefficients of each inputs using Cobb-Douglas production function were estimated using Stata software. Our results showed that major inputs such as labor, bullock, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and intercultural operations were overused and need to decrease in terms of cost by 109, 177, 51 and 185%, respectively for its optimum allocation. Similarly, seed was found underused and need to increase its cost by 70% for optimum allocation. We concluded that inadequate training, exposure, knowledge gap and extension service to farmers in study sites were the reasons that farmers were using their resources inefficiently. It is recommended that the farmers involved in potato farming in the surveyed sites should be provided with additional proper technical knowledge for optimizing the use of resources which would help to increase the production and return from potato production.

  5. Cool Farm Tool – Potato: Model Description and Performance of Four Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Hillier, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Cool Farm Tool – Potato (CFT-Potato) is a spreadsheet programme that allows the calculation of the amount of CO2 equivalents that it costs to produce 1 t of potato. The spreadsheet was adapted from an original generic version of the tool, and completed for potato production in diverse production

  6. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC MODELS OF POTATO PRODUCTION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir JOVANOVIC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern region of Montenegro represents a very important resource for agricultural production. However, the depopulation of the analysed area, pronounced in-kind character of production without significant participation of market producers, lack of market research, stronger vertical and horizontal connection between primary production and processing sectors have significant impacts causing the low level of competitiveness of agricultural production. Potato production in the analysed area has recorded positive trends in last ten years. This paper presents economic models of agriculture households on the analysed area from the potatoes production point of view.

  7. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  8. Mini Tuber Production in Potato Via Aeroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdullah Ahmed AHMED

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aeroponic production system is one of the new applications in soilless agriculture. This system is also an alternative seed production system for mini-tuber production of potato in terms of providing optimum growth conditions, enabling potato production to be free from diseases and pests and to make economic use of agricultural inputs. This system, which is independent of climatic conditions, has the advantage of improving the vegetative growth, delaying tuber formation, prolonging the vegetative period, increasing the tuber yield per plant and total tuber yield while decreasing the tuber weight. Due to the problems experienced in potato seedling tuber production in recent years, it emerged as an alternative production system for our country.

  9. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  10. Problems of Frafra potato production in Ghana | Tetteh | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the production of Frafra potato (Solenostemum rotundifolius Poir) in Ghana was conducted to collect baseline data on the crop and to identify constraints to production. In all, 100 farmers who were randomly selected from 16 villages and towns in five districts in the Upper East Region and Upper West Region ...

  11. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  12. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. Alcohol or feed product from rotten sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T

    1956-06-25

    Rotten sweet potatoes were mixed with the same weight of a pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash, and the mixture was cooked and fermented with amylo stock mash under semisolid conditions for five days. The fermented mash was steam-distilled to recover ethanol, and a solid residue was dried to give a nutrient feed product.

  14. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  15. Influence of Organic Farming on the Potato Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture sparks a lively debate on its potential health and environmental benefits. Comparative studies often investigate the response of crops to organic farming through targeted approaches and within a limited experimental work. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of a cultivar of the potato grown for two years under organic and conventional farming was compared with the profile of an experimental clone grown in the same location of Southern Italy for one year. Transcriptomic raw data were obtained through Potato Oligo Chip Initiative (POCI microarrays and were processed using unsupervised coupling multivariate statistical analysis and bioinformatics (MapMan software. One-hundred-forty-four genes showed the same expression in both years, and 113 showed the same expression in both genotypes. Their functional characterization revealed the strong involvement of the farming system in metabolism associated with the nutritional aspects of organic tubers (e.g., phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, glycoalcaloid, asparagine, ascorbic acid. Moreover, further investigation showed that eight of 42,034 features exhibited the same trend of expression irrespective of the year and genotype, making them possible candidates as markers of traceability. This paper raises the issue regarding the choice of genotype in organic management and the relevance of assessing seasonal conditions effects when studying the effects of organic cultivation on tuber metabolism.

  16. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P.C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a

  17. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  18. GROWTH PROCESS OF ORGANIC VETIVER ROOT WITH POTATO AS INTERCROPPING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides is one of Indonesia main export commodities. Vetiver root is perennial plant and generally planted with vegetables as intercropping plant. Increasing the selling price of vetiver oil can be done by transferring the production of conventional vetiver oil (non-organic to organic vetiver oil. Demonstration of land used was one hectare, which 2,000 m2 for planting vetiver root with potato (Solanum tuberosum as inter-cropping plant and 8,000 m2 for vetiver root without intercropping, in Sukakarya-Samarang, Garut. The planting used goat and cow dung as manure, distillate water of vetiver oil and liquid bio-pesticide as pesticide. Variables studied included plant height, number of leaf and crotch. In the first quarter of the years, the number of leaf and crotch of vetiver root with intercropping was better than vetiver root without inter-cropping. However, there was not significant difference for plant height of vetiver root, both with and without intercropping. Products of organic potato as intercropping plant of vetiver root were less than those of non-organic potato, but the latter had a better texture and durability.

  19. Production of conjugated linoleic acid-rich potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found primarily in diary and beef products, but the health benefits of CLA can only be realized if they are consumed at much greater levels than a normal healthy dietary intake. We have recently shown that a CLA-rich soy oil can be produced by simple isomerization of linoleic acid in soy oil by photoirradiation. This oil may allow greatly increased dietary CLA without significantly elevating fat intake. The objective of this study was to prepare CLA-rich potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil was photoisomerized in the presence of iodine catalyst with UV/visible light. The irradiated oil was clay processed to remove the residual iodine and this oil was then used to fry potato chips. Oil was extracted from fried chips and analyzed for its CLA content with gas chromatography. A 1-oz serving of CLA-rich potato chips contained approximately 2.4 g CLA as compared to 0.1 g CLA in 3-oz serving of steak fillet and 0.06 g CLA in 8-oz serving of whole milk. The peroxide value of the oil extracted from potato chips was found to be 1 meq/1000 g sample, which was within the acceptable commercial standards. This study may lead to the commercialization of CLA-rich food products.

  20. Modeling texture kinetics during thermal processing of potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, P C; Troncoso, E; Pedreschi, F

    2007-03-01

    A kinetic model based on 2 irreversible serial chemical reactions has been proposed to fit experimental data of texture changes during thermal processing of potato products. The model links dimensionless maximum force F*(MAX) with processing time. Experimental texture changes were obtained during frying of French fries and potato chips at different temperatures, while literature data for blanching/cooking of potato cubes have been considered. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted values was observed, with root mean square values (RMSs) in the range of 4.7% to 16.4% for French fries and 16.7% to 29.3% for potato chips. In the case of blanching/cooking, the proposed model gave RMSs in the range of 1.2% to 17.6%, much better than the 6.2% to 44.0% obtained with the traditional 1st-order kinetics. The model is able to predict likewise the transition from softening to hardening of the tissue during frying.

  1. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to § 946.54(a)(6...

  2. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  3. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  4. Examples of alien pathogens in Finnish potato production - their introduction, establishment and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. HANNUKKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens on potato have been imported into Finland via contaminated seed more than hundred years ago. The history of migration and the consequences for potato production of potato wart, blackleg and soft rot, Potato mop-top virus (PMTV and its vector powdery scab are reviewed as examples of economically important and biologically different potato pathogens. Potato wart spread alarmingly during 1920-1960. Plant quarantine acts and the use of resistant cultivars were successful in eradicating the disease. The pathogens causing blackleg and soft rot increased rapidly in 1960-1970. Development of seed certification schemes after the end of the 1970s decreased disease incidence and made the disease insignificant other than for seed potato production. Introduction of new strains of blackleg bacteria in 2003 caused the disease again to become a considerable threat to potato production. PMTV was imported into Finland in the 1970s where it spread rapidly, especially in starch potato production. Currently it is common in all potato production except that of seed potato. The disease cannot be eradicated but contamination of clean fields can be prevented. New diseases can spread to Finland in future but population changes of existing pathogens have recently caused more problems than species completely new to Finland.;

  5. Peatlands and potatoes; organic wetland soils in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Gimona, Alessandro; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Land use change in Uganda's wetlands has received very little research attention. Peat soils dominate the papyrus wetlands of the south west of the country, but the areas they are found in have been increasingly converted to potato cultivation. Our research in Uganda set out to (a) document both the annual use of and changes to these soils under potato cultivation, and (b) the extent and condition of these soils across wetland systems. During our research we found it was necessary to develop locally appropriate protocols for sampling and analysis of soil characteristics, based on field conditions and locally available resources. Over the period of one year we studied the use of the peat soil for potato cultivation by smallholder farmers in Ruhuma wetland and measured changes to surface peat properties and soil nutrients in fields over that time. Farmer's use of the fields changed over the year, with cultivation, harvesting and fallow periods, which impacted on soil micro-topography. Measured soil properties changed over the course of the year as a result of the land use, with bulk density, nitrogen content, potassium and magnesium all reducing. Comparison of changes in soil carbon stocks over the study period were difficult to make as it was not possible to reach the bottom of the peat layer. However, a layer of fallow weeds discarded onto the soil prior to preparation of the raised potato beds provided a time marker which gave insight into carbon losses over the year. To determine the peatland extent, a spatial survey was conducted in the Kanyabaha-Rushebeya wetland system, capturing peat depths and key soil properties (bulk density, organic matter and carbon contents). Generalised additive models were used to map peat depth and soil characteristics across the system, and maps were developed for these as well as drainage and land use classes. Comparison of peat cores between the two study areas indicates spatial variability in peat depths and the influence of

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  7. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  8. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  9. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  10. Progress and successes of the Specialty Crop Research Initiative on acrylamide reduction in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen, is a Maillard reaction product that forms when carbohydrate-rich foods are cooked at high temperatures. Processed potato products, including French fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns ra...

  11. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  12. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  13. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.

    This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato

  14. Fungal chitosan production from potato processing wastewater and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain of Aspergillus niger treated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation was evaluated for its ability to produce chitosan from PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate, coded A. niger UV-2, was able to reduce COD by about 86.15% with over productivity of chitosan of 1630 mgl -1 after 5 days of its cultivation in PPW. Extractable chitosan from this isolate had a degree of deacetylation of 88.4% and a molecular weight l.lxlo 5 Da. Also, the extractable chitosan at concentration 600 mgl -1 exhibited the maximum antibacterial activity compared with crab shell chitosan

  15. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  16. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  17. Why Organic Farming Should Embrace Co-Existence with Cisgenic Late Blight–Resistant Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godelieve Gheysen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU regulation on organic farming does not allow the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs which are subject to Directive 2001/18/EC. Mutagenesis using irradiation or chemicals is genetic modification, but the organisms obtained through these techniques are not subject to the provisions of the GMO directive. Such mutants can therefore be used in organic agriculture. Derived from its basic principles, organic farming can only use natural substances to control disease and crops should be resilient, which, in the case of disease resistance, means that durable (horizontal resistance is preferred to vertical (single gene resistance. Cisgenesis can achieve such a durable resistance by introducing multiple resistance genes in one step. These multiple-resistant plants only contain natural genes that can also be introduced by breeding. In case cisgenic plants are not subject to the provisions of the GMO legislation, they can even be legally used in organic agriculture. In case they are not exempted from the GMO regulation, the question is: why obstruct a cisgenic potato crop that can hardly be distinguished from a potato crop that is the result of conventional breeding? Among the reasons why organic agriculture does not allow the use of GMOs it is mentioned that genetic engineering is unpredictable, it causes genome disruption and it is unnatural. However, our knowledge of plant genome evolution and breeding has increased dramatically. We now know that breeding is more unpredictable and causes more genome disruption than genetic engineering. Recent field trials have shown the efficacy of cisgenic late blight–resistant potatoes carrying multiple resistance genes. Large-scale growing of such durably resistant potatoes would not only be environmentally beneficial by it would strongly reducing the need for fungicide sprays in conventional potato cultivation and it would also reduce the disease pressure in organic potato cultivation.

  18. Energy use and economical analysis of potato production in Iran a case study: Ardabil province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Tabatabaeefar, Ahmad; Shahin, Shahan; Rafiee, Shahin; Keyhani, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine energy consumption of input and output used in potato production, and making an economical analysis in Ardabil, Iran. For this purpose, the data were collected from 100 potato farms in Ardabil, Iran. Inquiries were conducted in a face-to-face interviewing November-December 2006 period. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 81624.96 MJ ha -1 . About 40% of this was generated by chemical fertilizers, 20% from diesel oil and machinery. About 82% of the total energy inputs used in potato production was indirect (seeds, fertilizers, manure, chemicals, machinery) and 18% was direct (human labor, diesel). Mean potato yield was about 28453.61 kg ha -1 , it obtained under normal conditions on irrigated farming, and taking into account the energy value of the seed, the net energy and energy productivity value was estimated to be 20808.03 MJ ha -1 and 0.35, respectively, and the ratio of energy outputs to energy inputs was found to be 1.25. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in potato production not accompanied by increase in the final product. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of production for one hectare of potato production was 3267.17 $. Benefit-cost ratio was calculated as 1.88

  19. evaluation of selected composted organic sources on potato plant grown in sandy soil using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    the main point of this study is the evaluation of organic compost as a source of nutrient demand by potatoes cultivated in light texture soil under drip irrigation system. the composted materials either applied alone or in combination with mineral fertilizer have an effective role on potato yields and nutrients management under field scale. so, many objectives were achieved. the valuable results obtained in the present study could be summarized as follows: part one: composting experiment contains ph changes of composted materials, EC changes with time, nitrogen content in composted materials, change of c/n ratio with time, organic matter content of the composted materials, phosphorus content in composted materials,. part two: potato field experiment contains .dry matter yield, tuber dry weight, tuber yield, nutrients uptake by potato varieties,. part three contains . application of 15 N isotope dilution technique, nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), nitrogen derived from organic compost (% Ndf comp),nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs), fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE), 15 N recovered by potatoes.

  20. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Fleisher, David; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States.......01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be improved using an ensemble approach....

  1. Production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice having high anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, G.; Siswaningsih, W.; Febrianti, A.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to retrieve procedure of production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice with the best total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. Purple sweet potato was processed into purple sweet potato juice through a process of heating with temperature variations of 700C, 800C, and 900C and various duration of heating, which are 5 mins, 10 mins, and 15 mins. The total anthocyanin was determined by using pH differential method. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) method. Total anthocyanin of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 215.08 mg/L - 101.86 mg/L. The antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 90.63% - 67.79%. Antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin purple sweet potato juice decreases with increasing temperature and duration of heating. The best characteristics found in purple sweet potato juice were made with warming temperatures of 800C. The product with the highest antioxidant activity, total anthocyanins, and good durability was prepared at 800C heating temperature for 5 mins.

  2. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  3. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  4. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  5. Effects of commercial organic fertilizers on the yield and yield structure of potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work has dealt with investigations of two type commercial organic fertilizers (DCM ECO-MIX 4 NPK 7:7:10 i GUANITO NPK 6:15:3 effects on the yield and yield structure of three potato cultivars (Cleopatra, Carrera and Sylvana. The control variant was used in plots without the use of organic fertilizers. The field experiment was performed in 2012. in a populated area Dobrica (N 45° 13’, E 20° 51’, 78 m.s.l. at the experimental farm plot Belča on which is certified organic production, on anthropogenic soil subtype chernozem on carbonate terrace. The results of research showed that the lowest tuber yield was determined in the control treatment (20,87 t ha-1, while the highest yield was achieved with a commercial organic fertilizer DCM ECO-MIX 4 (23,96 t ha-1. Number of tubers per plant corresponded to the characteristics of the studied cultivars. The largest number of tubers per plant was correlated with yield. Specifically, individual variants of the two greatest yields had the highest average number of tubers per plant. Cultivar Cleopatra of variant with GUANITO achieved 17,51 tubers per plant, while cultivar Sylvana of variant with DCM ECO-MIX 4 achieved 17,38 tubers per plant.

  6. Determination of alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine by capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingcai; Yuan Bihuai; Xu Peishu; Wang Xiuying

    1986-01-01

    Alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine have been determined with capillary GC. The results show that the contents of some components have changed after irradiation, but no new species are formed. The G values of the changed components have been calculated

  7. Influence of reduced tillage and fertilization regime on crop performance and nitrogen utilization of organic potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakopoulos, Dimitrios; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Lantinga, E.A.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Dutch farmers perceive that mouldboard ploughing prior to potato planting is necessary, despite its negative impacts on inherent soil fertility and soil structure. An innovative agronomic practice in Dutch organic agriculture is the use of cut-and-carry fertilizers with which

  8. Yield and growth components of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to optimize N management in organic farming systems, knowledge of crop growth processes in relation to N limitation is necessary. The present paper examines the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to N with respect to intercepted photosynthetically

  9. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  10. Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    collecting new potato clones but these have to be tested for nutritional and processing qualities, as well as yield and resistance to late blight and other diseases. There is also a need among farmers to adopt more environmentally sound agricultural and post-harvest practices, such as applying compost to reduce chemical ...

  11. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  12. Dickeya species: an emerging problem for potato production in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, I.K.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Saddler, G.; Lojkowska, E.; Hélias, V.; Pirhonen, M.; Tsror, L.; Elphinstone, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya species (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) cause diseases on numerous crop and ornamental plants world-wide. Dickeya spp. (probably D. dianthicola) were first reported on potato in the Netherlands in the 1970s and have since been detected in many other European countries. However, since 2004–5

  13. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  14. ​Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. In Colombia, food security is a national concern, and indigenous communities of Nariño are among the most food insecure in the country. Potato is the staple food crop and main source of family income for the region's smallholder farms — many of which are headed by women. One of the biggest threats to ...

  15. Sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation technology for sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by irradiation were investigated. Dose distribution in the package filled with potatoes (depth 45cm, density: 0.56g/cm 3 ) was measured using Fricke dosimeter. When the package was irradiated at dose rate of 5 x 10 5 , 1 x 10 5 and 5 x 10 4 rad/hr, the dose uniformities were calculated as 1.79, 1,45 and 1.35, and the relative throughput capacities were 1.0, 0.26 and 0.14, respectively. After 7 months storage, the sprout of potatoes was not observed at 10 krad irradiation while 57% of potatoes was sprouted at 5 krad. The contents of oxalic and malic acids were slightly increased by irradiation up to 100 krad while that of citric and succinic acids were not changed. The change in contents of these organic acids during storage was almost the same in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. Sucrose content was reached maximum after 8 days in 15 krad irradiated sample while it was increased through 40 days storage in 300 krad irradiated sample. The increase in sucrose contents by irradiation was higher in cortical tissue than in medullary tissue. (author)

  16. Glycoalkaloid, phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of conventional (nonorganic) and organic potato peel powders from commercial Gold, Red, and Russet Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of glycoalkaloids a-chaconine and a-solanine, individual and total phenolics compounds, and total flavonoids for three peels prepared from conventional and three from organic commercial potatoes as well antioxidant activities using three different methods were evaluated. Glycoalkaloids ...

  17. Production And Some Properties Of Curd A Yoghurt-Like Product Manufactured By Potato Juice And Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Aygun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a type of curd a yoghurt-like product YLP was prepared by potato juice and milk and some of its physico-chemical microbiological and sensory properties were examined. Analyses were applied to four yoghurt groups consisting of YLPs manufactured by using milk and potato juice at different ratios 0.5 for YLP1 1 for YLP2 and 1.5 for YLP3 and yoghurt produced using starter culture control group. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. numbers in all yoghurt samples manufactured by potato juice showed increase after the seventh day. The YLP manufactured by potato juice at a ratio of 0.5 was most preferred by panelists among the other YLP samples and most similar to yoghurt with starter culture.

  18. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  19. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  20. Economic feasibility studies on radiation preservation of dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Karim, A.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Bhuiya, A.D.; Matin, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes face enormous storage losses in Bangladesh due to insect infestation and sprouting. Research and development work was carried out to assess the suitability of introducing irradiation processing of these products in the country. Experiments showed that a dose of 0.04-0.68 kGy could inhibit sprouting in onions. Sprouting in potatoes could be inhibited at 0.10 kGy. Dried and cured fishery products could be disinfested of insects at a dose of 0.30 kGy. Infrastructure such as transportation, storage, marketing and existing systems of post-harvest handling were analysed. Post-harvest storage losses of onion and dried fish were more than 50% after 6 months of storage. Potatoes could not be kept at ambient conditions for over 3 months after the harvesting season. Irradiation of onions and dried fish, if they were stored in suitable conditions after proper packaging, could save significant storage losses. Irradiated potatoes could be stored at 14 deg. C instead of 2-4 deg. C as practised normally. On the basis of the data collected on dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes, economic feasibility studies were conducted. Assumptions for calculation of cost of the irradiation facility were: (i) strength of the irradiator source: 7.40 PBq of 60 Co; (ii) construction period: 2 years; (iii) operating time: 7200 hours per year; (iv) economic life: 20 years; (v) capacity utilization: 80-90%. In addition to dried and cured fish, potatoes and onions, this facility would also treat fresh fish and medical products in order to maximize its use. It would have an investment cost of US $1.9 million. The payback period was found to be less than 4 years. If additional warehouses could be built along with the facility, such a venture would be more profitable. 23 refs, 8 figs, 28 tabs

  1. Production and requirements for pre-basic seed potato material in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-basic seed potato material is used for basic seed (elite and certified seed potato production. At this moment all basic seed material is imported into Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, despite the fact that the method of in vitro tissue culture production of virus-free seed potato has been developed in both countries and there is a continuous demand for pre-basic and basic seed potato. Current total production is significantly lower than actual requirements. In the 80s and 90s of the previous century two modern facilities for production of virus-free seed potato and certified seed were built in Sokolac (Republic of Srpska and Guča (Republic of Serbia. Although facilities were well-equipped, seed potato production was permanently ceased in 2000. The presence of high infection pressure dominated by potato virus Y is shown in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. This paper gives an overview of pre-basic seed potato material production in both countries over the last two decades.

  2. Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  3. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  4. Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Souza Filho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potato liquor, a byproduct of potato starch production, is steam-treated to produce protein isolate. The heat treated potato liquor (HTPL, containing significant amounts of organic compounds, still needs to be further treated before it is discarded. Presently, the most common strategy for HTPL management is concentrating it via evaporation before using it as a fertilizer. In this study, this scenario was compared with two biotreatments: (1 fermentation using filamentous fungus R. oryzae to produce a protein-rich biomass, and (2 anaerobic digestion of the HTPL to produce biogas. Technical, economic and environmental analyses were performed via computational simulation to determine potential benefits of the proposed scenarios to a plant discarding 19.64 ton/h of HTPL. Fungal cultivation was found to be the preferred scenario with respect to the economic aspects. This scenario needed only 46% of the investment needed for the evaporation scenario. In terms of the environmental impacts, fungal cultivation yielded the lowest impacts in the acidification, terrestrial eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication and freshwater ecotoxicity impact categories. The lowest impact in the climate change category was obtained when using the HTPL for anaerobic digestion.

  6. Expression of Recombinant Potato leafroll virus Structural and Non-structural Proteins for Antibody Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Dědič, P.; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2011), s. 130-132 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MZe QH71123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato leafroll virus * recombinant viral antigen * antibody production Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2011

  7. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted α-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and α-amylase amount 12 U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96 h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17 g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07 g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42 g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  9. Pesticides and health in highland Ecuadorian potato production: assessing impacts and developing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.; Sherwood, S.G.; Crissman, C.; Barrera, V.H.; Espinosa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of

  10. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density

  11. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  12. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot.

  13. Use of organic waste as biofumigant for controlling root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. I. P.; Lisnawita; Oemry, S.; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the important pathogens that causes big impact on potato crop yields. One of the control strategies for controlling this nematode is the use of biofumigants. Biofumigants are volatile toxic compound derived from plants, and have biocide properties against insects and plant pathogens. Organic waste such as Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae can be used as biofumigant sources. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae as biofumigants against Meloidogyne spp. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatments were organic wastes including Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae, both single and combinations, and 2 controls (positive and negative controls) with 3 replications. Each of the biofumigant treatments was prepared and stored for 2 weeks. Potato tubers were transplanted 15 days after germination into polybag inoculated with 1,000 Meloidogyne spp. J2s. The results showed that Brassicaceae + Solanaceae were effective in decreasing the number of galls in potato plants, however only Solanaceae improved plant growth.

  14. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in the Farming Sectors that Emerged from Zimbabwe’s Radical Land Reform of 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association for Potato ResearchIrish potato production in Zimbabwe can be traced back to the early 1900s. Large-scale commercial farmers dominated production until the early 2000s. Potato is the most important horticultural crop and has been declared a strategic national food

  17. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto; Alva, Ashok; Asseng, Senthold; Barreda, Carolina; Bindi, Marco; Boote, Kenneth J; Ferrise, Roberto; Franke, Angelinus C; Govindakrishnan, Panamanna M; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Naresh Kumar, Soora; Merante, Paolo; Nendel, Claas; Olesen, Jorgen E; Parker, Phillip S; Raes, Dirk; Raymundo, Rubi; Ruane, Alex C; Stockle, Claudio; Supit, Iwan; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wolf, Joost; Woli, Prem

    2017-03-01

    A potato crop multimodel assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low-input (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi)- and high-input (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States) management sites. Two calibration stages were explored, partial (P1), where experimental dry matter data were not provided, and full (P2). The median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicating observed yield across all locations. Uncertainty in simulated yield decreased from 38% to 20% between P1 and P2. Model uncertainty increased with interannual variability, and predictions for all agronomic variables were significantly different from one model to another (P < 0.001). Uncertainty averaged 15% higher for low- vs. high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by change in carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41% and 23% for yield and ET, respectively, as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Using median model ensemble values, yield increased on average 6% per 100-ppm C, declined 4.6% per °C, and declined 2% for every 10% decrease in rainfall (for nonirrigated sites). Differences in predictions due to model representation of light utilization were significant (P < 0.01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be

  18. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  19. The effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and soaking of potato strips in water on density differences of intermediates for French-fry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and immersing of potato strips in water on differences in density of intermediate products for French-fry production. The density difference used for description of the experiment was defined as a relationship between the post-treatment density and pre-treatment density. The study was conducted on tubers of the Innovator variety. The studies of density changes induced by absorption of water involved measurements of the mass of potato strips in air and in water. Potato strips measured 10 × 10 mm and 60 mm in length. The strips were cut lengthwise along the longest tuber axis set between the proximal and distal tuber end. Water absorption was investigated by immersing strips in water (1 at a temperature of 20°C for 15 min and (2 at 40°C for 20 min. In addition, the study included the group (3 where strips were blanched at a temperature of 90°C for 2 min and a control group (0 which was not immersed in water. Potato tubers were irradiated by UV-C in the following ways: (1 irradiation on one side for 30 min, (2 irradiation on both sides for 15 min each, (0 control group (no irradiation. The studies were conducted at two dates: (0 after harvest and (1 after 3-month storage. Laboratory and storage experiments were conducted in 2016-2017. The density difference was statistically significantly influenced by storage time, UV-C stimulation and immersion conditions of potato strips. The density difference increased with the increase in storage duration of tubers, immersion duration of strips, water temperature (up to starch gelification temperature and UV-C stimulation.

  20. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample.

  1. In vitro mutagenesis and production of agronomically useful potato variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Gosal, S.S.; Sidhu, J.S.; Dhaliwal, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro grown shoot cultures of two Indian potato varieties 'Kufri jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' were subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 and 40 Gy. The irradiated shoot cultures were subcultured to yield a generation of plantlets. After 4-6 weeks of incubation, these shoots were transferred onto MS medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine, BAP (10mg/1) and sucrose (8% w/v) and incubated at 20 deg. C. The M 1 V 3 plants were screened in vitro for late blight resistance by detached leaf method. The resistant plants were screened in M 1 V 4 generation by artificial inoculation of sporangial inoculum on the pot sown plants. Chlorophyll persistence is a simple screening method for heat tolerance. Chlorophyll persistence of different plantlets showed that the percentage of injury was less in the case of plants, which had been obtained from irradiated material. In the case of control plants, there was one hundred-percent damage to the plants. The mutation frequency was calculated for characters like late blight resistance and heat tolerance (in vitro microtuberisation and chlorophyll persistence). The gamma ray dose of 40 Gy was observed to produce a higher mutation frequency

  2. Factors that influence in the technology adoption in the production system: Potato - grasses - milk in the east of Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Cardenas, A.; Jaramillo Pelaez, J.A.; Quiroz Davila, J.E.; Arevalo Arteaga, M.B.; Rios Carmona, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose of knowing the factors that influence in the technology adoption in the system of production potato-grass-milk in the east of Antioquia, it was carried out a study with producing of this system. The study is exploratory, of descriptive type. As study population they took 4.119 producers, of which a sample of 249 producers was selected, using sampling for conglomerates. By means of visits to properties, they were applied a questionnaire, which contained information related with the main variable that is production potato-grass-milk and their different components. Statistical analysis was used as tests of Z for averages and percentages. In accordance with the obtained results, it could settle down that the producers manage 2 very defined systems of production of milk: potato-grass-milk with 45 percent of the producers; alone potato, they exploit it 1 percent of the producers. The producers were changed to the system potato-grass-milk, in the study area for more profitability and with the purpose of improving the herdsmen; on the contrary, those that left the system and they spent to the system grass-milk, they made it for the high costs of potato production and the manpower shortage required for the handling of the system; also, the search of more revenues. The readiness of the manpower is lower for those who manage the system grass-milk that for those of the system potato-grass-milk

  3. Utilization of byproducts from potatoes and vegetables for value-added products; Perunan ja vihannesten sivuvirtojen arvokomponenttien hyoetykaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M.; Valimaa, A.-L.; Kankaala, A.; Lotjonen, T.; Virtanen, E.

    2012-07-01

    In this report, by-products are defined as the fractions produced in processing of potatoes and vegetables in addition to the main products. These by-products include peels, potato pulp, potato fruit juice, leftovers from cutting processes and under-sized potatoes left in the field. The amount of the by-products varies depending on the process. For example, in peeling processes the amount of by-products can be as much as 50-100% compared to that of the peeled product. The disposal of the by-products is strictly regulated by the national biowaste strategy, the landfill directive and the new waste legislation. For example, the landfill directive requires a gradual reduction in the amount of biodecomposable community waste. This means that in 2016, an maximum of 25% of the estimated biodecomposable community waste produced can be placed in landfill sites. Moreover, the EU aims at increasing the amount of the renewable traffic fuels to 10% by the year 2020. The utilization of the by-products in an effective and holistic way is not necessary only due to the tight legislative demands, but also n order to make the production economically profitable. For example, it is possible to separate from by-products of potatoes and vegetables commercially valuable biocomponents, such as starch, proteins and fiber, and to produce bioethanol and biogas in biorefinery plants. In the biorefinery plants, chemicals, biofuels and energy are produced sustainably using mechanical, chemical and biological processes. However, in a conventional refinery process usually only one component is utilized, for example potato starch. The North Ostrobothnia region is lacking the biorefinery that utilizes the by-products of potatoes and vegetables. This study was carried out in 2011-2012 by MTT Agrifood Research Finland Oulu. The objective was to develop a biorefinery concept in which by-products from potato and vegetables industry are manufactured to value-added products efficiently utilizing the

  4. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-02-28

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  5. Effect of Transplanting Dates and Spacing on Yield Attributing Character, Productivity and Economics of Potato Cultivation Through True Potato Seed (TPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in split plot design was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Potato Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Anandapur,West Midnapore,West Bengal to study the effect of dates of transplanting and spacing on yield attributing character, productivity and economics of potato cultivation through true potato seed (TPS technology. The highest number of tubers per plant was recorded in early transplanted (December 3 crop, while, crop spacing did not produce any significant differences in recording tuber number per plant. Early established crop also produced significantly higher tuber weight per plant as compared to intermediate (December 11 and late (December 19 transplanted crops and widely spaced (60 x 15 cm crop recorded higher weight of tuber per plant as compared to the narrowly spaced crop. Early transplanting and wider spacing also showed its superiority in respect of recording harvest index of potato. As such, early transplanted and densely planted crops produced significantly higher yield of seedling tuber, marketable tuber and total tuber than their counterparts. Though cost of production of early transplanted and closely spaced crop was higher, but net profit and return per rupee investment was also higher in those cases.

  6. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  7. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  8. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  9. Can Precision Agriculture Increase the Profitability and Sustainability of the Production of Potatoes and Olives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits K. van Evert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For farmers, the application of Precision Agriculture (PA technology is expected to lead to an increase in profitability. For society, PA is expected to lead to increased sustainability. The objective of this paper is to determine for a number of common PA practices how much they increase profitability and sustainability. For potato production in The Netherlands, we considered variable rate application (VRA of soil herbicide, fungicide for late blight control, sidedress N, and haulm killing herbicide. For olive production in Greece, we considered spatially variable application of P and K fertilizer and lime. For each of the above scenarios, we quantified the value of outputs, the cost of inputs, and the environmental costs. This allowed us to calculate profit as well as social profit, where the latter is defined as revenues minus conventional costs minus the external costs of production. Social profit can be considered an overall measure of sustainability. Our calculations show that PA in potatoes increases profit by 21% (420 € ha−1 and social profit by 26%. In olives, VRA application of P, K, and lime leads to a strong reduction in nutrient use and although this leads to an increase in sustainability, it has only a small effect on profit and on social profit. In conclusion, PA increases sustainability in olives and both profitability and sustainability in potatoes.

  10. Effect of irradiation for recovery of organic wastes from potato starch wastewater with chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Takehisa, M.

    1984-01-01

    The irradiation effect on recovery of organic substances from potato starch wastewater with aid of chitosan and disinfection were investigated for recycling the organic wastes into animal feeds. Chitosan was effective as a coagulant for suspended solids in the wastewater and the optimum concentration was 8 to 10 x 10 -3 %. The irradiation promotes the coagulation of the organic wastes. Especially, the coagulation of the proteins with chitosan increased by irradiation since the soluble proteins became insoluble by irradiation. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria in the wastewater and in the coagulum with chitosan were 8.0 x 10 7 and 3.5 x 10 8 counts/ml, respectively, and decreased to 11 and 45 counts/ml by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. (author)

  11. ON THE ISSUE OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF DEEP PROCESSING PRODUCTS FROM GRAIN AND POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Andreev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The analysis of structure of starch containing raw materials processing in Russia Federation is provided in the article. There was noted an increase in volumes of corn and wheat processing, however the share of processed potato is still low (below 4%. It was established that Russian starch products and starch sweeteners are on the same level on quality as best European samples and they are very competitive. Market demand in crystalline glucose for food and medical purposes (over 30 thous. tons is fully covered by import. The volume of import of modified starches exceeds 80 % of total consumption. The biggest volume of import among native starches belongs to potato starch – over 60 %. The article provides suggestions on import substitution of mentioned starch products. The growth of starch production in Russia was accompanied by concentration of production at large enterprises. So, in 2013 over 90 % of glucose syrup was produced at six enterprises, over 80 % of dry starch – at five enterprises. Efficiency of corn and wheat processing into starch and starch products is achieved by production and selling of co-products (dry gluten, gluten, corn germ or corn oil, corn extract, feed products.Development of starch sweeteners production from starch could be achieved by expanding the consumption areas of different kinds of glucose syrup and production of glucose-fructose syrups as full substitute of sugar, providing import substitution of sugar, crystalline glucose of food and medicine purpose, deep processing of glucose into polyols (sorbit, maltit, polylactites, aminoacids.

  12. Optimization of HTST process parameters for production of ready-to-eat potato-soy snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A; Chattopadhyay, P K; Majumdar, G C

    2012-08-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) potato-soy snacks were developed using high temperature short time (HTST) air puffing process and the process was found to be very useful for production of highly porous and light texture snack. The process parameters considered viz. puffing temperature (185-255 °C) and puffing time (20-60 s) with constant initial moisture content of 36.74% and air velocity of 3.99 m.s(-1) for potato-soy blend with varying soy flour content from 5% to 25% were investigated using response surface methodology following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The optimum product in terms of minimum moisture content (11.03% db), maximum expansion ratio (3.71), minimum hardness (2,749.4 g), minimum ascorbic acid loss (9.24% db) and maximum overall acceptability (7.35) were obtained with 10.0% soy flour blend in potato flour at the process conditions of puffing temperature (231.0 °C) and puffing time (25.0 s).

  13. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: I - produtividade vegetal e estoque de nutrientes no solo em longo prazo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: I - long term plant productivity and soil nutrient stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    by low soil fertility and the limited and highly variable precipitation pattern of this region. Animal manure is the main nutrient source for soil fertility amelioration, but farm manure available is usually not enough to fertilize crops. A cover crop could decrease the demand for animal manure. The characteristics of Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L. recommend it as green manure. A field experiment was conducted from 1996 to 2002 to quantify the effects of annual organic fertilization with animal manure and/or crotalaria on potato productivity and soil nutrient stocks. Treatments consisted of: crotalaria incorporation (C, goat manure, 15 t ha-1 (E, crotalaria incorporation + goat manure, 7.5 t ha-1 (CE, and control plots (T. At the end of the study period, treatment E increased soil total N, total P and available P and K by 73, 45, 221 and 43 %, compared to the control plots. Treatments C and CE increased soil total N by 76 and 63%, but had no effect on other soil nutrients. Overall 5-year averages of crotalaria aboveground accumulation of dry matter, N, P and K were 3550, 69, 6 and 55 kg ha-1, respectively. Average potato productivities for the 5-year period were 15204, 12053, 11085, and 7926 kg ha-1, for treatments CE, C, E and T, respectively. Despite the significant increases in soil nutrient stocks as a result of the annual manure addition of 15 t ha-1, potato productivity was consistently higher in the combination of crotalaria plus 7.5 t ha-1 manure treatment.

  14. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  15. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  16. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  17. Strain selection and medium optimization for glucoamylase production from industrial potato waste by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Glucoamylase is one of the most common enzymes used in the food industry to break down starch into its monomers. Glucoamylase production and its activity are highly dependent on medium composition. Starch is well known as a glucoamylase inducer, and utilization of industrial starchy potato waste is an inexpensive way of improving glucoamylase production. Since glucoamylase production is highly dependent on medium composition, in this study medium optimization for glucoamylase production was considered to enhance glucoamylase activity. Among the evaluated microbial species, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was found to be the best glucoamylase-producing fungus. The Plackett-Burman design was used to screen various medium ingredients, and malt extract, FeSO4 .7H2 O and CaCl2 ·2H2 O were found to have significant effects on glucoamylase production. Finally, malt extract, FeSO4 .7H2 O and CaCl2 .2H2 O were optimized by using a central composite design of response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal medium composition for A. niger van Tieghem was 50 g L(-1) industrial waste potato mash supplemented with 51.82 g L(-1) malt extract, 9.27 g L(-1) CaCl2 ·2H2 O and 0.50 g L(-1) FeSO4 .7H2 O. At the end of optimization, glucoamylase activity and glucose production were improved 126% and 98% compared to only industrial waste potato mash basal medium; 274.4 U mL(-1) glucoamylase activity and 41.7 g L(-1) glucose levels were achieved, respectively. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Minitubers production of four potato Cuban varieties in greenhouse with zeolite as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Feria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of original seed of national potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. is of great importance. The objective of the present work was to obtain minitubers from four national potato varieties in a greenhouse with zeolite as substrate. The plants in vitro propagated of the varieties 'Grettel', 'Yuya', 'Ibis' and 'Marinca' were planted and received cultural and phytosanitary attention according to the protocol existing at IBP. Harvest was performed at 75 days of culture and the total number of minitubers and the number of minitubers with a diameter greater than 15 mm were quantified for each plant. Plants and tubers showed the typical characteristics of each variety under zeolite substrate culture conditions. The highest number of minitubers per plant was achieved in the 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' varieties with 3.84 and 3.52 respectively. For the number of minitubers available as original seed (>15 mm, the 'Yuya' variety was superior with 82.3%. The culture conditions with zeolite substrate allow to obtain minitubers of potatoes of the four varieties from plants in vitro cultured. 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' showed the best results and potentially could be incorporated into the national seed production program in Cuba.   Keywords: agamic seed, ‘Ibis’, ‘Grettel’, ‘Marinca’, Solanum tuberosum, ‘Yuya’

  19. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  20. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  1. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  2. Distribution of potato spindle tuber viroid in reproductive organs of petunia during its developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shinya

    2014-09-01

    Embryo infection is important for efficient seed transmission of viroids. To identify the major pattern of seed transmission of viroids, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in each developmental stage of petunia (flowering to mature seed stages). In floral organs, PSTVd was present in the reproductive tissues of infected female × infected male and infected female × healthy male but not of healthy female × infected male before embryogenesis. After pollination, PSTVd was detected in the developed embryo and endosperm in all three crosses. These findings indicate that PSTVd is indirectly delivered to the embryo through ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis but not directly through maternal tissues as cell-to-cell movement during embryogenesis.

  3. Yield and technological quality of ecological and low-input production of potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and other quantitative (number of plants, number of tubers, weight of tubers per 1 m2 and qualitative parameters (content of vitamin C, starch, nitrogen and dry matter of the Solanum tuberosum L. early variety “Collete” have been studied in ecological and low-input farming systems with two levels of organic fertilization during 2003-2005. The experiment was situated in water-protected zone of western Slovakia on Luvi-Haplic Chernozem. After harvest of forecrop in higher level of organic fertilization treatment catch crop – phacelia and mustard was grown. Highly significant differences in each studied parameters of potato tubers between certain years were ascertained, thus great influence of weather conditions on quality and quantity of potatoes was confirmed. Yields was highly significantly influenced also by farming systems, when in low-input system the average yield was 21.38 t ha-1 and in ecological system 20.02 t ha-1. Green manure management did not influence yield significantly. In treatment without green manure the average yield 20.47 t ha-1 was reached with comparison to green manure application treatments 20.93 t ha-1. In low-input system significantly higher C vitamin content (4.23 mg 100g-1 was ascertained compared to ecological one 3.53 mg 100g-1. Other qualitative parameters were more or less on the same level. We recommended both farming system for growing potatoes in water vulnerable zones and for better fulfil the Good Agricultural Practices in Slovak conditions.

  4. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  5. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato...

  6. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  7. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Yu, Zhang [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Xiaoying, Kong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation was investigated using batch experiments at 37 C. Seven varieties of typical individual components of OFMSW including rice, potato, lettuce, lean meat, oil, fat and banyan leaves were selected to estimate the hydrogen production potential. Experimental results showed that the boiling treated anaerobic sludge was effective mixed inoculum for fermentative hydrogen production from OFMSW. Mechanism of fermentative hydrogen production indicates that, among the OFMSW, carbohydrates is the most optimal substrate for fermentative hydrogen production compared with proteins, lipids and lignocelluloses. This conclusion was also substantiated by experimental results of this study. The hydrogen production potentials of rice, potato and lettuce were 134 mL/g-VS, 106 mL/g-VS, and 50 mL/g-VS respectively. The hydrogen percentages of the total gas produced from rice, potato and lettuce were 57-70%, 41-55% and 37-67%. (author)

  9. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  11. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Farming Systems on Potato Production Factors Productivity; a Case Study in Kordesatan and Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasibeh zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the effects of farming systems on potato production factors productivity were investigated in the 2011-2012. The data were collected using two stages cluster sampling and preparing 208 questionnaires submitted to farmers in the Koredestan and Hamedan Provinces. The efficacy of farming systems computed using dummy variable, and to select the best produce function, flexible and non-flexible functions were studied. Results indicated that production function Cobb-Douglas is better than the other tested functions. In addition, the effect of ownership farming system on production factors productivity was positive while the effect of other farming systems was found to be negative. Therefore, it is recommended that Ministry of Jahad-e-Agriculture encourage farmers to buy rental land and wells over the long-term period by giving low interest loans.

  13. A comparative study on energy use and cost analysis of potato production under different farming technologies in Hamadan province of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangeneh, Morteza; Omid, Mahmoud; Akram, Asadollah [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of input-output energy used in potato production and to make an economic analysis of potato production in Hamadan province, Iran. Data for the production of potatoes were collected from 100 producers by using a face to face questionnaire method. The population investigated was divided into two groups. Group I was consisted of 68 farmers (owner of machinery and high level of farming technology) and Group II of 32 farmers (non-owner of machinery and low level of farming technology). The results revealed that 153071.40 MJ ha{sup -1} energy consumed by Group I and 157151.12 MJ ha{sup -1} energy consumed by Group II. The energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and energy intensiveness were calculated. The net energy of potato production in Group I and Group II was 4110.95 MJ ha{sup -1} and -21744.67 MJ ha{sup -1}, respectively. Cost analysis showed that total cost of potato production in Groups I and II were 4784.68 and 4172.64 $ ha{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding, benefit to cost ratio from potato production in the surveyed groups were 1.09 and 0.96, respectively. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in potato production. (author)

  14. Consumption Safety of Pastries, Confectioneries, and Potato Products as Related to Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kowalska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    To determine the content of the main groups of fatty acids in pastries, confectionery, and potato products, paying special attention to trans fatty acids and the products of fat oxidation and hydrolysis, as factors affecting the safety of consumption. A total of 157 products were collected in Poland in 2009-2010. In fats extracted from samples, products of oxidation and hydrolysis were assayed using peroxide (PV), anisidine (AnV), and acid (AV) values. The fatty acid (FA) composition, especially the trans FAs (TFAs) content, was determined by gas chromatography. When assessing the TFA intake, Household Budget Surveys were considered. Highest content of fat was found for wafers with filling and crisps (32.3% and 29.3%, respectively). In 4 out of 9 groups of pastry and confectionery products studied, the quality of fat was decreased due to an excessive oxidation, as evidenced by a substantial content of secondary products of fat oxidation. The extracted fat was rich in SFA (on average, 50 g SFA/100 g FA) except fries and mixes. A great diversity of TFA content in fat of the products was found (0.1-24.8 g TFA/100 g FA). Wafers were characterized by the highest average content of TFA in the group of pastries (1.94 g TFA/100 g of product). Products of natural origin supplied 0.496 g of TFA per day, and those of industrial origin supplied about 1.5 g. The average TFA consumption, about 2 g/day, does not seem to affect health. However, an excessive consumption of pastry and confectionery products may present a risk, due not only to TFA but also to a high consumption of toxic secondary oxidation lipid products. Moreover, because 75% of TFAs in the diet were isomers of industrial origin, their further limitation and monitoring of their level in food seems highly recommendable.

  15. Potato black scurf, production practices and fungitoxic efficacy of rhizoctonia solani isolates in hilly areas of gilgit-biltistan pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, Z.; Khan, S. W.; Abbas, Q.; Awan, M. S.; Ali, S.

    2017-01-01

    Potato is the main cash crop of Gilgit-Baltistan in particular of buffer zone of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP). There are many biotic and abiotic threats to its production. Amongst them the black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major constraint. In order to assess black scurf of potato a comprehensive survey was carried out in four main valleys of the region consisting of 24 villages. The survey revealed that valley wise mean disease prevalence was high in Bagrote (63.85+-9.06) and low in Haramosh (45.4+- 14.62). Maximum mean disease incidence and severity were recorded in Hoper valley while least disease incidence appeared in Haramosh and severity in Bagrote valley. Production practices as risk factor were assessed through a questionnaire. The majority of farmers performed activities in field that were supportive to the black scurf epidemics, such as, use of pits for storage of late harvested potato tuber for growing in next season, table potato, lack of general awareness about black scurf, not maintaining proper depth of sowing, irrigation, harvesting time and crop rotation. In vitro efficacy of three fungicides at different concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm were tested against Rhizoctonia solani isolates. Results indicated that increase of fungicide concentration significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of respective isolates. However, sensitivity reaction of each of isolates against each fungicide was also differential. Fungicide ridomil gold and mencozeb showed more toxic effect against the fungus compared to vitavax. (author)

  16. Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's

  17. Actual and Potential Yield Levels of Potato in Different Production Systems of Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deguchi, T.; Iwama, K.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Japan annually produces 2.4 million tons of potato on 79,700 ha. There are four cropping seasons stretching from 24° to 45° N: a winter crop at Okinawa, spring and autumn crops at Kyushu and southern Honshu, and a single summer crop at Hokkaido. Using the crop growth model LINTUL-POTATO-DSS,

  18. Precision management of nitrogen and water in potato production through monitoring and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Vos, J.; Booij, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen and water application rates and timing depend on the final yield a grower expects the potato crop to achieve. Therefore precise measurements of 1) the nitrogen status of the crop and 2) the water status of the soil are needed. A crop growth model LINTUL-Potato calculates yields and the

  19. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies va...

  20. Yield gaps and ecological footprints of potato production systems in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In Chile, potatoes are grown in a wide range of ecological zones and levels of technology resulting in wide ranges of crop management and yields. The aim of the present study was to assess yield gaps, resource use efficiencies and foot-printing in different potato cropping zones between 18 and 53°

  1. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  2. Determination of Optimum Nitrogen and Potassium Levels for potato Production in Central high lands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunka Egata

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the required levels of nitrogen and potassium, an experiment was conducted at Holetta Agricultural Research Center and Jeldu sub Center from 2014-2015 using three factors (Jalenie, Gudenie and Belete potato varies; 87, 110, 133kg/ha nitrogen rates and 0, 34.5, 69, 103.5kg/ha potassium in the form of K2O levels and as a completely randomized block design arrangement with three replications. In each location every year the 36 treatments (4 potassium oxide levels x 3 nitrogen levels x 3 varieties were assigned in random combinations to 36 plots of one block in a random case which was replicated in to two additional blocks of different randomizations in order to make total of three replications/blocks. Data were analyzed by SAS software Version 9.2. Potassium rates significantly affected the total yield and marketable yield as compared to the control treatment. Application of potassium at 103.5 kg/ha produced significantly a higher marketable yield than all rates. As compared to Jeldu, the Holetta location produced the maximum highly significant yield and yield component. Interaction of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers affected marketable tuber numbers and plant height significantly. In 2014, Belete produced the highest (27.31 ton/ha marketable yield at an application of 34.5 kg/ha potassium and 110 kg/ha nitrogen while Gudenie produced the highest (30.53 ton/ha marketable yield at an application of 69 kg/ ha potassium and 110 kg/ha nitrogen rates in 2015. It is better to apply 69 kg/ha potassium and 110 kg/ha nitrogen to potato production for reasonable yield at sites similar to experimental locations. It can be concluded that, interaction of nitrogen and potassium rates significantly affected plant height and marketable tuber numbers.

  3. The effect of antibrowning agents on inhibition of potato browning, volatile organic compound profile, and microbial inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosneaguta, Ruslan; Alvarez, Valente; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    Burbank and Norkotah potato slices were dipped into 3% sodium acid sulfate (SAS), citric acid (CA), sodium erythorbate (SE), malic acid (MA), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), or a combination of SAS-CA-SE. Browning by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) obtained from potato extract with 0.04 to 0.016 g/mL of antibrowning solutions at pH 2.0 to 6.9 were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The color of slices dipped in antibrowning solutions at pHs 2 to 7 and stored at 4 °C for 15 d was measured every 5 d by colorimeter. Headspace analysis of volatiles in raw and cooked potato samples was performed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) and soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) analysis of the calculated odor activity values (OAV) determined interclass distances. Microbial growth was measured at 15 d. At unadjusted pHs (1.1 to 7.1), the PPO browning of the control and samples with SAPP was not significantly different, SAS, CA, and MA produced some inhibition and SE and SAS-CA-SE prevented browning. At pH 5 to 7, only SE and SAS-CA-SE were effective browning inhibitors. Based on the color of potato slices, SE was the most effective at pH 2 to 7, but SAS was most effective at unadjusted pH. Cooking increased volatile levels in the treated potatoes and decreased differences between volatile profiles. Differences between cooked samples may not be noticeable by the consumer because volatiles with high discriminating powers have low OAVs. SAS, CA, and SAS-CA-SE treatments inhibited microbial growth but SAPP, control, and SE did not, most likely due to pH. Antibrowning agents inhibit polyphenol oxidase, increasing shelf life and consumer acceptability of processed raw potato products by preserving the color. Their effectiveness was shown to be mainly due to a pH effect, except SE, which was not pH dependent. MA, CA, and SAS-CA-SE are better acidulants for inhibition of color change as well as growth of spoilage bacteria, yeast, and mold than SAPP, the

  4. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  6. The effect of thermal processing in oil on the macromolecular integrity and acrylamide formation from starch of three potato cultivars organically fertilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Varzakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starches from three organically produced cultivars of potato tuber (Lady Rosetta, Spunta and Voyager have been studied in relation to (i acrylamide production (ii macromolecular integrity after frying with extra virgin olive oil, soybean oil and corn oil. During cultivation, a treatment involving the combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization under organic farming was applied (N1, P2, K1 where Ν1 = 1.3 g Ν per plant, P2 = 5.2 g P2O5 per plant, Κ1 = 4.0 g K2O per plant. Potatoes fried in olive oil retained the highest glucose concentrations for all cultivars 0.85 ± 0.2 mmol/kg, followed by 0.48 ± 0.2 for those fried in corn oil and 0.40 ± 0.1 mmol/kg for those fried in soybean oil. The highest average fructose concentration was recorded for the samples fried in corn oil as 0.81 ± 0.2, followed by 0.80 ± 0.2 and 0.68 ± 0.3 mmol/kg for the samples fried in olive and soybean oils, respectively. Asparagine was the most abundant free amino acid in the three varieties tested, followed by glutamine and aspartic acid. The mean initial concentration of asparagine in raw potatoes tubers was 42.8 ± 1.6 mmoles kg−1 for Lady Rosetta, 34.6 ± 1.2 mmoles kg−1 (dry weight for Spunta and 36.2 ± 2.0 mmoles kg−1 for Voyager. Lady Rosetta contained a significantly higher concentration of asparagine compared to the other two varieties (p < 0.05. The greatest quantity of acrylamide was observed in French fries derived from the potato variety Lady Rosetta when fried in soybean oil and it was 2,600 ± 440 μg/kg, followed by Spunta which was 2,280 ± 340 μg/kg and Voyager 1,120 ± 220 μg/kg. There is a significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide in the variety Voyager compared to the others (p = 0.05.

  7. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.

  8. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  9. Enhanced Bioethanol Production from Potato Peel Waste Via Consolidated Bioprocessing with Statistically Optimized Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tahmina; Miah, Abdul Bathen; Mahmud, Siraje Arif; Mahin, Abdullah-Al-

    2018-04-12

    In this study, an extensive screening was undertaken to isolate some amylolytic microorganisms capable of producing bioethanol from starchy biomass through Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). A total of 28 amylolytic microorganisms were isolated, from which 5 isolates were selected based on high α-amylase and glucoamylase activities and identified as Candida wangnamkhiaoensis, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii (2 isolates), Wickerhamia sp., and Streptomyces drozdowiczii based on 26S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequencing. Wickerhamia sp. showed the highest ethanol production (30.4 g/L) with fermentation yield of 0.3 g ethanol/g starch. Then, a low cost starchy waste, potato peel waste (PPW) was used as a carbon source to produce ethanol by Wickerhamia sp. Finally, in order to obtain maximum ethanol production from PPW, a fermentation medium was statistically designed. The effect of various medium ingredients was evaluated initially by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), where malt extracts, tryptone, and KH 2 PO 4 showed significantly positive effect (p value < 0.05). Using Response Surface Modeling (RSM), 40 g/L (dry basis) PPW and 25 g/L malt extract were found optimum and yielded 21.7 g/L ethanol. This study strongly suggests Wickerhamia sp. as a promising candidate for bioethanol production from starchy biomass, in particular, PPW through CBP.

  10. Postharvest monitoring of organic potato (cv. Anuschka) during hot-air drying using visible-NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Sturm, Barbara; Crichton, Stuart Oj; Amjad, Waseem; Massantini, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging (500-1010 nm) was evaluated for monitoring of the quality of potato slices (var. Anuschka) of 5, 7 and 9 mm thickness subjected to air drying at 50 °C. The study investigated three different feature selection methods for the prediction of dry basis moisture content and colour of potato slices using partial least squares regression (PLS). The feature selection strategies tested include interval PLS regression (iPLS), and differences and ratios between raw reflectance values for each possible pair of wavelengths (R[λ 1 ]-R[λ 2 ] and R[λ 1 ]:R[λ 2 ], respectively). Moreover, the combination of spectral and spatial domains was tested. Excellent results were obtained using the iPLS algorithm. However, features from both datasets of raw reflectance differences and ratios represent suitable alternatives for development of low-complex prediction models. Finally, the dry basis moisture content was high accurately predicted by combining spectral data (i.e. R[511 nm]-R[994 nm]) and spatial domain (i.e. relative area shrinkage of slice). Modelling the data acquired during drying through hyperspectral imaging can provide useful information concerning the chemical and physicochemical changes of the product. With all this information, the proposed approach lays the foundations for a more efficient smart dryer that can be designed and its process optimized for drying of potato slices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Organization and Evolution of Subtelomeric Satellite Repeats in the Potato Genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torres, A.T.; Gong, Z.; Iovene, M.; Hirsch, C.D.; Buell, C.R.; Bryan, G.J.; Novák, Petr; Macas, Jiří; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, July 2011 (2011), s. 85-92 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Satellite sequences * Potato genome * Repeats Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. A new generation starch product as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .3. Parameters affecting controlled drug release from tablets based on high surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Bolhuis, GK

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the general applicability of a new pregelatinized starch product in directly compressible controlled-release matrix systems. It was prepared by enzymatic degradation of potato starch followed by precipitation (retrogradation), filtration and washing with ethanol. The advantages

  13. Crossmodal correspondences in product packaging. Assessing color-flavor correspondences for potato chips (crisps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2011-12-01

    We report a study designed to investigate consumers' crossmodal associations between the color of packaging and flavor varieties in crisps (potato chips). This product category was chosen because of the long-established but conflicting color-flavor conventions that exist for the salt and vinegar and cheese and onion flavor varieties in the UK. The use of both implicit and explicit measures of this crossmodal association revealed that consumers responded more slowly, and made more errors, when they had to pair the color and flavor that they implicitly thought of as being "incongruent" with the same response key. Furthermore, clustering consumers by the brand that they normally purchased revealed that the main reason why this pattern of results was observed could be their differing acquaintance with one brand versus another. In addition, when participants tried the two types of crisps from "congruently" and "incongruently" colored packets, some were unable to guess the flavor correctly in the latter case. These strong crossmodal associations did not have a significant effect on participants' hedonic appraisal of the crisps, but did arouse confusion. These results are relevant in terms of R&D, since ascertaining the appropriate color of the packaging across flavor varieties ought normally to help achieve immediate product recognition and consumer satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  15. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .2. High surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch products in sustained-release tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Lerk, CF

    1997-01-01

    A new linear short-chain starch product was prepared by gelatinization of potato starch followed by enzymatic degradation, precipitation (retrogradation) and filtration. A high specific surface area was subsequently created by washing with ethanol or acetone or freeze-drying. Tablets compressed from

  16. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .1. Preparation and binding properties of high surface area potato starch products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierik, GHPT; ArendsScholte, AW; Eissens, AC; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmaceutical excipient with a high binding capacity was prepared from potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by suitable dehydration of the precipitated and filtered retrograded starch to produce high specific surface area products. Thermal dehydration methods like drying at room

  17. PENGUJIAN SIFAT PREBIOTIK DAN SINBIOTIK PRODUK OLAHAN UBI JALAR SECARA IN VIVO [In Vivo Evaluation of Prebiotic and Synbiotic Properties of Processed Sweet Potato Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the prebiotic and synbiotic properties of sweet potato products (combined with L. casei subsp Rhamnosus for probiotic in increasing the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and suppressing the number of E. coli and the occurrence of Salmonella in vivo. Some previous study showed that sweet potato is a potent source of prebiotic. The sweet potato products evaluated were sweet potato flakes (SPF and sweet potato ice cream mix. The in vivo assay used male rat strain Sprague-Dawley. Total microbes, LAB, E. coli and Salmonella in fecal were analyzed before, during and after feeding period. Feeding with SPF as prebiotic, L. casei subsp Rhamnosus as probiotic, and combination of both as synbiotic for ten days were able to increase the number of LAB (0.4-1.1 log CFU/g and suppress the number of E. coli in rat feces (1.5-1.7 log CFU/g. All of the treatment did not affect the occurrence of Salmonella in rat feces. The treatment of sweet potato ice cream mix as prebiotics and the combination of sweet potato ice cream mix and L. casei subsp. Rhamnosus as synbiotic for ten days did not effect the number of LAB and E. coli in rat feces.

  18. Ralstonia solanacearum – a New Threat to Potato Production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ware potatoes (a total of 1127 samples from localities in Serbia during two consecutive years resulted in detection and identification of R. solanacearum in 17 tuber samples. The monitoring detected the causal agent of bacterial wilt and brown rot of potato in three districts of Vojvodina province. In 2011, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 7 samples of ware potato tubers (varieties – Saturna, Pirol, Hermes, Panda in West Bačka and South Bačka Districts. In 2012, the infection by R. solanacearum was confirmed in 10 potato tuber samples (Lady Claire, Desiree, Panda, Red Fantasy and Vineta varieties from two districts: South Bačka and Central Banat. Bacterial strains obtained from positive samples were identified as R. solanacearum biovar 2 using PCR/RFLP analysis, pathogenicity test on tomato transplants, and nutritional, enzymatic and biovar determination tests. To our best knowledge, these are the only findings of R. solanacearum infection in ware potatoes in Serbia. R. solanacearum was not detected in tomato or any other host plant tested in this study. Furthermore, the bacterium was not found in any of the water samples tested, including those originating from areas in which the bacterium was found in ware potato samples.

  19. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  20. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  2. Digestion performance and microbial community in full-scale methane fermentation of stillage from sweet potato-shochu production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tang, Yueqin; Urakami, Toyoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Sweet potato shochu is a traditional Japanese spirit produced mainly in the South Kyushu area in Japan. The amount of stillage reaches approximately 8 x 10(5) tons per year. Wastewater mainly containing stillage from the production of sweet potato-shochu was treated thermophilically in a full-scale treatment plant using fixed-bed reactors (8 reactors x 283 m3). Following the addition of Ni2+ and Co2+, the reactors have been stably operated for six years at a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 14 kg/(m3 x day). Analysis of coenzyme content and microbial communities indicated that similar microbial communities were present in the liquid phase and on the fiber carriers installed in reactors. Bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes as well as Bacteroidetes were dominant bacteria, and Methanosarcina thermophila as well as Methanothermobacter crinale were dominant methanogens in the reactors. This study reveals that stillage from sweet potato-shochu production can be treated effectively in a full-scale fixed-bed reactor under thermophilic conditions with the help of Ni2+ and Co2+. The high diversity of bacterial community and the coexistence of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens contributed to the excellent fermentation performance.

  3. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for use in processed products, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Keiji.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of reconditioning of irradiated potatoes on the decrease of reducing sugar was studied. As a result, a suitable storage condition to maintain the desirable processing properties is proposed. The reducing sugar content was temporarily increased by irradiation at the early or last period of dormancy. The increase of reducing sugar was easily suppressed at the early period of dormancy by reconditioning immediately after irradiation. Reducing sugar did not decrease by the reconditioning when the irraditaion was carried out the early period of dormancy, but decreased when carried out at the last period of dormancy. A desirable procedure to maintain the processing properties of irradiated potatoes is as follows: Harvest the potatoes, store in bulk or containers and cure for 10 days at 10 0 C, RH90%. Irradiate the cured potatoes and recondition for 2 weeks under 15 0 C and RH80%. Long-term storage is then carried out at 7 - 8 0 C. Before processing, recondition the stored potatoes for 2 to 4 weeks at 15 0 C and RH 80%. (author)

  4. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Potato Nitrogen Concentrate in the Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thaller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various nitrogen sources and media supplements on α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1 formation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 1011 was investigated in shake flask experiments and batch fermentations. Both inorganic and organic nitrogen-containing supplements have been applied, while corn starch and ammonium sulphate were used as the major source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Shake flask experiments revealed that potato nitrogen concentrate (PNC is almost equivalent to corn steep liquor (CSL in supporting amylase formation. A pretreatment step consisting of clarification of the turbid material did not show any significant effect. The replacement of the inorganic nitrogen source by sodium nitrate led to lower enzyme yields. Other complex supplements may reduce the enzyme level formed, e.g. casein hydrolysate, or increase the amylase titre slightly, e.g. yeast extract or malt extract. Cultivations in instrumented bench top reactors on media supplemented with PNC led to higher cell growth rates and yields of α-amylase in comparison with the medium without any supplement. Replacement of PNC by CSL revealed a slightly increased enzyme level, which is in the range of 9–17 % after 100 h of cultivation. Only minor differences were revealed in the growth kinetics and enzyme formation when PNC was used as the sole nitrogen source, replacing a mixture of soybean meal, yeast extract, malt extract and casein hydrolysate in bioreactor cultivations with lactose as the carbon source. However, metabolic differences as seen from the course of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT, α-amino nitrogen concentration and the amount of acid needed to maintain a constant pH were observed.

  6. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  7. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  8. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  9. Determinants of Organic Products Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased environmental awareness and the growing desire for safer foods to health made the organic products category one of the most growing in the food sector. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most significant socioeconomic variables that influence the frequency of organic products consumption, and for that, it was based on a quantitative-descriptive study with a probability sample of 400 individuals, residing of the urban area of Campo Grande/MS, Brazil, responsible, alone or not, for food purchasing in family. As a tool for data collection, was used a structured questionnaire developed from socioeconomic variables and frequency of consumption of organic products. For the data analysis was performed statistical/econometric tests with the STATA 11.0 statistical software, using Multinomial Logit model (MNL, addition to verification of the explanatory variables effect on the probability of the consumption frequency levels of organic products through the Relative Risk Ratio (RRR, and was analyzed the Marginal Effect (ME exercised by the explanatory variables in each frequency level of organic products consumption. The results showed that the explanatory variables gender, education and economic class were statistically significant in the probability of an individual belong to some of the levels of consumption (rare, occasional and frequent over never having consumed organic products, being higher frequency of consumption when the consumer is female, have higher education or is of higher economic class.

  10. Response of potato gas exchange and productivity to phosphorus deficiency and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degree to which crops respond to atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment (CO2) may be influenced by their nutrition level. While the majority of CO2 and plant nutrition studies focus on nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is also required in relatively high amounts for important crops such as potato. To de...

  11. The effect of 'Liang-Feng-Su' on increasing production of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yitong; Wang Zhifen

    1991-01-01

    Treating sweet potato seedling with 33 x 10 -6 'Liang-Feng-Su', by means of phosphorus-32 and carbon-14 tracing technique showed that the use of 'Liang-Feng-Su' not only increased the root vigor and net photosynthetic efficiency of leaves, but also promoted the transport of photosynthate to root tubers which results in economic benefit

  12. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  13. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to a Recombinant Coat Protein of Potato mop-top virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš; Rosecká, Pavla; Dědič, P.; Filigarová, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2003), s. 195-200 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/1121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : potato mop-top virus * recombinant coat protein * Escherichia Coli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2003

  14. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to Potato virus X Using Recombinant Coat Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš; Plchová, Helena; Hoffmeisterová, Hana; Kmoníčková, Jitka; Dědič, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2010), s. 66-68 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato virus X * recombinant viral antigen * antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2010

  15. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  16. Control of bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice during chilling by nonorganic and organic appled, orange, and potato peel powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice by nine fruit and vegetable peel powders prepared from store-bought conventional (nonorganic) and organic apples, oranges, and potatoes was investigated. The powders were mixed into rice at 10% (wt/wt) along with heat ...

  17. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  18. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  19. Use of biology agents for the control phytosanitary in the minitubers production of potato in the acclimatization conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alberto Jimenez-Terry

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The employment of biological controls of pests and diseases is a technology with trends to increase at present for being economic, lasting and of beneficial results, related to the stability that they offer the ecosystem; avoiding the pollution of the environment produced by the application of pesticides. The present work was realized to evaluate the phytosanitary control on pests and diseases in the production of potato minitubers in acclimatization conditions. Combinations of agents Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus turhingiensis, Verticillum lecanii, Thrichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium viridens, were applied comparatively with the utilization of chemical products and a control without application. The results gave an efficient control of the chemical products and on the other hand, the biocontrol agents also exercised their role with valuable performance for the combinations of Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Verticillum lecanii, in which the yields of minitubers per plant were superior with significant differences to the control. Evidently these results allowed the proposal of using these biocontrol agents for the acclimatization of potato vitroplants. Key words: Beauveria, control phytosanitary, in vitro plants, Ttrichoderma, Verticillum

  20. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  1. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  2. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  3. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  4. The Effect of Climate Change on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Production in Feridonshahr Region of Isfahan I- Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohrab adavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The historical trend of Iran annual average temperature of shows a 0.05 °C.year-1 increase which indicates that future emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to increase temperature and consequently cause to climatic change in the country. This change in environment will have a serious impact on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes like photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photo-assimilates. The negative impacts of climate change on potato production are reported in the literature. The present study was conducted to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on phenology, growth and tuber yield of potato. Materials and Methods The climate projections of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3, France and Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (IPCM4, United Kingdom, was used to simulate the future conditions based on A2, B1 and A1B SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios scenario at three time periods including 2015-2045 (2030, 2046-2075 (2060 and 2076-2105 (2090with a baseline of 1988-2012 (2012. For each period, the year shown in the parenthesis was considered as target year. The SUBSTOR-Potato model, one of the sixteen models embedded within the DSSAT (v4.5 program, was used to simulate the baseline and future yield and growth characteristics of potato. The model was calibrated and validated during 2012 and 2013 with two different farm experiments. In these experiments, the effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and morphological traits of three potato cultivars were investigated. Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg urea. ha-1 and three commonly planted potato cultivars in the region (Arinda, Santeh and Agria as early, medium and late maturity varieties, respectively were studied as a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications

  5. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  6. Potato processing scenario in India: Industrial constraints, future projections, challenges ahead and remedies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen

    2010-03-01

    Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.

  7. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  8. The Effect of Organic Manure and Super Absorbent on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of organic manure and super absorbent on physiological and biochemical traits of potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona, a split plot experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm, Agriculture College, University of Razi in 2010. Main factor included two levels of super absorbent A200 (0 and 70 Kg/ha, and split plot included nine levels (0, chemical fertilizer (according to soil test, granule chicken manure (1000 kg/ ha, common chicken manure (12 ton/ha, soil mix (1000 kg/ha, cow manure (20 ton/ha, vermicompost (20 ton/ha, compost (20 ton/ha and tea compost (soaking tubers and spraying at four times. Investigating physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll index, chlorophyll florescence and stomata conductance showed that only leaf chlorophyll index was affected by superabsorbent (P < 0.01 and organic manure (P < 0.05, while stomata conductance wad significant under it’s interaction effect at (P < 0.05. Quality and biochemical traits show that phosphorous amount of tuber was significant in superabsorbent treatment in compare to control. Crude oil percentage, protein, fiber, starch, sugar, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content were not affected by organic manure. The highest amount of oil and fiber were obtained under compost and cow manure respectively. Sugar and nitrogen content were high under cow manure treatment. The highest amount of potassium and phosphorous content were belonging to chicken and Khakparvar manure respectively.

  9. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  10. Productivity spillovers of organization capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wen; Inklaar, Robert

    Investments in organization capital increase productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms-similar to investments in research and development. Recent evidence at the industry and economy level suggests such spillovers could be important. In this paper, we fail

  11. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (Pdressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (PPoultry Science Association.

  12. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  13. Effect of Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight in potato cv. ‘Romano’ seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the need to produce potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. with low inputs, this work was carried out with the aim of to determine the effect of the Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight (Alternaria solani Sorauer in the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. ‘Romano’ seed. Minitubers obtained as basic seed were used. A field experiment was designed with three treatments: application of Versaklin®, chemical products and control without application of products. The incidence and intensity of the disease were determined, the area under the disease progression curve (AUDPC was calculated and the technical effectiveness of the culture was estimated with Versaklin® or chemical products. In addition, the number of tubers per plant was quantified, the fresh and dry mass of the tubers were determined and it were classified by their diameter (caliber. Treatment with Versaklin® reduced incidence (30% and disease severity (23.0%. The AUDPC was found in a value between control and chemical treatment. The superiority of the chemical treatment was verified by its technical efficiency and the potential of Versaklin® use because it reached a value that represents 60% of chemical treatment but with only one product. The number of tubers per plant had no significant differences among treatments. The highest proportion of tubers of caliber to be used as seed (35-45 mm occurred in the treatment with Versaklin®. The results indicated that Versaklin® bioproduct could be part of disease management strategies.   Key words: Alternaria solani, bioproduct, minitubers, Solanum tuberosum

  14. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analys...

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash for the production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Fujiwara, Maki; Wang, Xiaohui; Seyama, Tomoko; Shiroma, Riki; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Mukojima, Nobuhiro [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, 9-4 Shinsei-minami, Memuro-cho, Kasai-gun, Hokkaido 082-0071 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash, containing 304 g L{sup -1} of dissolved carbohydrates, was carried out for ethanol production. Potato tubers were ground into a mash, which was highly viscous. Mash viscosity was reduced by the pretreatment with mixed enzyme preparations of pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase. The enzymatic pretreatment established the use of VHG mash with a suitable viscosity. Starch in the pretreated mash was liquefied to maltodextrins by the action of thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase at 85 C. SSF of liquefied mash was performed at 30 C with the simultaneous addition of glucoamylase, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source for the yeast. The optimal glucoamylase loading, ammonium sulfate concentration and fermentation time were 1.65 AGU g{sup -1}, 30.2 mM and 61.5 h, respectively, obtained using the response surface methodology (RSM). Ammonium sulfate supplementation was necessary to avoid stuck fermentation under VHG condition. Using the optimized condition, ethanol yield of 16.61% (v/v) was achieved, which was equivalent to 89.7% of the theoretical yield. (author)

  16. Yielding ability and weed suppression of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: chickweed, early growth, leaf area expansion, light interception, light use efficiency, manure, mineralisation, modelling, organic farming, organic matter, soil nitrogen content , Solanum tuberosum L., specific leaf area , Stellaria media

  17. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Pobereżny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn, 0.3 (spring, and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period. The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron. The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW. The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  18. Biochemical studies on the production of biofuel (bioethanol) from potato peels wastes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Ryan A.; Al-Bar, Omar A.; Soliman, Youssri M. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting micro-organism with good prospects in the future of yeast bioethanol production. In this study, both commercial and genetically modified S. cerevisiae were obtained from the local shops in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia and the Microbial Biotechnology Department - National Research Center (Dokki - Egypt) respectively, and incubated at 25 °C before being acclimatized for the conditions of this research. In this work, the impact of two different biochemical conditions (fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration) on the growth, carbohydrates yields, and mainly bioethanol productivity from potato peels wastes (PPW) were studied in both species. PPW were used as a solo carbon source in this study with HCl acidic pre-treatment method. When studying the impact of fermentation periods, the best fermentation periods were found to be between the third and the fourth day. Additionally, the optimal nitrogen source concentration added to the fermentation medium was 2 g/L. This study concludes with some suggestions for future work in an attempt to reach commercial production of bioethanol at the lowest possible costs

  19. Effect of Different Irrigation and Planting Methods on Water Productivity and Health of Commercial Varieties of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Salemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water crisis as a main factor of agronomy limitation exists in all over the arid and semiarid regions such as Isfahan, province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin (ZRB. Due to the increase in the cultivated area of potato in Fareidan Region located in the west of Isfahan province, it will be necessary to use pressurized irrigation systems to achieve the highest irrigation application efficiency and water productivity. Materials and Methods The ZRB (41,500 km2 is a closed basin with no outlet to the sea. The research was conducted in the Fareidan region of Isfahan, which is located in the west part of the ZRB. The Rozveh Agricultural Research Station (32°, 58' N, 50°, 25' E is located at the altitude of 2390 m above the sea level. This study was conducted as a randomized complete blocks design as a split strip plot layout with three replications and during two years (2007-2008. Three irrigation systems (Drip tape, Sprinkler and furrow were considered as main plots, two planting methods (one - row planting and two-row planting as split subplots and two potato cultivars (Marfuna and Agria as split-split subplots. Production (Tuber-yield, the consumption water and cultivars reactions to common diseases were evaluated in different treatments. The soil of the experimental area, according to USDA Soil Taxonomy 1994 is of silty loamy. At the soil depth of 1m, soil salinity (1.1-2.0 dS m-1, water salinity (1.24 dS m-1, soil moisture at field capacity (23 Vol. %, and bulk density (BD = 1.44 g/cm3 at the field site were measured or experimentally obtained in the Isfahan Soil and Water Laboratory. The results were subjected to an ANOVA to analyze the effects of the treatments and their interactions. The data obtained were analyzed using the compound variance analysis and the averages of different treatments were separated using the Duncan multiple range test using the statistical software (SAS Institute, Inc

  20. Analysis of small RNA production patterns among the two potato spindle tuber viroid variants in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the production of small RNA (sRNA by viroids upon infecting the plants, the tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Rutgers were inoculated with the variants of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd. After 21-days of postinoculation, total RNA was extracted and subjected for deep-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The primers were trimmed and only 21- to 24-nt long sRNAs were filtered after quality check of the raw data. The filtered sRNA population was then mapped against both the genomic (+ and antigenomic (− strands of the respective PSTVd variants using standard pattern-matching algorithm. The profiling of viroid derived sRNA (vd-sRNA revealed that the viroids are susceptible to host RNA silencing mechanism. High-throughput sequence data linked to this project have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69225.

  1. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Humberto Calori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split plot design. The plot consisted of 4 electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 dS∙m−1; the subplot, of 4 plant densities (25; 44; 66; and 100 plants∙m−2; and the subsubplot, of the 2 potato cultivars (Ágata and Asterix, totaling 4 blocks. The 2.2 and 2.1 dS∙m−1 electrical conductivities yielded the highest productivity of seed potato minitubers, for Ágata and Asterix cultivars, respectively, regardless of plant density. For both cultivars, the highest yield was observed for the 100 plants∙m−2 density.

  2. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  3. Comparing low rate copper formulations against Phythophthora infestans in potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Between Dutch organic growers the late blight problems lead to discussions in which a temporary registration of copper products is also suggested. Some growers do not want any pesticides at all, while others see that biological potatoes from abroad are sold in the super markets in years when Dutch

  4. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  5. Biohydrogen production from untreated and hydrolyzed potato steam peels by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Veuskens, Teun; Budde, Miriam A.W.; van Doeveren, Patrick F.N.M.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; de Vrije, Truus; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Production of hydrogen by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana was studied in serum flasks and in pH-controlled bioreactors with glucose, and hydrolyzed and untreated potato steam peels (PSP) as carbon sources. Two types of PSP hydrolysates were used: one in which the starch in the PSP was liquefied with alpha-amylase, and one in which the liquefied starch was further hydrolyzed to glucose by amyloglucosidase. When the PSP hydrolysates or untreated PSP were added at circa 10-14 g/L of glucose units, both strains grew well and produced hydrogen with reasonable to high molar yields (2.4-3.8 moles H{sub 2}/mole glucose units), and no significant production of lactate. The hydrogen production rates and yields were similar with untreated PSP, hydrolyzed PSP, and pure glucose, showing that C. saccharolyticus and T. neapolitana are well equipped for the utilization of starch. When the concentrations of the substrates were increased, growth and hydrogen production of both strains were hampered. At substrate concentrations of circa 30-40 g/L of glucose units, the molar hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was severely reduced due to the formation of high amounts of lactate, while T. neapolitana was unable to grow at all. The results showed that PSP and PSP hydrolysates are very suitable substrates for efficient fermentative hydrogen production at moderate substrate loadings. (author)

  6. Detection of Genetic Modification 'ac2' in Potato Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic modification 'ac2' is based on the insertion and expression of ac2 gene, originally found in seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus, into the genome of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum. The purpose of the present study is to develop a PCR method for the detection of the mentioned genetically modified potatoes in various foodstuffs. The method was used to test twenty different potato-based products; none of them was positive for the genetic modification 'ac2'. The European Union legislation requires labelling of products made of or containing more than 0.9 % of genetically modified organisms. The genetic modification 'ac2' is not allowed on the European Union market. For that reason it is suitable to have detection methods, not only for the approved genetic modifications, but also for the 'unknown' ones, which could still occur in foodstuffs.

  7. Developmental modulation of inulin accumulation in storage organs of transgenic maize and transgenic potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.M.; Arkel, van J.; Hakkert, J.C.; Tyree, C.; Caimi, P.G.; Koops, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many important health promoting and functional characteristics are attributed to the non-digestible polysaccharide, inulin. Its use as a prebiotic in functional food and feed has further increased inulin demand worldwide. Inulin production in crops used for food and feed application, such as maize

  8. Potato Processing Wastewater as a Substrate for Red Pigment Production from Immobilized Gamma-Irradiated Cells of Monascus purpureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.; Shash, S.M.; Emam, D.A.; Youssef, B.M.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although pigment production by Monascus spp. in chemically defined media is well documented (in submerged cultures and free cells), very few information is available about the use of agro-industrial wastes and immobilized cells. In this study immobilized irradiated spores (in sponge cubes) of M. purpureus (24 h age and 0.5 g cubes/50 ml medium) produced high amount of red pigment reached up to 2.32 g/I, after 4 days of incubation, compared with the amount of pigment produced by the free cells (1.84 g/I). Also, potato processing wastewater (PPW) was examined as the main culture medium for red pigment production by this fungus under optimizing culture conditions for repeated batches. The results showed that with irradiated immobilized cells, the maximum amount of red pigment production (1.96 g/I) was recorded at the second batch. Moreover, high reductions of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); 82.6 % for this waste was obtained during the second batch. The data revealed that very little amount of soluble toxic substances in the extracted sample leading to only 8% dead chicken embryos

  9. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    The prevailing average monthly maximum temperature is higher in the irrigated potato production system than in the rainfed system. The average monthly minimum temperature is low and causes frost injury to the plant during the irrigated potato production system. Therefore, irrigated potato production is affected both by the.

  10. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  11. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  12. Characterization of the causal organism of blackleg and soft rot of potato, and management of the disease with balanced fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.F.; Bibi, A.; Ahmad, M.; Junaid, M.; Ali, A.; Alam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon colony morphology, physio-biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (using species or subspecies-specific primers) studies, 20 isolates (out of a total of 42) were found to be Erwinia carotovora subspecies atroseptica (Eca), 19 were identified as Erwinia carotovora subspecies carotovora (Ecc), and 3 as Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech). Results of the subspecies-differentiating biochemical tests indicated that majority of the candidate Ecc isolates did not produce acid from methyle glucoside (as expected) but their reaction to the production of reducing substances from sucrose was variable. Likewise, some of our Eca and Ecc strains (unexpectedly) were sensitive to erythromycin. Also, most of our Eca strains unexpectedly grew at 36 degree C. Our strains slightly deviate from the standard description in some of their minor characteristics but they still remain the valid members of the Eca, Ecc or Ech group as similar variations in minor characteristics have been found by other workers. The occurrence of intermediate forms of Eca and Ecc (sharing some of the characteristics of both the groups) indicates variability happening among these strains. This variability indicates the potential ability of the pathogen to break the resistance of the host. The results of the effect of balanced nutrition in controlling blackleg and soft rot of potatoes indicated that the fertilizer combination of N3P1K3 (262/252/262 kg.ha-1) which is slightly higher than the normally practiced dose (247/247/247 kg.ha-1) was the best in bringing the disease to a minimum and subsequently increasing the yield. (author)

  13. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  14. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas

    2014-01-01

    research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments...... with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited...... on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition...

  15. Manure and Paper Mill Sludge Application Effects on Potato Yield, Nitrogen Efficiency and Disease Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Drapeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate organic amendment management is essential in potato production to increase soil productivity and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. quality. The objectives of this two-year field study (2004–2005 were to evaluate the effects of organic amendment applications with or without mineral N fertilizer addition on potato yield, N uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and on disease incidence. The experimental design was a split-plot, which included nine treatments with four different organic amendments applied in fall 2003 or in spring 2004 at a rate of 40 Mg ha−1 (wet basis and an unamended control in main plots, and N fertilizer rates (0 and 90 kg N ha−1 in sub-plots. Organic amendments consisted of fresh cattle manure (FCM, composted cattle manure (CCM, paper mill sludge with C/N ratio <15 (PMS1 and paper mill sludge with C/N >15 (PMS2 applied alone (0 kg N ha−1 or supplemented with mineral fertilizer at a rate 90 kg N ha−1. The N fertilizer rate in the unamended control consisted of 0 and 150 kg N ha−1. No organic amendments were applied in 2005 to evaluate residual effects. Fall and spring applications of FCM, CCM and PMS alone significantly increased N uptake and potato marketable yields by 2.5 to 16.4 Mg ha−1, compared to the unfertilized control. Combining organic amendments with N fertilizer at 90 kg N ha−1 increased potato yields, N uptake, and specific gravity, which were comparable to those obtained in mineral N fertilizer treatments (150 kg N ha−1. Residual effects of organic amendments alone had no significant effects on potato yields or on N uptake compared to the unfertilized control. Potato NUE for FCM, CCM and PMS ranged from 6% to 25% in the first year and from 2% to 8% in the residual year. The NUE values were higher for PMS with lower C/N ratio compared to FCM and CCM. This study did not show any difference between organic amendment applied in spring or fall on potato yield and quality. It was also demonstrated that

  16. Climate change and potato production in contrasting South African agro-ecosystems 1. Effects on land and water use efficiencies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haverkort, AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Explorations of the impact of climate change on potential potato yields were obtained by downscaling the projections of six different coupled climate models to high spatial resolution over southern Africa. The simulations of daily maximum...

  17. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-01-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that en...

  18. Organic agricultural products in Europe and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodzka Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries of Western Europe and North America, the share of organic farming in the food market is between 2% and 6%. The share of organic products on the Polish food market is only 0.33% (Dryjańska E. 2017. The aim of this article is to compare organic agricultural products in the US and EU. The scope of the comparison was covered by the legal regulations for organic production in the mentioned regions and the availability of organic products for customers. In order to highlight differences between the organic product and their traditional counterpart, selected meta-analyzes were conducted by authors in the field of medical and natural sciences. The possibilities of buying organic products are described on the basis of personal experiences of the author as a consumer. The offer of organic products was analyzed on the example of one European country (Poland and the example of several states of America (Colorado, Virginia, New York. The rules for producing organic food in the US are more rigorous than in the EU. The offer of organic and conventional food targeted to the American consumer is comparable. Although Polish consumers have a positive perception of organic food, its supply is significantly different from the US market. The main differences are in distribution channels, product range, price and visual design of organic products.

  19. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  20. Evaluation of Biofertilizer “Myco-green” on Water Relation and Efficiency of Potato Minituber Production in Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parvizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today biological fertilizers are suitable substitutes for chemical manure. Hence they can improve soil fertility in sustainable agriculture system (Mandal et al, 2007. Moreover, in some composition they are accompanied with plant growth promoting rhizibacteria (PGPR, namely Pseudomonas and some Bacillus species. These bacteria can improve growth rate of the plants by some physiological aspects namely, cidrophore acid production, increasing endogenously phytohormone and helping more phosphor absorption and fixation of biological nitrogen (Tilack et al., 2005. The symbiosis of mycorrhiza with plants confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved plant growth and mineral nutrient absorption, tolerance to diseases and stresses such as drought, temperature fluctuation, metal toxicity, salinity and other adverse conditions (Fortin et al, 2002. Ryan et al, (2003 and Smith and Reed, (2008.Mycorrhizal plants are capable of absorbing more water in lower potential of water as compared with non-mycorrhizal plants (Sanchez and Blanco, 2001. Micro propagation of potato by micro and mini tubers have been established for improving multiplication rate and possibility of reserving some more stock plants as germplasm. Multiplication of the minitubers already have been accompanied by lower establishment that causes low vigor and performance of the plant. This experiment was performedto study the effect of biological manure accompanied with mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on water relationship and vigor of the plantlets derived from minituber in water stress condition. Material and Methods Myco-green is produced by Peat grow company in Malaysia and has been spreading in floriculture, seed beds, vegetable crops, seedling plant of oil palm and many other plants. The experiment was performedatthe University of International Technology Mara Sarawak (UITM. As first step, soil bed composition was combined with peat and perlite

  1. Production of Genetically Improved Organic Nile Tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo, H.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Demand for organic products for human consumption has been on the increase due to the belief that organic products are safer and healthier to the consumer and the environment. In developing countries, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is usually grown in low-input organically fed ponds with

  2. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  3. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN APPLES, CAULIFLOWER, CEREALS, GRAPE, LETTUCE, PEAS, PEPPERS, POTATOES AND STRAWBERRIES OF THE SLOVENE ORIGIN IN 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2006, 181 apple, cauliflower, cereal, grape, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and strawberry samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 86 different active compounds using four analytical methods. In nine samples (5.0 % exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is comparable with the results of the monitoring of plant protection product residues in products of plant origin in the European union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in 2005 (4.9 %.

  4. Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping

    2001-01-01

    A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)

  5. Effects of intact glucosinolates and products produced from glucosinolates in myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis on the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Cv. Woll).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskov, S; Serra, B; Rosa, E; Sørensen, H; Sørensen, J C

    2002-02-13

    The potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis cv. Woll) is responsible for large yield losses in the potato crop, and opportunities for reducing the attack of these plant nematode species are, therefore, important. This study has been devoted to the testing of the in vitro effects on the potato cyst nematode of eight glucosinolates [prop-2-enyl-, but-3-enyl-, (R)-4-methylsulfinylbut-3-enyl-, benzyl-, phenethyl-, 4-hydroxybenzyl-, (2S)-2-hydroxybut-3-enyl-, and (2R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate] as well as the effects of the products of this myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis. The glucosinolates were used at three concentrations, 0.05, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/mL, in the presence or absence of the enzyme myrosinase. The effects of the compounds on the mortality were monitored every 8 h for a 72 h period. No effects were found for any of the intact glucosinolates. However, when active myrosinase was included with 1 mg/mL phenethylglucosinolate at pH 6.5, 100% mortality was observed within just 16 h. A similar effect was achieved at the same concentration of benzyl- and prop-2-enylglucosinolates in the myrosinase-containing solutions, although longer exposures were required (24 and 40 h, respectively). The main aglucone products released from the glucosinolates with pronounced effects on the nematodes were shown to be the corresponding isothiocyanates. The results suggest that mixtures of these specific glucosinolates and active myrosinase or autolysis of plant materials containing these enzymes and glucosinolates might be used to control the potato cyst nematode in the soil.

  6. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  7. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  8. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  9. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    the critical factor for the growth and enzyme production by Trichoderma isolates. Therefore, these cellulase producing Trichoderma isolates can be used in food industries, animal feed industries, brewing and wine ... However, the cost of cellulase production and optimization profoundly influences the economics of the entire.

  10. Production and Characterization of Fengycin by Indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 Originating from a Potato Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yu Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengycin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, was produced by indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 isolated from a potato farm. Although inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi, the fengycin is ineffective against yeast and bacteria. In this study, fengycin was isolated from fermentation broth of B. subtilis F29-3 via acidic precipitation (pH 2.0 with 5 N HCl followed by purification using ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. The purified fengycin product was characterized qualitatively by using fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, followed by quantitative analysis using reversed-phase HPLC system. This study also attempted to increase fengycin production by B. subtilis F29-3 in order to optimize the fermentation medium constituents. The fermentation medium composition was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM to increase fengycin production from B. subtilis F29-3. According to results of the five-level four-factor central composite design, the composition of soybean meal, NaNO3, MnSO4·4H2O, mannitol-mannitol, soybean meal-mannitol, soybean meal‑soybean meal, NaNO3-NaNO3 and MnSO4·4H2O-MnSO4·4H2O significantly affected production. The simulation model produced a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.9043, capable of accounting for 90.43% variability of the data. Results of the steepest ascent and central composite design indicated that 26.2 g/L of mannitol, 21.9 g/L of soybean meal, 3.1 g/L of NaNO3 and 0.2 g/L of MnSO4·4H2O represented the optimal medium composition, leading to the highest production of fengycin. Furthermore, the optimization strategy increased the fengycin production from 1.2 g/L to 3.5 g/L.

  11. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  12. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  13. Chemical Eradication of the Ring Rot Bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato Storage Crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Lamers, J.G.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Mendes, O.; Berg, van den W.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Jilesen, C.J.T.J.; Spoorenberg, P.M.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Four commercially available disinfection products were tested for their efficacy against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), causative agent of bacterial ring rot, on wooden potato storage crates. Each of these products represented a different class of biocide, i.e. organic acids

  14. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  15. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    K), which were moist to 60% water holding capacity of the soil every day, 34-44% of the applied ... biologically active soils these fertilizers pass ... 1955); organic carbon (Black, 1965); total nitrogen .... granular sst/pl n/o. Few Mn-Fe nodules. * = moist value; d/w = diffuse and .... supplying potential of Typic Hapl-udert if the.

  16. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    fusion matrix or a contingency table is the most appropriate ... addition, a discrete multivariate statistical model of 'Kappa ... index application to report CAA because this in- .... that no matter how small a LULC class is in size or ...... and Business Media, Inc., Dordrecht. 13. ... International Organizations for Standardizations.

  17. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)

  18. Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...

  19. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  20. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the potato Hsp20 gene family: identification, genomic organization and expression profiles in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Ruoqiu; Kong, Nana; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chenghui; Wu, Wentao; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-18

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential components in plant tolerance mechanism under various abiotic stresses. Hsp20 is the major family of heat shock proteins, but little of Hsp20 family is known in potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is an important vegetable crop that is thermosensitive. To reveal the mechanisms of potato Hsp20s coping with abiotic stresses, analyses of the potato Hsp20 gene family were conducted using bioinformatics-based methods. In total, 48 putative potato Hsp20 genes (StHsp20s) were identified and named according to their chromosomal locations. A sequence analysis revealed that most StHsp20 genes (89.6%) possessed no, or only one, intron. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the StHsp20 genes, except 10, were grouped into 12 subfamilies. The 48 StHsp20 genes were randomly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Nineteen tandem duplicated StHsp20s and one pair of segmental duplicated genes (StHsp20-15 and StHsp20-48) were identified. A cis-element analysis inferred that StHsp20s, except for StHsp20-41, possessed at least one stress response cis-element. A heatmap of the StHsp20 gene family showed that the genes, except for StHsp20-2 and StHsp20-45, were expressed in various tissues and organs. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of StHsp20 genes and demonstrated that the genes responded to multiple abiotic stresses, such as heat, salt or drought stress. The relative expression levels of 14 StHsp20 genes (StHsp20-4, 6, 7, 9, 20, 21, 33, 34, 35, 37, 41, 43, 44 and 46) were significantly up-regulated (more than 100-fold) under heat stress. These results provide valuable information for clarifying the evolutionary relationship of the StHsp20 family and in aiding functional characterization of StHsp20 genes in further research.

  2. Internalizing external environmental costs of agriculture into product prices, Case study for milk and potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    Society has to pay large amounts of money to compensate for the environmental damages caused by farm emissions. These external costs are not fully accounted for in product prices and internalization of these external costs into the cost price of agricultu

  3. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    for conventional production into land for organic production, a period of two years must pass before the land being transformed can be used for organic production. During that time, the land is counted as land of the organic industry, but it can only produce the conventional product. To handle this rule, we make......Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...

  4. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  5. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  6. In situ prebiotics for weaning piglets: In vitro production and fermentation of potato galactorhamnogalacturonan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Post weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required...... product, with a minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI-model extracting 26.9 % of initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5 or 10 g/L in a glucose-free media inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g....... For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5 g/L treatment is suggested....

  7. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  8. Impulses for Perishable Products : Quick Scan of Potato, Aquaculture, and Horticulture Cold Chain Opportunities in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.; Haverkort, A.J.; Montsma, M.P.; Rothuis, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the fast-changing Zambezi Valley in Mozambique food security is not yet a reality, despite the economic growth due to e.g. mining. Quick scans were conducted for Zambezi Valley Development Agency to assess the potential for market-driven inclusive development of three value chains: potato,

  9. Production of Polyclonal Antiobies to a Recombinant Potato Mop-top Virus Non-structural Triple Gene Block Protein l

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovská, Noemi; Filigarová, Marie; Pečenková, Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 154, - (2006), s. 422-427 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/1329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato mop-top virus * recombinant protein * triple gene block * polyclonal antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.817, year: 2006

  10. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  11. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Asagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’ and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF, we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potatoes were cultivated in 2008 and 2009 in an Andosol field treated with AC, conventional food waste compost (FWC, poultry manure compost (PMC, cattle manure compost (CMC, IF, or no fertilizer (NF. AC, but not the other treatments, delayed the emergence of potatoes, and suppressed the emergence of weeds, but it did not inhibit potato growth during the late growth stage or yield. Potato N uptake and tuber yield with AC were significantly higher than those with NF and similar to those with FWC, PMC, and IF. The N uptake efficiencies (ratio of difference between N uptake in the treatment and the control to added N for AC (10.4–12.7% in 2008 and 2009 were similar to those for FWC and PMC (10.2–13.1%, higher than those for CMC (–1.3 to 6.3%, but significantly lower than those for IF (30.2–42.3%. Our findings indicate that AC has an N supply capacity similar to those of FWC and PMC and additionally suppresses the emergence and growth of weeds.

  12. Biological production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  13. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  14. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  15. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 37-43 ...

  16. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 40-46 ...

  17. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural engine Products - Structure and Biological Functions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 23-30 ...

  18. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  19. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products - Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1287-1293 ...

  20. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. ... The Series on "learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products". Nature is a remarkable ... skeletal structure to the interior electronic configu- ration ... Among the advantages of this approach are the fact that unlike the.

  1. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  2. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priedniece Vivita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  3. Influence of temperature shifts on survival, growth, and toxin production by psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains of Bacillus cereus in potatoes and chicken gravy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahakarnchanakul, W; Beuchat, L R

    1999-03-15

    A study was done to determine the influence of temperature on growth and toxin production characteristics of psychrotrophic and mesophilic strains of Bacillus cereus when inoculated into mashed potatoes and chicken gravy containing various concentrations of sodium chloride and held at temperatures different from those at which cells had been cultured. Logarithmic growth phase cells (10 h, 30 degrees C) of psychrotrophic (F3802A/84) and mesophilic (B4ac-1) strains of Bacillus cereus were inoculated into rehydrated commercially processed instant mashed potatoes and chicken gravy supplemented with 0, 2, or 4% sodium chloride. Growth, survival, and diarrheal toxin production in potatoes and gravy held at 30, 37, and 10 degrees C (strain F3802A/84) or 30, 40, and 10 degrees C (strain B4ac-1) were monitored. Both strains grew in both foods containing no added sodium chloride or 2% sodium chloride when held at 30, 37, or 40 degrees C for 2 days. Strain B4ac-1 grew better than strain F3802A/84 in foods containing 4% sodium chloride. Maximum amounts of enterotoxin (1024 ng/g) were produced by strain B4ac-1 in chicken gravy held at 30 and 40 degrees C. Strain F3802A/84 grew to populations of 7 log10 CFU/g in foods containing no added sodium chloride or 2% sodium chloride at 10 degrees C. Strain F3802A/84 produced the highest amount of enterotoxin (1024 ng/g) at 30 degrees C in chicken gravy containing 0.7 or 2% sodium chloride; however, little or low amounts of toxin (4-16 ng/g) were produced in chicken gravy at 10 degrees C. Compared to strain B4ac-1, cells of strain F3802A/84 subjected to a downward shift in incubation temperature (10 degrees C) grew more rapidly in chicken gravy. Strain B4ac-1 produced the highest amount of toxin (1024 ng/g) at 30 degrees C in gravy containing 4% sodium chloride and at 40 degrees C in gravy containing 0.7% sodium chloride. Toxin was not detected in inoculated mashed potatoes. Results of this study indicate that shifts in incubation

  4. Effects of the climate change over the potato production in the municipality of Villapinzón (Cundinamarca-Colombia based into the Ricardian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle Danitza González Velandia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change because of its direct dependence on climatic conditions. To measure the effects of climate change on agriculture different methodologies have been developed, within these appears the Ricardian approach, which allows to quantify the effects of climate change by assuming that the value of the land is going to depend on their productivity, and the adaptive capacity of producers. This research shows the effects of climate change on potato production in the municipality of Villapinzón (Cundinamarca-Colombia based on Ricardian approach, in search of forecasts that reflect unique effects at the local level. In this case, it was found that the effects are linked to the availability of water, access to basic services, the downtown, and in addition, it was found that the effects associated with temperature increases in potato production are going to be positive, because the price of land will tend to be increased for 2040, 2070 and 2100.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Sagieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the technological level of production of Russian organizations. Areas of study cover the characteristics of the use of technology in manufacturing (the extent of use and level of technology, the problems solved by using specific types of technologies and the use in the production process of intellectual property; factors driving growth of technological level of the surveyed medium and large organizations and provides them with a competitive advantage

  6. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  7. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  8. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Asagi; Keisuke Minamide; Toru Uno; Masanori Saito; Toyoaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N) content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’) and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC) and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF), we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potat...

  9. Long-term effects of potato cropping system strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems incorporating soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive crops, reduced tillage, and/or organic amendments can substantially affect soil microbial communities, and potentially reduce soilborne potato diseases and increase productivity, but long-t...

  10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Learning Organic Chemistry. Through Natural Products. 2. Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy was initiated into the world of natural products by T R. Seshadri at University of. Delhi and has carried on the glorious traditions of his mentor. He has taught at Bangalore University,.

  11. Prospecting Organic production of spices in Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Low rainfall and low atmospheric humidity favours spices production in Rajasthan, the largest state of India.Details on possibilities of organic production of spices in Rajasthan are described in the paper considering the future challenges of soil, climate,social and market environment.

  12. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  13. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  14. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  16. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  17. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  18. Organic vs. Non-Organic Food Products: Credence and Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Zhanguo Zhu; Feng Chu

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the organic and non-organic production choices of two firms by considering customers’ trust in organic food products. In the context of customers’ possible willingness to pay a premium price and their mistrust in organic food products, two firms first make choices on offering organic and non-organic food products. If offering organic products, a firm can further invest in the credence system to increase customers’ trust in their organic products. At the final stage, two firms deter...

  19. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  20. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  1. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  2. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  3. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (ppotato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, ppotato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa managed project-"Improved Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Intensification in Potato Based Systems in Ethiopia and Kenya"-funded by the BMZ/GIZ International Agricultural Research for Development Fund.

  4. Biological treatment of potato processing wastewater for red pigment production by immobilized cells of UV-irradiated monascus sp. in repeated batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain isolated from PPW identified as Monascus sp. PPW was evaluated for its ability to grow and produce red pigment, biomass and reduce the starch content of the ,PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate of the above strain was obtained by exposing the parent strain to UV-radiation and coded Monascus. sp. PPW-UV7 and used as immobilized cell system for PPW treatment process in repeated batch fermentation. The immobilized cells (in sponge cubes) were able to reduce COD by about 85.7 %, with biomass production of 9.22 gl+ l and over productivity of red pigment of 2.6 gl+ 1 after 8 days fermentation (2 batches). The immobilized cells showed stability and viability for 8 batches (32 days) during the process treatment

  5. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION PACKAGES FOR ORGANIC TURMERIC

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, Eagan; Shanthi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a perennial rhizomatous herb has been regarded as an important spice in Asian cuisine. India is called as the “Spice bowl of the world” as it produces variety of spices with quality. Though India leads in production of turmeric, but average productivity is very low due to imbalanced and suboptimal dose of chemical fertilizers, organic manure, bio – fertilizers and micronutrients (Kandiannan and Chandragiri, 2008). Since, turmeric is a nutrient responsive crop and ...

  6. Biogas utilization for drying sweet potato chips by using infrared dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Rahayuningtyas, Ari; Susanti, Novita Dwi; Sitompul, Rislima Febriani

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to utilize biogas, that produced from organic waste, as fuel for infrared dryers. The digester was dome type, which made from fiberglass, 5.5 m3 capacities, gas container made from soft PVC, 5.6 m3 capacities. The infrared dryer was household scale which have dimension 2000 mm x 2000 mm x 2000 mm, it is consist of 2 racks, which have size 1500 mm x 500 mm x 1400 mm, and consist of 44 baking pans (600 mm X 400 mm x 30 mm), the dryer has 36 kg of capacity. The parameters observed include ambient temperature, temperature inside the digester, pH value, biogas production, drying room temperature, moisture content of sweet potato and biogas consumption for drying. Infrared dryer is used to dry the sweet potato slices thickness of 2 mm with total amount 12 kg, at room temperature dryer ± 60 °C. The results showed that the average biogas production was 1.335 m3 per day, at a temperature of 26 - 35 °C and the neutral pH value was 6.99 - 7.7. 12 kg of sweet potato sliced dried for 4 hours, the initial moisture content of 79.68 % decreased to 8.98 %, the consumption of biogas used 4,952 m3. The final result of drying process of sweet potato slices of 3.5 kg, there was a shrinkage of 70.83 %. Characterization of sweet potato slices is 3 % protein, 0,6 % fat, 94 % carbohydrate and 2 % ash. These sweet potato can be used as flour for cookies and cake raw materials, the use of sweet potato flour can reach 50 - 100 %.

  7. Effect of organic waste compost on the crop productivity and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Toomsoo, Avo; Teesalu, Triin; Rossner, Helis; Kriipsalu, Mait

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable use of fertilizers is important for maintaining balanced nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystem, soil quality and crop productivity. Considering the high costs and energy demand of mineral fertilizers, it is increasingly important to use more alternative nutrient sources such composts. Nutrient release from organic fertilizers is slower compared to mineral fertilizers and thus their effects need to be evaluated over longer time periods. There is lack of knowledge on the residual effects of organic fertilizers, especially in Nordic climatic conditions. Residual effect of organic fertilizers is in most cases studied with animal manures, but even rare are studies with non-manure based composts. The aim of current study was to evaluate first year direct effect and residual effect of waste compost on the crop productivity and selected soil parameters. Crop rotation field experiment to reveal direct effect of compost to the spring barley yield and residual effect to potato and spring wheat yield was conducted in Tartu, Estonia on pseodopodzolic soil with low humus concentration (food and green waste, and category III animal by-products; and composted in aerated covered static piles for 6 weeks and after that matured in open windows for minimum six months. Compost was applied to soil with ploughing in autumn before spring barley growing season (in years 2012-2014). Compost was applied in three norms according to total N (200, 275 and 350 kg/ha). In addition there was unfertilized control plot and all experimental variants were in three replication with plot size 50 m2. First year effect of compost increased barley yield by 40-50%, first year residual effect resulted in increase of potato yield by 19-30% and second year residual effect to wheat yield was in range from 8 to 17%. First year residual effect to the potato yield was significant (F=8.9; pstatistically non-significant (F=3.2; p=0.07). Residual effect of compost is decreasing year-by-year as expected. In

  8. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  9. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products -12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. The most interesting chemical aspect of a molecule is its. reactivHy pattern. NR Krishnaswamy. In this part of the series, dynamic organic chemistry and.

  10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products From Molecular and Electronic Structures to Reactivity. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 12-18 ...

  11. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  12. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ORGANIC PRODUCTS, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ON MARKET AND EUROPEAN ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chreneková

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The market of organic products around the world increased its volume in Central and Eastern Europe with organic food market has a number of shared features, which include the relatively low demand for organic food, low share of regular customers, the problems of producers marketing, the lack of enterprises which process organic products. Consumer behavior purchasing organic foods is influenced by several factors, among which is dominated consumer personality, income, finances and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors such as perception, motivation, learning, cognition and attitudes. Cultural and social factors in consumer behavior exhibit a lesser degree. Organic fruit and organic vegetables quality is generally higher for content of biologically active substances such as vitamins, polyphenols and flavonoids. The content of pesticide residues in organic food is significantly lower than conventional production. Regular monitoring of chemical and microbiological safety of organic products already in the primary production occurring in the raw state and after working in various sectors of food, an intensification of awareness raising and targeted increased support for organic agriculture. Multifunctional sector and increased support for family farms oriented for sectors with higher added value than the home sale, production processing on the farm and so on. By support of the sale of high quality domestic production by the state will be possible to persuade more people to personal health status and greater consumption of organic food  affects the health and prevent the occurrence of various diseases.doi:10.5219/96  

  14. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  15. Modelling the behaviour of organic degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.E.; Ewart, F.T.; Greenfield, B.F.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented from recent studies at Harwell which show that the degradation products which are formed when certain organic waste materials are exposed to the alkaline conditions typical of a cementitious environment, can enhance the solubility of plutonium, even at pH values as high as 12, by significant factors. Characterisation of the degradation products has been undertaken but the solubility enhancement does not appear to be related to the concentration of any of the major organic species that have been identified in the solutions. While it has not been possible to identify by analysis the organic ligand responsible for the increased solubility of plutonium, the behaviour of D-Saccharic acid does approach the behaviour of the degradation products. The PHREEQE code has been used to simulate the solubility of plutonium in the presence of D-Saccharic acid and other model degradation products, in order to explain the solubility enhancement. The extrapolation of the experimental conditions to the repository is the major objective, but in this work the ability of a model to predict the behaviour of plutonium over a range of experimental conditions has been tested. (author)

  16. Production and characterization of bio plastics from potato starch, poly-hydroxybutyrate and poly-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fernanda M.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the study of thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends obtained from potato starch (plasticised with glycerol) with biodegradable polymers poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB V). For this purpose it were developed several formulations with TPS/PHB, TPS/PHB V and TPS/PHB/PHB V prepared by physical mixing and water and glycerol as plasticizers. The amount of glycerol was 30% based on starch (dry basis). The starting materials (starch, PHB and PHB V) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, it was determined the optimal processing conditions for the samples, performed by using an intensive mixer. The materials were hot pressed to produce the standardized samples employed in the characterizations: mechanical testing (tensile strength), dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  17. Postharvest Practices for Organically Grown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality of produce cannot be improved after harvest, only maintained. Postharvest handling depends on the specific conditions of production, season, method of handling, and distance to market. Under organic production, growers harvest and market their produce at or near the peak ripeness more commonly than in many conventional systems. Organic production often includes more specialty varieties whose shelf life and shipping traits are reduced or even inherently poor. Harvesting and handling techniques that minimize injury to the commodity, as well as increased care with field and packinghouse sanitation, (chlorine, ozone, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, acetic acid, peroxyacetic acid, vinegar, ethyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, etc. during postharvest processes are vital components of a postharvest management plan for organic products. Sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and physical treatments such as heat treatments (as hot water treatment or dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing or hot air can significantly lower the disease pressure on the harvested commodities. These sanitation practices are very easy to implement in the organic food production chain. They start in the field and continue during harvesting, sorting, packing, and transportation and continue even in the consumer’s home. All those treatments reduce rot development, provide quarantine security, and preserve fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. In addition, the use chitosan, propolis, methyl jasmonate, essential oils, carnuba wax, biocontrol agents and modified atmosphere packaging can also reduce decay development during prolonged storage. All these treatments can be applied alone or in combination with each other in order to improve decay control after harvest and provide a healthy and safe product to the consumer. The aim of this chapter is to shed more light on the latest information on permitted treatments for organic

  18. Economic feasibility study of potato preservation by irradiation in saudi arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of the preservation of potato crop by cobalt-60 gamma irradiation sprout inhibition by potato irradiation was approved by international organization and concerned authorities in many countries. The dose level range authorized for potato sprout inhibition extends from about 80-150 Gy depending on potato variety, time of irradiation after harvest, and post irradiation storage temperature. Sprout inhibition is most effective by irradiation after harvest, and after healing of any inflicted injuries, that when the potatoes are dormant. Irradiation at the recommended doses minimizes storage losses of potatoes that are refrigerated or stored on shelves. Despite the limited data available, an attempt was made to quantify the monetary value of preserving potato by irradiation. With economy scale taken in consideration, potato preservation by irradiation is economically feasible since at the local consumption rates there will be lot of potatoes that ned storage for off season use. 5 tabs.

  19. Assessment of Paclobutrazol’s Time and Concentration of Foliar Application on Production and Germination of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Mini-tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seeds are important in the potato seed production technology. Moreover, the basic seed materials must be free of pathogens. Therefore tissue culture techniques are used at this stage in the laboratory to produce disease free seeds. Mini-tubers can be produced after acclimatization from plantlets as tissue culture which are planted at high densities in the greenhouse in beds or containers using different substrate mixtures, or even in hydroponic culture. Foliar application of growth regulators is a way to increase potato mini-tuber production. Growth regulators influence on potato mini-tuber dormancy. Triazoles, a family which Paclobutrazol belongs to them, have both fungitoxic and plant growth regulatory effects. In addition, they can also protect plants against various stresses. Therefore, the triazoles have been characterized as plant multi-protestants. Paclobutrazol changes the relationship between source and sink and by this way, affects plant production. Also, it can inhibit giberellic acid biosynthesis. Some morphological changes observed in paclobutrazol-treated plants include the inhibition of plant growth, decreased inter-nodal elongation and increased root to shoot ratios. Time of paclobutrazol foliar application is an important factor which changes plant characters (Lim et al., 2004. This study implemented to evaluate foliar application of paclobutrazol concentrations at different time on production and mini-tuber dormancy. Materials and Methods The factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the faculty of agriculture’s research greenhouse, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Plantlets of Agria cv. produced from nodal tissue culture in Murashinge and Skoog (MS medium. After 25 days, plantlets of free disease and uniform exported to plastic pots with 12 cm diameter and 30 cm height. Perlite, cocopite

  20. Purification of (potato)-starch manufacture waste water utilizing the residual pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcher, J

    1956-01-01

    Diagrams and procedures are given for fermentation of potato-starch-factory wastes and production of ethanol, butanol, acetone, and amylase. The combined process gives 95% recovery of the total solids of potatoes.

  1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  2. Preparing for climate change: Breeding frost tolerant potatoes adapted to Andean Highlands especially the Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost can have a devastating impact on potato production since most cultivated potatoes are very sensitive to frost and are severely damaged at air temperatures below -2 or -3 C. In the Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia over 60,000 hectares of potato production is impacted by frost. It has been estimate...

  3. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  4. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  5. Mutation breeding on potato by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Potato breeding is one of the most frequent cases in terms of production and growing distinct after cultivation of cereals. The utilization of potato increases everyday since the nodes of potato are available for using fresh food and also chipping, producing starch, alcohol as well as animal feed. At the present day, potatoes are more significant as a result of uses of them. The most productive country in potato is china. According to data 2007, Turkey produces 4280 million ton potatoes every year. Potato is in the group of nodule plants. Even though potato production is frequent every place in Turkey, the most productive place is Central part of Turkey especially Nigde and Nevsehir. 43.2% of production is obtained in these cities. According to 2007 data, potato production area 158.500 ha in Turkey. The most significant input is seed for potato since potatoes are reduced by nodes as being vegetative. Even though amount of used seed is predicated on aim, ecologic circumstances, breed, is 200-300 kg/da. Seed registration certification system have been started since 1972 in potato. Until 2007, 68 variety breed were registered but all of them except. Pasinler and Nif are brought from abroad. Pasinler and Nif which are cultivated in Turkey does not hold a place among seed program. There is no domestic breed in potato - seed. For that reason, mutant diversities, which are highly acclimatized to adapt, fertile, substantial against diseases, pests and substantial for storage, are aimed to grow to provide them for farmers. These diversities also must have different elaboration periods and highly weedy starch to being useful for industries. In this study, we used Marfona potato variety which has been grown in large areas for a long time in Turkey. Marfona potato which is registered in 1991 in our country is in middle-early maturity growing group, also it has light yellow as well as peel with its white bloom and big node. Marfona which is highly substantial against virus

  6. Results concerning the analysis of the reaction products resulting from genomic dna amplification using agarose gel electrophoresis for potatoes studied old varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BACIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The author is currently involved in collecting, making an inventory, evaluation and preservation the old varieties from the Western part of Romania. In this paper 8 potato old varieties collected during 20 years and 2 varieties from National Institute of Research and Development for potato and Sugar Beet Brasov are presented. The preservation was carried out in vivo and in vitro. Important changes were observed during this time. In our work we identified many gaps in the knowledge and understanding of the origin of transformations. We made a comparison between two big areas of potato growth: Apuseni Mountains [5] and the Maramures County [3]. In these areas the potato represents the main food in winter. This work opens opportunities for future researches in the field of political and ethical decisions for potato gene pool conservation. Soon the exchange of genetic resources will be a diplomatic issue.

  7. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  8. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    optimise the production of ADC from organic fractions of domestic wastes and the effects of ADC amendments on soil .... (22%), cooked meat (9%), lettuce (11%), carrots. (3%), potato (44%) ... seed was obtained from a mesophilic anaerobic.

  9. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF POTATO STARCH, NOPAL MUCYLAGA AND BIOPLAST LABELS AS AGGREGATE VALUE PRODUCTS FRIENDLY WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Issac Moreno-Bustillos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This experimental research, carried out at the Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Guasave, asseses the obtainment of an environmentally friendly bioplastic, as an alternative to polymers of synthetic origin, and with this, to reduce the environmental impacts generated by them. For this, it was considered the lagging potato as a source of starch, in addition to regional nopal and aloe, as a source of mucilage. Glycerin was used as a plasticizer. In order to determine the purity degree of the materials, physicochemical properties were analyzed by the AOAC official methods. Films of 3mm thick per 100mm long were made from different concentration of the materials, an experimental design (DOE 2^5, with two levels and five independent factors was established; resulting in 32 treatments, with two replicates per treatment. The response variables: odor, appearance, ease of molding and resistance to touch were evaluated qualitatively. From the total of the analyzed samples only 6 treatments (corresponding to 18.75% met the attributes of touch resistance and ease of molding.

  11. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  12. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  13. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. ORGANIC GRAIN PRODUCTION MARKET OF UKRAINE: PROSPECTS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Bondar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the prospects of the market of organic products in Ukraine. The article studies the market for organic produce dynamic area of organic farmland, number of organic farms in volume production of organic products. Identified key factors influencing the market for organic products Ukraine, outlined areas of the market based on its current state. Grain industry serves as a source of sustainable development of agriculture, determines the socio-economic condition of society and is the basis of agricultural exports. Therefore, the development of the organic market of grain and its products are of particular importance and led to the goal and objectives of bottom investigation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study are works of economists on the development of ecology management, general scientific methods and approaches in the field of business management: historical, dialectical, abstract logical methods of system-structural analysis and synthesis of scientific research and provision of economic theory, management. Results. Proved that Ukraine has considerable potential as a producer of agricultural products, including organic farming, export, consumption in the domestic market. To determine the market trends of organic products studied the dynamics of agricultural surfaces of Ukraine, reserved for growing organic products. To further study the characteristics and trends of the market for organic products in Ukraine, examined the dynamics of the number of organic farms. For determining the main trends and the prospects of the organic products market, and in addition for researching proposals, examined demand for market research of market demand for organic products in terms of production of organic products in Ukraine. Practical implications. The main problem of Ukraine of organic production is exported domestic products as organic production of agricultural products. Analysis of key

  15. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2018-02-27

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  16. Organic vs. Non-Organic Food Products: Credence and Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the organic and non-organic production choices of two firms by considering customers’ trust in organic food products. In the context of customers’ possible willingness to pay a premium price and their mistrust in organic food products, two firms first make choices on offering organic and non-organic food products. If offering organic products, a firm can further invest in the credence system to increase customers’ trust in their organic products. At the final stage, two firms determine prices. We provide serval insights. First, we characterize the market conditions in which only one firm, both firms or neither firm will choose to offer organic food products. We find that the higher the production costs or credence investment costs for organic food products are, the more likely firms are to choose to produce non-organic food products. Second, if it is expensive enough to invest in organic credence, offering organic food products may still be uncompetitive, even if organic production cost appears to have no disadvantage compared to non-organic food products. Third, we highlight how the prices of organic food products in equilibrium are affected by market parameters. We show that when only one firm offers organic food products, this firm tends to offer a relatively low price if organic credence investment is expensive. Fourth, we highlight how one firm’s credence investment decision in equilibrium can be affected by the product type choice of the other firm. We find that the investment in organic credence is lower when both firms offer organic food products compared with the case when only one firm offers organic food products.

  17. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-07-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that encode endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, and endo-polygalacturonase, caused limited maceration. The pectolytic proteins associated with one of these plasmids, pDR1, have been described previously (D. P. Roberts, P. M. Berman, C. Allen, V. K. Stromberg, G. H. Lacy, and M. S. Mount, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 8:17-27, 1986) and include two secreted endo-pectate lyases. The second plasmid, pDR30, contains a 2.1-kilobase EC14 DNA insert that mediates the production of an exo-pectate lyase and an endo-polygalacturonase. These enzymes are similar in physicochemical properties to those produced by EC14. Our results suggest that the concerted activities of endo-pectate lyases with endo-polygalacturonase or exo-pectate lyase or both cause maceration.

  18. A pilot study on production of G0 potato seed minitubers derived from growth-promoted by gamma-rays in vitro materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tien Thinh; Tran Thanh Han; Hoang Hung Tien; Le Viet Thanh; Nguyen Dinh Nhan

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for production of potato G 0 minitubers from in vitro materials like test-tube plantlets (CON), artificial seeds (HNT) and microtubers (CSB), which had been treated with 100 Rad of gamma-rays, was successfully established. The procedure started with producing low cost in vitro materials by growing them in semi-aseptic/non-aseptic culture conditions; treating them next with low doses of gamma-rays; then hydroponically cultivating the materials upon the following regime: culture density of 12x12 cm, nutritive hydroponical solution of CT1, and feeding frequency of T3 (3 times/week). Nearly 50,000 G 0 minitubers were produced by such a hydroponical way, and 30,000 of them were subsequently grown in field by local farmers. Observations of the above pilot production of the G 0 minitubers and of their field growing showed that the CSB was the most suitable in vitro starting stuff for forming G 0 minitubers, and that the growth-promotion effects of gamma-rays were not carried over to the field-growing stage of the G 0 minitubers. (author)

  19. Avaliação da produção de batata-doce em função de níveis de adubação orgânica = Evaluation of sweet potato yield in function of organic fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felinto dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito da adubação orgânica na produçãototal de batata-doce, por meio de um experimento realizado no período de julho a novembro de 2007, na Estação Experimental de Lagoa Seca, PB, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 t ha-1 de cama-de-aviário, em quatro repetições. A parcela foi composta por quatro leiras de 3,6 m de comprimento, espaçados de 0,80 m entre leiras e de 0,30 m entre plantas, sendo colhidas as duas fileiras centrais. As variáveis estudadas foram: produção total, raízes de tamanho graúdas e miúdas de batata-doce. A produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total por planta (14,20; 3,84 e 18,03 t ha-1 de batata-doce responderam de forma linear e positiva às doses crescentes de cama-de-aviário. Aadubação com cama-de-aviário aumentou a produção de raízes graúdas, miúdas e total de batata-doce.The present study evaluated the effect of organic fertilization inthe total production of sweet potato. The experiment was performed in the period between July and November 2007, at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 t ha-1, in four replications. The plot consisted of four 3.6 m long ridges, spaced of 0.80 m between ridges and 0.30 m between plants; the two central ridges were harvested. The variables studied were: total yield, large and small sweet potato roots. The production of large and small roots, total yield per plant (14.20, 3.84 and 18.03 t ha-1of sweet potato, responded positively in a linear fashion to increasing doses of poultry litter. The fertilization with poultry litter increased the yield of large, small and total roots of sweet potato.

  20. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  1. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  2. Increases of soil phosphatase and urease activities in potato fields by cropping rotation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years. To identify and quantify constraints to potato productivity, we established Status Quo (SQ), Soil Conserving (SC), Soil Improving (SI), Disease Suppressive (DS), and Continuous Potato (PP) cropping systems under both rainfed ...

  3. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 945 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated... among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County... Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from March 5 to...

  4. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  5. Factors influencing gene silencing of granule-bound starch synthase in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilersig, H.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, antisense RNA technology was used to modify the composition of potato tuber starch. Potato starch comprises amylose and amylopectin, polymers of glucose. Amylose production in potato is completely dependent on the presence of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI). Inhibition of GBSSI

  6. Working towards developing potato tolerance of zebra chip disease: a food science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato zebra chip is a major threat to worldwide potato production and is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), which is vectored by potato psyllids. Albeit control can be achieved by use of insecticides to limit psyllid populations and therefore Lso spread, the recent development ...

  7. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.

  8. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  9. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  10. Ecology and control of Dickeya spp. in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Potato blackleg caused by pectinolytic Pectobacterium and Dickeya species is a bacterial disease creating serious economic losses in (seed)potato production worldwide. Effective management to control blackleg is absent and validated, cost-effective detection protocols for blackleg bacteria do not

  11. Quality control in the storage of potatoes for industrial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    A novel control structure for a potato storage facility is presented that is directly geared at the optimal preservation of product quality. The quality of the stored potatoes is defined as frying colour that depends on sugar concentration. The optimal storage conditions are estimated using models

  12. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  13. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  14. Bio-preparates support the productivity of potato plants grown under desert farming conditions of north Sinai: Five years of field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture as well as good agricultural practices (GAPs intrigues the concern of both consumers and producers of agricultural commodities. Bio-preparates of various rhizospheric microorganisms (RMOs are potential sources of biological inputs supporting plant nutrition and health. The response of open-field potatoes to the application of RMO bio-preparates, the biofertilizer “Biofertile” and the bioagent “Biocontrol”, were experimented over 5 successive years under N-hunger of north Sinai desert soils. Both vegetative and tuber yields of a number of tested cultivars were significantly improved due to rhizobacterial treatments. In the majority of cases, the biofertilizer “Biofertile” did successfully supply ca. 50% of plant N requirements, as the yield of full N-fertilized plants was comparable to those received 50% N simultaneously with bio-preparates treatment. The magnitude of inoculation was cultivar-dependent; cvs. Valor and Oceania were among the most responsive ones. Bio-preparate introduction to the plant–soil system was successful via soaking of tubers and/or spraying the plant canopy. The “Biocontrol” formulation was supportive in controlling plant pathogens and significantly increased the fruit yields. The cumulative effect of both bio-preparates resulted in tuber yield increases of ca. 25% over control.

  15. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  16. Produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata em sistemas hidropônicos Production of potato pre-basic seeds in hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto B. Medeiros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos convencionais de produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata apresentam como característica comum a reduzida eficiência, em razão dos baixos índices de multiplicação de tubérculos. A introdução de novos métodos de produção que propiciem maiores taxas de multiplicação podem contribuir para o aumento da disponibilidade de sementes de qualidade, e por conseqüência para a elevação da produtividade da cultura. Nesse trabalho são descritos dois sistemas hidropônicos, que pelos resultados obtidos, revelam sua viabilidade para a produção de sementes pré-básicas, com aumentos significativos nos índices de multiplicação, e que podem representar um importante avanço no processo produtivo de sementes de batata.The reduced tuber multiplication rate determines the low efficiency in the conventional methods of potato pre-basic seed production. New methods of seed production, with higher multiplication rates, may contribute to improve yield by increasing the availability of good quality seeds. This study describes two hydroponic systems, suitable for growing potato pre-basic seeds, which may represent an important step in the production process of potato seeds.

  17. Chromium in potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  18. THE PRICE ON THE ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATĂNĂSOAIE GEORGE SEBASTIAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices areanalyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products,distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage.The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or highlevel and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very importantbarrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communicationpolicies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development

  19. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Building Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte

    The presence of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the indoor air may be a contributory cause of complaints about irritation of mucous membranes in eyes, nose and throat, difficulty in breathing, frequent airway inflammation, skin irritation, fatigue, concentration difficulty, dizziness and hea...... (6 pages). Detailed summary in English (15 pages). Background (23 pages). Objective and hypotheses (2 pages). Methods and materials (20 pages). Results (26 pages). Discussion (12 pages). Conclusion (3 pages). References (14 pages). Appendices (95 pages)....... on sorption equilibrium and kinetics of temperature, relative humidity, VOC concentrations and air velocity past the surface of the building product. Four common building materials were carefully selected for the sorption/desorption experiments: Painted gypsum board, lacquered beechwood parquet, PVC flooring...

  20. Assessing impacts of organic production on pork and beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Organic livestock farming is based on a low input production method, aiming to provide products of a high product and process quality rather than maximizing production. The production of a high meat quality corresponds to the expectations of consumers who are both seeking a premium product and who are willing to pay premium prices. This review focuses on the question of whether organic pork and beef production currently meet consumer demands, and it elaborates the potentials and limitations f...

  1. Production and organization of neocortical interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadeejah T Sultan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic interneurons are a vital component of the neocortex responsible for shaping its output through a variety of inhibitions. Consisting of many flavors, interneuron subtypes are predominantly defined by their morphological, physiological, and neurochemical properties that help to determine their functional role within the neocortex. During development, these cells are born in the subpallium where they then tangentially migrate over long distances before being radially positioned to their final location in the cortical laminae. As development progresses into adolescence, these cells mature and form chemical and electrical connections with both glutamatergic excitatory neurons and other interneurons ultimately establishing the cortical network. The production, migration, and organization of these cells are determined by vast array of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that work in concert in order to assemble a proper functioning cortical inhibitory network. Failure of these cells to undergo these processes results in abnormal positioning and cortical function. In humans, this can bring about several neurological disorders including schizophrenia, epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. In this article, we will review previous literature that has revealed the framework for interneuron neurogenesis and migratory behavior as well as discuss recent findings that aim to elucidate the spatial and functional organization of interneurons within the neocortex.

  2. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    trichothecene production was detected for 94 of 102 F culmorum isolates, only 8 of 57 F equiseti isolates were positive. Profiles of secondary metabolites were compared by following growth on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES), potato sucrose agar (PSA), and an agar medium, prepared from soil organic matter (SOM......), which was included to simulate growth, conditions in soil. SOM supported the production of chrysogine by F culmorum. The two species utilized the media differently. F culmorum produced zearalenone (ZEA) on YES, whereas some F. equiseti isolates produced ZEA on PSA. Other F. equiseti isolates produced...

  3. Effects of dietary potato by-product and rumen-protected histidine on growth, carcass characteristics and quality attributes of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, K J; Richard, R P; Colle, M J; Doumit, M E; de Veth, M J; Hunt, C W; Murdoch, G K

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that variable composition in finishing rations, more specifically; the proportion of potato-by-product (PBP) and rumen protected histidine (His) supplementation may influence growth and meat quality attributes. Two different diets were fed (1) finishing ration with corn and barley as grains (CB, n = 20) and (2) substitution of 10% corn, DM basis, with PBP (PBP, n = 20). Additionally, half of each dietary treatment received 50 g/hd/d rumen protected His (HS, n= 20) while the other half received no supplement (NS, n = 20). Inclusion of 10% PBP or HS did not affect growth or carcass traits. Color stability was analyzed using Hunter color values as well as AMSA visual appraisal in both longissimus thoracis (LT) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. The LT, but not the GM, of CB steers was more color stable over a 9 d simulated retail display compared to those fed a PB diet. Steers receiving HS produced significantly (P < 0.05) more color stable LT and GM steaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the time of application of 32P triple Superphosphate on the efficiency of the phosphate fertilization and the productivity of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed on a soil derived from volcanic ash (Andic Humitropept), in Pasto (Narino), Colombia, to investigate the influence of additions of 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , at two application times (planting and 30 days after emergence - DAE), on the fertilizer use efficiency and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Pardo Pastusa. At planting the phosphorus was applied in a continuous row in the furrow, and at 30 DAE at one side of the plant row, and immediately covered with soil from both sides of the furrow. The fertilizer used was 32 P labelled triple superphosphate (143.59 μ Ci.g -1 p -1 . It was found that: a) the phosphorus fertilization significantly increased (P -1 ) and the accumulation (from 8 to 17.8 kg P ha -1 ) by the tubers, but there was no significant effect of the different rates or times of the fertilizer application; b) the accumulation of P by the plant accompanied the accumulation of plant dry matter; c) at 75 DAE the fraction of fertiliser P in the plant shoot in the treatment fertilized at 30 DAE (52.1%) was significantly higher than that fertilized at planting (21.8%), and this corresponded to a P fertilizer use efficiency of 2.4 and 0.82, respectively

  5. Studies of some physical-mechanical and chemical property in organic waste to use for biogas production in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Hernández, Carlos M.; Oechsner, Hans; Brulé, Mathieu; Marañon Maison, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of agricultural organic residuals which can be used in the biogas production in Cuba´s plants production, using their co-fermentation. It has also been necessary to collect agricultural biomass, canteen waste, influent and effluents of a biogas plant Nina Bonita) next to Santa Clara city, Cuba, for their later analysis. the investigated biomass samples (sorghum.49V-96, sorghum-132 R, sunflower JE-94, cassava, corn, sweet potato skin, bread, potatoes and peanut skin); as well as the influent and effluents of the investigated biogas plant were analyzed in some laboratories belonging to the Central University of Las Villas. Other analyses were done in the biogas lab at Hohenheim University. The maximum value of specifies methane yield achieved was with the sunflower JE-94 (0.393 m3/kg VS), while the minimum value was reached with the peanut shell (0.095 m3/Kg VS).The main objective of the work consists on determining some of the physical-mechanical and chemical properties like carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), specific methane production (m3/kg VS), total solid (TS), organic total solid (oTS), alkalinity (pH) and volatile solid (VS) in agricultural organic residuals and canteen waste, which can be used for the production of biogas under co-fermentation with animal manure under Cuban conditions. In order to do this, we developed some experiments to syringes, small and real scale. (author)

  6. You Say Potato!

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Elgy

    2001-01-01

    "If we are what we eat, as they are forever telling, then we're mostly potato" sayd travel writer, journalist and enthusiastic cook Elgy Gillespie Now Elgy has drawn on her travel experiences and her love of food to gather over 100 potato recipes from Ireland and around the world" Taken from the back cover. Published by Wolfhound Press Ltd., 68 Mountjoy Square, Dublin in 2001. Illustrated by Rebecca Wildsmith. Cover illustration Eva Byrne, cover photograph Richard Gibson, cover design W...

  7. Influence of planting and harvesting dates on sweet potato yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato ... determining whole top yields above ground level. .... plant storage organ (which in this case is the root) prior to harvesting and processing for.

  8. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... on radiation use efficiency (RUE) when comparing inter-annual variation in dry matter production. The loss of tuber dry matter was c. 10% per °C, which is higher than estimated in previous studies. Specifically, compared to mean air temperature from end of tuber initiation to maturity, mean air temperature...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  9. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  10. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  11. Electromagnetic Field Effects on Production of Salicylic Acid and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase in Tobacco Infected with Potato Virus X (PVX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin radmard titkanlo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato virus x (PVX is one of the most devastating viruses in the fields of tobacco and no effective method to control the virus has been provided yet. Magnetism is known as one of the environmental stresses that can directly or indirectly affect the plants, especially plants under stress. The magnetic fields can have beneficial affects plants. Materials and Methods: In the present study to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on PVX control, an experiment based on completely randomized design with eleven treatments (10, 50 and 90 mT in a period of 60, 90 and 120 minutes on tobacco seedlings infected with the virus and two control, and the other one is free from analog infected with the virus in tobacco seedlings carried on six repeats.. After inoculation at the four-leaf stage and after 14 days, the amount of turbidity virus infection rate is calculated and then ensure equality of tobacco seedlings, where the electromagnetic device. 30 days after applying an electromagnetic field analysis of the results of ELISA test two samples were tested with antisera Chndhmsanh of PVX. The amount of salicylic acid and the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia in systemic acquired resistance and plant defense mechanisms are involved, the treatments were measured, for evaluation of HPLC as salicylic acid and phenylalanine ammonia-based assessment of trans-cinnamic acid was used. Results and Discussion: Statistical analysis ELISA test results revealed that there is a significant difference between treatments 0/05. So that the treatment was a no pollution treatment and 11 who were infected but had not been exposed to the electromagnetic field had a significant difference compared to other treatments, among the treatments that were exposed to the electromagnetic field treatment 8 (100 mT, 120 minutes showed the lowest OD in ELISA and later treatment 7 (50 mT and 60 minutes was the lowest OD, the two treatments were observed in less than two OD

  12. Effects of changes in fallow length on soil organic C due to climate change and socioeconomic factors in potato-based cropping systems in the Bolivian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Aguilera, Javier; Jintaridth, B.; Valdivia, Corinne; Gonzáles, M.; Chambilla, Carola

    2009-01-01

    The Bolivian highland plateau region (Altiplano) is a semi-arid region in the Andes Mountains that occupies approximately 27% of the area of Bolivia and has a range in elevation of between 3600 and 4300 m above sea level. The region's climate is characterized by high diurnal temperature variations, frost risks, low and irregular precipitation and high risks of drought during the growing season (Garcia et al., 2007). Potato-based cropping systems and livestock rearing of cows, sheep and cameli...

  13. Organic Dairy Production Systems in Pennsylvania: A Case Study Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Kamphuis, G.H.; Karsten, H.D.; Weaver, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across

  14. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  15. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species...

  16. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  17. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  18. The relationship between sap flow and commercial soil water sensor readings in irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many irrigation scheduling methods utilized in commercial production settings rely on soil water sensors that are normally purchased as off-the-shelf technology or through contracted services that install and monitor readings throughout the season. These systems often assume a direct relationship be...

  19. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guodoong Liu; Yuncong Li; Kati W. Migliaccio; Ying Ouyang; Ashok K. Alva

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from fertilized soils are a costly problem that is undermining agricultural and ecological sustainability worldwide. Ammonia emissions from crop production have been reliably documented in recent years. However, insufficient efforts have been made to determine the factors most influential in facilitating NH3 emissions. The goal of this study was...

  20. Technical efficiency of potato and dairy farming in mountainous Kazbegi district, Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shavgulidze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study employs a stochastic frontier analysis to assess technical efficiency of potato and cheese production and determine socio-economic factors that influence farmers' technical efficiency levels in mountainous Kazbegi district of Georgia. The study found improved feeding to be inversely related with technical inefficiency in cheese production. In potato production, the analysis revealed implementation of the plant protection measures and use of quality seeds to be significant aspects that influence technical efficiency of potato growers.

  1. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.

  3. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato (Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    ELISA established that field plants had a higher virus titre compared to the tissue culture regenerated plants. Key words: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tissue culture, ..... Commercial Vegetable Production Guides (CVPG) (2003). Sweet.

  4. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  5. The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. 3Department of ... aeroponic systems in potato minituber production showed ...... seed as an important factor for growth and total yield.

  6. Performance Of Irish Potato Varieties Under Aeroponic Conditions In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, National University of Rwanda. (NUR) ... Though Irish potato is very important in Rwanda, average yields ... One plausible solution to this problem is to adopt a soil-less seed production.

  7. The influence of headspace and dissolved oxygen level on growth and haemolytic BL enterotoxin production of a psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolate on potato based ready-to-eat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Everaert, H; Wandutu, J N; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F

    2011-04-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the influence of the initial headspace and dissolved O(2) level and vacuum packaging on growth and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production by Bacillus weihenstephanensis on potato based ready-to-eat food products. In general, the lower the initial headspace or dissolved O(2) level the slower the maximum growth rate (μ(max), log(10) CFU g(-1) d(-1)), the longer the lag phase duration (λ, d) and the smaller the maximum population density (N(max), log(10) CFU g(-1)) became. The slowest μ(max), the longest λ and the smallest N(max) were generally found for growth under vacuum packaging. This implies shorter shelf-lives will occur at higher initial headspace or dissolved O(2) levels as the growth of B. weihenstephanensis to the infective dose of 10(5) CFU g(-1) in such atmospheres takes a shorter time. Significant consumption of dissolved O(2) only occurred when growth shifted from the lag to the exponential phase and growth generally transitioned from the exponential to the stationary phase when the dissolved O(2) levels fell below ca. 75 ppb. Diarrhoeal enterotoxin production (determined via detection of the L2 component of haemolytic BL) was similar for growth under initial headspace O(2) levels of 1-20.9%, and was only reduced when growth took place under vacuum packaging. The reduction in L2 production when growth took place under vacuum was most probably related to the low final cell densities observed under this condition. Both growth and L2 production were inhibited over a 32-day incubation period at 7 °C by 40% CO(2) irrespective of the headspace or dissolved O(2) levels. The results illustrate the importance of residual O(2) and CO(2) on the shelf-stability and safety of modified atmosphere packaged potato based ready-to-eat food products with regards to B. weihenstephanensis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  9. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato late blight (PLB caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA, roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis, were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph, a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM programmes.

  10. Effects of Organic and Conventional Growth Systems on the Content of Flavonoids in Onions and Phenolic Acids in Carrots and Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltoft, M.; Nielsen, J.; Lauren, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The demand for organic food products is steadily increasing partly due to the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of secondary plant metabolites with presumably beneficial health effects, and contents in plants....... The contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plants were analyzed by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet quantification. In onions and carrots, no statistically significant differences between growth systems were found for any of the analyzed polyphenols...

  11. Characterization of potato and tobacco isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Syria and the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad CHIKH ALI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV has been reported from potato production areas in Europe, USA, Japan and more frequently in regions with warm climates such as Egypt, India, Saudi Arabia and Syria. As it is considered as an uncommon virus in potato, the characterization of potato isolates of CMV is far behind those from other hosts. In addition to potato, CMV is a common virus infecting many crops in Syria, but nothing is known about its molecular characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize Syrian CMV isolates collected from potato and neighboring tobacco fields. All potato isolates of CMV (total of four co-infected potato plants with Potato virus Y (PVY which is the most frequent potato virus in Syria. According to the sequence analyses of the coat protein (CP coding region, three potato and three tobacco CMV isolates were found to be closely related regardless of the host species or geographic origin, and all belonged to the IA strain subgroup of CMV. A potato CMV isolate, PoCMV7-5, readily infected solanaceous plants in which it induced systemic infection, but was less infectious to other hosts including those of Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae. When inoculated on potato plants, PoCMV7-5 alone or with various PVY strains was able to cause local but not systemic infection in all potato cultivars inoculated. PoCMV7-5 contained heterogeneous variants of satellite RNA which varied in length due to A or/and T deletion/insertion at approximate nucleotide position 225‒240. This is the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato.

  12. The anti-Phytophthora effect of selected potato-associated Pseudomonas strains: from the laboratory to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk eGuyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disc assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf discs from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavourable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonise the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g. in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray.

  13. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  14. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to the Recombinant Potato virus M (PVM) Non-structural Triple Gene Block Protein 1 and Coat Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš; Plchová, Helena; Hoffmeisterová, Hana; Dědič, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 5 (2012), s. 251-254 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato virus M * recombinant protein * coat protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012

  15. Breeding and development of Globodera-resistant potato varieties with long tuber shape and russet skin for production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis, and G. pallida,) have been identified in the U.S. and are under quarantine regulations, with a third newly identified species (G. ellingtonae) not categorized as a quarantined pest. Management of G. rostochiensis in the state of New York...

  16. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  17. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  18. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  19. Molecular variation in the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in relation to virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, V C; Pylypenko, L; Phillips, M S

    2006-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida poses a challenge for potato growers. The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida cause damage valued at over pounds 50m per annum in the U.K. and problems in controlling PCN are growing due to the increase in populations and spread of G. pallida, the lack of many commercially attractive cultivars with resistance to this species and the pressure to reduce nematicide use. Over 60% of potato fields in the U.K. are infected with G. pallida (Minnis et al. 2000). The Scottish Agricultural Science Agency (SASA) figures show that the incidence of both species of PCN on Scottish seed potato land, though low, has been increasing. The proportion of potato land in ware production in Scotland is also increasing and now represents 50% of the potato growing area. This situation potentially increases the risk of the spread of PCN unless it is very carefully monitored and managed.

  20. New ways of organizing product introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Martina; Harlin, Ulrika; Gustavsson, Maria; Säfsten, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and reflect on an interactive research approach used to address the challenges on how to improve product introductions, the part of the product realization process associated with the transfer of a product from product development to serial production. In the interactive research approach, research results as well as improvement of practice are given equal importance. The collaboration between researchers and practitioners therefore addresses both the focus and the process of the change. The approach includes four main iterative steps: 1) mapping/diagnosis, 2) feedback of results, 3) participation in development activities, and 4) follow-up/evaluation. The paper reports findings from interactive research in one company within office product industry and one company group, consisting of three company units within the engine industry. Preliminary findings indicate that the participating companies afterwards work in a more structured way with product introductions and that the employees have gained deeper knowledge about product introductions as well as experienced the advantages of working across functional boundaries. Furthermore, the interactive research approach is suitable to run projects from an ergonomics perspective as it focuses on developing both practice and theory, it is human-centered, and it emphasizes broad participation from practitioners.

  1. STUDY REGARDING CONSUMPTION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adrian DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent statistical data and market studies have shown that the organic products market is on a continuouslyupward trend in Europe and globally. For Romania, organic agriculture represents a market niche that is stillinsufficiently exploited, with a definite and real development potential of the agricultural sector. The role of theconsumer is decisive for the evolution trends and future prospects of any market. A questionnaire based quantitativeresearch was done to find out the Romanian consumers’ behaviour related to organic products, which allowed theestablishment of the weight of organic products consumers within the population interviewed, the extent to whichthe characteristics of organic products, brands and categories known and consumed are acknowledged. The studyalso pursued the evaluation of motivational factors which determine the purchase, market appraisal between thealleged favourable attitude towards organic products and product consumption, the evaluation of the way in whichthe Romanian organic products’ quality is perceived in relation with their price.The study shows an increase in consumer interest for “healthy” products, so that the change according to theirbehaviour shall generate an increase in the organic products market in Romania.

  2. Farmers' Perception towards Organic-based Vegetable Produc-tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established that organic farming is a production system that sustain the health of the soils, ecosystems and people. This study assessed the small-scale farmers' perception towards organic based vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the ...

  3. Production of dissolved organic carbon in aquatic sediment suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Prevo, L.

    2003-01-01

    In many water quality models production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is modelled as mineralisation from particulate organic matter (POM). In this paper it is argued that the DOC production from dessicated sediments by water turbulence may be of similar importance
    In many water quality

  4. Evaluating Potential Production of Mid-Late Maturing Minituber of Potato Cultivars and Promising Clones under Aeroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. HassanPanah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate potential production of mid-late maturing promising mini-tuber clones and cultivars under aeroponic system during 2011-2013 in both laboratory and greenhouse of Ardabil Sabalan Behparvar Company. Five clones and cultivars (three promising clones 397009-3, 397082-10 and 397081-1, and two cultivars, Khavaran and Agria were evaluated in completely randomized designs with three replications. During growing period and after harvesting the crop some important traits like plant height, main stem number per plant, mini-tuber number and weight per square meter, mean mini-tuber weight per square meter and storability of mini-tubers were measured. Analysis of variance showed that mini-tuber number and weight per square meter, mean mini-tuber weight per square meter, plant height and main stem number per plant among clones and cultivars were significantly different. The mid-late maturity promising clones of 397081-1 and 397009-3 produced higher mini-tuber number per square meter (2766 and 2141 mini-tubers, respectively, mini-tuber weight per square meter (11400 and 16500 g, respectively than the remaining types. Mid-late maturity promising clone of 397081-1 also produced higher mean mini-tuber weight per square meter (5.59 g and plant height (174 cm as compared with the others. The differences per square meter in the number of mini-tuber of mid-late maturing promising clones of 397081-1 and 397009-3 with Agria cultivar were about 1166 and 541, respectively. Mean mini-tuber weight per square meter in aeroponic system was 6.16 grams.

  5. New co-operative potato distilleries - interesting and useful information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreipe, H

    1970-01-01

    Impressions and accounts of a series of new cooperative potato distilleries in north and north-west Germany are reported. Design and operation of the plants are described, and economic aspects of waste utilization and alcohol production are discussed. Indications of the starch content and yield of different varieties of potato mainly cultivated for distilleries are given. 100 kg of potatoes with 16% starch normally yield 10 l. of ethyl alcohol, which is sold at a guaranteed price. The protein in the residue is digestible and has a high feed value.

  6. Niche farm fresh products: organic and biodynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    There has been a general increase in demand for ‘organic’ or ‘biodynamic’ produce. As mineral nitrogen fertilizers are prohibited in organic farming, livestock manure often becomes the central fertilizer. Livestock manure is a known potential source of human pathogens, so it can be speculated...... that the observed increase in vegetable-associated foodborne outbreaks of pathogens is linked to its use. Legislation and guidelines vary regarding minimization of contamination risk in relation to use of livestock manure. An assessment of the effect of differences in management between organic and conventional...

  7. IPR 82-Araucária, cultivar de batata para olericultura sustentável IPR 82-Araucária, potato cultivar for sustainable vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scotti

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas as principais características agroindustriais e morfológicas de uma nova cultivar de batata lançada pelo IAPAR, em parceria com a Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF e a Embrapa Semente Básica, Canoinhas (SC. "IPR 82-Araucária" foi selecionada de populações clonais introduzidas do CIP, Lima-Peru, por meio da Embrapa Hortaliças e avaliada nas Estações Experimentais do IAPAR desde 1984. A nova cultivar apresentou como fatores positivos alta produtividade comercial e resistência de campo à requeima, permitindo prever reduções em até 50% no uso de fungicidas para o controle da doença. A suscetibilidade à mancha chocolate e sarna comum evidenciaram a necessidade de manejo adequado de densidade e época de plantio, calagem e irrigação para minimizar os riscos de ocorrência dessas doenças. Com essas características, "IPR 82-Araucária" apresenta potencial para atender às demandas de produtores orgânicos e para produção em áreas de mananciais de água.The main agronomic, industrial, and morphological characteristics of a new Brazilian potato cultivar released by IAPAR, Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF and Embrapa Sementes Básicas, Canoinhas-SC are presented. "IPR 82-Araucária" has been selected from clonal populations derived from crosses done in CIP, Lima, Peru, and introduced for field evaluations in 1984. High yield and field resistance to late blight have been the main features of the new cultivar, allowing to predict reductions as much as 50% in fungicides applications. Susceptibility to internal brown necrosis and common scab requires special farmer's attention in respect of planting density, liming, and irrigation management to decrease risks of incidence of these diseases. "IPR 82-Araucária" is potentially suited for organic farming, and for growing in areas close to water resources.

  8. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic...... development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized......, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as “organic by default” can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification...

  9. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  10. KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG UBI JALAR (Ipomoea batata L. VARIETAS SHIROYUTAKA SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER PANGAN KARBOHIDRAT ALTERNATIF [Characterization of Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomea batatas L. var. Shiroyutaka and Assesment of the potential as Alternative Carbohydrate Source For Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to characterize sweet potato flour var. shiroyutaka and assessment of its potential as alternative carbohydrate source on food product. Characterization was conducted on flour processed from sweet potato var. shiroyutaka harvested at four months was characteristic, these included whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour, ratio of amylase-amylopectin, form and size of starch granule, and starch digestibility.The research showed that whiteness degree and water absorption of the flour were 78,82% ( 0,52 and 1,25 g/g ( 0,12 respectively. The ratio of amylase-amylopectin, gelatinization temperature, maximum viscosity and invitro starch digest ability were 69.82%: 30.18%, 78-900C and 84,78% respectively. The granule of its starch was round form and with size 2-4 micron.The main potential of the flour is related with its specific characteristics which were the amylose-amylopectin ratio, the starch amylograph profile, form and size of starch granule, and the starch digest ability. These parameters implied that, the flour should be utilized in the production specific food products.

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  12. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  14. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  15. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  16. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  17. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  18. Generic Pest Risk Analysis for Potato in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baidya Nath Mahto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pest Risk Analysis (PRA is the process of evaluation for biological and economic evidences in order to determine whether a pest should be regulated under phyto-sanitary measures. The present mini review highlights the potential potato pathogen list recorded in Nepal harmful for potato production and productivity. At global scale altogether 135 potential quarantine pests (PQP for potato has been recorded, while in Nepal only 92 PQP were recorded. Out of those 52, 13 and 27 were fungi, bacteria and viruses respectively. Among the 92 PQP, 34, 30 and 13 were considered at high, medium and lower risk type pathogens for potato. There was no information available on other 15 PQP.

  19. Organic production in the hills and uplands (OF0319)

    OpenAIRE

    Keatinge, R

    2005-01-01

    It is Government policy to provide a framework in which organic farming can develop, promoting more sustainable and environmentally sound systems of livestock production. Scientific information is required on the development, performance and limitations of organic systems, to facilitate informed decision-making and to aid policy formulation. Using the established organic unit at Redesdale, the overall objective of this project was to evaluate and demonstrate the long-term potential of organic...

  20. WAY OF PRE-PLANTING TREATMENT OF EARLY-RIPENNING POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Semibratskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of pre-planting treatment of early-ripening potato increasing the volume of production in the Eastern forest-Steppe of Ukraine is presented. This technology is referred to development of organic-mineral container, which covers the surface of tubers and remains there until planting. During this period, the substance of the substrate has a direct impact on growth of apical points of tubers that stimulate its germination and development of root system, and prevent the breaking of sprouts. Comparative data of time of seedling emergence and yield of different potato varieties are presented.

  1. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...

  2. PRODUCTION OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDLINGS WITH THE RESIDUE OF AGROINDUSTRIAL PROCESSING OF POTATOES AS A STRATEGY IN THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL FAMILY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Humberto Silva e Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to family farming sustainable development and to the environmental management of the residue generated from potato processing by the company "Bem Brasil Alimentos LTDA" from Araxa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Araxa (FEAX - EPAMIG between February to April of 2012, aiming to analyze passion fruit seedlings development from the use of different doses of this residue such as substrate, to reduce costs of raw materials. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments, four repetitions and 20 plants per plot, being the treatments, blends of soil (latosol with levels of 10%, 20% and 30% of potato processing residue associated to chemical treatment and a witness. After 70 days of sowing, the height of air part (cm, root length (cm, number of leaves and total dry matter (g were evaluated. The best treatment was the M4 which used latosol + chemical treatment + 20% of residue. It was diagnosed that the use of agroindustrial potato processing residue, as part of the substrate, is a favorable alternative for passion fruit seedlings development. Thus, it gives a destination to this residue instead of discarding it into the environment, as well as decreases the costs of raw material that permit its correct ecological use, besides generating more income for family farmers.

  3. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  5. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic broiler chicken production has recently received more attention worldwide. This study carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. In this study, 400 slow-growing broilers (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system and the same number of fast-growing broilers (Ross-308 were reared in a conventional system. Profitability was deduced from an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was €0.75, which is 180% higher compared with the conventional system (€0.27; however, organic broiler meat was sold at a twice as high price than the conventional one. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more economical than conventional rearing.

  6. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  8. PRODUCTION AND MARKETABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AND ORGANIC PRODUCED TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean BAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agricultural production is denoted by high levels of chemisation, strait specialised production, high yields and low costs per production unit, however this production causes risky interventions, which could affect negatively on environment and human health Research results indicate possibilities for growing vegetables in alternative systems, less risky for environment with satisfying economic success. The aim of this research was to determine economic success of organic, sustainable and conventional production of tomato in the Mediterranean area of Republic Croatia. Bianual research was conducted during 2002/2003. During vegetation we examined parameters of growth, marketable yields and costs for materials, work and machinery which are used in economic analysis. Economical analysis of tomatoes production indicate worst results in organic production system. Loses in tomatoes organic production were consequences of two main factors: lower marketed yield and equal product price for all three production types. Lower yields in organic production were expected, therefore bad financial results were caused by mainly low market prices, which do not validate quality and food safety. Therefore financial success is preconditioned by higher market validation, which can be obtained through market analysis and product development. Consumer awareness about organic agriculture is still very weak and this point requires further attention. The link between organic agriculture and the environment/nature protection is missing too. The purchase of organic food is influenced by the level of information and knowledge of consumers with reference to these products. Doubts about the truthfulness and significance of some data were raised by main places where organic food is purchased, since an excessive greatest limitations are high prices and a low level of information to consumers. Current standard of life of most Croatian consumers does not permit them to

  9. Consumers’ grouping of organic and conventional food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    or not they were organic. These consumers were found to have significantly higher levels of confidence in the benefits of organic produce, to state significantly higher levels of organic consumption and higher willingness to pay for organoleptic attributes of fresh milk, than consumers who placed fruits in one......A detailed account of the way consumers choose to group different varieties of organic and conventional food produce might have practical implications in terms of improved space management in supermarkets and better targeted promotions of organic products. The results presented here were obtained...... in a case study using a web-based questionnaire and 849 Danish consumers. The consumers were asked to group the contents of a virtual basket of organic and non-organic fruits and vegetables into two smaller baskets. A significant share of the consumers grouped the food products according to whether...

  10. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  11. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  12. Status of the Potato Processing Industry in Kenya: Result of a Survey in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.; Kabira, J.N.; Ewell, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in Nairobi showed that potato chips (French fries)and potato crisps (Chips) were the most common potato products on the market. Potato varieties preferred for the preparations of potato chips were the long types, mainly Nyayo (41%) and Roslin tana (38%). The Red-skinned Kerr's pink (22%) and white-skinned Dutch Robijn (78%) were preferred for crisps. Processors for crisps are more demanding on the quality and types of fresh potatoes used than crisps. Tuber immaturity was a common problem adversely affecting processors' profit margins due to high oil absorption particularly in chips, now a common lunch-time snack in Nairobi. The quality of products on the market could be improved further

  13. The Study of Effect Factors on Organic Products Productivity on Farmer Income in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram nessabian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficiency resulting from optimization of energy consumptionin organic farming, the amount of consumption and production inputs and their costs, obtained profit, cultivated area and … was estimated in conjuction with the three crop of wheat, canola and tomato in Iran over a five year period 2006-2011. Using the objective function and constraints, the DEA method was used to analyze the data. All the processes of models estimation was performed using DEAP software. To calculate the energy amount in external inputs consumption in conventional and organic farming were used coefficients to convert the amount of energy input consumption, too. Finally, the energy consumptions were compared in the two cultures. According to these results, the use of organic fertilizers and biological inputs (in consequence of more energy consumption in organic specific inputs leads to lower productivity growth in organic products. These results were significant in the 5 and 1 percent levels, respectively. Due to the type of used inputs in the inorganic products, in fuel inputs, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide, inorganic products had more consumption and hence the amount of energy inputs for organic products was higher. In the case of biofertilizer and biocontrol were also used in organic production, input energy in this part was more than input energy of inorganic products. Organic farms with lower energy consumption of imports and inputs, led to production of more energy in output. Thus the efficiency besides saving of energy consumption occurred in organic products.

  14. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  15. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance and purchase intention toward fresh-cut potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montouto-Graña, Mónica; Cabanas-Arias, Sonia; Porto-Fojo, Silvia; Vázquez-Odériz, Ma Lourdes; Romero-Rodríguez, Ma Angeles

    2012-01-01

    For a new product to succeed in the market, it must be accepted by consumers. This study investigates consumer opinions on fresh-cut potatoes packaged under vacuum and under a modified atmosphere using home use tests. The data obtained were related to demographic characteristics and patterns of consumption and to purchase intention toward potatoes and other vegetables. The sensory characteristics evaluated by a panel of assessors trained in the sensory evaluation of potato were also considered. The results indicate that although both products were accepted by the consumer, vacuum-packed potatoes received slightly higher ratings and more consumers intended to purchase this product. The fresh-cut potato packaged under vacuum is a product with all the sensory characteristics that will be accepted by the consumers. The adaptation to the productive process at the industrial level, it can be performed with enough guarantees that the product will definitely be purchased by the consumers. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-09-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15/sup 0/C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10/sup 0/C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28/sup 0/ +- 2/sup 0/C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential.

  17. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15 0 C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10 0 C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential. (author)

  18. Weed Control with Cover Crops in Irrigated Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Mehring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments at Oakes, ND, USA in 2010 and Carrington, ND, USA in 2011 were conducted to evaluate the potential for cover crops grown in the Northern Great Plains, USA in order to reduce weed emergence and density in irrigated potatoes. Treatments included five cover crop treatments and three cover crop termination treatments. Termination of cover crops was done with glyphosate, disk-till, and roto-till. Cover crop biomass accumulation was greatest for rye/canola and triticale at Oakes, and hairy vetch and hairy vetch/rye at Carrington. Cover crop and termination affected weed control 14, 29, and 51 days after planting (DAP at Oakes. Weed control at Carrington was at least 90% for all cover crop and termination treatments at all three evaluation timings. Marketable yield at Oakes was greater when roto-till was used to terminate the cover crops compared with disk-till or herbicide, which is beneficial for organic systems where herbicides are not used. Marketable yield at Carrington was not affected by cover crop or termination treatments. Results suggest that cover crops can successfully be integrated into irrigated potato production for weed control with yields equal to no cover crop, and with attention to potential mechanical difficulties.

  19. The Organic Products in the Green Marketing Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A healthy way of life requires green products which protect the environment and the quality of life. Organic products have relevant green characteristics and particular benefits for the consumers, the producers and the environment. The benefits support the rapidly growing world market of organic food in both developed and developing countries. Green issues and products have a growing importance in Romania. Even if the Romanians have not become fans of the green products yet, a growing number of consumers prefer organic food. More important, Romanian organic food has success on the export markets. Supporting and promoting organic products on both domestic and international markets requires significant efforts, including those in the green marketing area. The requirements of the green marketing imply new thinking and acting towards new responsibilities and solutions. The task of the marketing is to bring on the market the green problems under the form of new products, the change of the existing products through ecological improvement and abandoning the ecologically obsolete products.

  20. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  1. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  3. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Potatoes Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Hayawan, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing, economic and financial feasibility of a project for potatoes irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of potatoes was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method, distribution channels and packing materials. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of a pallet conveyor unit for the irradiation of potatoes was also carried out . The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit - cost radio , payback period, average rate of return and net present value . The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of potatoes in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  4. ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION INTERACTION OF AIRPORT PRODUCTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Mikhajlovich Dalinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of service production attributed to airports activity is analyzed. The importance and the actuality of information interaction problem solution between productive processes as a problem of organization of modern produc- tion are shown.Possibilities and features of information interaction system construction in form of multi-level hierarchical struc- ture have been shown. The airport is considered as an enterprise aimed at service production where it is necessary to analyze much in- formation in a limited time-frame. The production schedule often changes under the influence of many factors. This leads to the increase of the role of computerization and informatization of production processes what predetermines automation of production, creation of information environment and organization of information interaction needed for realization of production processes. The integrated organization form is proposed because it is oriented to the integration of different processes into a universal production system and it allows to conduct the coordination of local goals of particular processes in the context of the global purpose aimed at the improvement of the effectiveness of the airport activity. The main conditions needed for organization of information interaction between production processes and techno- logical operations are considered, and the list of the following problems is determined. The attention is paid to the necessity of compatibility of structure and organization of interaction system in the conditions of the airline and the necessity of be- ing its reflection in the information space of the airline. The usefulness of the intergrated organization form of information interaction based on information exchange between processes and service customers according to the network structure is explained. Multi-level character of this structure confirms its advantage over other items, however it also has a series of features presented

  5. Mangrove litter production and organic carbon pools in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mngazana Estuary is an important source of mangrove litter and POC for the adjacent marine environment, possibly sustaining nearshore food webs. Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon, harvesting, litter production, mangroves, particulate organic carbon, Rhizophora mucronata, South Africa African Journal of Aquatic ...

  6. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Zooplankton Production | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Zooplankton Production. ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The aquaria were thoroughly washed, filled with 20litres of bore-hole water, fertilized with the respective organic manures after 4 days fermentation and inoculated with zooplankton samples collected from an earthen fish ...

  7. Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Baptista, F.; Eriksson, Evert; Gilli, Celine; Giuffrida, F.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Munoz, P.; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Montero, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Review of the major sources for energy consumption in organic greenhouse horticulture and analyse of the options available to reduce energy consumption or, at least, increase the energy use efficiency of organic production in greenhouses. At the moment, the best way to match demand and availability

  8. Different implications for enterprises of an organic production

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Puentes, Barbara Dominicq

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of “organic”, its meaning and emphasizes a comparison with conventional goods. It develops the background of organic goods in the past 20 years, quotations different definitions of organic and developing a main definition. Also it states certain criteriab and variables in order to develop a deeper business analysis. And it has the objective to define the advantages, disadvantages, key points and strategies for companies that want to venture an organic production...

  9. Study of organic waste for production of hydrogen in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Chinea, Jesús Manuel; Guzmán Marrero, Elizabeth; Pérez Ponce, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated before final disposal. Hydrogen can be produced sustainable by anaerobic bacteria that grow in the dark with rich carbohydrate substrates giving as final products H 2 , CO 2 and volatile fatty acids. The whey byproduct from cheese production, has great potential to be used for the generation of hydrogen as it has a high carbohydrate content and a high organic load. The main advantages of using anaerobic processes in biological treatment of organic waste, are the low operating costs, low power consumption, the ability to degrade high organic loads, resistance biomass to stay long in the absence of substrate, without lose their metabolic activity, and low nutritional requirements and increase the performance of 0.9 mol H2 / mol lactose. (full text)Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated

  10. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  11. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    Potato crop as a food staple takes a fourth place in the world by impotence after wheat, maize, and rice. Under present-day conditions, the role of this crop will invariably grow up, as fighting hunger is a number one problem in the 21st century. Planting material quality is very important for profitable potato production, and this quality is determined by the absence of disease-including organisms in tubers. Viral diseases cause much damage to crop production. Planting material tubers infected with viruses are an important source of the primary inoculum and infection is transferred in a mechanical way. Without effective methods of viral disease control, the losses of yield are considerable, as well as potato quality determination, so the obtaining of virus free planting material is a primary task for the planting material producers. During the last decades, the progress in potato viral disease control is connected with tissue culture research activities, as a result of which it became possible to obtain virus -free tabers from the varieties formerly completely infected. The use of meristem-tip culture for the obtaining of virus free plants has been based on the assumption that viruses were not able to penetrate the meristem tissues of the buds. Later on, it was found out that viruses penetrated into the meristems but the remediation of plants occurs in the process of tissue culture in vitro. Up to date hypotheses of remediation from the viruses occurring in the process of in vitro culture show that an interrelation in the system “virus - host plant” is affected by many factors, but some intensive redox processes take place in the meristems, creating an environment in which viral replication becomes suppressed. An important part in phytoviral pathogenesis is played by abiotic environmental factors. Gravity is a necessary condition for the growth and spatial orientation of plants, whereas the disturbances of g-vector change the structure of plant organism, its

  12. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host.

    In Chapter 1, the use of microbial

  13. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  14. Organization of monitoring of agricultural products in NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleev, L.I.; Spirin, E.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1990-01-01

    Problem of organizing chemical and radiation monitoring of agricultural products in NPP region is considered. Attention is paid to monitoring during NPP siting and designing, to monitoring of radioactive contamination of agricultural products under normal NPP operation, emergency situations and decommissioning

  15. CERTIFICATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedik Budianta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To make better the life, it is required safety foods for health. The health foods can be satisfied by organic farming. Organic farming is farming system based on biomass recycling or eliminating the use of materials as a synthetic agrochemical inputs. To determine whether the result of rice called as an organic product needs to be certified by the Organic Certification Board (OCB. According to the Indonesian National Standard (INS 6729: 2013, organic farming systems (OFS are not only limited to not use material agrochemical synthetic, but must meet the requirements of OFS in rice production ranging from cultivating, handling, storage, processing, transportation, labeling, marketing, production facilities and other materials that are allowed start on farm to off farm should be separated from conventional agriculture. The farm is just a negate the use of synthetic agrochemicals without regard to the cultivation process and the system of post-harvest organic results are said to be premium food which is not as organic food, because organic food is food produced from OFS by applying processing practices to preserve the ecosystem of sustainable, control of weeds, pests, diseases, selection and crop rotation, water management, land preparation and planting and the use of biological materials. Thus the system of organic agriculture is a holistic management system to improve and develop the agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. The first step that must be done is the conversion of land for food crops from anorganic to organic farming for 2 years did not get the requisite amount of agrochemical applied to the soil for annual crop and 3 years for perennial crops. If agriculture in paddy soil can control the conventional farms into OFS, then the resulting rice is as an organic product.

  16. HACCP based quality assurance systems for organic food production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, C.; Stanley, R.

    2007-01-01

    HACCP provides an effective, logical and structured means of assuring food safety. Although first used in food manufacturing operations, HACCP can be – and, increasingly is – applied to food production and handling operations at all stages in the food chain. This includes the primary production sector. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the principles of HACCP can be applied to organic production with special reference to the primary sector.

  17. The Production of Goat Milk under Organic Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.

  18. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  19. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic

  20. A rapid, sensitive and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den S.J.J.; Ave, M.; Schoenmakers, N.; Landeweert, R.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    2012-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts which can contain 200-500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor

  1. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  2. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  3. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  4. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  5. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CONVERSION PRODUCT STRUCTURE AS TOOL TO INCREASE YIELD PROCESSING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors' analysis of the performance of organizations, processing raw materials of agricultural origin, in particular, dealing with meat processing, identified the need to develop tools to increase their profitability. Unlike common approaches to assessing the profitability of the processing organizations, taking into account only the interests of the organization's leadership and buyers of products, the authors proposed and implemented a concept based on the interests of participants in the triune balance business activities: owners of capital, management organizations and consumers. As one of the tools for improving the yield of processing organizations are invited to transform their product mix of economic evaluations of profitability of each product line positions. Russian researchers income from product sales are traditionally measured by indicators such as net income, income from sales, profit margins and profitability level - in terms of return on sales. The disadvantage of using these indicators, according to the authors, is their lack of objectivity in the evaluation of the effectiveness of investment business owners. In this work was used unconventional and non-proliferation in the Russian practice, the rate of economic value added (EVA, a built - in system of profitability assortment positions. As indicators, the production of a particular product line units proposed and used two quantitative indicators - EVA level per unit of production and profitability of production (for EVA, as well as a quality parameter - the level of demand. Developed by the evaluation program transformation product structure represented as a matrix management capabilities, allowing to achieve a balance of interests of the triune main participants in business activity.

  7. Uma análise do efeito do aquecimento global na produção de batata no Brasil An analysis of the potato production in Brazil upon global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Lopes

    2011-03-01

    the potato production in Brazil is discussed upon prediction of temperature rise due to global warming. A literature review was carried out on the effects of high temperatures on the potato plant metabolism, and their consequences upon vegetative development and yield. Although higher emphasis was devoted to the climate effect on food production, the risk of genetic erosion by disappearance of wild species is stressed, with consequences to the future of plant breeding. Based on this information and on climate data from the main growing regions published on Brazilian documents, we carried out a prospective analysis of the potato production in Brazil. For that, a temperature rise of up to 5ºC was considered to the end of the century, and the range of 10ºC to 25ºC as the optimum for potato growth, according to specialized literature. For the study, six counties, representative of the main growing regions, were selected: São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State; Guarapuava, Paraná State; Cristalina, Goiás State; Mucugê, Bahia State; Vargem Grande do Sul, São Paulo State and Araxá, Minas Gerais State. For cooler counties, such as São Joaquim, major drawbacks on potato production are not expected, even though adjustments in planting season should be required. However, cropping on those counties subject to high temperatures which today allow potato production all year round, like Mucugê, and Cristalina, is expected to be restricted to few months of the year. The aim of this article was to alert, not alarm, the Brazilian potato chain in order to promote the management changes to preserve the crop in case the expected temperature rise comes true. In addition, the role of plant breeding to counteract the negative effects of high temperature is discussed.

  8. Profitability and Farmers Conservation Efforts on Sustainable Potato Farming in Wonosobo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.

  9. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  10. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  12. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Introducing potato cultivars with high yield, early maturing and desirable quality have a key role in food security, decreasing the fluctuation of the price and the store costs and also providing fresh crops throughout the year. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plant is one of leading agricultural products in the world with 365 million ton glands in year stands in fourth place after wheat, rice and corn. The main objective of the breeding program is yield. Increase in plant yield in the past due to the gradual elimination of defects visible by experts and today the new criteria for selection are based on principles of morphological and functional characteristics associated with the plant. Variety is one of the effective factors on plant growth and development on potato that yields components of potato is heavily dependent on it. Yield increasing in each variety affect the genetic and natural structure of variety. Nine clones of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kennebec from sources in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, and the commercially grown clone, clone 1, which was imported from Vancouver, were multiplied from pathogen-tested seed and compared in 3 Victorian potato districts during 2 seasons. The results showed that differences exist in total and size grade yield and tuber number and appearance between clones of a cultivar. They further highlight the importance of selection work to maintain desirable characteristics of established cultivars and to remove mutants with undesirable characteristics. The results of the study, Hassanpanah and Hassanabadi (2012 showed that the clones 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100 and Savalan (check produced higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, main stem number per plant, tuber size average and stable tuber yield. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry in comparison

  13. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  14. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  15. New Product Fumbles - Organizing for the Ramp-up Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    This study examines rapid prototyping, also referred to as new production launch, or ramp-up time. A strong emphasis on speed is vital for the success of a product development and market launch. Managers concern themselves with organizing ramp-up activities into arrayed sequences to achieve...... production launch goals. These sequences are not only regarding prearranged linear milestones, but extensively reviewed and often reorganized complex activities, with the managerial goal of a wellconfigured productive process. The need to manage the final phase in product development is evident, because many...... of the development of products. This has been achieved by longitudinally studying a total of eight major development cases at a large Scandinavian manufacturing company over a period of three years. These development projects faced different challenges during the interface between R&D and ramp-up production...

  16. FARMER'S PROFITABILITY OF POTATO CULTIVATION AT RANGPUR DISTRICT: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Ahmed Mukul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the indispensable culture of Bangladesh. Agriculture has a enceinte contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the country. Earlier more than 50% of GDP came from this sector. Various types of crops are produced in this country. These crops might have been categorized into two-food crops and cash crops. Potato is one of the food-stuff of the most people of the world as well as Bangladesh. Potato crop is being treated as foremost crop. This study was conducted to approximation the cost of production and profitability of potato producers at Rangpur district. Data collected from 30 farmers using simple random sampling technique. The potato farmers showed individual differences in their socio-economic characteristics and absolute majority of them belonged to young age category (20-35 years having medium family size, illiterate, medium farm size (0.34-1.0 acre, (1-10 years farming experience. Most of the respondents used cardinal variety of potato seed and sell their output at home. Farmers who sell potato in the market were more profitable than others. The study also designates that the large farmers were most profitable compared to others. Major problem faced by the potato farmers were lower price of potato during harvesting period, price fluctuation , shortage of capital, high charge of cold storage, lack of good quality seed, perish ability of potato, poor storage facility, higher price of inputs and lack of marketing facility etc. Proper steps should be postulated by Government to puzzle out this problem. The determinations of the study will generate basic economic data on the production practices of potato. At long last it will be helpful to the planners and policy makers in contriving micro or macro level policy for the enlargement of potato production in the country.

  17. Phenology of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Commercial Potato Fields in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Carroll, Amy; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Thornton, Michael; Miller, Jeff; Nolte, Philip; Olsen, Nora; Price, William

    2017-12-08

    Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015). All life stages of psyllids were sampled using a combination of methods (yellow sticky traps, vacuum samples, and leaf samples), and adult psyllids were tested for the presence of Lso by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Abundance of potato psyllids initially increased gradually over each growing season, then exhibited a sharp late-season rise and a sharp decline as most fields were being harvested. Abundance of psyllids was higher at warmer, lower elevation sites, but infestation onset did not differ between growing regions. Fewer psyllids were collected in vacuum samples than in sticky trap samples. Nymphs and eggs were found only late season and during years with high abundance of adults. Overall incidence of Lso was similar among all years but one. The results presented here clarify our understanding of the seasonal phenology of potato psyllids and Lso in Idaho potato fields and will aid in developing integrated management strategies against this important pest of potato. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biodiesel production by various oleaginous microorganisms from organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Jong Moon

    2018-05-01

    Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel. A large amount of research has considered microbial oil production using oleaginous microorganisms, but the commercialization of microbial lipids produced in this way remains uncertain due to the high cost of feedstock or low lipid yield. Microbial lipids can be typically produced by microalgae, yeasts, and bacteria; the lipid yields of these microorganisms can be improved by using sufficient concentrations of organic carbon sources. Therefore, combining low-cost organic compounds contained in organic wastes with cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising approach to obtain commercial viability. However, to achieve effective bioconversion of low-cost substrates to microbial lipids, the characteristics of each microorganism and each substrate should be considered simultaneously. This article discusses recent approaches to developing cost-effective microbial lipid production processes that use various oleaginous microorganisms and organic wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Karasek, Lubomir; Rosen, Johan; Hellenaes, Karl-Erik; Crews, Colin; Castle, Laurence; Anklam, Elke

    2006-11-03

    A European inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate two analytical procedures for the determination of acrylamide in bakery ware (crispbreads, biscuits) and potato products (chips), within a concentration range from about 20 microg/kg to about 9000 microgg/kg. The methods are based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the derivatised analyte and on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of native acrylamide. Isotope dilution with isotopically labelled acrylamide was an integral part of both methods. The study was evaluated according to internationally accepted guidelines. The performance of the HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be superior to that of the GC-MS method and to be fit-for-the-purpose.

  20. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  1. Features of accounting organization of innovative banking products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Matvienko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the accounting organization and procedure, particularly the formation of significant accounting policies in banks. Since commercial banks are an important part of the economy, the article identifies factors affecting the accounting organization and formation of accounting policy. The paper characterized the organizational, methodological and technological components of the accounting organization of innovative banking products. In this paper, the attention paid to the organizational structure of the accounting department and its changes in connection with the bank innovation. This article describes the structure of the accounting policies of the innovative banking products. Defined the role of of accounting policies of the innovative banking products in the organization of the accounting process. In the development of the Degree of the accounting policy of the bank should take into account certain elements of the accounting organization of innovative banking products. This will increase the information content and to accelerate the provision of answers to questions, providing the information to optimize the management of innovation processes and the identification of the bank’s assets and expenses for banking innovation.

  2. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  3. Supplemental calcium nutrition improves tuber yield and quality of native potatoes in the Peruvian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tubers are known to be calcium deficient. This is because calcium moves with water and most water is transported to leaves and tubers being in soil do not have the draw for water and calcium. Calcium fertilizers are now routinely used to improve tuber quality and production in the US. Potatoe...

  4. Genetic diversity of potato for nitrogen use efficiency under low input conditions in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, Baye Berihun

    2017-01-01

    Potato is a prime food security crop for smallholder farmers in the highland part of North western Ethiopia. In this region, nutrient availability, especially nitrogen (N) is a major constraint for crop productivity. To obtain insight in the possibility of improving potato for growth under low N

  5. Analysing potato late blight control as a social-ecological system using fuzzy cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, Francine C.A.; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Schaap, Ben F.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the main diseases in potato production, causing major losses in yield. Applying environmentally harmful fungicides is the prevailing and classical method for controlling late blight, thus contaminating food and water. There is

  6. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  7. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    A model of consumer decision-making and behaviour with regard to organic food is developed and applied on survey data from eight European countries. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries and are independent...... on the processing level of the product. However, whereas behavioural intentions are predictive of behaviour in the North, this is to a much lesser extend the case in the South of Europe. Policy implications and possible reasons for the difference between North and South are discussed....

  8. Reduction Potato s hydric soil erosion using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, E.; Rios, V.; Zelaya, D.; Rios, E.; Lepen, F.; Padilla, P.; Soria, F.

    The potato's crop has an econ omic importance in Tucuman's agricultural PBI (Gross Product Income) because its rank is fourth(4°). Production's potato area is a breakable agro system; its geographic location is in Pedemonte's agro-ecological region so is essential to handle hydric erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is improve crop's potato irrigation management through satellite information merge with farm's practices. The space technology consented to obtain Digital Model Soil using both unique differential and dual frequency GPS signals and total station. The irrigation practices were carried out due to irrigation management (FAO) and satellite imagine software (ENVI). Preliminary results of this experience allowed to follow the crop's growing through multitemporal study; reprogramming farm's irrigation practices intended for manage reduction hydric erosion and heighten economically its productivity for the next period

  9. Efeitos da aplicação de bórax em cultura de batatinha, em várzea irrigada, no Vale do Paraíba Effects of addition of boron on potato plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Leite

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os efeitos produzidos pela aplicação de bórax na cultura da batatinha (Solatium tuberosum L., em solos de várzea irrigada do Vale do Paraíba. Quatro doses de bórax - 10, 20, 30 e 40 kg/ha - foram aplicadas de três maneiras distintas: no sulco de plantio, em cobertura (vinte dias após a germinação e parceladamente em 4 pulverizações foliares semanais. As melhores doses de bórax foram as de 10 e 20 kg/ha, aplicadas no sulco de plantio, em mistura com os demais adubos. As aplicações em pulverização provocaram sintomas de toxidez nas folhas, notadamente as de maiores doses.The production of potato plants (Solatium tuberosum L. grown in alluvial soils of the Rio Paraíba Valey in the State of São Paulo, is not always correlated with high N-P-K fertilization. This has been reported to be due to boron deficiency in these soils. The effect of addition of boron at different rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg of borax / ha applied in mixture with common NPK formulation in the furrow at planting time, as side dressing or by spraying, was studied in an area where symptoms of deficiency was observed in Aquila potato variety, in the previous year. An increase in the production of about 20 % was obtained with the addition of 10 or 20 kg of borax / ha in mixtures with NPK fertilizing formulation but not with the two higher doses. The same amount of borax applied by spraying also increased yield but at a lesser extent and the side dressing technique was less effective than the other two methods of application of borax.

  10. Commercialization channels of organic products in Brazil: analysis at the first level of the production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specialized literature on organic production highlights the presence and concentration of retail, especially supermarkets, in the organic enhancement chain. This presents enormous obstacles for the entrance of small farmers in the production of organic products due to administrative barriers, in addition to pressure for lower prices by the supermarket retail network. This paper investigates the commercialization channels of organic production in Brazil. The survey was undertaken in 2013; questionnaires were sent to 900 out of approximately 11.200 farmers producing organic products; 216 answers were received. Analysis showed that approximately 90% of farmers provided for the internal market and 60% of the products were fresh fruits and vegetables. The distribution of organic products in Brazil is highly fragmented at the local, regional and national levels. The presence of supermarkets and intermediaries in the commercialization of fruits and vegetables is relevant, regardless of the size of the farm. There is a great dispersion of channels in the case of small farmers, although supermarkets rank second. However, direct commercialization (farmers markets is the main form of commercialization of the produce. Commercialization triggered by social programs has guaranteed a considerable part of the income on small production units or small farms. It seems that high involvement of retail networks and agents in the agribusiness segment causes low development rates in small agricultural units and in local development due to the latter’s low profit margins.

  11. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  12. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The impact of aeration on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root ...

  14. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive

  15. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  16. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  17. Influence of radiolytic degradation products from organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, H.L.P. de.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of primary and secondary degradation products from TBP - dodecane on zirconium extraction is studied. The presence of radiolytical degradation at organic phase, in systems of initial concentration of HNO 3 1 and 4M, and absorbed γ radiation doses from 0,5 to 4,5 Wh/l, lead to an increase of zirconium extraction, being the HDBP the main product of degradation responsable by this effect. The influence of secondary degradation products is significative in systems of HNO 3 1M initial concentration. The formation of precipitator in extractions of Zr in HNO 3 1M with irradiated TBP-dodecane was observed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Smallholder Participation and Certification of Organic Farm Products in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alma Amalia; Nigh, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Organic and other environmental and social marketing devices seek to connect producers and consumers more directly and reward environmentally and socially superior production systems. Some researchers have observed that these schemes may introduce mechanisms of exclusion, creating an elite group of certified smallholders while putting…

  19. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical Approach. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alkaliphilic bacterium producing organic solvent-tolerant and thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from poultry litter site and identified as Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Protease production under different submerged fermentation conditions were investigated with the aim of optimizing yield of enzyme. B. coagulans ...